30.3 Modernism and Realism

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30.3 Modernism and Realism
Europe and America, 1800-1870,
Modernism and Realism
• Examine the meanings of “Modernism” and “Realism” and
the rejection of Renaissance illusionistic space.
• Understand the changes in Realist art in form, style, and
content.
• Examine the use of art – especially photography and
printmaking -- to provide social commentary.
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The Art of Realism
• Understand Realist art in its forms, styles, and content.
• Examine the social commentary, shocking subject matter,
formal elements, and public reaction to Realism.
2
Realist Influences: Pieter Breughel
Louis Le Nain, Family of Country People, ca. 1640
Le Nain Brothers, The Cart or Return from Haymaking, 1641
Realist Influences: Chardin,
Woman Cleaning Turnips,
1738
Figure 30-27 GUSTAVE COURBET, The Stone Breakers, 1849. Oil on
canvas, 5’ 3” x 8’ 6”. Formerly at Gemäldegalerie, Dresden (destroyed in
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1945).
Figure 30-28 GUSTAVE COURBET, Burial at Ornans, 1849. Oil on
canvas, 10’ 3 1/2” x 22’ 9 1/2”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
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GUSTAVE COURBET, The Painter’s Studio: A Real Allegory of a Seven Year
Phase in my Artistic and Moral Life, 1855. Oil on canvas, 11’ 10” x 19’ 9 ”.
Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
9
Figure 30-29 JEAN-FRANÇOIS MILLET, The Gleaners, 1857. Oil on canvas, 2’ 9” x 3’ 8”.
Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
10
Figure 30-32 ROSA BONHEUR, The Horse Fair, 1853–1855. Oil on canvas, 8’ 1/4” x 16’ 7 1/2”. Metropolitan Museum
of Art, New York (gift of Cornelius Vanderbilt, 1887).
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ROSA BONHEUR, Plowing in the Nivervais, 1849. Oil
on canvas, 5’ 9” x 8’ 8”. Musee d’Orsay
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Honore Daumier, Louis Philippe as Gargantua
Figure 30-30 HONORÉ DAUMIER, Rue Transnonain, 1834. Lithograph, 1’ x 1’ 5 1/2”. Philadelphia Museum of Art,
Philadelphia (bequest of Fiske and Marie Kimball).
17
Figure 30-31 HONORÉ DAUMIER, Third-Class Carriage, ca. 1862. Oil on canvas, 2’ 1 3/4” x 2’ 11 1/2”. Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York (H. O. Havemeyer Collection, bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929).
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Figure 30-33 ÉDOUARD MANET, Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. Oil on canvas, 7’ x 8’ 10”. Musée
d’Orsay, Paris.
19
Giorgione, Pastoral Symphony
30.4 The French Academy and Other
Classical Models
• Examine the importance and influence of the French Royal
Academy of Art, the artists it trained and the styles it
promoted.
• Understand the popularity of other classical models in art.
21
Figure 30-34 ÉDOUARD MANET, Olympia, 1863. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3” x 6’ 2 1/4”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
22
Figure 30-35 ADOLPHE-WILLIAM
BOUGUEREAU, Nymphs and Satyr, 1873. Oil on
canvas, approx. 9’ 3/8” x 5’ 10 7/8” high. Sterling
and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown,
Massachusetts.
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German and American Realism
• Examine German artist’s interests in regional and national
characteristics, folk customs and culture.
• Identify the American artists and key works of Realist art.
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Figure 30-36 WILLIAM LEIBL, Three Women in a
Village Church, 1878-1882. Oil on canvas, 2’ 5” x 2’ 1”.
Kunsthalle, Hamburg.
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Figure 30-37 WINSLOW HOMER, Veteran in a New Field, 1865. Oil on canvas, 2’ 1/8” x 3’ 2 1/8”. Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York (bequest of Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot, 1967).
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Winslow Homer, The Gulf Stream
Key West, Hauling Anchor (watercolor)
Figure 30-38 THOMAS EAKINS, The
Gross Clinic, 1875. Oil on canvas, 8’ x 6’ 6”.
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia.
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Figure 30-39 JOHN SINGER SARGENT, The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882. Oil on canvas, 7’ 3 3/8” x 7’ 3 5/8”.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (gift of Mary Louisa Boit, Florence D. Boit, Jane Hubbard Boit, and Julia Overing Boit, in
memory of their father, Edward Darley Boit).
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Figure 24-30 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ,
Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil
on canvas, approx. 10’ 5” x 9’. Museo del
Prado, Madrid.
