Productos del Mar en Islandia

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Productos del Mar en Islandia
Productos del Mar
en Islandia
Iria Melón Martínez
C ámara de C omercio H ispano-Islandesa
Misión C omercial de la C ámara de C omercio de V igo
Islandia, Septiembre 2005
Spánsk-Íslenska Viðskiptaráðið
Índice
1.- INFORMACIÓN GENERAL SOBRE ISLANDIA.................................................
3
2.- PRODUCCIÓN DE PESCADOS,MARISCOS Y CRUSTÁCEOS… … … … … … .
5
2.1 Información General……………………………………………………….....
5
2.2 Sistema de Cuotas……………………………………………………………
7
3.- EXPORTACIONES DE PRODUCTOS DEL MAR… … … … … … … … … … … … …
9
3.1 Características generales…………………………………………………….
9
3.2 Principales productos exportados…………………………………………..
12
4.- ÍNDICE DE FIGURAS Y TABLAS.......................................................................
14
5.- BIBLIOGRAFÍA...................................................................................................
15
6- ANEXOS...............................................................................................................
16
Resumen Leyde Ordenación de la Pesca n°34/1990
TAC en Islandia 1995-2005
Informe del estado de las principales especies marinas
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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1.- INFORMACIÓN GENERAL SOBRE ISLANDIA
La República de Islandia tiene una población de 293.577 habitantes1 que se reparte
una extensión de 103.000 Km², lo que supone una media de 2,8 habitantes por Km².
Poseen una renta per. capita de 25.541 €2 .
Hay que destacar sin embargo, que tres cuartas partes de la población, (180.000
hab.) viven en su capital Reykiavik, (114.000), y en el área adyacente a esta,
Kópavogur (26.000), Hafnarfj
örður (21.189), Reykj
anesbær (10.900), y Akranes,
(5.590). El resto, se distribuye por pequeños pueblos a lo largo de la costa. El mayor
de estos es Akureyri, con 15.000, denominado por este motivo la capital del Norte.
Figura 1:Mapa de Islandia
La geografía de la isla se caracteriza por su naturaleza volcánica, los glaciares y los
fiordos que rodean el país. Estas características obligan a la población a vivir en la
costa, permaneciendo despoblado el interior de la isla.
Es uno de los lugares de la tierra más activos tectónicamente, y por esto son muy
frecuentes los volcanes, los manantiales de aguas termales y las solfataras
(chimeneas volcánicas que expulsan gases y vapores calientes);también lo son los
terremotos, pero raras veces causan daños graves.
1
2
Diciembre 2004, Hagstofa Íslands
España tiene una superficie de 504.782 km², y una renta per. capita de 19.300 €
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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En la isla se localizan más de 200 volcanes, de los que al menos 30 han entrado en
erupción en tiempos históricos. Cabe mencionar entre ellos el monte Hekla (1.491
m), que ha entrado en erupción muchas veces, las más destacadas en 1766, 1947 y
1980; y el cercano Laki, con unos 100 cráteres separados. Los vastos campos de
lava creados por los volcanes cubren casi el 10% del territorio
El clima es suave en comparación con el resto de países nórdicos, ya que la corriente
del golfo suaviza las temperaturas, tanto en invierno, con una media de 0º C, como en
verano, 10 º C.
Las características geológicas dotan a este país de unos amplios recursos
geotérmicos, ya que aprovechan las altas temperaturas del agua para alimentar su
industria.
Tradicionalmente la industria pesquera ha sido el motor de la economía islandesa,
siendo el 70% de sus exportaciones productos del mar. Actualmente el turismo y el
sector financiero, están compitiendo por ese puesto.
La pesca se divide en:
-
Especies demersales (ej.: bacalao, eglefino, rape, carbonero, fletán
negro…)
Especies pelágicas (ej.: capelán, arenque, atún rojo, …)
Especies de aguas profundas (ej.: maruca, bosmio, …)
Crustáceos y mariscos
En 2004, las primeras supusieron un 28% de las capturas, mientras que las segundas
un 68% y los mariscos tan sólo un 2%. En términos de valor, sin embargo, las
especies demersales originaron un 68% del total de beneficios, las pelágicas 15 % y
los crustáceos y mariscos 11%.
En respuesta a la presión internacional, Islandia suspendió todas las operaciones de
pesca de ballenas en 1989. Sin embargo, en junio de 1992, se retiró de la
organización internacional que regula esta actividad por discrepar de la designación
de ballenas en peligro de extinción para algunas especies que, en su opinión, ponían
en peligro otras especies importantes para la pesca comercial propia de la isla.
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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2.- PESCADOS, MARISCOS Y CRUSTÁCEOS
2.1 Inform ación general:
Los recursos marinos en aguas islandesas representan un 60 % del total de las
exportaciones del país. Aunque su importancia ha disminuido algo, la pesca sigue
siendo la actividad económica más importante de Islandia y representa
aproximadamente el 13 por ciento del PIB, el 71 por ciento de las exportaciones de
mercancías y el 49 por ciento de los ingresos de divisas.
Las principales especies en aguas islandesas son:
- Bacalao: las capturas de esta suelen tener su mejor temporada en los últimos
meses del invierno y en el verano. Suele estar a una profundidad de 100-250
metros y a una temperatura oceánica de 4-7 º C. La edad de estas ronda los 2
años y entre 2-5 Kg. de peso. En el año 2004 el total fue de 223.000
toneladas, que se espera que sea menor en el 2005 debido a la reducción de
la cuota impuesta por el gobierno.
Las siguientes figuras muestran la distribución de la cuota de bacalao entre las
principales ciudades pesqueras de Islandia en los últimos años:
Figura 2: Distribución de la Cuota de Bacalao entre las Principales Ciudades Islandesas.
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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Spánsk-Íslenska Viðskiptaráðið
-
Eglefino: se pesca todo el año, principalmente en el sur y suroeste de la isla, y
la mejor época es en primavera y verano. Se encuentra a una profundidad de
10-200 metros y tiene una edad media de 4-6 años y 1-2 kg. El total de
capturas de esta especie en el año 2004 fue de 85.000 toneladas (siendo el
más alto de los últimos 40 años) y se espera que en el 2005 aumente a 90.000
ton.
