Existing Research Review Arkhangelsk Region

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Existing Research Review Arkhangelsk Region
544410-TEMPUS-1-2013-IT-TEMPUS-JPHS
D2.1 Existing Research Reviews (English)
Existing Research Review
Arkhangelsk Region
Actions of Lifelong Learning addressing
Multicultural Education and Tolerance in Russia
WP2
February 2015
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ALLMEET – Actions of Lifelong Learning addressing
Multicultural Education and Tolerance in Russia
Start date of project: 01/12/2013
Duration: 36 months
Work Package 2 - Analysis of the existing knowledge, practices and policies
Lead organisation for this deliverable: KFU, UNL
Deliverable factsheet
Dissemination level:
National level
Deliverable type:
Report
Work package:
WP2
Responsible partner:
KFU, FCSH/UNL
Primary contributor:
NArFU "Northern (Arctic) Federal University"
Deliverable reviewers:
FCSH/UNL
Executive summary
Five reports (one for each Russian region represented in the partnership) on the existing research
on inter-ethnic and inter-religious relationships and conflicts, social stability, human rights and
inclusion of people with a migrant background. The issue is developed in a multidisciplinary
perspective covering the demographic, social, anthropological, historical, political and educative
themes and data. This report characterizes the context of Arkhangelsk Region.
The ALLMEET (Actions of Lifelong Learning addressing Multicultural Education and Tolerance in Russia)
project has been funded under the Tempus IV program.
This publication reflects the views only of the author(s), and the Commission cannot be held responsible for
any use that may be made of the information contained therein.
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Existing Research Review – Arkhangelsk Region
INDEX
1.
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION................................................................................................................................. 4
2.
HISTORY, RELIGION AND CULTURE ..................................................................................................................... 6
3.
DEMOGRAPHICS................................................................................................................................................. 9
4.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SITUATION..................................................................................................................22
5.
STATE AND POLITICAL STRUCTURE ....................................................................................................................25
6.
LANGUAGE SITUATION ......................................................................................................................................30
7.
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM .....................................................................................................................................33
8.
RELIGION ...........................................................................................................................................................42
9.
CRIMINALITY AND DEVIANCE: PAST AND PRESENT SITUATION .........................................................................47
10.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS AND ETHNIC GROUPS ........................................................50
11.
ASSOCIATIONS AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIALOGUE
BETWEEN DIFFERENT ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS ............................................................................................52
12.
OVERVIEW OF PREVIOUS STUDIES INTO THE ISSUES RELATING TO THE PROJECT TASKS ...............................61
13.
CONCLUSION.................................................................................................................................................69
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Existing Research Review – Arkhangelsk Region
Contributors: Key staff – I.I. Tyurikova, P.S. Golomidova
1. Geographical location1
Located in the north of European part of Russia, Arkhangelsk Region belongs to the RF North-West
Federal District. Arkhangelsk Region is comprised of Nenets Autonomous Area (an RF entity and,
concurrently, a constituent of Arkhangelsk Region), the Novaya Zemlya and the Franz Joseph Land
archipelagoes.
Fig.1. Location of Arkhangelsk Region 2
The major part of Arkhangelsk Region is classified as “Far North areas”. These include Novaya Zemlya
and Franz Joseph Land archipelagoes; Nenets Autonomous Area; islands in the White Sea; the Solovetsky
Archipelago; Leshokonsky, Mezen and Pinega municipalities; Severodvinsk urban district. Cape Fligeli on
Rudolf Island (Franz Joseph Land) is the northernmost point of Russia, Europe and Eurasia; Cape Flissigskiy
is Europe’s easternmost point. The rest of the region is made up of areas with the status of “equivalent to
Far North areas”.
The coast line of Arkhangelsk Region is 3 thousand km long and washed by the cold waters of three
Arctic seas – the White, Barents and Kara.
The region borders Karelian Republic in the west, Murmansk Region in the north (the border running
through the White Sea), Vologda and Kirov regions in the south, Komi Republic in the east and south/southeast (Nenets Autonomous Area), Tyumen Region and Krasnoyarsk Territory (the border running through
the Kara Sea) in the east (Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area).
The total area of Arkhangelsk Region is 589 913 km2.
Density of population: 2.02 residents per 1 km2.
The areas assigned (since in January 2006) the status of municipal entities are 226 and comprise:
1
2
Official webpage of the Government of the Arkhangelsk region – URL: http://dvinaland.ru/ [10.07.2014]
Ibid.
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– 7 urban districts;
– 19 municipal districts;
– 20 urban settlements;
– 180 rural settlements.
The administrative center of Arkhangelsk Region is Arkhangelsk, established in 1584. Among the biggest
towns are Severodvinsk, Kotlas, Novodvinsk, Koryazhma, Mirny.
Economic geography: natural resources, major economic fields
Mineral resources: Arkhangelsk Region boasts rich mineral deposits. Among the discovered resources ad
limestone, bitter-spar, cement raw materials, gypsum, anhydrites, sand, clays and low-melting loam clay,
building stone, groundwater, manganese, copper ore, zinc, lead, amber, agate gemstone, etc.
The mineral deposits are mainly sedimentary. 100 km northwards of Arkhangelsk – in Primorsky and
Mezen districts – lie Europe’s largest diamond deposits (M.V. Lomonosov deposit, V.Grib deposit).
Numerous oil and gas deposits (Prirazlomnoye field) have been discovered in Nenets Autonomous Area,
the largest being concentrated in its northern parts – Bolshezemelskaya tundra (Khylchuyusky, Inzyreisky,
Varandeysky fields, etc.). Other deposits include mineral coal and huge reserves of peat.
Expensively developed are bauxites (Iksinsky deposit in Plesetsk district). The mineral resources also
available in large quantities are gypsum (Zvozsky deposit being the largest in Russia), limestone and
anhydrides.
The valley of the Onega River (Onega Peninsula) is home to numerous saline springs. Rock salt layers as
thick as 16 m are found in the south of the region – in Solvychegodsk, Koryazhma, Shangaly.
Novaya Zemlya has been discovered to have manganese and polymetallic ores. Explored are the
deposits of constructional and refractory materials, clay pigments.
Forest resources: Arkhangelsk Region is home to extensive forests. The available forest resources being
more than 2500 mln m³, the Region’s forested area totals 22.3 mln hectares. Among the dominating
species are coniferous (pine, spruce) – 80%, and hardwood (birch, aspen) – 20%.
Water resources: The Region is fortunate to have ample water resources. Its big and small rivers total 70
thousand and run for as long as 275 thousand km. The major rivers are four (the Northern Dvina, the
Pechora, the Onega and the Mezen) and flow into the Arctic seas. Wide and deep, the Northern Dvina
offers favorable conditions for navigation and is the area’s principal waterway.
The region disposes of major unexploited natural resources – forests, oil, boxites, titanic ore, aurum;
copper-nickel, lead and manganese ores; polymetals, manganese, basalt. The easy access to the sea opens
up new prospects of bioresource and offshore development.
Major disadvantages: limited accessibility and severe climate.
Branches of economy
Arkhangelsk Region boasts well-developed industries – fishing (Arkhangelsk Trawler Fleet), forestry,
woodworking (Solombala Saw Mill), pulp and paper production (Kotlas Pulp and Paper Mill, Kotlas Chemical
Plant, Arkhangelsk Pulp and Paper Mill, Solombala Pulp and Paper Mill). The local machine-building
enterprises (PA Sevmash, SRC Zvezdochka, Kotlas Electromechanical Plant, Solombala Machine-Building
Plant) are fulfilling defense orders and serve fishing and woodworking industries. There more than 24
thousand businesses and organizations of all legal structures operating in the region.
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The progress of the region’s conventional industries relies on the capacity of its forestry and
development enterprises, and the well-developed infrastructure of commercial ports. Among the latter is
Arkhangelsk Sea Port, which is referred to as Russia’s northern gates and accounts for a major portion of
freight traffic in this region.
2. History, religion and culture
As a region, Arkhangelsk province (Arkhangelsk North) serves a curious example of polyethnic and
multicultural space. Its formation was especially fast in the 12th-17th centuries and was closely connected
with the settlement of the areas that constitute the present-day Arkhangelsk North3.
Archaeological investigations in the contemporary Arkhangelsk North have found evidence of human
settlements dating back as far as the 10th/9th millennia BC. Prehistoric settlement of this area may have
occurred as early as the Neolithic age (copper, bronze and iron age, the 4th/1st millennia BC). Galdareya I, II
and III, Zimnyaya Zolotitsa, Nenoksa, Krasnaya Gora, Kuzhechikha are a few of the prehistoric settlements
discovered.4 It is during the Neolithic age that the archaeological cultures that largely reflect the
subsequent process of distribution of contemporary northern communities’ ancestors, started to form.
Before the 10th century AD, the northern parts were mainly settled by sparse Finno-Ugric tribes – the
forefathers of today’s Karelians, Komi, Vepsians and Saami (Lapps). The period from the 10th to the 12th
century witnessed the arrival of Novgorodian Slavs. The area experienced several influxes of Slavs who
originated from different territories and belonged to different social strata.
The first influx settled along the rivers of Onega and Northern Dvina and consisted of Novgorodians.
What attracted them were fur animals, fish and, later, marine mammals.
Those Novgorodians were mainly Prince’s and merchants’ man-at-arms who followed their masters’
interests. The Prince-and-Boyar’s instructed colonization picking up in the 14th-16th centuries, the
settlement process had become mass and involved a great number of farmers.
Located at the crossroads of the trade routes (channeling furs, fish, salt, bread, ironware, flax), the
villages, churchyards and stockaded town founded by Novgorodian man-at-arms had grown into farmers’
settlement and towns – Velsk (1137), Shenkursk (1315), Kholmogory (1328), Kargopol (1380),
Solvychegodsk (1492).
Thus, the settlement of the Northern Dvina, the Onega and the Mezen shores, as well as of the islands in
the White Sea, lasted from the 12th to the 15th century. Arkhangelsk land also served the gate to the Urals
and Trans-Urals.
The second influx of migrants, or ‘low-land people’5, started in the 13th century and originated from
Rostov-Suzdal princedom (from the provinces under Novgorod) based on the Volga. The colliding migrant
flows competed for the northern lands, their collision playing crucial role in subsequent formation of the
area’s ethnic and cultural makeup.
3
Русский Север: Проблемы этнографии и фольклора/ Под ред. К.В. Чистова и Т.А. Бернштам. Л., 1981.
Основные археологические источники истории Архангельского Севера. URL:
http://projects.pomorsu.ru/MemoHistory/archeological%20sources.htm[10.06.14]
5
История Каргопольской земли..C.7. //Каргополье. М., 1984.
4
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In the late 14th-early 15th century, this ‘going north’ movement was led by hermits and religious men. In
his description of colonization waves in the north, historian V.O. Kluchevsky writes about merchant-,
farmer- and monk-led settlement processes6. Contemporary researchers (and among them S.M. Morozov7,
N.M. Terebikhin8), too, note that religious men played an important role in exploring the “vast spaces by
the Arctic Ocean”.
A northern monastery that had a colossal value for this region’s growth was the Monastery of the
Transfiguration of the Savior. Founded in 1429 on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea – a centre of the
Pomor northerners’ spiritual life, a source of their economic growth, a fortress and political exile
destination – the monastery was one of the biggest in the European North of Russia.
Moscow started to gain ground on the northern areas in the late 15th-early 16th century. Moscow Princes
made Arkhangelsk North their property and a part of the Muscovy State, and thus finished, by the 17th
century, the process of settlement of the north as such. By that time, this land had reached its heyday and
served an important economic and cultural area of the Russian state.
The important factors that underpinned the settlement of the European North of Russia were the
remoteness from the battle actions during the Mogul and Tartar conquest and the devastating internecine
feuds; and the environment sufficient to maintain the spirit of freedom, be it social, economic or religious.
When analyzing the root causes of why people settled in the north, it becomes evident that in addition
to social and economic reasons (seal-hunting then produced 10-15 times more food than forest animal
hunting and 2 times more than arable farming), to the foreground comes a set of other factors. There are
authors (V.Ya. Shumkin) who believe that nature and environment were not what settlers sought in Arctic
and sub-Arctic areas in the first place9. Given that the settlement process occurred in the post-Mogul
period (15th century), social and religious factors played far more important role: “That dark land attracted
enterprising Russians… Fleeing from feudalistic oppression, failyear-caused hunger, epidemics and internal
wars, they moved to places they had never reached before.”10
Describing the formation of the ethnic and cultural dimension in the north, it should be noted that this
process was dominated by two ethnic flows, one being Slavonic (Novgorodians and Rostov-Suzdal people)
and the other local Finno-Ugric communities. As the settlement patterns and the interaction they
maintained were different, the degree to which Novgorodian, Rostov or Finno-Ugric cultures could
influence the place varied, too. The trans-Onega, the lower reaches of the Dvina, the White Sea coast and,
partly, the White Lake areas fell under the influence of Novgorod, whereas the communities stretching
from the White Lake down to Velikiy Ustyug had adopted Rostov-Suzdal culture. At the same time, the
settlement process was always influenced by the interaction between Slavs and their Finno-Ugric
neighbours.
6
Ключевский В.О. Сочинения: В 9-ти т. Курс русской истории. – М.: Мысль, 1989. Т.V. – 456 с.
Морозов С.В. Тогда на Анзерском острове. Сборник материалов по истории Соловецкого отшельничества.
Изд. Товарищество северного мореходства. 2000; Морозов С.В. Постижение Соловков. Очерки и
материалы. Изд. Товарищество северного мореходства., 2002.
8
Теребихин Н.М. Сакральная география Русского Севера: (Религиозно-мифологическое пространство
севернорусской культуры). Архангельск, 1993.
9
Шумкин В.Я. Влияние природно-экологического фактора на заселение арктических районов. Сб. Проблемы
изучения историко-культурной среды Арктики. Под ред. В.П. Боярского. М. 1990. С.50-61.
