Natural Taste

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Natural Taste
Napoleonic Europe 1800-1815
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Goals
• Understand the origins and spread of the luxurious and
decorative style known as Rococo.
• Understand the main styles of Neoclassicism and Romanticism
in the early 19th century Europe and America.
• Examine reasons for the broad range of subject matter, from
portraits and landscape to mythology and history.
• Discuss initial reaction by artists and the public to the new art
medium known as photography
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28.1 Rococo: The French Taste
• Examine the luxurious artistic expressions of salon culture
which culminated in the style known as Rococo.
• Understand the completeness of the style, in decorations,
accessories, paintings and sculpture, interiors, and
architecture.
• Examine the extreme development of the Rococo style in
Germany.
• Examine the development of the Rococo style, its
materials, colors, and design elements.
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GERMAIN BOFFRAND, Salon de la Princesse, with painting by
CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE and sculpture by J. B. LEMOINE, Hôtel de
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Soubise, Paris, France, 1737–1740.
Mansart and LeBrun, Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, c 1680
Johann Balthasar Neumann,
Kaisersaal (Imperial Hall), Residenz,
Wurzburg, Bavaria, Germany, 1719-1744
Tiepolo
The Marriage of the
Emperor Frederick and
Beatrice of Burgandy,
1751-52
FRANÇOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg,
Nymphenburg Palace park, Munich, Germany, early 18th century.9
Art of the French Salons
• Examine the artistic expressions of salon cultural style
known as Rococo.
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ANTOINE
WATTEAU,
L’Indifférent, ca.
1716. Oil on
canvas, approx. 10”
x 7”. Louvre, Paris.
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Louis XIV, 1701, English Baroque,
9’ x 6’
French Rococo, 10” x 7”
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ANTOINE WATTEAU, Return from Cythera, 1717–1719.
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Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 3” x 6’ 4”. Louvre, Paris.
Rubens, The Garden of Love, Flemish Baroque 1633
FRANÇOIS BOUCHER, Triumph of Venus, 1740
FRANÇOIS BOUCHER,
Cupid a Captive, 1754.
Oil on canvas, approx.
5’ 6” x 2’ 10”.
The Wallace Collection,
London.
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JEAN-HONORÉ
FRAGONARD,
The Swing,
1766. Oil on
canvas,
approx.
2’ 11” x 2’ 8”.
The Wallace
Collection,
London.
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JEAN-HONORÉ
FRAGONARD
The Meeting,
1771-73
CLODION
Satyr Crowning
a Bacchante, 1770
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Bernini, Rape of Persephone
Italian Baroque
Giovanni da Bologna(Giambologna),
Rape of the Sabine Women
Scientific Art of the Enlightenment
• Understand the motivation of the Enlightenment and the
interest in science and the natural world and its effect on
artistic expression.
• Understand the philosophical concepts of Voltaire as they
relate to artistic expression.
• Examine the early applications of technology and scientific
advancements to art.
• Understand the expression of scientific ideas in art and art
as recording observations in the natural world.
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WILLIAM
HUNTER, Child in
Womb, drawing
from dissection
of a woman who
died in the ninth
month of
pregnancy, from
Anatomy of the
Human Gravid
Uterus, 1774.
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JOSEPH WRIGHT OF DERBY, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the
Orrery (in which a lamp is put in place of the sun), ca. 1763–1765. Oil
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on canvas, 4’ 10” x 6’ 8”. Derby, Derbyshire.
ABRAHAM DARBY III and THOMAS F. PRITCHARD, iron bridge at
Coalbrookdale, England (first cast-iron bridge over the Severn River),
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1776–1779. 100’ span.
The Taste for the Natural
• Examine the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in
contrast to Voltaire, his interest in the ‘natural’ as opposed
to the ‘artificial,’ and artistic expression of these ideas.
• Understand the different styles of the “natural” in France,
England, the United States, and in Italy.
• Examine choices of ‘ordinary’ life, the natural world, and
sentimentality as subjects in art.
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The Natural Taste in France
• Examine the subject matter and formal elements in the
“natural taste” in France.