Figura 3: Principales Ciudades Procesadoras de Eglefino
Principales Ciudades Procesadoras de Eglefino
14000
12000
Reykjavík
10000
Grindavík
8000
Akranes
6000
Ísafjörður
4000
Ólafsfjörður
2000
Akureyri
0
Hornafjörður
1
Vestmannaeyjar
Año 2004
Fuente: Elaboración Propia según datos de Hagstofa Íslands
-
-
-
-
-
Carbonero: está en las aguas del sur y oeste del país, a una profundidad de
entre 0-200 metros y a una temperatura de 4-12 º C. La edad media es de 4-8
años y pesan entre 2-6 Kg. El total de capturas ha variado entre 30.000 y
100.000 toneladas en los últimos 30 años, siendo en el 2004 65.000 con
estimaciones para el año 2005 de 70.000.
Gallineta dorada: hay tres especies Sebastes Mari
nus, S. Mentel
l
a y S.
Vi
vi
parus, la mayor cantidad corresponde a la primera. Se localiza en el oeste
y suroest, a una profundidad de 100-300 metros y una temperatura de 3-8º C.
Aunque estadísticamente se separan, el total de estas ha sido de 80.000
toneladas de media en los últimos años.
Fletán de Groenlandia: se encuentra en las aguas que dividen Islandia y
Groenlandia, localizándose los mayores bancos en la zona noroeste a una
profundidad de 350-1.600 metros. La edad media es de 6-12 años y peso entre
1-4 kilos. Las capturas han variado los últimos años de 10.000 a 60.000
toneladas, pero desde al año 1990 las capturas islandesas se han reducido en
un 60%, mientras que las de otras naciones han aumentado (en el año 2004
Islandia sumó 15.500 toneladas, frente a las 12.000 de otras naciones).
Siluro:se encuentra por toda la costa de la isla, pero principalmente n la zona
noroeste entre los meses de marzo-mayo, a una profundidad de 10-300
metros, de entre 10-15 años de edad. El total registrado de esta especie es de
13.200 toneladas en año 2004.
Arenque:es estacional, principalmente en los meses de Octubre y Enero en el
suroeste, sureste y sur de la isla. En el año 2004 las capturas totales en verano
fueron de 525.000 toneladas.
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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-
-
-
Capelán: la pesca se concentra en dos épocas: Enero-Abril para capelina de
3-4, y resto del año para aquella de 2-3 años. Las capturas totales han sido de
1.5 millones de toneladas, ya que se pesca conjuntamente con Groenlandia,
Noruega, e Islas Faroe, aunque la mayor parte corresponde a Islandia con
516.000 toneladas en 2004, aunque se espera un aumento de 640.000 Ton.
para 2005.
Cigalas: se encuentran en el sur, sureste y suroeste de la isla, a una
profundidad de 110-270 metros y temperaturas de 6-9 º C. Los meses de
pesca son del 15 de
Mayo al 31 de Agosto. En el año 2004 hubo un total de 1.440 toneladas,
aunque el stock total es de 13.000.
Gamba (o camarón): están en el oeste, norte y este del país a una
profundidad de 50-700 metros. Se puede capturar todo el año, y alcanzó su
cuota máxima en 1995 con 76.000 toneladas, reduciéndose a 16.000 en 2004.
Vieira islandesa: se puede encontrar en los fiordos del oeste y noroeste en los
meses de primavera u verano. La profundidad a la que habitan es de 20-70
metros. En el año 2004 se ha detectado una reducción de los stocks de esta
especie en el área de Breidafjordur (principal zona de pesca), por lo que no se
han permitido capturas en esta zona en los últimos dos años. Las capturas
hasta entonces habían sido de entre 8.000 y 17.000 toneladas.
2.2 Sistema de cuotas:
El total de las capturas en el año 2004 han sido de 1,7 toneladas, con una valor de 68
millones de coronas islandesas, situando a este país entre las 12-13 naciones que
más pescan del mundo. El bacalao es la especie más importante que posee Islandia,
ya que representa el 40 % del total de las exportaciones marinas.
Tabla 1: Capturas Totales de los Barcos Islandeses. Año 2004-2005
Capturas totales de los barcos islandeses.
Año 2004-2005
Enero - Junio
Toneladas
Especies
Total
Bacalao
Eglefino
Carbonero
Gallineta dorada
Arenque
Capelina
Bacaladilla
Mariscos
Otras especies
Fuente: Hagstofa Íslands
Misión Comercial a Islandia
2004
1.056.186
127.470
41.659
24.541
28.273
58.965
488.026
220.981
16.090
258
2005
1.159.474
120.718
52.451
29.059
37.069
49.022
595.183
224.109
5.903
111
Septiembre 2005
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La Ley de Pesca de 19903, es la base del actual sistema de regulación de la pesca en
Islandia. Bajo esta ley se establece un sistema transferible e individual de cuotas que
representan una parte del total de capturas permitidas por ley. Estas son
permanentes, perfectamente divisibles y libres de transferir4.
Este sistema ha desempeñado una función decisiva en la explotación sostenible de
los recursos marinos y la reducción del exceso de capacidad del sector.
Desde 1999, cualquier buque de pesca registrado puede solicitar incondicionalmente
permisos de pesca. Sin embargo, la asignación de cupos gratuitos sigue siendo una
de las cuestiones de política más debatidas en Islandia, tanto en lo que se refiere a la
aportación de ganancias imprevistas para los propietarios de buques, como a los
ingresos públicos sacrificados.
Para negociar con las cuotas, existen bancos de cuotas, en los que puedes comprar,
alquilar o vender esas cuotas, aunque nunca puede ser más del 50 %.
Tabla 2: Cuota de las Principales Especies. Año 2005
Cuota por especies.5
Año 2005/2006
Especie
Toneladas
198.000
Bacalao
57.000
Gallineta Dorada
105.000
Eglefino
80.000
Carbonero
15.000
Fletán negro
13.000
Perro del Norte
3.500
Platija americana
5.000
Solla Europea
4.000
Limanda
3.500
Brosmio
5.000
Maruca
2.500
Rape
2.400
Mendo
110.000
Arenque islandés
10.000
Camarón
1.800
Cigala
Fuente: Ministerio de Asuntos Pesqueros
3
4
5
REGLUGEREÐ nr. 38, 15 maí 1990. Anexo resumen
Anexo documento con las cuotas de los últimos años, según la legislación de la materia.