10
Морозов С. Тогда на Анзерском острове. Сборник материалов по истории Соловецкого отшельничества. М.,
2000.С.15.
7
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The 14th-16th-century vernacular communities of Russians referred to themselves as Onegians, Dvinians,
Whitelakeans, Ustygians, Vagians, Vychegdans, etc. – according to their geographical location (rivers). Even
though these toponyms later became obsolete, the general name of the most numerous community of
northern Russians – Pomors, who settled along the White Sea coast all the way from Onega to Kem’ and
also on the Barents Sea coast – has survived to our days. Pomors distinguished by the sea trades they
engaged in (fishing, seal-hunting; navigation and enterprising in later period). Their trades being the only
thing that differed them from the rest of ethnic groups, Pomors share the folk traditions (predominantly
Novgorodian by origin) being maintained by all Russian northerners.
The ethno-cultural interactions and the settlers’ routes came together on an ‘ethnic map’ of the
European North. It represents a one-of-a-kind community of northern ethnic groups whose core is made by
northern Russians and the periphery by settlers of Finno-Ugric origin. The colonization process and the
relationships with outside ethnic groups can be described as peaceful. There were no armed conflicts with
any of the Finno-Ugric tribes except the Nenets.
The new epoch in the region’s history and evolution of its multi-cultural ethnic dimension was marked
by the establishment by Russia of trade relations with England and Western Europe, and the foundation, in
1584 in the mouth of the Northern Dvina, of Arkhangelsk as the nation’s first sea port. Before St.
Petersburg took over, Arkhangelsk was Russia’s only access to the sea which also functioned as a shipyard
(Solombala) and a foreign trade port.
The trade with England and Western Europe flourishing, the 17th-century Arkhangelsk reached its
heyday. In the 1720s, Arkhangelsk became home to a community of foreigners who accommodated in the
German Quarter. According to local historian E.I. Ovsyankin, the early 17th-century foreign merchants
established in Arkhangelsk 7 precincts – 3 Dutch, 2 British and 2 German – totaling, by 1782, 62.11
The establishment of foreign quarters was fostered by the Russian government’s policy to provide
overseas visitors with premises where they could accommodate and maintain trade. It is worth mentioning
that there were the dynasties that left a visible mark on the history of this region – Lutheran pastor Johann
Heinrich Lindens, tailor Karl Luers from Hannover, bread baker August Petz from Saxony, etc.12
Even after tsar Peter I had transferred all foreign trade from the Northern Dvina to the Neva,
Arkhangelsk remained a region-level strategic trading hub. Foreigners continued their trading operations
here throughout the 18th-19th century. In late 18th century, the community of West European merchants
totaled 383 residents. The last tangible influx of foreigners occurred in the second half of the 19 th century
and was mainly from Norway.
Notably, the size of German Quarter’s population was rather impressive, given the city’s small area.
August Petz counted that the 1913 population of Arkhangelsk included 464 residents identified as
‘German’. The census held by the Russian empire registered 97 foreign nationals, 45 of whom were residing
in Arkhangelsk. No less impressive was the share of Lutherans – 352 according to the census. 440 residents
were registered as catholic parishioners.
11
Овсянкин Е.И. Архангельск купеческий. Арх., 2008.URL: http://lit.lib.ru/o/owsjankin_e_i/text_0040.shtml
[12.06.14].
12
Ibid.
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The foreign population as numerous as this caused residents form and join religious communities –
Evangelistic/Lutheran, Anglican, Catholic, Judaic, Mohammedan.13 Those communities were religious
unions that operated their own churches and parishes and reported to the City Council. Their activities
were also supervised by Foreign Confessions Department and Arkhangelsk Governor’s Office.
Summing up the above historical background, a conclusion can be made that Arkhangelsk North should
be considered an area, where the formation of ethnical and cultural dimension had taken a unique path.
The fact that settlers of the North – Novgorodians and Rostov-Sudal people – were ethnically diverse
communities, and that their influxes met no hostility from Finno-Ugric tribes, laid basis for the intercultural
interactions in the northern areas to have taken peaceful course. The subsequent foundation of
Arkhangelsk, a one-of-a-kind port town that served, until the 18th century, the nation’s only access point to
Western civilization, cannot be overestimated. It is largely due to the polycultural environment that
Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk region were evolving in that the cross-cultural interactions are still
progressing here. The shapes the come in nowadays will be the focus of the sections below.
3. Demographics
Total population (sex-age structure): As of 1 January 2014, Arkhangelsk Region has a total resident
population of 1148.8 thousand people exclusive of Nenets Autonomous Area (NAA), and 1191.2 thousand
inclusive of it14.
2013-2014 population dynamics: According to Federal State Statistics Service, as of 1 January 2013, the
total population of Arkhangelsk Region was 1202.3 thousand inclusive of Nenets Autonomous Area and 1
159.5 thousand exclusive of it. As compared to 1 January 2014, the population shows a tendency to
decrease. The 2013 decrease registered exclusive of NNA is 10.7 thousand (0.9%), the natural decline
accounting for 8.5% and the migration outflow – for 91.5%. The natural decline in population registered in
2013 was 910 people (as compared to 1296 in 2012). The total population in the area including NAA has
declined by a total of more than 20 thousand people.
Arkhangelsk and NNA population: age-sex structure (2013): According to Federal State Statistics Service,
in the total size of Arkhangelsk population (NAA inclusive) males account for 562 thousand (47%) and
women for 640 (53%). The gender disparity (women outnumbering men) is caused by high mortality rate
among males.
According to Federal State Statistics Service15, the dominant age groups of Arkhangelsk Region
population (NAA inclusive) are ‘over 70’ and ’25-29’ – 110 and 100 thousand, respectively, the average age
being 37.
Able-bodied are over 700 thousand residents, accounting for 59.3% of the total number. The population
under or over active working age is 500 thousand.
13
Хроники старинного рода Пецъ. Малоизвестные страницы истории с XIV века по сегодняшний день.
URL:http://paetz.ru/?page_id=3784[12.06.14].
14
Official webpage of the Government of the Arkhangelsk region – URL: http://dvinaland.ru/ [10.07.2014]
15
Federal State Statistics Service. URL: http://arhangelskstat.gks.ru/ [08.07.14]
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Table 1. Population by age16
2012
2013
Total
1213533
1202295
0-4
73503
74300
5-9
65247
66468
10-14
56873
58203
15-19
59349
57655
20-24
90473
79404
25-29
102726
101059
30-34
97198
97037
35-39
90400
91598
40-44
76293
77395
45-49
85157
80719
50-54
101291
97714
55-59
96062
96353
60-64
73611
77174
65-69
31929
36785
70 and over
113421
110431
under active working age
207146
210074
of active working age
732868
713185
over active working age
273519
279036
Total number of residents
List of nationalities and size of ethnic groups
The ethnic composition of Arkhangelsk Region’s population is relatively homogeneous. Out of 98% of
residents who indicated their nationality during the 2010 national census, 95.6% are Russians, 1.4% Ukrainians, 0.5% - Belorussians, 0.6% - Nenets, 0.4% - Komi, 0.2% - Tartar. Other ethnic groups17 comprise
the total of 1.3%. The census report revealed that 2015 residents are of Pomor descent (as compared to
6295 in 2002). Arkhangelsk Region is home to a total of 108 nationalities.
16
URL:arhangelskstat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/arhangelskstat/resources/7e4dc6804d36509abbd9fb7d08c
3b2f0/CHISPolVozrAO.doc [12.06.14].
17
Germans, Moldavians, Romany, Mordovians, Udmurtians, Polish, Mari, Lithuanians, Herbew, Bashkirs, Georgians,
Karelians, Chechen, Lezgins, Kazakhs, etc.
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Table 2. Ethnic composition of Arkhangelsk Region and the size of ethnic groups according to 2010 census
Number of residents who indicated
their nationality
Share in the total number of residents who
indicated their nationality, %
Russians
1148821
95.6
Pomors
2015
0.2
Ukrainians
16976
1.4
Nenets
8020
0.7
Belorussians
5810
0.5
Komi
4583
0.4
Azerbaijani
2605
0.2
Tartars
2335
0.2
Chuvash
1357
0.1
Armenians
1042
0.1
Other*
10395
0.8
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Table 3. Arkhangelsk Region’s population (RF nationals) by ethnic background and age (2010 National Census) 18
Ethnic background and
Russians
Ukrainians
Nenets
Belorussians
Komi
age groups
Size (number of people)
1148821
16976
8020
5810
4583
aged
0–4
5–9
10 – 14
15 – 17
18 – 19
20 – 24
25 – 29
30 – 34
35 – 39
40 – 44
45 – 49
50 – 54
55 – 59
60 – 64
65 – 69
70 and over
Respondents that did not
specify their age
68831
61611
54072
34842
27030
94237
98345
93096
81562
70694
84116
95331
88598
62924
29478
104053
68
87
151
115
87
313
438
719
1181
1627
2063
2267
2110
1708
1360
2682
726
680
701
439
286
760
703
590
511
552
592
499
378
224
125
254
13
18
38
31
19
80
127
209
327
491
650
776
714
579
499
1239
124
173
206
122
73
266
216
327
358
415
527
517
398
266
148
447
1
-
-
-
-
196069
705437
340
9986
2255
4927
75
3055
542
2918
247314
38.6
37.5
6650
53.2
53.5
838
30.4
27.9
2680
55.7
55.8
1123
43.0
45.1
Total number of residents
under active working
age
of active working age
over active working
age
Average age
Median age
Number of urban and rural residents
As of 1 January 2014, the urban population accounted for 76.5% (911 879 people) and the rural – for
23.5% (279 905 people) of the total population of Arkhangelsk Region (NAA inclusive).
Almost 90% of urban population is concentrated in 14 towns, whereas the remaining 10% of rural
residents live in 20 urban-type settlements. The population residing in two major cities – Arkhangelsk and
Severodvinsk – accounts for 58% of the total urban population.
Approximately one third of rural population lives in the localities with less than 500 residents.
18
2010 National Census (NC). URL: http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm
[10.07.14].
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Table 4. Number of urban and rural residents 19
Total population
Urban population
Rural population
Arkhangelsk Region
exclusive of NAA
1 148 760
881 401
267 359
NAA (Nenets
Autonomous Area)
43 025
30 478
12 547
Arkhangelsk Region
inclusive of NAA
1 191 785
911 879
279 906
Immigrants (individuals destitute of RF nationality): total number, sex-age structure, ethnic
affiliation/nationality
Over the recent decade, Arkhangelsk Region ranks the second last among the north-west Russian
regions sustaining the influx of immigrants.
Since June 2014, as experts claim, Arkhangelsk region has been experiencing an influx of refugees from
south-eastern Ukraine. As of 25 June 2014, Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service has
received 35 requests for temporary refuge.
According to DFMS 2013 records, foreign nationals residing in Arkhangelsk Region total 7266, or only
0.6% of the total number of the population registered to be residing in Arkhangelsk Region. Sojourn and
residence permits have been issued to 1974 applicants20. The majority of immigrants come from visa-free
countries.
Total number, sex-age structure and ethnic affiliation/nationality of immigrants: According to 2010
National Census (see Table 1.5), out of the 5114 foreign nationals surveyed at the time of their sojourn in
Arkhangelsk Region 2007 come from CIS countries (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belorussia, Kazakstan, Kirghizia,
Moldavia, Tadjikistan, Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine), 100 from Europe (Bulgaria, Germany, Lithuania,
Latvia, Estonia), 403 from Asia (Israel, India, China, Syria, Turkey), 9 from Latin America and 70 from African
countries. 406 residents of Arkhangelsk Region have been registered as destitute of nationality21.
Among CIS countries’ nationals comprising the most numerous groups are those of Azerbaijan (591),
Ukraine (488), Uzbekistan (270), Tadjikistan (228), Belorussia (158), Armenia (126). Another large group is
made up by nationals of India (368)22.
Only a half of the respondents indicated their age. 85% of them are able-bodied. People aged 20-29
comprise the most numerous group of immigrants.
19
Federal State Statistics Service. URL: - http://arhangelskstat.gks.ru [10.07.14].
2013 Report by Arkhangelsk Office of Russian Federal Migration Service on Its Key Focus Areas and Outcomes, and
2014-1016 Schedule. URL:- http://ufmsarh.ru/materials.php [10.07.14].
21
2010 National Census (NC). URL: http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm
[10.07.14].
22
Ibid.