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Figure 30-40 HENRY OSSAWA TANNER, The Thankful Poor, 1894. Oil on canvas, 2’ 11 1/2” x 3’ 8 1/4”. Collection of
William H. and Camille Cosby.
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Henry Ossawa
Tanner
• Student of Thomas
Eakins
• 19th centuryAfrican
American life
Portrait of Henry Ossawa Tanner by
Eakins and Photograph
Figure 30-41 EDMONIA LEWIS, Forever Free, 1867.
Marble, 3’ 5 1/4” high. James A. Porter Gallery of AfroAmerican Art, Howard University, Washington, D.C.
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30.5 Pre-Raphaelites
• Examine the Pre-Raphaelites’ choice of subject matter in
contrast to the Realists.
• Understand the influences of the literary world and of the
critic John Ruskin in the art of the Pre-Raphaelites.
• Identify artists and styles of the Pre-Raphaelite movement.
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Figure 30-42 JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS, Ophelia, 1852. Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 3’ 8”. Tate Gallery, London.
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Figure 30-43 DANTE GABRIEL
ROSSETTI, Beata Beatrix, ca. 1863. Oil on
canvas, 2’ 10” x 2’ 2”. Tate Gallery, London.
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30.6 19th Century Architecture
• Examine the variety of revivalist styles in architecture, the
origins of the designs and their impact.
• Discuss how the availability of new building materials will
affect the structure and appearance of architecture
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Figure 30-44 CHARLES BARRY and A. W. N. PUGIN, Houses of Parliament, London, England, designed 1835.
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Figure 30-45 JOHN NASH, Royal Pavilion, Brighton, England, 1815–1818.
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Figure 30-46 CHARLES GARNIER, the Opera, Paris, France, 1861-1874
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Figure 30-47 HENRI LABROUSTE, reading room of the Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve, Paris, France,
1843-1850.
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Figure 30-48 JOSEPH PAXTON, Crystal Palace, London, England, 1850-1851; enlarged and relocated at Sydenham, England,
1852-1854. Detail of a color lithograph by ACHILLE-LOUIS MARTINET, ca. 1862. Private collection.
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30.7 Photography
• Examine the origins of photography and its impact in visual
art.
• Discuss initial uses of the new art medium known as
photography.
• Recognize the artists and the works of early photography.
• Examine artist’s use and response to the technology of
photography.
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Figure 30-49 HONORÉ DAUMIER,
Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art,
1862. Lithograph, 10 3/4” x 8 3/4”.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
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Figure 30-50 LOUIS-JACQUES-MANDÉ DAGUERRE, Still Life in Studio, 1837. 6 1/4” x 8 1/4”. Daguerreotype.
Collection Société Française de Photographie, Paris.
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Harmen Steenwyck
The Vanities of Human Life
Figure 30-51 JOSIAH JOHNSON HAWES and ALBERT SANDS SOUTHWORTH, Early Operation under Ether,
Massachusetts General Hospital, ca. 1847. Daguerreotype. Massachusetts General Hospital Archives and Special Collections,
Boston.
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Figure 30-38 THOMAS EAKINS, The
Gross Clinic, 1875. Oil on canvas, 8’ x 6’ 6”.
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia.
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Figure 25-12 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3 3/4” x 7’ 1 1/4”.
Mauritshuis, The Hague.
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Figure 30-1 NADAR, Eugène Delacroix, ca.
1855. Modern print, 8 1/2”x 6 2/3” from
original negative in the Bibliothèque Nationale,
Paris.
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Figure 30-52 JULIA MARGARET
CAMERON, Ophelia, Study no. 2, 1867.
Albumen print, 1' 1" x 10 2/3". George
Eastman House, Rochester (gift of
Eastman Kodak Company; formerly
Gabriel Cromer Collection)
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Figure 30-53 TIMOTHY O’SULLIVAN, A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863. Negative by Timothy
O’Sullivan. Original print by ALEXANDER GARDNER, 6 3/4" x 8 3/4". New York Public Library (Astor, Lenox and
Tilden Foundations, Rare Books and Manuscript Division), New York.
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Figure 30-54 EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE, Horse Galloping, 1878. Collotype print, 9” x 12”. George Eastman House,
Rochester, New York.
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Discussion Questions
 Identify the formal artistic differences between
Neoclassicism and Romanticism.
 Describe the debate over 19th century aesthetic theory, as
characterized by the Poussinistes vs. the Rubenistes.
 What is meant by French academic art? How did the works
of the Realists factor into French academic standards?
 How would you describe the work of Eduoard Manet?
 What were major developments in 19th century
architecture?
 What was the impact of photography during the 19th
century?
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