REGLUGERÐ, nr. 649, 22. júní 2005,um leyfilegan heildarafla á fiskveiðiárinu 2005/2006
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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Spánsk-Íslenska Viðskiptaráðið
Las empresas que poseen una mayor cuota son:
Figura 4: Ranking de Empresas con Mayor Cuota
Fuente: Íslandsbanki6
3.- EXPORTACIONES DE PRODUCTOS DEL MAR
3.1 Características generales:
El valor de las exportaciones de este producto suponen un 53.3 % del total de las
exportaciones de la economía islandesa, por lo que es muy dependiente de las
variaciones que pueden sufrir precios y stocks marinos.
Tabla 3: Exportaciones por Grupo SITC, Rev. 3. Año 2004
Exportaciones por grupo SITC, Rev. 3
Año 2004
Total
3 Pesado, crustáceos y moluscos
3.1 Pescado, fresco, refrigerado,
congelado
3.2 Pescado, seco, salado, ahumado
3.3 Crustáceos y moluscos
3.4 Productos preparados o
conservados
Toneladas
1.525.012,6
463.600,4
Mill ISK
202.373,0
107.956,1
%
100,0
53,3
356.376,4
69.223,0
34,2
70,588.8
7.981,9
24.628,2
2.221,3
12,2
1,1
28.653,3
11.883,7
5,9
Nota: Precios según valor FOB
Fuente: Hagstofa Íslands
6
Íslandsbanki: www.isb.is
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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En los últimos años han aumentado las exportaciones de productos del mar en
cantidad, sin embargo en cuanto al valor de las mismas, ha decrecido.
Tabla 4: Cantidad de las Exportaciones de Productos del Mar. Año 2004
Cantidad de las Exportaciones de Productos del Mar.
Año 2004.
Toneladas
Año
Total
2002 806.839
2003 808.958
2004 827.537
Congelado
Salado
Fresco y
“en frío”
250.430
260.292
313.815
57.575
52.922
54.917
95.533
105.285
96.219
Aceite y
harinas de Enlatados Otros
pescado
13.862
367.757
2.643
19.038
13.239
355.048
0
22.173
15.398
321.146
0
26.039
Seco
Nota: desde 2003 los productos enlatados no están incluidos en los números totales
Fuente: Hagstofa Íslands
Tabla 5: Valor de las Exportaciones de Productos del Mar. Año 2004
Valor de las Exportaciones de Productos del Mar.
Año 2003-2004. Millones de Coronas
Año
Total
2003
2004
113.693
121.746
Aceite y harinas
Fresco y
Enlatados
Seco
de pescado
“en frío”
20.477 14.816
2.611
17.627
0
21.277 19.362
3.177
16.002
0
Congelado Salado
57.811
61.411
Nota: desde 2003 los productos enlatados no están incluidos en los números totales
Fuente: Hagstofa Íslands
Figura 5: Relación del Valor de las Capturas con su Valor en la Exportación
Fuente: Iceland in Figures, 2004 7
7
Iceland in Figures 2004: Publicación del Ministerio de Asuntos Pesqueros
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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Otros
351
514
Spánsk-Íslenska Viðskiptaráðið
Tabla 6: Valor de las Exportaciones de Productos Marinos según los principales mercados de
destino. Año 2004
Valor de las Exportaciones de Productos Marinos según los
principales mercados de destino.
Año 2004
Total
EEA8
Bélgica
Reino Unido
Dinamarca
Francia
Grecia
Países Bajos
Italia
Lituania
Noruega
Portugal
Polonia
España
Alemania
Otros países europeos fuera de la EEA
Federación Rusa
Asia
Japón
China
Nigeria
EE.UU.
Unidad: Millones de Coronas Islandesas9
Fuente: Hagstofa Íslands
121.746
94.248
3.440
32.500
6.273
7.060
2.279
5.572
1.814
1.834
4.360
6.599
2.255
12.465
6.111
3.263
1.768
7.943
5.344
1.071
3.476
11.498
8
EEA: siglas inglesas referidas a el Área Económica Exclusiva, mediante el cual Noruega, Islandia y
Suiza tienen un trato preferencial al comerciar con los países miembros de la Unión Europea
9
1 € = 78,31 ISK según cambio Agosto 2005
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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Spánsk-Íslenska Viðskiptaráðið
3.2 Principales productos exportados:
Como se puede ver en el gráfico el bacalao es el tipo de pescado que más se
exporta, siendo España uno de los principales mercados de destino.
Figura 6: Exportación de Productos del Mar . Año 2004
Fuente: Hagstofa Íslands
La mayoría de los países de exportación son europeos y asiáticos, como excepción
destacamos el caso de Nigeria al que principalmente venden cabezas secas del
bacalao.
En la siguiente tabla veremos los principales mercados de exportación de los
productos del mar. España se sitúa como segundo país europeo de exportación de
productos marinos por detrás de Reino Unido con 12.465 millones de Coronas
Islandesas.
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Septiembre 2005
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En función del tipo de procesamiento que se le da a las especies encontramos los
siguientes datos:
Tabla 7: Capturas por Especie y Tipo. Año 2005
Especie
Total
Bacalao
Eglefino
Siluro
Gallineta
dorada
Fletán
Arenque
91.749
39.816
20.712
Capelán
Gamba
Vieira
Capturas por especie y tipo de procesamiento.
Año 2005, Enero-Abril
Toneladas
Fresco
Fresco
Fresco
Consumo
Cong. en Cong. en
export. Salado Seco a otros exportado en
doméstico
tierra
el mar
por aire
puertos contenedores
25.171
12.302
8.983 41.816 64
3
2.810
98
14.967
10.288
4.824
29
1
9
7.993
1.645
7.312
9.373
86
2.638 1,15
1
247
7
27.944
7.527
13.772
896
0
0
270
5.461
18
142
1.794
585.24
2
1.730
0
2
0
33
1.794
36
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
29
0
42
0
51.994
36.179
0
0
0
1.190
0
0
1.179
0
551
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Fuente: Hagstofa Íslands
En el siguiente gráfico vemos más claramente los principales procesos en función de
las especies:
Figura 7: Procesos Realizados a las Principales Especies
Bacalao
Gallineta dorada
congelado en tierra
congelado en tierra
congelado en el mar
Congelado en el mar
Salado
Fresco
Fresco
En hielo
Capelán
Gambas
Congelado
Aceite de pescado y
harinas de pescado
Congelado en tierra
Congelado en el mar
En hielo
Fuente: Elaboración propia según el ministerio de Asuntos Pesqueros
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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4.- ÍNDICE DE FIGURAS Y TABLAS
FIGURAS
Figura 1: Mapa de Islandia…………………………………………………………………………………
3
Figura 2: Distribución de la Cuota de Bacalao entre las Principales Ciudades Islandesas…..