20
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Table 5. General characteristic of immigrants (destitute of RF nationality) residing in Arkhangelsk Region: total number, sex-age structure, ethnic
affiliation/nationality (2010 NC outcomes)
aged
Total
Arkhangelsk Region
inclusive of NAA
Respondents that
specified their
citizenship
including:
RF citizens
holders of double
citizenshipа
Foreign nationals
that specified their
citizenship:
CIS countries
Azerbaijan
Armenia
Belorussia
Kazakhstan
Kirghizia
Moldavia
Tadjikistan
Turkmenia
Uzbekistan
Ukraine
European countries
Bulgaria
Germany
Respondents
that did not
specify their
age
Total number of residents
under
of active
over active
active
working
working
working
age
age
age
0–4
5–9
10 – 14
15 – 19
20 – 24
25 – 29
30 – 34
35 – 39
40 – 49
50 – 59
60 – 69
70+
1227626
71411
64360
56697
65342
99577
103560
98745
87439
169038
198718
100964
111774
1
204579
756000
267046
1214322
70866
63733
56168
64658
98434
102265
97429
86274
166994
196664
99896
110940
1
202745
747001
264575
1211324
70739
63622
56070
64426
97942
101817
97054
85973
166546
196467
99821
110846
1
202390
744554
264379
375
5114
26
84
20
77
9
58
15
206
24
452
37
415
30
347
39
278
74
386
38
160
27
57
36
72
-
57
236
248
2208
70
148
2007
591
126
158
28
20
88
228
10
270
488
100
5
1
49
23
2
3
2
1
1
8
1
8
3
-
55
31
4
5
1
4
2
8
1
-
49
30
4
3
1
1
10
2
-
124
38
3
4
3
3
4
26
4
17
22
7
1
-
259
53
14
12
2
4
13
40
1
82
38
14
-
341
84
19
22
2
4
18
57
1
54
80
7
1
-
284
72
17
9
7
3
21
42
1
41
71
6
-
230
83
15
15
5
3
6
22
1
26
54
16
-
346
129
24
32
3
1
17
28
2
42
68
27
-
147
42
16
31
2
4
1
4
47
11
2
1
53
5
8
6
1
33
4
1
-
70
1
16
2
2
49
2
-
-
170
93
11
11
3
2
3
12
5
30
6
-
1695
492
106
121
23
18
81
216
10
264
364
88
4
1
142
6
9
26
2
4
1
94
6
1
-
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Georgia
Latvia
Lithuania
Estonia
other European
countries
Asian countries
Israel
India
China
Syria
Turkey
Countries of
America
Canada
Cuba
USA
other countries of
America
Countries of Africa
other world
countries
Respondents
destitute of
nationality
46
18
17
4
2
1
-
1
-
2
-
2
2
2
-
8
1
3
1
3
1
1
-
5
1
-
9
1
4
-
11
6
4
1
3
1
2
2
2
1
-
2
-
-
3
3
-
41
13
16
4
2
2
1
-
9
403
1
368
9
15
10
32
31
1
20
20
-
7
7
-
59
51
3
5
-
1
135
119
3
10
3
1
50
49
1
-
54
51
2
1
2
31
28
3
5
13
1
10
2
2
2
-
-
-
-
59
58
1
9
344
1
310
9
15
9
-
12
-
-
-
-
4
-
7
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
-
-
12
70
-
1
-
4
12
7
37
17
1
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
12
69
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
406
43
34
40
26
40
33
28
23
62
37
18
22
-
119
239
48
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Number of illegal immigrants: Experts claim that due to the low level of immigration to Arkhangelsk
region, the number of illegal immigrants, if any, would be insignificant.
The 2013 Report by Arkhangelsk DFMS reads that the cases of violation of migration laws total 144. The
court rendered the prosecuted foreign nationals ineligible for further stay in the Russian Federation. 36
foreign nationals were awarded deportation. Blacklisting petition calls numbered 323. According for the
data provided by Arkhangelsk DFMS, criminal proceedings under Section 327 (document forgery) of RF
Criminal Code were initiated against 26 individuals; 2 individuals are being prosecuted for organization of
illegal immigration (Section 322.1 of RF Criminal Code) and illegal crossing of the country’s border.23
Rural population: sex-age structure, ethnic affiliation/nationality
According to 2010 National Census data, out of the total population of Arkhangelsk Region – 120
thousand (inclusive of Nenest Autonomous Ares) – approximately 1 million live in urban areas, accounting
for 75.6%. Rural population accounted in 2010 for 24.4%.
The tendency for women to outnumber men remains stable with both urban and rural populations. The
2010 census registered 121 thousand males and 127.7 thousand females over 16, or 48.6% and 51.4%,
respectively, who permanently reside in the country. This gender disparity is caused by high mortality rate
among males.
As the population of Arkhangelsk Region is marked by ethnic homogeneity, the majority of rural
residents over 16 are Russians – 223 thousand or 90% Ukrainians account for 1.6%, Nenets for 1.7%,
Belorussians for 0.4%, Komi for 0.7%.
23
Arkhangelsk DFMS Sums Up 2013 Performance. URL:http://www.ufmsarh.ru/lenta1.php?class=open&id=071202541428 [10.07.14].
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Table 6. Urban and rural populations: sex-age structure, ethnic affiliation/nationality (2010 NC outcomes)24
Males
Females
Urban and rural population aged 16 and
468410
554636
over
Russians
432008
520743
Ukrainians
8813
7823
Nenets
2500
3265
Belorussians
2757
2978
Komi
1632
2409
Urban population aged 16 and over
347420
426872
Russians
319515
400264
Ukrainians
6480
6037
Nenets
503
1003
Belorussians
2117
2414
Komi
759
1430
Rural population aged 16 and over
120990
127764
Russians
112493
120479
Ukrainians
2333
1786
Nenets
1997
2262
Belorussians
640
564
Komi
873
979
Education level by sex, age, ethnic background, number of residents with
higher/vocational/secondary education degree
The 2010 census revealed rather a high education level among the region’s population. As compared to
2002, the number of residents conferred higher education degrees has increased by 55 thousand (35%) to
reach 175.3 thousand, the number of residents with intermediate vocational education – by 22 thousand
(7%) to reach 350.6 thousand, whereas the number of basic vocational degree holders has dropped from
206 to 103 thousand. The number of residents with post-graduate diplomas amounts to 5.8 thousand (as
compared to 1.6 in 2002), with incomplete higher education diplomas to 32.8 thousand. The number of
residents with senior secondary education is only 154.7 thousand.
The census also covered academic degrees. While women have majority in PhD degrees (971 against
839), men lead in doctorates (177 against 102).
Higher education degrees are held by 165.5 thousand of Russians (17%), 3.4 thousand of Ukrainians
(20%), 328 Nenets (5%), 1 thousand of Belorussians (18.7%) and 517 Komi (12.6%). 330.6 thousand of
Russians (34%), 5.8 thousand of Ukrainians (36%), 1.3 thousand of Nenets (22%), 2 thousand of
Belorussians (35%) and 1.5 thousand of Komi (36%) are receivers of senior secondary education only (as
shown in Table 7).
2010 National Census (NC). URL: http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm
[10.07.14].
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Table 7. Education level among urban and rural populations by ethnic background 25
Size of
ethnic
group
Urban and rural
population aged 15
and over
Russians
Ukrainians
Nenets
Belorussians
Komi
Urban population
aged 15 and over
Russians
Ukrainians
Nenets
Belorussians
Komi
Rural population aged
15 and over
Russians
Ukrainians
Nenets
Belorussians
Komi
25
Respondents
that specified
their
education
level
Postgraduate
degree
Professional education degree holders
Incomplete
Higher
Interhigher
education
mediate
education
degree
level
degree
Receivers of general education
Element
ary level
Secondary
(complete)
level
Basic level
Elementary
level
Residents
without
elementary
general
education
Illiterate
1035157
1023628
5796
175282
32837
350634
102988
154700
143026
54596
3769
2310
964306
16670
5913
5741
4080
964306
16670
5913
5741
4080
5448
109
23
42
19
165571
3407
328
1078
517
31189
304
82
88
64
330687
5870
1303
1991
1484
98379
1142
345
414
305
144570
2639
927
839
509
134593
2002
2047
723
808
50451
1142
736
541
349
3418
55
122
25
25
2155
18
50
10
12
783186
772178
5338
155758
29352
278287
71351
113466
86127
30491
2008
1282
728290
12543
1542
4537
2204
728290
12543
1542
4537
2204
5026
100
12
36
16
147105
3041
207
949
429
27875
262
56
71
52
262185
4684
517
1631
942
67970
765
108
306
123
106191
1815
245
653
232
81755
1201
301
509
285
28321
642
86
366
120
1862
33
10
16
5
1217
13
3
6
3
251971
251450
458
19524
3485
72347
31637
41234
56899
24105
1761
1028
236016
4127
4371
1204
1876
236016
4127
4371
1204
1876
422
9
11
6
3
18466
366
121
129
88
3314
42
26
17
12
68502
1186
786
360
542
30409
377
237
108
182
38379
824
682
186
277
52838
801
1746
214
523
22130
500
650
175
229
1556
22
112
9
20
938
5
47
4
9
2010 National Census (NC). URL: - http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm [10.07.14].
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Populations of main cities
Sex-age structure, ethnic affiliation/nationality: Most populous cities are the ones of region-level
subordinance – Arkhangelsk, Severodvinsk, Naryan-Mar and Kotlas. Their population accounts for 50% of
the total number of the region’s residents. The second most populous locations are Koryazhma and
Novodvinsk. Age- and sex-wise, the main cities repeat the trend occurring all over the region: women
outnumber men. The majority of the populations are able-bodied, aged 25-39. The largest among the
majority groups are also males aged 20-24 who migrate to the region’s bigger towns for education.
Residents of preretirement and retirement age (50-59) comprise the second largest group.
There is no information available on the ethnic background/nationality of the populations in Arkhangesk
Region’s bigger towns. Experts estimate that the majority of immigrants reside in Arkhangelsk, Kotlas and
Novodvinsk.
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Table 8. Sex-age structure of populations in municipal entities of Arkhangelsk Region and Nenets Autonomous Area, as of 1 January 2013
City/town
aged
Residents
0-4
5-9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74
75-79
80-84
85+
Males and females
Arkhangelsk
358005
20371
18219
15350
19047
30926
33338
30775
28208
23485
22346
24780
24870
22024
12167
13357
8947
5993
3802
Koryazhma
38570
2426
2150
2049
1693
2139
2942
3376
3508
2757
2539
2609
2528
2484
1387
1976
1131
590
286
Kotlas
73285
5034
3995
3294
3841
4022
6129
6530
6124
4497
4340
5839
6107
4808
1886
2345
1827
1647
1020
Novodvinsk
39937
2435
2269
2256
1883
2552
3131
3369
3510
2776
2516
2722
3002
2761
1321
1657
943
550
284
Severodvinsk
189719
10999
9773
8109
8785
12177
17778
16061
14381
12012
13143
15774
15586
12324
6146
7410
4738
2964
1559
Naryan-Mar
22912
1795
1621
1499
1394
1549
2282
2249
1848
1456
1392
1723
1484
1057
415
473
344
214
117
City/town
Residents
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74
75-79
80-84
85+
8459
4268
4268
2432
1394
664
aged
0-4
5-9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
Males
Arkhangelsk
160488
10470
9366
7787
Koryazhma
17546
1204
1102
Kotlas
33659
2632
2084
Novodvinsk
17911
1273
Severodvinsk
88193
Naryan-Mar
10822
9387
14075
16242
15132
13558
11333
10673
10877
10103
1031
836
1106
1570
1701
1779
1358
1261
1141
1024
919
455
592
308
124
35
1686
1887
2042
3055
3326
3136
2230
2038
2604
2544
1965
717
717
460
364
172
1176
1154
902
1263
1569
1615
1719
1313
1214
1185
1132
993
459
533
247
107
57
5663
5109
4203
4887
6297
9373
8259
7087
5768
6171
7002
6547
4788
2306
2357
1362
738
276
915
790
797
726
771
1148
1105
894
726
648
791
622
457
156
141
81
41
13
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City/town
aged
Residents
0-4
5-9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74
75-79
80-84
85 +
Females
Arkhangelsk
197517
9901
8853
7563
9660
16851
17096
15643
14650
12152
11673
13903
14767
13565
7899
9089
6515
4599
3138
Koryazhma
21024
1222
1048
1018
857
1033
1372
1675
1729
1399
1278
1468
1504
1565
932
1384
823
466
251
Kotlas
39626
2402
1911
1608
1954
1980
3074
3204
2988
2267
2302
3235
3563
2843
1169
1628
1367
1283
848
Novodvinsk
22026
1162
1093
1102
981
1289
1562
1754
1791
1463
1302
1537
1870
1768
862
1124
696
443
227
Severodvinsk
101526
5336
4664
3906
3898
5880
8405
7802
7294
6244
6972
8772
9039
7536
3840
5053
3376
2226
1283
Naryan-Mar
12090
880
831
702
668
778
1134
1144
954
730
744
932
862
600
259
332
263
173
104
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4. Economic and social situation26
Main resources and economic activity types27: Arkhangelsk Region is rich in water, forest and mineral
resources, and boasts large diamond, oil and gas deposits (see Section 1 “Geography”). The breakdown of
Arkhangelsk Region’s industries is as follows:
– forestry – 25% (key industry with major enterprises located in Arkhangelsk, Kotlas and Novodvinsk);
– fuel and energy – 24%;
– machine building – 20% (forestry machinery, ship building and repair; major enterprises located in
Arkhangelsk, Kotlas and Severodvinsk);
– food and light industry – 20% (seafood and bioresources production and processing);
– chemical industry – 7 %;
– wood chemical industry – 2%.
Gross regional product per capita: According to Federal State Statistics Service for Arkhangelsk Region,
the 2012 GRP was RUR 387 959 per capita.28
Number of employees involved in agriculture, industry and service sectors
Expert estimation of nationalities prevailing in each), sex-age structure, key economic sectors: The
region’s economy (NAA inclusive) employs over 550 thousand people, the majority of which are engaged in
processing industries — 109.5 thousand (18.1%); wholesale and retail trade, vehicle and household goods
maintenance and repair, etc. – 87.7 thousand (14.5%); transport and communication — 65.7 thousand
(10.9%); education — 62.3 thousand (10.3%). There are experts29 who believe that trade industry
(especially food retail and wholesale) is dominated by such ethnic groups as Azerbaijani, Armenians and
other natives of the Caucasus and Central Asia30, whereas others point at dominant role of federal-level
distribution networks with headquarters based in metropolises like Moscow or Saint-Petersburg, rather
than at nationalities as such. The construction industry displays a tendency to source low skilled manpower
from Central Asia, mainly Tadjikistan and Uzbekistan, as is the case with bigger Russian cities.
Agriculture and forestry employ 45 thousand residents (7.5%), service sector – more than 100 thousand,
of whom 35.7 thousand (5.9% of the total population engaged in economic sectors) engage in real estate
transactions and leasing, 50.7 thousand (8.4%) in health care and social security, 19.2 thousand (3.2%) in
utility, personal and other social services, 9 thousand (1.5%) in hospitality and restaurant business.31
26
This section provides limited information on socio-economic situation of immigrants due to the lack or absence of
official statistics.
27
Official webpage of the Government of the Arkhangelsk region – URL: http://dvinaland.ru/ [10.07.2014]
28
Gross Regional Product: volume and dynamics.- URL:
http://arhangelskstat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/arhangelskstat/ru/statistics/grp/ [10.07.14]
29
The list of experts was determined in accordance with the recommendations of the Kazan Federal University
(leading research organization in Russia). Experts were selected among representatives of the authorities, the media,
teachers, leaders of public opinion.