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JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIMÉON CHARDIN,
Grace at Table, 1740
The Governess, 1739
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JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE, The Village Bride, 1761.
Oil on canvas, 3’ x 3’ 10 1/2”. Louvre, Paris.
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JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE, The Drunken Cobbler, 1780-85
ÉLISABETH LOUISE VIGÉE-LEBRUN
Portrait of Marie Antoinette with
Her Children, 1788
Self-Portrait, 1790
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The Natural Taste in England
• Examine the issues of morality, satire, and narration in
visual art in England.
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WILLIAM HOGARTH, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, ca.
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1745. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 4” x 3’. National Gallery, London.
The English Grand Manner Portrait
• Examine the English Grand Manner portrait as an
expression of the natural taste in Rococo form.
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THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH,
Mrs. Richard
Brinsley Sheridan,
1787. Oil on canvas,
approx. 7’ 2 5/8” x 5’ 5/8”.
National Gallery of Art,
Washington
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Lord Heathfield,
1787.
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Natural Taste in the United States
• Examine the American taste for “downrightness” and
plainness in art.
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BENJAMIN WEST, The Death of General Wolfe, 1771. Oil on
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canvas, approx. 5’ x 7’ National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa
JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY,
Portrait of Paul Revere,
ca. 1768–1770.
Oil on canvas,
2’ 11 1/8” x 2’ 4”.
Museum of Fine Arts,
Boston
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Italian Natural Taste and Tourism
• Understand the concept of the “Grand Tour” and the
expression of the “picturesque” in art.
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ANTONIO CANALETTO, Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice, ca. 1735-40.46
Revival of Classicism
• Understand how the discovery of Herculaneum and
Pompeii create an interest in classical art.
• Understand the formal elements of classical art and their
revival in 19th century art and architecture.
• Examine Neoclassical art and architecture in France,
England, and in the United States.
• Examine the adaptation of classical and mythological
subject matter in Neoclassical art.
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Neoclassical Art in France
• Understand the formal elements of classical art and their
revival in 19th century.
• Examine the adaptation of classical and mythological
subject matter.
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Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures,
or Mother of the Gracchi, ca. 1785. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4” x 4’ 2”. 50
JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas,
approx. 11’ x 14’. Louvre, Paris.
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JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID,
The Death of Marat,
1793.
Oil on canvas,
approx. 5’ 3” x 4’ 1”.
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JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, The Coronation of Napoleon, 1805–1808.
Oil on canvas, 20’ 4 1/2” x 32’ 1 3/4”. Louvre, Paris. 54
French Neoclassical Architecture
• Examine classical revival in architecture as an expression
of French power and glory.
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JACQUES-GERMAIN
SOUFFLOT, the Panthéon
(Sainte-Geneviève), Paris,
France, 1755–1792.
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PIERRE VIGNON, La Madeleine, Paris, France, 1807–1842.
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Neoclassical Art
in Italy
ANTONIO CANOVA, Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1808.
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Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome.
Neoclassical Art and Architecture
in England
• Understand classical elements of art and architecture,
Palladian influence, and their revival in 19th century
England.
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RICHARD BOYLE (earl of Burlington) and WILLIAM KENT,
Chiswick House, near London, England, begun 1725.
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Alternate View
Principal Facade with entrance gate
© 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
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JOHN WOOD THE YOUNGER, the Royal
Crescent, Bath, England, 1769–1775.
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JAMES STUART,
Doric portico,
Hagley Park,
Worcestershire,
England, 1758.
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Etruscan Room, Osterley
Park House, Middlesex,
England, begun 1761. 67
The Neoclassical in the United States
• Examine Neoclassical as the national style in art and
architecture in the United States in the early 19th century.
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THOMAS JEFFERSON, Monticello,
Charlottesville, United States, 1770–1806.
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Drawing of view of Washington, 1852,
showing BENJAMIN LATROBE’S Capitol
(1803–1807) and MAJOR L’ENFANT’S plan
(created in 1791) of the city.
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