5
Figura 3: Principales Ciudades Procesadoras de Eglefino………………………………………….
6
Figura 4: Ranking de Empresas con Mayor Cuota……………………………………………………
9
Figura 5 : Relación del Valor de las Capturas con su Valor en la Exportación…………………
10
Figura 6: Exportación de Productos del Mar. año 2004……………………………………………..
12
Figura 7: Procesos Realizados a las Principales Especies…………………………………………
13
TABLAS
Tabla 1: Capturas Totales de los Barcos Islandeses. Año 2004-2005……………………………..
7
Tabla 2: Cuota de las Principales Especies. Año 2005……………………………………………….
8
Tabla 3: Exportaciones por Grupo SITC, Rev. 3. Año 2004………………………………………….
9
Tabla 4: Cantidad de las Exportaciones de Productos del Mar. Año 2004……………………….
10
Tabla 5: Valor de las Exportaciones de Productos del Mar. Año 2004……………………………
10
Tabla 6: Valor de las Exportaciones de Productos Marinos según los principales mercados
de destino. Año 2004………………………………………………………………………………………..
11
Tabla 7: Capturas por Especie y Tipo. Año 2005……………………………………………………...
13
Misión Comercial a Islandia
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Septiembre 2005
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5.- BIBLIOGRAFÍA
-
Hagstofa Íslands
www.statice.is
-
Marine Research Institue
www.hafro.is
-
Icelandic Fisheries Laboratory
www.rfisk.is/english/about/
-
Ministry of Fisheries
http://eng.sjavarutvegsraduneyti.is/
-
Directorate of Fisheries
www.fiskistofa.is/en
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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Anexos
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
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Spánsk-Íslenska Viðskiptaráðið
Ley de ordenación de la pesca, Nº38/1990
RESUMEN DE LAS PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS:
-
-
-
-
-
El primer artículo de la ley establece que los bancos de peces en torno a
Islandia son bienes comunes de la nación islandesa y que la asignación de
cuotas no da lugar a derechos de propiedad privada o dominio irrevocable de
particulares sobre los bancos.
De conformidad con el artículo 3 de la ley, el Ministro de Pesca debe elaborar
una reglamentación que establezca el total autorizado de captura (TAC), para
una temporada o un período determinado, de los recursos pesqueros
aprovechables en aguas islandesas cuya captura debía limitarse. Los derechos
de captura establecidos por la ley se calculan en base a esa cantidad y a cada
buque se le asigna una proporción específica del TAC para las distintas
especies, la denominada cuota.
De conformidad con el párrafo 1 del artículo 4 de la ley, no se pueden realizar
actividades de pesca a escala comercial en aguas islandesas sin un permiso
general de pesca. El párrafo 2 del artículo 4 autoriza al Ministro a dictar
reglamentaciones que exijan permisos de pesca especiales para la captura de
ciertas especies o para el uso de cierto tipo de artes de pesca o
embarcaciones.
El párrafo 1 del artículo 7 establece que la pesca de especies de recursos
marinos vivos que no estén sujetas a las restricciones del TAC, de conformidad
con lo dispuesto en el artículo 3, está permitida a todos los buques que tengan
un permiso de pesca comercial. El párrafo 2 del artículo 7 establece que se
podrán conceder a las distintas embarcaciones derechos de pesca de especies
cuya captura esté restringida. La determinación de las cuotas de pesca para
especies que anteriormente no estaban sujetas al TAC se basa en las capturas
efectuadas en los últimos tres períodos de pesca. La determinación de las
cuotas de pesca para especies que han estado sujetas a restricciones se basa
en la asignación hecha en años anteriores.
En virtud del párrafo 6 del artículo 11 de la ley, la cuota correspondiente a un
buque puede transferirse total o parcialmente a otro y combinarse con la cuota
que le corresponde, siempre y cuando los derechos de captura del buque
receptor de la cuota no excedan de su capacidad de pesca. Si las partes que
tienen derecho permanente a una cuota no ejercen ese derecho de manera
satisfactoria pueden perderlo definitivamente. La Ley de ordenación de la
pesca también restringe la magnitud de la cuota a la que pueden tener derecho
las personas jurídicas y los particulares.
Misión Comercial a Islandia
Septiembre 2005
17
Total Allowable Catch (TAC) of species within the Icelandic EEZ
The figures are given in metric tonnes of live weight
Species
1995/96
1996/97
1997/98
1998/99
1999/00
2000/01
2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
Atlantic cod
155.000
186.000
218.000
250.000
250.000
220.000
190.000
179.000
209.000
205.000
Haddock
60.000
45.000
45.000
35.000
35.000
30.000
41.000
55.000
75.000
90.722
Saithe (Pollock)
70.000
50.000
30.000
30.000
30.000
30.000
37.000
45.000
50.000
70.000
Redfish
65.000
65.000
65.000
65.000
60.000
57.000
65.000
60.000
57.000
57.000
Tusk
-
-
-
-
-
-
4.500
3.500
3.500
3.500
Ling
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.000
3.000
3.000
4.000
Catfishes
-
13.000
13.000
13.000
13.000
13.000
16.100
16.000
16.000
13.044
20.000
15.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
20.000
20.000
23.000
23.000
15.000
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.500
1.500
2.000
2.000
Greenland halibut
Angler
European plaice
13.000
12.000
9.000
7.000
4.000
4.000
5.000
5.000
4.500
5.000
Witch flounder
-
1.200
1.100
1.100
1.100
1.100
1.350
1.500
1.500
2.000
Common dab
-
-
7.000
7.000
7.000
5.500
4.000
7.000
7.000
5.000
Amer. plaice
-
-
5.000
5.000
5.000
5.000
5.000
5.000
5.000
5.000
Lemon sole
-
-
-
-
1.400
1.400
1.400
1.600
1.600
1.600
125.000
110.000
100.000
70.000
100.000
110.000
125.000
105.000
110.000
110.000
1.108.000
1.277.000
1.008.028
994.700
891.500
918.600
1.096.000
765.000
737.345
803.256
Off shore shrimp
63.000
60.000
75.000
40.000
20.000
25.000
35.000
30.000
20.000
20.000
Inshore shrimp
11.450
9.850
7.150
4.900
3.250
2.200
2.390
1.700
1.150
450
Iceland scallop
9.250
9.100
8.000
10.150
9.800
9.300
6.500
4.150
0
0
Lobster
1.500
1.500
1.200
1.200
1.200
1.200
1.500
1.600
1.600
1.500
1.701.200
1.854.650
1.602.478
1.544.050
1.442.250
1.453.300
1.661.240
1.313.550
1.328.195
1.414.072
Icelandic herring
Capelin
Total
Fishing year is from September to August
Fiskistofa,26.04.2005
Nytjastofnar sjávar 2004/2005 - aflahorfur 2005/2006
169
4. English summary of the
State of Marine Stocks in Icelandic waters 2004/2005 Prospects for the Quota Year 2005/2006
2.1. Cod
Total landings in the calendar year 2004 were
223 000 t compared to 202 000 t in 2002. The
national TAC for cod (Gadus morhua) for the quota
year 2003/2004 was set to 209 000 t but the landings
amounted to 221 000 t. The national TAC for cod for
the quota year 2004/2005 was set to 205 000 t. The
age composition of the catches in 2004 was similar
to that predicted. However, somewhat more were
caught of fish of 5 and 8 years and fewer of other age
groups.