30
A. Syemin, Professor of the Northern Arctic Federal University; N. Fokina, Director of Bobrov School, Arkhangelsk
region.
31
Federal State Statistics Service for Arkhangelsk Region. URL:http://arhangelskstat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/arhangelskstat/ru/statistics/employment/
22
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Number of urban and rural residents involved in agriculture, industry and service sector
According to the data provided by Federal State Statistics Service for the 1st quarter of 2014,
Arkhangelsk Region’s economically active population totals 609.4 thousand people (66.4%). 556 thousand
of them are engaged in economic sector (the region’s general employment rate being 60.6%). The working
population is comprised by 315 thousand (52%) males and 294 thousand (48%) females; 490 thousand
(80%) urban and 118 thousand (20%) rural residents.
Unemployment level
The region’s unemployed population numbers 53.4 thousand people (the general unemployment rate
being 8.8%). The unemployment rate is 47% (25 thousand) for women and 53% (28.3 thousand) for men.
Rural unemployment surpasses the rate in urban areas – 13.1% against 7.7%. According to National Census
data, the average age of male job-seekers is 37 and female ones – 34.5. Among young people aged 15-29
19 thousand (41%) were unemployed in 2010.
Experts claim that the makeup of the labour force (employment/unemployment rates) is not influenced
by prevalence of certain nationalities or ethnic groups. The employment challenges are universal in nature.
See section above for prevalence of nationalities and ethnic groups in economic sector.
Average wages in main urban and rural localities
In 2013, the average wages in Arkhangelsk Region was RUR 30 198 32 (exclusive of NAA, the average
wages in NAA being RUR 55 000).
The average wages being offered by bigger towns are as follows:
– Arkhangelsk – RUR 29 000 (expert estimation);
– Severodvinsk – RUR 35 366 (RUR 38 116 in processing industries); 33
– Novodvinsk – RUR 28 547; 34
– Kotlas – RUR 31 366 35
Minimum subsistence level enjoyed by able-bodied population, retirees and children
Minimum
subsistence level
(RUR)
Population total
Able-bodied
population
Retirees
Children
Arkhangelsk Region
(NAA exclusive)
10 395
11 147
8703
9992
NAA
15517
16206
12659
16542
Minimum wage in Arkhangesk Region: RUR 5 554
32
Official web-site of Government of Arkhangelsk Region. URL:- http://dvinaland.ru/economy/ [12.07.14]
Severodvinsk Municipal Entity’s Key Social and Economic performance indicators, January-September 2013/ URL: http://www.severodvinsk.info/?idmenu=53 [12.07.14]
34
ME “Town of Novodvinsk” CEO’s Public Report. URL: - http://www.novadmin.ru/official/otchetie%20glavie/
[12.07.14]
35
Key Indicators of Social and Economic Standing of ME “Kotlas”at the end of quarter I, 2014. URL: http://www.kotlas-city.ru/economy/ek_pok_2012.pdf [12.07.14]
33
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Quality of life (purchasing power (EURO per capita) at regional and national levels)
According to State Statistics Service for Arkhangelsk Region, as of the early 2014, the monthly average
per capita cash income in Arkhangelsk Region (inclusive of NAA) amounted to RUR 23 147 (EUR 487),
whereas the monthly average per capita cash expenditure – RUR 22 221 (EUR 468). According to RF Finance
Ministry, the average cash income received in Russia in 2013 was RUR 43 884 and the average cash
expenditure – RUR 43 684.36
On the Quality of Life Rankings List37 of 82 Russian regions, Arkhangelsk Region (exclusive of NAA) ranks
the 64th (NAA occupying the 62nd position), with 37.52 38 points on the score scale. At the top of the rating
are Moscow (74.17 points) and Saint-Petersburg (70.94 points), ranking the 1st and the 2nd, respectively.
The rating was developed by RIA Novosti Group and relies on 61 criteria classified into 10 groups to
characterize key aspects of the regions’ quality of life – individual income level; living conditions; availability
of social infrastructure; environment and climate; safety of living; demography; public health and education
level; transport infrastructure and area’s development level; economic growth; small business
opportunities.
Poverty level
Below the minimum subsistence level are 169.6 thousand people (14.1% of Arkhangelsk Region’s total
population). 3.4 thousand of them are residents of NAA (accounting for 7.9% of NAA’s total population).
Social strata by wages level
There are experts who consider wages level in Arkhangelsk Region to be a stark social class divide. They
identify the middle class that enjoys a relatively high wages and the class whose wages never exceed the
minimum subsistence level. At the same time, there are also experts who believe that nearly all the
population groups are enjoying relatively equal pay and that the residents with income significantly higher
than average choose to move to bigger Russian cities (Saint-Petersburg or Moscow). For instance, L.
Siluanova, PhD in Economics, Head of the Academic mobility and Educational programs Department,
NARFU, expresses the following view: “I would not say that a strong degree of social stratification exists in
the Arkhangelsk Region. It’s so, because, unfortunately, that turns out that those who could constitute a
certain top of the region, people with high income, they prefer to leave the region. Therefore, there is no
such stratification, as both in Moscow and the Moscow region, or in Central Russia”39. E. Dotsenko, Minister
for Youth Affaires and Sports of the Arkhangelsk region, emphasizes the high level of emigration of young
people from the region (especially from rural areas) due to the lack of opportunities for self-realization:
“Young people are leaving the region, they see no opportunities for self-realization, especially in rural
areas"; further: "The most vulnerable are young people in remote rural areas where there are practically no
production and opportunities for self-realization”40.
36
Population Income and Expenditure. Official web-site of RF Finance Ministry. URL: http://info.minfin.ru/income_expense.php [12.07.14]
37
RF Regions 2013 Quality of Life Rankings. URL: - http://vid1.rian.ru/ig/ratings/life_2013.pdf [12.07.14]
38
The lowest being 19.10 scores.
39
From the interview with L. Siluanova, PhD in Economics, Head of the Academic mobility and Educational programs
Department, NARFU
40
From the interview with E. Dotsenko, Minister for Youth Affaires and Sports of the Arkhangelsk region
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Number of civil servants (employees of state-financed organizations) with expert-based estimation of
the nationalities prevailing in each sector
According to Federal State Statistics Service’s data for 2011, the number of civil servants employed by
executive agencies and organizations in Arkhangelsk Region (exclusive of NAA) was only 0.9 per one
thousand residents.41 The region ranks among the three North-West District’s regions with the lowest
number of civil servants per 1000 residents.
Share of different ethnic groups in elite business community (expert estimation)
According to the experts, while members of elite business community of Arkhangelsk Region may be of
different ethnic descent, the majority of them are Russians. This point of view is expressed by the following
experts: E. Dotsenko, Minister for Youth Affaires and Sports of the Arkhangelsk region; Mamikon Gekchyan,
Chairman of the National Relations and Freedom of Conscience Commision, Public Chamber of the
Arkhangelsk region; Veronica Shehonina, a representative of the Ministry of Local Government
Development of the Arkhangelsk region, and other experts.
Effect of immigration on economic growth
According to the experts, immigration does not have any significant effect on the region’s economic
growth as its rate is very low. Where immigration does have an effect, it tends to be positive and
contributes to sectors of economy such as trade (due to Azerbaijani and Armenian influxes) and
construction (due to influx of cheap labour force from Central Asia, mainly Tadjikistan and Uzbekistnan).
Health services for migrants
Provided that a migrant is duly issued a sojourn or residence permit and an insurance policy, the statefunded health services will be provided to him or her on equal terms with RF citizens.
5. State and political structure
Political status of the region
“Arkhangelsk Region shall comprise the Russian Federation as an equal member thereof. In its
relationship with international and foreign economic organization, the Russian Federation and
entities/municipalities thereof, Arkhangelsk Region will be duly represented by its government bodies. The
status of Arkhangelsk Region can be changed by mutual agreement between the Russian Federation and
Arkhangelsk Region according to the procedure stipulated by federal constitutional law. The decision to
change the status of Arkhangelsk Region will be adopted by referendum. Arkhangelsk Region may have a
flag, official emblem and anthem. The regulations on the official use of symbols of Arkhangelsk Region shall
established by regional law.”42
41
Official web-site of the Government of Arkhangelsk Region. URL: http://www.dvinaland.ru/prcenter/release/18413/ [12.07.14]
42
Charter of Arkhangelsk Region. URL: - http://dvinaland.ru/region/order/ [11.07.14].
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Political and economic relations with Moscow (extent of autonomy, legal aspects)
“Arkhangelsk Region will enjoy full autonomy when establishing its government authority system and in
doing so be governed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the general principles of establishing
legislative (representative) and executive agencies as provided for is federal acts.
Land and subsoil resources, water bodies, forests, flora and fauna, and other natural resources available
in Arkhangelsk Region will be exploited and protected as the foundation of the life of population. The issues
of the use of land, subsoil resources, water bodies, forests, and other natural resources available in
Arkhangelsk Region will be regulated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal acts and other
legal instruments of the Russian Federation, as well as regional laws and legal acts of Arkhangelsk Region,
and may not be used to the detriment of interests of the population of Arkhangelsk Region.”43
Regional and local elite makeup: According to the experts, while the regional and local political and
business elite is made up of members with diverse ethnic background, the majority of them are Russians.
Ethnic minorities account for a very small portion of the business community and primarily engage in trade
and restaurant business (Azerbaijani, Armenians and Georgians).
Structure of administrative and political authorities
The state power is exercised in Arkhangelsk Region by:
- Legislative bodies: Arkhangelsk Regional Assembly of Deputies (ARAD).
Chaired by V.F. Novozhilov (of United Russia party)
Committees (14) have been established for:
- Economic policy and entrepreneurship
- Budget and tax policy
- Agricultural policy, fishing industry and trade
- Housing policy and public utilities
- Legislation, judicial and legal issues
- Land relations and construction activity
- Youth policy and sport
- Natural resources management and forestry complex
- Industrial policy, transport, communication and environment
- Regional policy and local-self government
- Ethics and regulations
- Culture and tourism
- Education and research
- Health care and social policy
- etc.
- Executive bodies: Arkhangelsk Region’s supreme government body of executive power is the
Government of Arkhangelsk Region headed by Governor I.A. Orlov. Other executive authorities of
Arkhangelsk Region include 13 ministries (Ministry of Finance, Ministry for Economic Development
and Competition Policy, Ministry of Property Relations, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry
of Public Health, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sport, Ministry of Fuel and Energy Complex and Public
43
Ibid.
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Utilities, Ministry of Industry and Construction, Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry Complex,
Ministry of Agroindustrial Complex and Trade, Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social
Development, Ministry of Culture), 12 agencies (Tariffs and Prices Agency, Transport Agency, Agency
for Fisheries, etc.) and 5 inspectorates (Audits and Examinations, State Housing Inspectorate, etc.).
Judicial authorities: the judicial power is exercised in Arkhangelsk Region by courts and justices of
peace of Arkhangelsk Region, which comprise the unified judicial system of the Russian Federation.
The justice of peace appointment and working procedures are enshrined in the Constitution of the
Russian Federation, federal constitutional acts, federal and regional laws. Judicial districts and
justice of peace positions are established and discontinued by virtue of regional laws.44
Constitution and legislation
Pursuant to the Charter of Arkhangelsk Region, the federal or constitutional acts and federal laws on the
matters of competence of the RF as provided in the RF Constitution, shall have direct effect in the territory
of Arkhangelsk Region. Matters of joint competence of the RF and Arkhangelsk Region, as provided in the
RF Constitution, will be regulated by regional laws and legal instruments to be adopted by Arkhangelsk
Region in accordance with federal laws. Where a federal law regulating a matter of joint competence of the
RF and Arkhangelsk Region is not available, Arkhangelsk Region is entitled to provide for legal regulation of
such matter independently for as long as necessary until the corresponding federal law is adopted. Upon
adoption of the corresponding federal law, the regional laws and legal acts of Arkhangelsk Region shall be
adjusted in accordance with the federal law within three months. All matters outside the competence of
the RF, or joint competence of the RF and entities thereof, will be regulated by Arkhangelsk Region
independently and at its absolute discretion within the framework of adopted regional laws and legal acts.
All governmental authorities, local self-government bodies, public servants and citizens operating or
sojourning in Arkhangelsk Region, shall abide by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, legislation of
the Russian Federation, Charter of Arkhangelsk Region and legislation of Arkhangelsk Region45. The
legislative documents of Arkhangelsk Region include Arkhangelsk Region government regulations;
Arkhangelsk Region Governor’s decrees and resolutions; executive orders of Arkhangelsk Region
Governor’s Office and of Government of Arkhangelsk Region; Charter of Arkhangelsk Region.
Policies and state programmes for immigration and nationalities’ affairs (regional level)
- 2010: Arkhangelsk Region Government Regulation On Inter-Ethnic Relations and Ethno-Cultural
Development of the Peoples of Russia and other Ethnic Groups Residing in Arkhangelsk Region;
- Arkhangelsk Region’s Law Concerning the Support of National and Cultural Autonomies in
Arkhangelsk Region46;
- 2014: Regional Strategy for Implementation of the RF Nationalities Policy 2025.47
These documents set the following priorities in the field of international relations and ethno-cultural
development in the Arkhangelsk region:
44
Ibid.
Charter of Arkhangelsk Region. URL: - http://dvinaland.ru/region/order/ [12.07.14]
46
URL: - http://docs.cntd.ru/document/962030325 [12.07.14]
47
URL: - http://base.consultant.ru/regbase/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=RLAW013;n=62995;frame=26 [12.07.14]
45
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1. implementation of the State policy in the sphere of international relations in the Arkhangelsk
region aimed at the creation of an enabling environment for the development and strengthening of
multicultural tolerence in the Arkhangelsk region, especially development of tolerance among the younger
generation;
2. development and implementation of measures aimed at stregnthening the cooperation of the
executive bodies of the Arkhangelsk region and civil society institutions to achieve international consent,
realization of the principle of equality of citizens of different nationalities and religions, strengthening
mutual understanding between them;
3. ensuring the implementation of the State national policy Concept in the Arkhangelsk Region;
4. providing constructive cooperation of the executive bodies of the Arkhangelsk region with nationalcultural associations in promotion of inter-ethnic peace in the north of the Russian Federation;
5. implementation of measures aimed at development of the information space, taking into account
the national structure of the Arkhangelsk region population, the use of media opportunities to showcase
the achievements of the cultures and traditions of the peoples of Russia and other ethnic communities
living in the Arkhangelsk region.
Provisions of regional legislation concerning status ethnic groups and minorities
The legislation of Arkhangelsk Region contains no provisions concerning status ethnic groups and
minorities. At the same time, Nenets Autonomous Area, which, territorially, is a constituent of Arkhangelsk
Region, adopted in 2001 the Law Concerning the Supplementary Guarantee of the Rights of the Nenets
People To Be Elected to Legislative (Representative) Authority of Nenets Autonomous Area”. By virtue of
this law, the Nenets population is allocated two (out of 15) seats in NAA’s parliamentary (representative)
authority.48
In 2012, NAA drafted the Law Concerning the Native Languages of Indigenous Peoples of the North
Residing in Nenets Autonomous Area. The draft recognizes Nenets as the official language in the areas
populated by the Nenets and as a language to be used on a par with the official language of the RF
(Russian). The draft is currently under consideration.
Political line and religion
The majority of employees of government authorities, including the Regional Assembly and City Council
deputies, are members of United Russia party.
The overwhelming majority of the region’s population are reported as orthodox Christians (over 75%).
There are residents who follow other traditional confessions (Islam, Judaism, Buddhism). One of the
experts claimed that about 10% to 12% of the population practice Protestantism.
There are no specific policies or measures being developed by the Government of the Arkhangelsk
region in the field of religion relationships because according to the Constitution the Russian Federation is a
secular state, and the issues of religion are regarding within the issues of culture and inter-ethnic
relationships.
Effect of immigration on social and economic progress: Experts claim that immigration presently does
not have any major effect on the region’s social and economic growth.
48
NAA Administration’s official web-siteО. URL: - http://adm-nao.ru/docs/ [12.07.14]
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Dedicated regional authorities responsible for the promotion of cross-cultural and multi-ethnic relations
in society:
- Ministry for Regional Policy and Local Self-Government of Arkhangelsk Region;
- Regional Social Organization “Nationalities Council of Arkhagnelsk and Arkhangelsk Region”;
- Pomor Inter-Ethnic Social Centre.
Main political parties and their position on multi-ethnic society and immigration-related challenges
The main political parties operating in the region are United Russia, Liberal Democrats, Communist
Party, A Just Russia, Rodina. Experts claim that even though the issues of the inter-ethnic interaction and
migration are not something high on the parties’ agendas, as the immigration rate is rather low and the
ethnic minorities account for only a small portion in the region’s total population, all the major political
parties appear to be dealing with representatives of national and cultural autonomies.
Position of political and public leaders on multi-ethnic society and immigration-related challenges:
According to the experts, the inter-faith and inter-ethnic relations in the region can be described as stable.
The recent decade has witnessed no religious strives or ethnic conflict. At the same time, there is need to
promote the dialogue with ethnic minorities in order to avoid possible conflicts in case migration flow
should increase.
Ethnic groups’ deputies to regional and local authorities (statistical data): Out of the 62 deputies to the
sixth Arkhangelsk Regional Assembly, 3 are reported as belonging to Georgian, Belorussian and Ukrainian
communities.
Out of the 30 deputies to Arkhangelsk City Council, 1 is reported as belonging Azerbaijanian community.
Ethnic communities’ members in the total number of administrative and management personnel at local
level: There is no official statistics available. According to the experts, while the administrative and
management personnel is dominated by Russians (due to the small size of ethnic minorities), the
representatives of other ethnic groups occupy administrative and management positions as well. Here are
some examples: the deputy to Arkhangelsk Regional Assembly belongs to Georgian community, the officials
of Arkhangelsk City Council to Azerbaijanian and Belorussian ones, while the employee of Public Chamber is
Armenian.
Initiatives and effective practices developed by local and regional governments to maintain the dialogue
and peaceful relations with ethnic and religious groups: According to the experts, the government and local
self-government authorities have recently arrived at a system of inter-faith and inter-ethnic relations that
can be described as stable:
- there has been adopted a set of necessary regulations (Arkhangelsk Region’s Law Concerning the
Support of National and Cultural Autonomies; Regional Strategy for Implementation of the RF
National Policy 2025; the recently developed Federal National Policy Action Plan, 27.12.2013);
- there has been established the Pomor Inter-Ethnic Social Centre;
- the region annually hosts the “Northern Inter-ethnic Forum” (since 2009);
- Big Circle campaign in progress (since 2009);
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-
-
there has been established the Regional Civil Society Organization “Nationalities Council of
Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region” (2006), with which the Government of Arkhangelsk Region
entered into a cooperation agreement;
the representatives of national and cultural autonomies are members of several collegial bodies
under Arkhangelsk Region’s ministries;
the Government of Arkhangelsk Region supports the events being hosted by ethnic communities
(Sabantui, Navruz festivals, etc.) by providing funding, materials, technical and organizational
resources49.
6. Language situation
The official language of the Russian Federation and of inter-ethnic communication in Arkhangelsk
Region is Russian.
Bilinguism (existing and potential) in public administration, schools, entrepreneurial business, media
Manifistations of bilinguism mostly occur in Nenets Autonomous Area (legally, a constituent of
Arkhangelsk Region with own system of governmental authorities), where the Law Concerning the Nenets
Language in Nenets Autonomous Area recognizes, in Section 1, the Nenets language as “an indispensible
part of everyday life, culture, traditional lifestyle of the Nenets living in Nenets Autonomous Area, and the
language spoken in daily situations and important fields of social relations”50, the latter including education
and upbringing, media, NAA legislative framework (translation into Nenets) and office
administration/record keeping in the Nenets localities.
Legislative framework and measures to protect/promote bilinguism
By resolution 21-сд dd. 6 March 2013, the Nenets Assembly of Deputies adopted the Law Concerning
the Nenets Language in Nenets Autonomous Area, which relies on the Constitution of the Russian
Federation, Federal Law 1807-1 of 25 October 1991 Concerning the Languages of the Peoples of the
Russian Federation, and the Charter of Nenets Autonomous Area.
Social, economic and legal protection of the Nenets language in Nenets Autonomous Area is the
responsibility of NAA governmental authorities.
Regional and languages of ethnic minorities: how many people speak them? Which age groups speak
regional languages?
According to 2010 National Census, out of the respondents that specified their nationality 19 553
claimed that their native language is other than Russian, and 246 respondents claimed they did not speak
Russian:51
49
Please, find more information on these activities in the paragraph XII. ASSOCIATIONS AND OTHER AGENCIES
INVOLVED IN PROMOTING DIALOGUE BETWEEN DIFFERENT ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS
50
Law Concerning the Nenets Language in Nenets Autonomous Area.
URL:http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=124028825 [09.05.14]
51
Proceedings of 2010 National Census. Vol. IV.URL:
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- the census registered 2605 Azerbaijani, of whom 17 did not speak Russian;
- Armenians numbered 1042, of whom 2 did not speak Russian;
- other nationalities that did not speak Russian included 5 Belorussians, 2 Georgians, 1 Ingush, 5 Komi, 4
Lezgins, 2 Mari, 1 Moldavians, 1 Mordovian, 1 German, 74 Nenets, 2 Tabasaraneans, 2 Tatar, 2
Uzbeks, 20 Ukrainians, 3 Chechen.
The effort to maintain the languages being spoken by ethnic minorities is undertaken by civil society
organizations and national and cultural autonomies: RSO “German National and Cultural Autonomy in
Arkhangelsk “Nordlicht – Polar Lights” (German language), Estonian Cultural and Outreach Society “Viru”
(Estonian Language), RSO “Polish Cultural and Outreach Society “Polonia” (Polish language), RSO “Georgian
Association of Fellow-Countrymen “Sakartvolo” (Georgian culture and language), RSO “Azerbaijanian
Association of Fellow-Countrymen “Shirvan” (Azerbaijanian culture and language), RSO “Belorussian
Association of Fellow-Countrymen” (Belorussian culture and language).
Yu.V. Mazur, who chairs RCSO “Ukrainian National and Cultural Autonomy” (one of the largest
communities in Arkhangelsk Region) notes that Ukrainians tend to lose their national identity very quickly,
sometimes even in the first generation. When asked about the conditions conducive to better preservation
of the Ukrainian language, Mr. Mazur said he wished they had radio channels and TV programmes
broadcasting in vernacular languages.52
Regional and languages of ethnic minorities used in the media (newspapers, television, radio,
Internet)
Since the official language of the Russian Federation and of inter-ethnic communication in Arkhangelsk
Region is Russian, the media products being released in Arkhangelsk Region are Russian-language.
The language of the inter-ethnic United World, a newspaper that came out for three years using the
resources of the Nationalities Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region, was Russian. D.A. Nesanelis
notes that “the pages featured articles about Azerbaijanian history, pictures of Jewish festivities and
coverage of Muslim communities’ events. The United World’s editors, journalists and string correspondents
did have disputes, even bitter disputes, but they always remained well-intentioned towards each other and
the heroes of their articles.”53
The situation in Nenets Autonomous Area constitutes a special case. Section 6 of Law Concerning the
Nenets Language in Nenets Autonomous Area creates “conditions for the Nenets language to be used as
the language of the media and the language of the means to promote and protect social relations,
creativity, traditional culture, indigenous environment, husbandry and trades being practiced by the Nenets
people”. The Nenets-language materials being published in the media are followed by translation into the
official language of the Russian Federation.
http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol4/pub-04-04.pdf (nationalities)
http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol4/pub-04-09.pdf (languages including
Russian)
http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol4/pub-04-07.pdf (level competence in
languages) [09.05.14]
52
RCSO “Ukrainian National and Cultural Autonomy”//Nationalities Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region.
Anniversary Issue. Arkhangelsk, 2011.
53 Слово основателям совета// Совет национальностей города Архангельска и Архангельской области.
Юбилейный выпуск. Архангельск, 2011.С.17.
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The Nenets-language periodicals include:
- Naryana Vynder (Red Tundra Man), NAA’a socio-political newspaper being published since 7
November 1929. Founders: NAA Assembly of Deputies, Naryan-Nar Town Council and editorial
board. Circulation: 3150 to 4235 copies.
- Naerm Yun (Beyond-the-Polar-Circle News), NAA’a socio-political newspaper being published since 29
June 2000. Founder: NAA administration. Weekly circulation: 6400 copies.
- Edey Vada (New Word). Published since 13 August 2002. Founder: KARAT News Agency LLC.
Circulation: 2000 copies (Tue, Thu, Sat).
Regional and languages of ethnic minorities used in public meetings
Since the official language of the Russian Federation and of the inter-ethnic communication in
Arkhangelsk Region is Russian, the public meetings, supposedly except for private discussions, are carried
out in Russian.
Regional and languages of ethnic minorities used in education
The education system of Arkhangelsk Region uses the Russian language.
Nenets Autonomous Area constitutes a special case, as Section 4 of Law Concerning the Nenets
Language in Nenets Autonomous Area requires NAA’s governmental authorities to support and assist
citizens in delivering the education process in the Nenets language regardless of the number of children
and in accordance with their needs.
Effort has been undertaken by NAA to introduce the ‘national’ component into the curricula of various
types and levels. The native (Nenets) language is taught in 7 pre-school child care institutions and 13
general secondary schools. The Komi language is taught in one school and two pre-school institutions.
Notably, the Nenets and the Komi languages are being studied in schools and pre-school institutions by all
children regardless of nationality. All 8- and 9-graders in the area take “Our Heritage” as a compulsory
subject.54
Requirements of competence in regional and languages of ethnic minorities being set by public and
commercial sectors
No information is available on the situation in Arkhangelsk Region. Nenets Autonomous Area is
translating its legislation into Nenets, while office administration and record management are maintained
in the Nenets localities in Nenets.
Availability of Russian Language centres for migrants
The availability to migrants of the Russian language courses (elementary and improvement) is
supervised by several authorities including the Arkhangelsk Office of Federal Migration Service.
The establishment entrusted with the Russian language knowledge testing is Northern Arctic Federal
University. The testing procedure follows the requirements provided for by Federal Law 185-ФЗ dd. 12
November 2012 On Amendments To Section 13.1. of the Federal Law Concerning the Legal Status of
Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation, and by Section 27.2 of the RF Education Act. The state
54
Action Strategy to Ensure the Best Interests of Children in Nenets Autonomous Area 2012-2017.
URL:http://shkola1.1mcg.ru/data/files/reg_strat.pdf [09.05.14]
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certification examination consists of five tasks testing the core language competencies in listening, reading,
lexis and grammar, writing and speaking. Where a foreign citizen’s language skills level is insufficient to
successfully pass the test, improvement courses are available at Polyglot Linguistic Centre (Institute of
Philology and Cross-Cultural Communication, M.V. Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University). The
Russian FMS Office for Arkhangelsk Region assists the centres in student enrolment services by offering the
courses information on its official web-site and circulating it among the ethnic associations’ chairs.
In 2012-2013, another Russian language learning opportunity was negotiatied between the FMS Office’s
public advisory board and the Arkhangelsk Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. The Diocese is ready to
offer its Sunday school as language learning venue and to assist in arranging the bridging courses and hiring
of relevant experts. 55
Summing up the linguistic situation in Arkhangelsk region, we’d like to outline the dominant position of
Russian language as the official language of the Russian Federation and inter-ethnic communication.
Bilinguism occur in Nenets Autonomous Area with the legally fixing usage of the Nenets Language in the
fields of social relations including education and upbringing, media, NAA legislative framework (translation
into Nenets) and office administration/record keeping in the Nenets localities.