Mean weight at age in the catches for age groups
4-8 has decreased about 13% on average since 2002
and about 20% for age groups 9 and 10. A similar
decrease in mean weight at age has been observed in
groundfish surveys. This reduction seems related to
changed behaviour of capelin, the major food item of
cod, in recent years. In forecasts it is assumed that
the availability of capelin to cod will be low as in
previous years.
In the last five years the reference biomass (4
years and older) has been increasing and was
estimated to be 760 000 t at the beginning of January
2005 and 823 000 t in 2006. The spawning stock
biomass has also been increasing in recent years and
was estimated to be 262 000 t in 2005, the highest
observed value since 1981. However, the ratio of
older fish in the age composition is much lower now
than observed in 1981. Year classes 2001, 2003 and
2004 are now estimated to be poor and the 2002 year
class just below average. In the years 1986-1993,
before the Harvest Control Rule (HCR) was adopted,
the average reference fishing mortality (F5-10) was
0.81 and average exploitation rate 42%. After the
HCR was adopted in 1995 on average the exploitation rate has been 30% and fishing mortalities 0.64.
In recent years (2003-2004) the exploitation rate has
been 26% and the reference fishing mortalities 0.60.
Following the HCR would imply catches of
198 000 t in the fishing year 2005/2006. Given that
the TAC next year will be in accordance with the
HCR the estimated reference biomass (4+) and
spawning stock biomass will increase slightly.
Simulation results show that if the exploitation rate is
decreased to 20% there is a high probability that the
spawning stock biomass will not decrease from
present level.
A group of scientists appointed by the Ministry of
Fisheries to review the HCR delivered a final report
in April 2004. The group recommended a new HCR
using the average of last year’s TAC and 22% of the
estimated reference biomass (B4+) in the assessment
year. According to the results of the group an
exploitation rate of 18-23% would be the optimal
long-term harvest strategy. If the spawning stock
biomass production will remain as low as in recent
years, the lowest value is the most optimal one.
Based on these results and indications of the status of
the stock in coming years the Marine Research
Institute (MRI) advises the adoption of a new HCR
and that the intended exploitation rate should be
decreased below the 25% level.
MRI recommends that the present regulations
regarding maximum mesh size (8 inches) of gillnets
still be in effect. The MRI will also evaluate whether
further closures of spawning areas during the
spawning season are needed.
2.2. Haddock
In 2004, 85 000 t of haddock (Melanogrammus
aeglefinus) were landed, compared to 61 000 t in
2003. The advice for the fishing year 2004/05 was
90 000 t and the TAC was the same. The fishable
stock (3+) is now estimated to have been 281 000 t
in the beginning of the year 2005 and the spawning
stock 182 000 t. This year’s assessment used age
disaggregated catch in numbers and age disaggregated abundance indices from the groundfish survey in
March for tuning. A number of different assessment
models were used and the biomass estimates differed
somewhat e.g. the October survey gave considerably lower biomass values than the March survey.
The size of the haddock stock has been increasing
rapidly since 2000 when it was at a minimum. The
fishable stock and the spawning stock are now
estimated to have more than doubled since the year
2000.
The 2003 year class is believed to be very large
and is estimated to be in the range of 300-500
million recruits at age 2 which is an all time record
of year class size. Five of seven year classes since
1998 have been estimated to be large, which is
unusual. This good recruitment may be due to the
fact that a high proportion of the 1998-2002 yearclasses have grown up north of Iceland, in areas
where fishing effort has been very low in recent
years. At the same time temperature in the waters
north of Iceland has increased. The reduced overlap
of the spatial distribution of young fish and the
170
fishery may explain the progressively larger
estimates of recruiting year classes every year.
Fishing mortality in the year 2004 is now
estimated at 0.44 and has been decreasing. In 2005
the mortality is expected to decrease further. The
Marine Research Institute (MRI) has recommended
that the fishing mortality should not exceed 0.47,
corresponding to a TAC of 140 000 t. However, in
the view of some uncertainty in the actual stock size
and the fact that a considerable part of the newly
mentioned TAC (calculated from a fishable stock of
three years old and older) will be the huge year class
from 2003 at the age of 3, the MRI advises that this
young fish shall and can be largely avoided in the
fishery and recommends a TAC of 105 000 t for the
quota year 2005/2006.
2.3. Saithe
In 2004, the landings of saithe (Pollachius virens)
were 65 000 t, or about 25% more than was landed in
2003. Annual landings in 1998-2001 were the lowest
observed since the 1940s, or slightly above 30 000 t.
The fishable stock is estimated to be 281 000 t and
spawning stock biomass 100 000 t in 2005, close to
estimates made in 2004. In 1997-2000, fishable stock
size and spawning stock biomass were at a minimum, but have increased considerably in size since
then. Recruiting year classes 1986-1995 were well
below long-term average with the exception of year
class 1992, but estimates of recent year classes
(1998-2000) indicate that recruitment has improved
considerably.
The MRI recommends that the TAC should not
exceed 80 000 t in the quota year 2005/2006.
2.4. Redfish stocks
In 2004, the combined landings of golden redfish
(Sebastes marinus) and demersal redfish (S.
mentella) in Icelandic waters were estimated to be
49 000 t, compared to 65 000 t in 2003 and 52 00097 000 t between 1987-2001.
In 2004, 32 000 t of golden redfish were landed,
4 000 t less than in 2003. Effort has remained
relatively stable at low levels in recent years but
CPUE has increased in recent years. Survey stock
indices declined to a record low in the mid-1990s,
but have, since then, increased to over 60% of the
observed maximum due to increased recruitment to
the fishable stock. The MRI recommends that fishing
effort should be kept low, corresponding to a TAC of
no more than 35 000 t in the quota year 2005/2006.
In 2004, about 17 000 t of demersal redfish
were landed, compared to 28 000 t in 2003 and an
average 33 000 t in 1996-2000. Total landings
increased substantially from 1989 to 1994, but have
since declined. Due to reductions in landings and
effort in recent years, the drastic decline in the CPUE
has halted and has started to increase again, although
it is still very low. Significant recruitment has been
Nytjastofnar sjávar 2004/2005 - aflahorfur 2005/2006
observed into the fishable stock in most recent years,
but stock size is considered low. Consequently, ICES
and MRI recommends that the effort should be kept
low and that the TAC in ICES Division Va, Vb, VI
and XIV be no more than 22 000 t in the quota year
2005/2006.
In 2004, at least 124 000 t of pelagic redfish
were caught. During the past few years, the international fleet has taken an increasing proportion of
the catch from depths greater than 600 m. Between
1998-2001, approximately 25% of the catch was
taken at depths above 500 m, while the remainder of
the catch was taken at depths below 500 m. In 2004,
the Icelandic fleet caught about 36 000 t compared to
48 000 in 2003. About 85% of the Icelandic catch
has, in recent years, been caught within the Icelandic
200 mile EEZ at depths below 600 m.
The results from the international acoustic/trawl
survey in the Irminger Sea and adjacent waters in
2003 indicated that the stock above 500 m was at
very low level and the stock below 500 m had decreased. Because of this, ICES recommended that the
TAC for 2005 should not exceed 41 000 t. NEAFC,
however, recommended, that the TAC should not
exceed 75 000 t among members countries.
ICES will not give advice on pelagic redfish until
the autumn 2005 and will base the advice on the
results from the international acoustic/trawl survey
conducted in the Irminger Sea and adjacent waters in
June-July 2005
2.5. Greenland halibut
In 2004, about 27 000 t of Greenland hali-but
(Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) were landed from the
East-Greenland, Iceland and Faeroes waters.
Landings of the Icelandic trawler fleet in 2004 were
15 500 t. CPUE of the Icelandic trawler fleet
decreased by 50% in the last three years and is now
at a historic low. CPUE in 2004 was only 1/4 of that
measured in 1985, but effort has tripled during the
same period. Biomass indices from the Icelandic
autumn groundfish survey 1996-2004 show a similar
pattern as the commercial CPUE indices. The CPUE
in Faeroes and East-Greenland waters has declined in
the last two years. There is no agreement on sharing
the stock between nations.
ICES advises that the total catch should not
exceed 15 000 t for the East-Greenland, Icelandic
and Faeroes waters. This is believed to lead to a considerable reduction in effort.
2.6. Halibut
In 2004, 670 t of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were landed. During the past 9 years annual
landings have been less than 1 000 t, the lowest
observed in the past 50 years. Halibut has mainly
been taken as by-catch in the bottom trawl and longline fisheries. In recent years, CPUE has declined
sharply, both in the fishery and in the groundfish
Nytjastofnar sjávar 2004/2005 - aflahorfur 2005/2006
171
surveys. Currently, the halibut stock seems to be
severely depleted, with recruitment into the spawning stock most likely remaining at very low levels.
The MRI recommends a ban on target fisheries for
this species, as well as actions to minimize catches of
juveniles.
Results from the groundfish survey in March show a
similar trend.
The size of the witch stock remains uncertain, but
all data indicate that the status of the stock is good.
The MRI recommends a TAC of 2 200 t in the quota
year 2005/2006.
2.7. Plaice
2.11. Lemon sole
In 2004, 5 700 t of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa)
were landed, an increase of 800 t since the year
2001. CPUE in the Danish seine fishery, groundfish
survey indices and age-structured assessment
indicate that the stock declined more than 50%
between 1991-2000, and is now estimated at about
10% of the 1985 estimate. There is, however, an
indication that fishing mortality has decreased in
recent years. Recruitment measurements from the
groundfish survey do not indicate improved recruitment. The MRI recommends that the catch does not
exceed 4 000 t in the quota year 2005/2006.
In 2004, 2 200 t of lemon sole (Microstomus kitt)
were landed. Since exploitation of lemon sole
restarted in 1985, landings have been in the range of
400-2 200 t. Groundfish survey indices declined by
one third from 1985 to 2000, but have since
increased substantially. CPUE in the Danish seine
fishery off southwest Iceland has increased from 200
kg/set between 1993-1998 to 380 kg/set in 2004. The
MRI recommends a precautionary TAC of 1 600 t in
the quota year 2005/2006.
2.8. Dab
In 2004, 2 700 t of dab (Limanda limanda) were
landed. Between 1987-1997, landings of dab
increased from 1 200 to 8 000 t but have since
decreased considerably. The Danish seine fishery
took over 95% of the catches. CPUE on the main
fishing grounds off the southwest coast declined by
50% from 1997 to 2000, after increasing in 2001 and
2002 due to strong incoming year classes, CPUE has
again declined significantly. The MRI recommends a
TAC no higher than 2 500 t in the quota year
2005/2006.
2.9. Long rough dab
In 2004, 2 000 t of long rough dab (Hippoglossoides platessoides) were landed. Landings
increased from 650 t in 1990 to 6 400 t in 1996, but
have been below 3 000 t in the last two years.
Between 1991-1997, CPUE in the Danish seine
fishery southwest and south off Iceland declined by
50%. After increasing from 1997-2001, CPUE has
fallen again. As the sustainable yield of this stock is
unknown, the MRI recommends a precautionary
TAC of 2 000 t in the quota year 2005/2006.
2.10. Witch
Landings of witch (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus)
declined from 4 600 t in 1987 to 1 300 t in 1990.
Annual landings since then have been between
1 000-2 500 with landings in 2004 amounting to
2 100 t. CPUE of the Danish seine fleet decreased
drastically from 1987 to 1998, but for the past six
years it has doubled. Abundance indices from the
annual Nephrops survey since 1995 show that the
juvenile part of the stock (fish 30 cm or less) has
increased considerably and that fishable biomass
(fish larger than 30 cm) has more than tripled.