In order to improving liguistic situation on the territory of the Arkhangelsk region several directions
could be defined:
1. Further development of the Russian language courses for the migrants and increasing Russian
language competency among the migrants, including labour migrants and youngsters, including
diversification of the russian language courses for differnet target groups;
2. The development of the measures to support national languages of diasporas and ethnic groups living
in the Arkhangelsk region, including the activities of diff with the support of the national-cultural autonomy
and regional authorities.
7. Educational system
General information on public and private kindergartens
According to Ministry of Education and Science in Arkhangelsk Region, the institutions (legal entities)
delivering pre-school education programme in Arkhangelsk Region total 409 and include:
– municipal pre-school establishments – 190;
– municipal educational establishments classified as “kindergarten-type elementary school” – 5;
– municipal secondary schools with kindergartens or pre-school classes in their structure – 210;
– pre-school establishments of other forms of ownership – 4.
As of 1 January 2014, there has been received 28 086 applications for public kindergarten places for
27392 children aged 0-3 and 694 aged 3-7.
55
2013 Report by Arkhangelsk Region Office of Federal Migration Service. URL:
http://www.ufmsarh.ru/materials.php [14.07.14].
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General information on public and private schools
Arkhangelsk Region’s network of establishments delivering general education programmes includes 361
schools, 340 of which are municipal and 21 state-owned, with total number of students of over 115
thousand.
Below are the types of organizations delivering elementary general, basic general (compulsory) and
general secondary education programmes:
– 6 educational establishments for preschool and primary school ages (kindergarten-type elementary
schools) with 693 schoolchildren;
– 334 general education establishments (total number students: 110 098) including 4 schools offering
advanced subject courses, 11 gymnasia, 3 lyceums;
– 2 cadet schools (total number students: 948);
– 16 special education schools for children with special needs (total number students: 3713);
– 1 childcare institution for deviant children and teenagers (total number students: 23);
– 2 extended care facilities for children requiring longer rehabilitation (total number students: 343).
Children residing in remoter areas are delivered education services in 45 boarding schools (total number
of students: 679).
General information on public and private colleges
In Arkhangelsk Region, there are 40 public vocational education organizations (total number of students:
16.5 thousand) that deliver basic vocational education programmes.
Public vocational education organizations (hereinafter, the “vocational education organizations”) report
to the Ministry of Education and Science in Arkhangelsk Region. In 2013, they delivers education services as
part of the training programmes in basic fields of vocational education, namely, the qualified worker and
public sector employees training programmes (8050 students); basic technician vocational education
programmes (6239 students).
General information on public and private universities
The universities/institutes established in Arkhangelsk Region include
– Northern (Arctic) Federal University (one of the 9 RF federal-level schools);
– Northern State Medical University, a multi-profile higher education institution delivering the
education programmes of different level and training medical personnel. The university has over 10
thousand students including international. For more details go to http://www.nsmu.ru/index.php.
Two private higher education establishments:
– Private higher education establishment “Northern Institute of Entrepreneurship”,
http://www.nousip.ru/index.php/institut;
– Private higher education establishment “International Institute of Management”,
http://www.miuarh.ru/about/.
Northern (Arctic) Federal University
M.V.Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University is North-West Russia’s biggest research and
training centre and a member of the Eurasian Association of Universities and Russia’s Leading Universities
Association.
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The mission of NArFU, as of one of the nine federal-level universities, proceeds from the RF Arctic
Strategy and consists in providing the northern areas and the Arctic with innovative solutions and
manpower. NArFU is Russia’s only university that delivers Arctic-focused international level programmes in
such fields as engineering, technical sciences, mathematics, natural sciences and humanities.
With more than 100 partners all over the world, NArFU is international. It delivers its research and
academic activities in 28 buildings, 2 cutting-edge shared use of equipment centres, 18 innovation and
centres of excellence, 25 large laboratories and scientific library. More details are available on
www.narfu.ru.
Public and non-public extended education establishments (art/music/sports schools): general
information
The network of extended education organizations operating in Arkhangelsk Region is not a recent
network. In 2013, the extended education organizations numbered 66 (3 state-owned and 63 municipal):
27 centres, 1 palace, 15 houses, 9 music schools, 1 folk arts school and 13 sports schools. Children’s
extended education programmes are also delivered by 3752 children’s associations. In 2013, the extended
education organizations were attended by a total of 70 022 children. 13 723 of them attended two or more
extended education organizations.
The age distribution of students is given below:
– under 5 – 5.8%;
– 5-9 – 44.3%;
– 10-14 – 33.2%;
– 15-17 – 16%;
– over 18 – 0.7%.
Girls account for 54% and boys for 46%.
In 2013, the state-owned and municipal children’s extended education organizations Arkhangelsk
Region had 743 children with special needs and 1142 from socially disadvantaged children.
Sunday schools attended by ethnic minorities: general information
There is a Sunday school conducted by Local Muslim Religious Organization (LMRO), where two groups
of students – aged 3 to 6 and 6 to 12 – are learning the basics of Islam. Teaching methods rely on games
and children’s fairy tales and stories from the Muslim periodical “Lighting Bug and Friends. There’s a small
puppet theatre. Older children study Arabic.56
Religious schools and seminaries
There are currently no religious schools or seminaries operating in Arkhangelsk Region.
Number of students by stage of education
Stage of education
Preschool
Basic
Elementary and secondary vocational
Number of students
64 898
115 800
14 972
56
Arkhangelsk Opens Sunday School To Deliver Basics of Islam To Preschool Children. URL:
http://dumrf.ru/common/regnews/7424 [15.06.14]
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Availability to ethnic groups of education services in all stages of the education system
According to section 5 of the RF Education Act 273-ФЗ dd. 29 December 2012, “the right to education in
the RF is ensured to all residents regardless of sex, race, nationality, language, origin, material, social or
official position, place of residence, religious affiliation, beliefs, social conscience, membership with social
organizations, etc.”57 Thus, the ethnic groups in Arkhangelsk Region, a constituent entity of the Russian
Federation, are entitled to equal access to all stages of education.
Number of children in or attending institutions for orphans
There is total of 48 state-financed educational establishments for orphans, children without parental
care and children with special needs in Arkhangelsk Region. In 2013, they delivered services to 3163
children.
Dedicated (Russian-language) education centres for migrants
There is currently no dedicated education centre for migrants in Arkhangelsk Region. The infrastructure
necessary to facilitate social integration and adaptation for migrants – centre for migrant social and cultural
adaptation; adaptation courses for foreign citizens and stateless individuals – was an issue discussed by
many venues in Akhangelsk Region.
Russian language courses and testing of knowledge of Russian are offered to migrants by Polyglot
linguistic centre Institute of Philology and Cross-Cultural Communication, M.V. Lomonosov Northern
(Arctic) Federal University).58
Public ethnic schools (legal status, founders, students, training programmes, attendance and
academic performance)
While in Arkhangelsk Region there are no ethnic schools, Nenets Autonomous Area (which is,
territorially, a constituent of Arkhangelsk Region and enjoys the status of an independent federal entity)
operates several. It is stated in Section 4 of the Law Concerning the Nenets Language in Nenets
Autonomous Area, adopted by Resolution 21-сд dd. 6 March 2013 of Nenets Assembly of Deputies, that
“NAA governmental authorities will support and assist citizens in delivering the education process in the
Nenets language regardless of the number of children and in accordance with their needs.”59
Official language of instruction in schools and universities
It is stated in Section 14 of the RF Education Act 273-ФЗ dd. 29 December 2012, that “(para.1) the RF
guarantees the provision of education in the official language of the Russian Federation. Instruction can be
delivered in other languages, if selected, where the limit of the local possibilities of education system
permits <…>. (para.5) Education can be received in foreign language if so is prescribed by the education
programme and the local educational establishment’s regulatory documents.”
The secondary education system of Arkhangelsk Region uses the official language of the RF, i.e. Russian.
57
RF Education Act 273-ФЗ
2013 Report by Arkhangelsk Region Office of Federal Migration Service Region. URL:
http://www.ufmsarh.ru/materials.php [14.07.14].
59
Law Concerning the Nenets Language in Nenets Autonomous Area.
URL:http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=124028825 [09.05.14]
58
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Higher educational establishments, as may be provided in their local regulatory documents, deliver
some of their training programmes in foreign languages. Northern (Arctic) Federal University, for instance,
delivers English- and French-taught programmes. 8 of them are international bachelor’s and master’s
degree programmes being delivered jointly with the BEAR institutions (Findland, Norway) also as part of
Barents Cross-Border University (Table 9). Underway are several new English-taught programmes –
“Strategy and Growth in the High North”, “Environmental Management in the Arctic”, “Environmental Risk
Management in the Arctic”.
In 2013-2014 academic year, NarFU offers its students 58 English-taught courses in a variety of majors,
as well as semester-long programmes such as “Russian Studies” (30 ECTS, autumn semester), “Diverse
Arctic: Local Challenges – Global Changes” (30 ECTS, spring semester).
Table 9. Education programmes being delivered by NArFU jointly with partners
Programme
Level
NArFU partner
Master’s, 120
Barents Cross Border University Consortium:
Environmental Engineering
ECTS
University of Oulu (Finland), Luleå
University of Technology (Sweden)
Master’s, 120
Barents Cross Border University Consortium:
Comparative Social Work
ECTS
University of Lapland (Finland)
Master’s,
120
Barents Cross Border University Consortium:
Circumpolar Health and Wellbeing
ECTS
University of Oulu (Finland)
Master’s,
120
Barents
Cross Border University Consortium: University
Information Technologies for
ECTS
of Oulu (Finland)
Medicine and Social Sector
International Tourism Management
Country Studies: Russia / Russian
Studies
Bachelor of Circumpolar Studies
(BCS)
Comparative Literature: FrancoRussian literary relations
Bachelor’s,
60 ECTS
Bachelor’s
(semester-long) 30
ECTS
Bachelor’s, 180
ECTS
Kemi-Tornio Universiry of Applied Sciences (Finland),
Harstad University College (Norway)
University of Tromsø (Norway)
Master’s, 120
ECTS
Upper Alsace University (France)
UArctic Consortium: University of Nordland (Norway)
Teaching of regional languages (languages of ethnic minorities), ethnic history and culture within the
education system
The education system of Arkhangelsk Region uses the Russian language.
The situation in Nenets Autonomous Area constitutes a special case, as Section 4 of the Law Concerning
the Nenets Language in Nenets Autonomous Area requires NAA’s governmental authorities to support and
assist citizens in delivering the education process in the Nenets language regardless of the number of
children and in accordance with their needs.
Effort has been undertaken by NAA to introduce the ‘national’ component into the curricula of various
types and levels. The native (Nenets) language is taught in 7 pre-school child care institutions and 13
general secondary schools. The Komi language is taught in one school and two pre-school institutions.
Notably, the Nenets and the Komi languages are being studied in schools and pre-school institutions by all
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children regardless of nationality. All 8- and 9-graders in the area take “Our Heritage” as a compulsory
subject.60
Official languages of entrance and other university examinations: Russian.
Number of university students; share of students with other than Russian ethnic background and
faculties they are enrolled in (if data is available)
Northern (Arctic) Federal University currently has around 20 000 students enrolled in different study
modes. In the first half of 2014, NArFU’s international students totaled 231. They come from 45 countries,
including CIS and Baltic states (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania,
Moldova, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine), Asia (India, Indonesia, Iran, People's Republic of
China, Pakistan, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Nepal), Africa (Angola, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Kongo, Nigerian,
Sudan, Tanzania, Togo), Europe (Bulgaria, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Norway, Serbia, Slovenia, Finland,
Sweden, Czech Republic), North and South Americas (Canada, USA, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay).
The majors enjoying great popularity among international students are oil and gas, power engineering,
transport, IT, economics, philology, linguistics, law, etc.
Another university with international students comprising a significant share of its total number of
students is Northern State Medical University, with the majorty of international students coming from
South-Eastern Asia, Latin America and Africa.
Theological education (schools and universities)
According to Section 14 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, “the RF is a secular state where
no religion can be imposed as state or compulsory.” The education services being delivered by state-owned
or municipal educational organizations is secular (Sec.1, para 1, Federal Law 273).
In 2012-2013 academic year, the secondary schools’ curricula were introduced with integrated course
“Basics of Religious Cultures and Secular Ethics” (RF Government Resolution 84-p dd. 28 January 2012). A
number of schools were selected in Arkhangelsk Region to test the course prior to its region-wide
implementation.
Use of religious symbols in schools and universities
As Section 14 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation stipulates that “the RF is a secular state
where no religion can be imposed as state or compulsory”, the use of religious symbols is not allowed in
state-owned and municipal educational establishments which are secular in nature.
Models of and approaches to instruction for international students
Foreign citizens study on equal conditions with Russian ones. Northern (Arctic) Federal University lays
much focus on social and cultural adaptation of its international students. The initial social and cultural
adaptation is facilitated during the preparatory year of studies taken by the majority of international
students (from far abroad).
60
Action Strategy to Ensure the Best Interests of Children in Nenets Autonomous Area 2012-2017.
URL:http://shkola1.1mcg.ru/data/files/reg_strat.pdf [09.05.14]
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The first Russian classes and the acquaintance with the university life and regulations are important
steps towards successful integration into campus life. The International Students Service Center is
supervising international students throughout the whole study period and assisting in all matters including
academic performance, physiological, social and psychological adaptation. To foster the integration of
international students into local community, the university is introducing student mentoring services. There
has been set up an international friendship club. Jointly with national-cultural autonomies NArFU hosted
National Cuisine Days. Among the regularly held events are festivals such as Sky of Brotherhood and
Arkhangelsk-International (arranged jointly with Northern State Medical University’s students).
Cross-cultural practices as part of schools’ and university’s education programmes
According to the experts, polycultural education, which has picked up in recent years, is being delivered
in several schools, however it’s difficult to define it as the realization of polycultural education, better to
speak about the start of the implementation of this system. When it comes to universities, in 2012
Northern (Arctic) Federal University adopted an internationalization programme aiming to make its
academic, research, social and cultural activities more inclusive of international practices.
Role of schools in social integration of migrants
To enhance migrant children’s Russian language skills, several schools offer extra Russian classes.
Cooperation with parents is a necessary part of teachers’ work.
Migrants and school: challenges and best solution practices
Since the recent migrant influx to Arkhangelsk Region is described by experts as minor and insignificant,
the number of school children from migrant background is such that it does not pose any tangible or major
challenge.
Lifelong learning (adult education, youth out-of-school education, etc.)
Out-of-school education services are ensured and supported by extended education network (children’s
and youth creativity centres). An example of non-formal education is the ‘human rights schools’ being set
up by non-commercial organization “Reviving Russian Culture”.
Network cooperation and joint education projects
The international projects targeting the university’s development and progress (through research and
academic activities, partnership networks and enhanced infrastructure) comprise the Northern (Arctic)
Federal University’s priority area of international activity.
In 2013, the university was implementig 64 international projects that involved more than 50 foreign
partners and more than 220 NArFU PhD students and faculty members.
Below are the key tools being used by NArFU to promote its international projects:
- EU-Russia Cross Border Cooperation Programme “Kolarctic ENPI CBC”
- EU 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development
- Tempus Programme
- Erasmus Mundus Programme
- Programmes of Nordic Council of Ministers
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-
Programmes as part of Northern Dimension policy
National programmes and foundations (Research Council of Norway, Norwegian Centre for
Cooperation in Higher Education, Norwegian Barents Secretariat, Barents 2020 programme, DAAD,
USA National Research Foundation)
- Foundations and programmes established by businesses (Statoil ASA, Google RISE, Norsk Energi)
Among the 2013 international project starts involving NArFU are
- Actions of Lifelong Learning Addressing Multicultural Education and Tolerance in Russia ALLMEET –
Tempus IV;
- ALIGN_QF: Achieving and checking the alignment between academic programmes and national
qualifications frameworks –Tempus IV;
- Renewable Energy in North-West Russia – with the support from Nordic Council of Ministers;
- AURORA II –Erasmus Mundus;
- Open Competition “Idea Sourcing 2.0” – with the support from Statoil ASA;
- Offshore Oil Spill – Oil drift simulation and emergency oil spills analysis – with the support from
Statoil ASA, Sintef;
- Entrepreneurship Programme – Young Entrepreneurs – Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce;
- Northern summer camp of ICT and Design – Google RISE programme;
- Maritime preparedness in the High North - cross-institutional coordination and task-force
management in complex, integrated operations – Barents 2020 programme;
- Impacts of hazardous substances on human health and communities in the Barents region – Barents
2020 programme;
- Arctic Council Model – Consulate General of the USA in Saint-Petersburg;
- Barents Peace Education Network: preproject on practical peace work – Cooperation programme
with Russia (Research Council of Norway);
- Centres for Creative Industries – with the support from Nordic Council of Ministers;
- Joint development of “Natural Hazards” course with University of Alaska Fairbanks;
- A Comparative Interdisciplinary Study to Investigate Contemporary Ways of Overcoming Poverty for
Young People Leaving Social Care in Armenia, Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova - VR U-Forsk
programme;
- Developing New policy and models for the Russian ELT Community – with the support from USA
Department of State;
- Peace Needs Man – with the support from the Center for Polish-Russian Dialogue and
Understanding;
- Institute of Energy and Norsk Energi’s joint project (Investigations into energy-saving and monitoring
of hazardous substances release by fuel and energy facilities);
- Energy-Efficient Buildings in North-West Russia – with the support from UNDP, GEF, EBRR, United
Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
Opportunities of student mobility (study abroad participation among school/university students)
Well-developed international academic mobility tends to be more the domain of universities. Secondary
schools participate in only a few programmes, such as the American FLEX, student exchange programmes
as part of Russian-German cooperation, etc.
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International student mobility is being fostered part of the general effort to make the academic process
more international. In 2013 the mobility programmes were participated by 484 students and 304 faculty
members of Northern (Arctic) Federal University. A total of 120 visiting lecturers have been hired by NArFU.
Mobility students tend to choose semester-long courses (also as part of network and joint educational
programmes) or participation in conferences, workshops, summer/winter schools or (field) apprenticeships
or traineeships.
The education formats being actively resorted to are blended learning and virtual (online) academic
mobility. The expansion in the geography of student academic mobility development, including onlinebased, has become possible also due to such international educational programmes offered by UArctic
consortium as “Bachelor of Circumpolar Sciences” and “Circumpolar Sciences” (total of 107 students).
Fig.2. NArFU student mobility in 2013
NArFU student mobility in 2013
Sweden
Ukraine
USA
Finland
Germany
Canada
Poland
Great Britain
Czech Republic
Switzerland
Bulgaria
Belarus
Azerbaijan
Slovakia
Israel
Other countries
Norway
Academic mobility is strongly supported by the programmes of Norwegian Centre for International
Cooperation in Education (SIU), NArFU Development Programme and bilateral cooperation agreements.
Below are the programmes and foundations NArFU was actively using as tools to maintain its academic
mobility in 2013:
International programmes
- UArctic’ North-to-North
- Erasmus Mundus
- Nordic Council of Ministers
- Bilateral cooperation agreement-based partnerships with universities and businesses (Arctic
University of Norway, University of Nordland, University of Oulu, Total, Statoil AS)
- International projects
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National foundations and programmes
- Programmes offered by Norwegian government (Barents+, Norwegian quota programme, grants
from Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Fellowship programme for Studies in the High North),
Norwegian Council for Research, Norwegian Barents Secretariat (Norway)
- Fullbright (USA)
- Russian-Finnish Exchange Programme FIRST (Finland)
- German academic exchange service DAAD (Germany)
- University of Sweden’s VISBY programme (Sweden)
- RF government’s programmes, etc.
In 2013, the NArFU, as part of a university consortium, entered the international project “AURORA –
Towards Modern and Innovative Higher Education II” (EU Erasmus Mundus programme). IN addition to the
Russian universities (Higher School of Economics; Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University; Kazan (Volga
Region) Federal University; Mari State University; M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University; K.L.
Khetagurov North-Ossetian State University; Novosibirsk State Technical University; Pacific National
University; Russian State University for Humanities; St. Petersburg State University of Economics and
Finance), in this project NArFU partners Humboldt University Berlin (Germany), University of Bologna
(Italy), University of Warsaw (Poland), University of Groningen (the Netherlands), University of Leuven
(Belgium), Masaryk University (Czech Republic), University of Latvia (Latvia), University of Tartu (Estonia),
University of Turku (Finland). Undertaking by the students and the faculty of work and study placements at
partner universities started in 2013.
Students from abroad universities who joined the academic mobility programme totaled 200 in 2013.
The year 2013 also witnessed an increasing interest in semester-long English-taught programmes, shortterm module-based courses (also online-based) and Russian language and culture summer school.
8. Religion
According to the experts, there are 190 religious organizations operating in Arkhangelsk Region. The
majority of the Russian population practise orthodox Christianity. Followers of other Christianity branches
and religions are few.
General data on the main religions and religious denominations being practiced in the region61:
Russian Orthodox Church
The territorial boundaries of Arkhangelsk Region concide with those of Arkhangelsk-Kholmogory Diocese
of the Russian Orthodox Church (with centre in Arkhangelsk). There are 93 parishes, 52 functioning
churches, 3 monasteries (Anthony of Siya, Artemius of Verkola, Kozha Lake monasteries) and 1 convent
(Jonh the Theologian Monastery). There is also a stavropighial monastery – Transfiguration Monastery
(Solovetsky) – in Arkhangelsk Region.
Orthodox Christianity spead in Arkhangelsk Region (earlier known as the Land of Dvina) in the early 12th
century. A great role in the Christian instruction was played by Monastery of Archangel Michael
61
Encyclodaepdia of Orthodox Christianity. URL: - http://www.pravenc.ru/text/76434.html [12.07.14]
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(Archangelic monastery) and Monastery of Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker (Korely monastery). The Land
of Dvina was subordinate to the Cathedra of Novgorod, with its eastern part (stretching from the lower
Pinega, Mezen up to the Pechora River) and Arkhangelsk (Novye Kholmogory) belonging, from the second
half of the 15th century, to Archdiocese (Patriarchal, since 1589) domain, and later (in 1674) regained by the
Diocese of Novgorod. In 1571-1584 and 1613-1617, the settlements along the Dvina and the Vaga were
subordinate to the Cathedra of Vologda, and in 1682 Arkhangelsk Region comprised the then newly formed
Diocese of Kholmogory and Vaga (known since 1799 as Arkhangelsk-Kholmogory Diocese).
Old Belief
There are 2 old believer communities officially registered in Arkhangelsk Region as comprising the
Kostroma and Yaroslavl Diocese of the Rusian Old Belief Church of Belokrinitsy Hierarchy: one based in
Vlasyevskaya village, Verkhnaay Toima District (with Chapel of Martyr Blaise of Sebastea) and the other in
Kuznetsovo village, Krasnoborsky District. Also, there are many unregistered old believers communities,
predominantly of ‘priestless’ Pomors, existing in the region’s settlements and smaller towns.
In Arkhangelsk land, the Old Belief was given spread by monks who fled from Solovetsky Monastery
after the defeat in 1667-1676 of the Solovetsky Mutiny supported by the majority of Pomor peasants,
especially those living the Monastery’s former dominion. Another northern source of Old Belief was
Pustozersk, where the exiled olf belief ideologists were serving their time in 1667-1682. By the end of the
19th century, the communities most widely spread in the diocese were Bespopovtsy (the Priestless) –
Pomor and Filippovsky communities, Arist-hood, Aaron-hood, etc. Belokrinitsky hierarchy communities
appeared in the early 20th century. While in 1890 the bespopovshchinskiye tolki (priestless communities) in
Arkhangelsk Region numbered 11636 members (their largest communities in Kem and Pechora districts), in
1915 they totaled 13048 and were confronted by 367 or dissenters that sought to attract ordained priests
known as Popovtsy. In 1911, the Yaroslavl Diocese of Belokrinitsy Hierarchy was restructured to become
Yaroslavl-Arkhangelsk Diocese (ceased to exist in the 1920s-1930s).
Catholicism
The first catholics who reached Arkhangelsk were English and German merchants and sailors who came
with trading ships. They would settle in German Quarter and, possibly, Kholmogory and Vologda. There
were streets in Solombala district of Arkhangelsk with names like Irlandskaya (Irish) or Frantsuzskaya
(French). Even though the 17th-century Arkhangelsk clergy was dominated by Reformed and Lutheran
Churchs, there is data evidencing that in the time of Peter I this place was reached by the mission of Jesuits.
Since 1835, the only place where catholics of Arkhangelsk, Vologda and, partly, Nizhny Novgorod counties,
came to pray was a garrison chapel in Solombala district of Arkhangelsk.
As of the current year 2014, there is a Roman Catholic parish in Arkhangelsk – Saints Peter and Paul the
Apostles Parish (registered 20 May 1994, reregistered 15 September 1999; falls witin the jurisdiction of
Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz, Lat.consecration Archbishop for the European part of Russia). The parish does not
own any premise and has to lease buildings to hold services. The spread of Catholicism in Arkhangelsk
relates to Polish rebellion of 1830-1831, after which a lot of Polish and Lithuanians were doing their
service in the garrison of Arkhangelsk. Since 1837, Arkhangelsk had been regularly visited by a
Petrozavodsk-based Polish Roman Catholic Priest. Arkhangelsk County acquired its own resident catholic
priest only in 1845. By that time its catholic community numbered more than 1100 members. Before the
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first Polish Roman Catholic church was built in 1861 in the premises of the former Gostiny Dvory, the
services were conducted in the Kuznechevsky barracks. In 1896, another Roman Catholic church was
erected on the corner of Troitsky Avenue and Olonetsky Street (closed in 1920).
Protestantism
In Arkhangelsk, the Evangelical Lutheran Church operates St.Catherine community (registered in June
1992). Lutheran services have been regular since 1995 and take place in the Lutheran church building. First
Lutherans appeared in Arkhangelsk Region in the 17th century, when free trade was started with foreign
merchants. In 1649, a Dutch Evangelical-Reformed parish was established in Arkhangelsk. It had a school
and, by 1674, a wooden church. The German Lutheran church, which was built here in 1686, too, had a
parish and a school, and joined the Dutch parish in 1817. In 1828 Arkhangelsk established its first Anglican
parish, its church built to replace the burned Reformed church. Another Anglican parish was opened in
1833 in Solombala district of Arkhangelsk. After all Protestant parishes were abolished in 1920, the local
Lutherans conducted their services pastorless until 1929.
The current registered communities of Evangelical Christian Baptists are six and based in Arkhangelsk,
Severodvinsk, Novodvinsk, Nyandoma, Onega and Vychegodsky settlement (Kotlas District of Arkhangelsk
Region).
Judaism
There are 2 Jewish communities in Arkhangelsk Region, based in Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk. They
don’t own any premises to conduct services. The Jewish Community of Arkhangelsk is believed to have
appeared in the 12th century. The 19th-century Arkhangelsk Jews ordained rabbis and had a synagogue
(built in 1899 and closed in 1920).
Islam
The first Muslim community appeared in Arkhangelsk garrison in the 19th century. Its first imam was
chosen in the mid-19th century and in the early 20th it acquired a wooden mosque (closed in 1920).