2.12. Megrim
During 1951-1999, landings of megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) were between 40 t and 700 t,
with annual landings declining from 420 t in 1996 to
67 t in 2003. In 2004, 123 t of megrim were landed.
Catches of megrim are by-catches in the Danish
seine and Nephrops fisheries off south Iceland.
2.13. Wolffish
Estimated landings of Atlantic wolffish (Anarichas lupus) in 2004 were 13 200 tons, decreasing from
16 500 tons in 2003. The decrease in landings was
caused by decreased catch on long lines and in the
bottom trawl while the catch in Danish seine
increased.
The index of fishable biomass and recruitment
indices in the groundfish survey in March decreased
considerably from 2003 to 2004 and remained low in
2005. The index of fishable biomass is now similar
to that in 1995 when it was the lowest since the
survey commenced in 1985.
Compared to the 2004 assessment, the current
assessment leads to minor downwards revision of the
size of the stock. The 2004 assessment led to a
considerable downwards revision of the stock size
compared to the previous year, caused by a decrease
in the abundance of wolffish in the groundfish survey in March. As in recent years, the MRI
recommends a management strategy of F0.1 or 13 000
t in the quota year 2005/2006. In addition the MRI
recommends closure for fishing of the major
spawning area off W-Iceland during the spawning
season in autumn and winter.
2.14. Blue ling
In 2004, 1 180 t of blue ling (Molva dypterygia)
were landed. Between 1985-2004, landings ranged
from 800-2 600 t, with the exception of 1993 when
landings were 5 400 t due to a temporary targeted
172
Nytjastofnar sjávar 2004/2005 - aflahorfur 2005/2006
fishery southwest of Iceland. In recent years, blue
ling has mainly been taken as by-catch in the bottom
trawl fishery. The sustainable yield of the stock is
unknown and the MRI recommends continued closure of known spawning grounds from 15 February30 April.
Results of an acoustic assessment of the
spawning stock to the west of the British Isles in
spring 2005 indicate that the spawning stock is 25%
lower than last year. As the ICES stock assessment
will be done in August/September, advice for 2006
will be awailable in October 2005.
2.15. Ling
2.22. Greater silver smelt
In 2004, 4 500 t of ling (Molva molva) were landed, whereof Icelandic vessels landed 3 700 t. In
recent years Icelandic landings decreased from 5 000
t to a record low of 2 800 t in 2002. Ling has mainly
been taken as by-catch in other fisheries. Survey
indices indicate that the stock has increased since
2001. The MRI recommends a TAC of less than
4 000 t in the quota year 2005/2006.
In 2004, 3 600 t of greater silver smelt (Argentina
silus) were landed. Greater silver smelt has been
caught off Iceland for several years, mainly as bycatch in the redfish bottom trawl fishery. However,
an experimental fishery commenced in 1986. In recent years, permits have been issued for a direct fishery, with a subsequent increase in fishing effort.
Landings increased from about 800 t in 1996 to
13 400 t in 1998, but have declined since 1998 due to
declining interest in the fishery. The MRI
recommends a precautionary TAC of 12 000 t in the
quota year 2005/2006.
2.18. Lumpfish
In 2004, approximately 5 800 t of lumpsucker
(Cyclopterus lumpus) were landed, which is close to
the average annual landings in 1971-2003. The fishery is characterised by large variations in annual
catches, ranging between 13 000 t in 1984 and approximately 3 000 t or less in 1990 and 1998-2001.
Both CPUE and abundance indices from groundfish
surveys declined between 1991-1996. In 1998-2000,
effort was reduced considerably and CPUE increased. In 2005, the March survey index was close
to the average index in 1985-2004, and 60% of the
maximum of the series in 2002. The stock is assessed
with limited data and resources and must be harvested with caution. The MRI does not recommend a
TAC in the quota year 2004/2005.
2.20. Capelin
In the 2004/2005 season the total international
landings of capelin (Mallotus villosus) were 784 000
t. Icelandic landings were 640 000 t.
In order to predict fishable stock abundance for
the 2005/2006 fishing season, data on the abundance
of immature capelin of the 2003 and 2002 year
classes in autumn 2004 are needed. The November
2004 survey failed to locate the immature capelin
and ice conditions in the Denmark strait have
precluded any further attempts to locate and assess
immature capelin of the 2003 and 2002 year classes.
The Marine Research Institute therefore advises
that a fishery is not opened until further acoustic
surveys have revealed sufficient numbers of these
capelin to sustain a fishery with the usual
prerequisite of a target remaining spawning stock of
400 000 t in spring 2006.
2.21. Blue whiting
In 2004, international landings of blue whiting
(Micromesistius poutassou) in the northeast Atlantic
were estimated to be 2.4 million t. Icelandic landings
were 422 000 t.
2.23. Nephrops
In 2004, 1 437 t of Nephrops norvegicus were
landed compared to 1 666 t in 2003. CPUE (kg/hour,
single rigged) was 46 kg in 2004 compared to 52 kg
and 44 kg in 2003 and 2002. According to the
current assessment, the fishable stock biomass
(Nephrops 6 years and older) in 2005 is estimated to
be 12 700 t or similar to the assessment made in
2004. The stock declined to its lowest recorded
levels around 1995, due to very poor overall
recruitment and high fishing intensity off SEIceland. While recruitment from the 1990-1991 year
classes benefited the fishable stock off SE-Iceland
after 1995, it has remained poor off SW-Iceland.
Recruitment is expected to remain good off SEIceland but is still at a very low levels off the
southwest coast. The MRI recommends a TAC of no
more than 1 600 t in the quota year 2005/2006. Also
it is recommended that the TAC be divided by areas
according to the latest information on stock size.
2.24. Northern shrimp
In 2004, 520 t of Northern shrimp (Pandalus
borealis) were landed from inshore areas, decreasing from 1 500 t in the year 2003. Prospects for the
inshore shrimp fishery in the coming season are very
poor in those areas where cod is abundant, such as
Ísafjardardjúp, Húnaflói, Skagafjörður, Skjálfandi
and Öxarfjörður. The MRI recommends a preliminary TAC of 500 t for the Northern shrimp in the
inshore areas for the quota year 2005/2006. TAC
recommendations for the whole season will be made
on the basis of surveys to be carried out in autumn or
February 2005/2006.
In 2004, 16 000 t of Northern shrimp were landed
from offshore areas, decreasing from 22 000 t in
2003. The increased abundance of cod in waters
Nytjastofnar sjávar 2004/2005 - aflahorfur 2005/2006
173
north of Iceland is estimated to be largely responsible for the decline in shrimp abundance from a near
historic high in 1997 to a historic low in 2000. Survey results indicated an increase in the shrimp stock
and decrease in cod abundance in 2000 and 2001 but
a decrease in the shrimp stock in 2003 and 2004. The
MRI recommends a preliminary TAC of 10 000 t for
Northern shrimp in the offshore areas (excluding the
Dohrnbank area) in the quota year 2005/2006. The
TAC is to be revised in autumn 2005 after the annual
shrimp survey has been conducted.
In the Denmark Strait, east of the midline EEZ
between Iceland and Greenland, Iceland caught
about 400 t in 2004. For all nations, NAFO has
recommended a TAC of 12 400 t for the whole area
of the Denmark Strait in 2005.
catch was 234 fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus),
68 sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis), and during
1948-1982, 82 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Minke whaling was conducted around Iceland
from small motor boats during most of last century.
Between 1977-1985, annual minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) catches were around 200
animals. In 1986, the International Whaling Commission'
s (IWC) resolution on a temporary pause in
commercial whaling came into effect. In accordance
with the International Convention for the Regulation
of Whaling, scientific whaling under special permit
of a limited number of fin and sei whales occurred
between 1986-1989. Between 1990 and 2002, no
whaling occurred in Icelandic waters. A comprehensive research plan involving the take of 100
minke, 100 fin, and 50 sei whales annually for two
years was submitted by Iceland for discussion at the
annual meeting of the International Whaling
Commission (IWC) in 2003. In August 2003 Icelandic authorities decided to start implementing the
part of the project concerning minke whales by issuing a special permit for the take of up to 38 animals
for research purposes. During 18. August-30. September 36 minke whales were caught in accordance
with the original research plan for that period.
According to a 1995 sightings survey there were
estimated to be 18 900 fin whales in the East-Greenland, Iceland, and Jan Mayen stock area (EGI stock
area). Results from a survey conducted in 2001 show
an increased abundance in comparable areas, and a
total population size of around 23 000 fin whales.
According to an assessment conducted by the
Scientific Committee of the North Atlantic Marine
Mammal Commission (NAMMCO) in 2003 the EGI
stock of fin whales is estimated to be close to its preexploitation abundance. The Scientific Committee
further concluded that annual catches of 150 fin
whales for the next 20 years on the whaling grounds
west of Iceland would be sustainable. If catches were
spread more widely, annual catches of 200 fin
whales are sustainable. According to this assessment,
it is clear that the proposed takes of 100 fin whales
per year for a period of two years are sustainable.
Sighting surveys indicated that the sei whale
stock in Icelandic and adjacent waters is around
10 500 animals. The limited harvesting of this stock
in the years prior to the fishery closure in 1988, is
unlikely to have had any adverse effects on the stock.
It is clear that the proposed catches of 50 sei whales
per year for two years will not significantly affect the
Iceland-Denmark Strait stock of sei whales.
According to a 2001 sightings survey, 67 000
minke whales were estimated in the Central North
Atlantic stock region, with 44 000 animals in Icelandic coastal waters. Assessment by the Scientific
Committee of NAMMCO in 1998 indicated that the
minke whale fishery in recent decades had no significant effect on the status of the stock.
2.25. Iceland scallop
There were no landings in 2004-2005 due to a
closure of the Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica)
fishery. Following a decrease in the TAC in 1994 the
stock remained relatively stable during 1993-2000.
However, survey indices declined drastically in
2000-2003 and the 2003 index amounted to only
27% of the average for 1993-2000 and less than 20%
of the historical high of 1980-1983. Still, a 15%
increase in total stock index was observed in 2004
due to improved recruitment. Also, CPUE declined
by some 55% from the average of 1996-1999 to the
last year of the fishery in 2003. The downward trend
in stock abundance is mainly due to increased natural
mortality, possibly linked with a recently identified
protozoan infestation in adult scallops and unusually
high sea temperatures in recent years. Therefore, the
MRI recommends a continued closure of the scallop
fishery in the quota year 2005/2006.
2.26. Ocean quahog
In 2004, 10 400 t of ocean quahog (Artica islandica) were landed, compared to 14 300 t in 2003.
Since 1996 a fishery for human consumption has
been developing, but annual landings have been variable because of variable effort. MRI recommends an
harvesting policy of 2.5% of the estimated stock size
corresponding to no more than 31 500 t in the quota
year 2005/2006.
2.27. Whelk
Pot fishing for whelks (Buccinum undatum)
started in Breiðafjörður in 1996. Annual landings
have varied greatly with a maximum of about 1 300 t
in 1997, but landings were negligible in 1998 and
2002. In 2004, the total catch was 631 t.
2.28. Whales
Whaling for large whales was conducted intermittently from shore-based stations in Iceland for
over a century. Between 1948 and 1985, the average
174
The Scientific Committee of NAMMCO conducted an assessment of the status of the Central
North Atlantic stock of minke whales in 2003. In
agreement with earlier scientific assessments on this
stock the Scientific Committee concluded that the
stock is close to pre-exploitation abundance, and that
historic catches have not appreciably affected the
stock. Even under the most pessimistic scenarios
considered, an annual catch of 200 minke whales
over the next 20 years will maintain the population
above 80% of the pre-exploitation level. Similarly an
annual catch of 400 minke whales would maintain
the population above 70% of this level. Based on
these assessments it is clear that annual catches of
200-400 minke whales are in accordance with the
objective of sustainable utilization of the minke
whale stock, as it is widely recognized that the
population level giving maximum sustainable yield
lies within the bounds of 60-72% of the preexploitation level. If commercial whaling will
Nytjastofnar sjávar 2004/2005 - aflahorfur 2005/2006
commence the Marine Research Institute recommends that annual catches of minke whales do not
exceed 400 animals and further that catches will be
distributed in accordance with minke whale
distribution in the continental shelf area. It is
furthermore clear from the above scientific assessments that the proposed special permit takes of 200
minke whales spread over a period of 3-5 years will
not significantly affect the abundance of minke
whales in Icelandic waters.
2.29. Seals
In 2004 the seal catch was 146 common seals
(Phoca vitulina) and 295 grey seals (Halichoerus
grypus). In 2002 a grey seal survey was conducted
where 5 500 grey seals were estimated along a part
of the Icelandic coast. According to a survey conducted in August 2003 the stock of common seals
was about 10 000 animals. The stock was estimated
at about 30 000 in 1980.

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