Islam is currently practiced in Arkhangelsk Region by Tartar and Azerbaijanian communities. There are
also social organizations that maintain Islam morals, the most active being the Local Muslim Religious
Organization.62 Among other registered communities are 3 regional Azerbaijanian organizations: RSO
“Association of Azerbaijanian Fellow-Countrymen “Birlik” (chaired by Dzhamil Pasha Ogly Aliyev), RSO
“Azerbaijan Representative” (established 12.09.00, chaired by Geidar Gasym Ogly Aliyev), RSO “Association
of Azerbaijanian Fellow-Countrymen “Dostlugk” (established 25.04.2000, chaired by Tekhran Arabek Ogly
Agamaliyev). Other organizations include the Non-Commercial Association of Arkhangelsk Tartars
(established 07.05.99, Ayrat Ravilyevich Mustafin), the Regional Social Organization of Chechen-Ingush
Culture “Vainakh” (established 28.06.2002, chaired by Daoud Mantayevich Abdulkadyrov). RSO “Minaret”
(chaired by Rashid Mamedov) seeks, among other things, to revive Islamic traditions.
In Severodvinsk, with more than 2 thousand Muslims, there functions social organization “Muslim
Culture” (established 7.10.1993 and managed by Dilshad Mamadaliyev).
According to the census held in Nenets Autonomous Area in 2002, Muslim community numbered only
440 residents, of whom Tartars were 211, Azerbaijani – 69, Lezgins – 48, Bashkirs – 33, etc. The area’s
62
Muslims of Russia. URL: - http://dumrf.ru/regions/29/org/3766 [13.07.14]
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officials note the rising number of citizens coming from Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, Turkey. The
majority of them are employees of oil production or development projects deployed in Naryan-Mar and
smaller locations.
Other organizations operating in Nenets Aitononous Area include RSO “Tartar and Bashkir National
Cultural Association “Douslyk” and RSO “Tartar and Bashkir National Association “Yaktash”. These two are
active contributors to the effort to revive the Tartar and the Bashkir traditions and join the cultural
activities being held in neighbour regions. “Douslyk”, for instance, attended the 2006 Meeting of NorthWest Russian Muslim Communities’ Chairs that took place in Komi Republic, and also joined Sabantuy
national celebrations.63
Buddhism
There are 2 Buddhism centers officially registered in Arkhangelsk Region – Karma Che Ling Arkhangelsk
and Karma Che Ling Severodvinsk. The activities they conduct include lectures and workshops.
Other religious affiliations and denominations
There are 6 Seventh-Day Adventists communities registered in Arkhangelsk Region, based in
Arkhangelsk, Severodvinsk, Onega, Kotlas, Plesetsk and Oktyabrsky settlements. The first Adventists
community was registered here in 1991 to be joined by several more in 1998-2000. The year 2000
witnessed the opening in Arkhangelsk of the Adventism Spiritual Centre.
In the early 2001, Arkhangelsk Region registered 11 communities of Pentecostals – in Arkhangelsk (3),
Severodvinsk (4), Nyandoma, Novodvinsk, Velsk and Siya settlement (the 4 unregistered Pentecostal
communities existed here in the 1970); and one community of the New Apostolic Church (managed by the
Northern Regional New Apostolic Church Centre based in Murmansk), with followers since 1991.
Church of Christ also operates its community in Arkhangelsk. Its first followers appeared in Arkhangelsk
Region in 1994.
Jehovah's Witnesses have registered 3 communities in Arkhangelsk, Severodvinsk and Novodvinsk. Their
congresses, held twice a year in Arkhangelsk, are also joined by several unregistered communities based in
Arkhangelsk Region.
The Church of Sovereign Icon of Virgin Mary, with oratorical congregation in Laysky Dock (Primorsky
District), exists in the region since 1996 and is registered by Severodvinsk. In the 1960s-1970s, there were
two more communities in Arkhangelsk Region – one of mennonites and the other of truly orthodox
Christians, both unregistered.
More details are available on http://www.portal-credo.ru/site/?act=fresh&id=91
General data on size, age structure, origin and ethnic background of various religious community
members (including atheists)
The 2002 data is indicative of the current trend in Arkhangelsk Region for the population to become
more religious, which may be due to the increasing coverages in the media of religion-related topics.
63
Muslim national organizations in Arkhangelsk Region and NAA. URL: - http://dumrf.ru/regions/29/org/1168
[13.07.14]
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Table 10. Confessions being followed by respondents in Arkhangelsk Region
Confession
2002
Orthodox Christianity
Protestantism
"An ordinary Christian"
I believe in God but do not practice any religion (confession)
Not a confession follower
57.5%
6.1%
10.1%
10.2%
16.1%
The survey conducted by “SOVA” Information Analysis Centre showed that the majority of Arkhangelsk
Region residents think they belong to Orthodox Christianity, accounting for more than one third of the
respondents (57.7%). There has recently been a significant increase in the number of respondents who
claimed they were protestants – a trend becoming especially visible against the background of the
Orthodox who tend to be less dedicated as compared to the Protestants.
The table does not give other confessions (Old Belief, Catholicism, Islam, Buddhism, young religious
movements), as their followers account for only a minor portion of the respondents and go beyond
statistical discrepancy (ranging from 0.1% to 0.6%).64
Religious institutions: forms of organization
A characteristic typical of religious institutions is that their policies are entirely governed by their
internal formal structure. Common parishioners may participate in running of an organization only to a
small extent, meaning that democracy in managing religious organizations is declarative in essence.65
The forms the Arkhangelsk Region’s religious institutions are organized in include church / denomination
/ sect, the officially registered being church and community. The largest and most influential is the
Orthodox Church. The status of a ‘denomination’ or a ‘sect’ remains disputable, as the institutions are
officially registered as ‘religious social organizations’. Among them are, for instance, the 6 communities of
Seventh-Day Adventists, 2 Buddhist Centres, 2 Jewish communities, 6 organizations of Evangelical Christian
Baptists, etc.
Professional occupation of religious associations’ members
There is no official statistics on professional occupation of religious associations’ members. According
the experts, they may be professional clergy or practice any other trade.
64
Гудим-Левкович, Г. Религиозная ситуация и конфессиональная политика на Русском Севере (на примере
Архангельской области). Информационно-аналитического центра «Сова». URL: - http://www.sovacenter.ru/religion/publications/state-confessional/2004/03/d1890/
65
Губницына, О.П. Социологический анализ форм организации религии в социально-историческом процессе:
На примере религиозных организаций Архангельской области. Диссертация. Санкт-Петербург. 2006. С. 157.
URL: - Научная библиотека диссертаций и авторефератов disserCat
http://www.dissercat.com/content/sotsiologicheskii-analiz-form-organizatsii-religii-v-sotsialno-istoricheskomprotsesse-na-pr#ixzz3DBnSzWYy
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Relations between religious associations. Internation between religious associations’ leaders and
governmental bodies
According the experts, the relations established between Arkhangelsk Region’s religious associations,
their leaders and the governmental bodies can be described as open for dialogue and cooperation.
Relations between religious institutions, political parties and non-governmental organizations
According to Section 14 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, “the RF is a secular state where
no religion can be imposed as state or compulsory.” The relations between religious institutions, on the one
hand, and political parties and non-governmental organizations, on the other, are unconstrained and
voluntary. The cooperation between the Arkhangelsk-Kholmogory Diocese and Northern (Arctic) Federal
University may serve as example, whereby the university functions as a public lecture venue.
Relations between the followers of different religious affiliations
The relations between the followers of different religious affiliations largely depend on the relations
between the religious institutions in general. The relations of the former can therefore be described as
open for contact and cooperation. At the same time, the Arkhangelsk-Kholmogory Diocese tends to reject
the principles being observed by several religious organizations (in particular, by Jehova and Elijah followers
and the scientologists). The Diocese is anti-sectarian and publicly disapproves (also via its web-site) of the
ideas being promoted by the above organization in the region (or the “land of North”66).
Number of churches and mosques in the region
A total of over 140 parishes have been registered in Arkhangelsk Region as belonging for the Russian
Orthodox Church and, consequently, Arkhangelsk-Kholmogory Diocese. These include 6 functioning
monasteries (2 of which are convents). In progress is the construction of Archangel Cathedral.
There is also Lutheran Church of Saint Catherine (existed as such before 1917; since 1937 – an
institution of culture (Pomor Philarmonic Chamber Hall).
Restoration works are being conducted on the building of a Muslim mosque, which was passed on to
religious organization “Nur Islam”.
Other manifestations of religious discrimination (e.g., in hospitals, public transport, restaurants, other
public venues): There are no cases on record to demonstrate religious discrimination in the region.
9. Criminality and deviance: past and present situation
Ethnic and religious crimes
According to “SOVA” Information Analysis Centre, the following crimes were committed on ethnic and
religious grounds in 2008-201467:
66
Totalitarian scientologiest open kids club in Arkhangelsk // Offical web-site of Arkhangelsk-Kholmogory Diocese.
URL: - http://www.arh-eparhia.ru/news/?ELEMENT_ID=42574
67
“SOVA” Information Analysis Centre. URL: - http://www.sova-center.ru/database/ [02.07.14].
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– 2008: 1 crime committed on ethnic and religious grounds. A young man threatened to kill a
Dagestanian (Kargopol District).
– 2009: no data available/no cases on record.
– 2010: 2 attacks on foreign nationals: one on an Armenian on a commuter bus (Arkhangelsk Region)
and the other on an Indian (Arkhangelsk).
– 2011: 2 crimes committed on ethnic and religious grounds: bodily harm rendered to Jehova’s
Witnesses (4 injured, Arkhangelsk); also, Arkhangelsk court awarded 2-year suspended sentences in 2
vandalism cases.
– 2012: an act of vandalism against the Russian Orthodox Church. Public Will followers cut the obey
crosses as revenge for the detention of Pussy Riot members.
– 2013: 2 acts of vandalism committed on religious ground on a pagan churchyard and an orthodox
church.
A total of 20 verdicts were awarded in xenophobic propaganda cases (graffiti, xenophobic propaganda
via Internet-posted photos, videos and audio materials) during 2008-2013.
Crime rate vs. crimes committed by residents with other than Russian ethnic or religious backgrounds
According to the experts, the crimes committed by residents with other than Russian ethnic or religious
backgrounds account for a very small share in the total crime rate in Arkhangelsk Region. Migration in
general does not affect crime rate. According to the data from FMS Office for Arkhangelsk Region, the
insignificant effect of migrant influx on criminogenic situation is due to the small number of migrants.
The crimes committed by foreign nationals account for 0.3% of the total number of crimes. Out of 8136
crimes committed in the region over 5 months of 2014, 27 were committed by foreign nationals, as
compared to 8709 vs. 37 (0.4%) registered in the same period in 2013.
The crimes committed against foreign nationals account for 0.17% of the total crimes registered. As
compared to last year, they rose from 6 to 14 and are classified as thefts, i.e. typical of the entire crime rate
and not attributable to offender’s or victim’s nationality. In general, the region never experiences any cases
of violent national extremism or ethnic conflicts.68
Criminal organizations belonging to certain ethnic affiliations
According to the experts, there are no criminal organizations belonging to ethnic affiliation whatsoever
operating in Arkhangelsk Region.
Ethnic and religious terrorism
Public and governmental authorities’ response to ethnic and religious crimes: The region is described as
void of violent national extremism or ethnic conflicts, the situation being monitored by regional authorities,
law-enforcement agencies and migration service.
Ethnic and religious conflict prevention and settlement measures undertaken by authorities: The
administration of Arkhangelsk Region has adopted the state program: “Ensuring Social Order and
Preventing Crimes, Corruption, Terrorism, Extremism and Illegal Use of Narcotic and а Psychotropic
Substances in Arkhangelsk Region (2014-2018). It targets, among other things, to implement the national
68
Arkhangelsk Region Office of Federal Migration Service. URL: - http://www.ufmsarh.ru/materials.php [15.07.14].
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policy to combat terrorism and extremism, and to stimulate accord and mutual understanding on interethnic and cross-cultural cooperation issues.
The purpose of the program - Law Enforcement, enforcement of traffic laws and improved security of
citizens in the region.
Objectives:
• prevention of crime, extremism and terrorism and other offenses;
• improving road safety, the policy of increasing the literacy of the population in the Highway Code;
• fight against illicit use and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;
• fight against corruption.
Main activity: improving the safety of citizens and the prevention of crime.
The amount of funding: 765 million rubles.
• 2014 - 49.5 million rubles
• 2015 - 35 million rubles
• 2016 - 35 million rubles
• 2017 - 352 million rubles
• 2018 - 292 million rubles
Sources of funding:
• the regional budget - 759 million rubles
• extra-budgetary funds - 6,550,000 rubles
The targets of the program:
• reduction in the overall number of crimes by 10%;
• reduction in the number of crimes committed on the streets, 8%;
• reducing the number of road deaths by 13%;
• mitigate the severity of accidents by 10%.69
Crimes committed by Russian extremists: No cases on record.
Urban and rural rate of crimes relating to possession, supply or use of alcohol or narcotic substances (by
age group): According to Arkhangelsk Region Office of Federal Drug Control Service, the local lawenforcement agencies registered 821 drug-related crimes in 2013. 79% of them are classified as grievous
and extremely grievous, 53% – as involving large and extremely large amounts of money.
When it comes to drug trafficking, larger towns show higher crime rates: there were 436 drug-related
crimes committed in Arkhangelsk last year (53% of the total number of crimes registered in the region), 146
– in Severodvinsk (18%), 39 – in Koryazhma (5%), 35 – in Kotlas and Kotlas District (4%), 31 – in Velsk
District (4%), 19 – in Plesetsk (2%), 17 – in Primorsky District (2%), 14 – in Kholmogory District (1.7%), 12 –
in Ustyanksy District (1.5%).
The supplies for the region’s drug market mainly originate from Saint-Petersburg and, to a lesser extent,
Moscow, south of Russia and abroad.
According to preliminary estimates of the region’s health care institutions, out of the 1557 drug abuse
cases registered in Arkhangelsk Region (inclusive of NAA) in 2013, 453 patients (including 70 women and 5
69
Official webpage of the Government of the Arkhangelsk region: - http://new.dvinaland.ru/budget/-ecy0brzk
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minors) have been diagnosed as drug addicts and 1104 (including 107 women and 104 minors) prescribed
prophylactic therapy.70
Juvenile crime rate
According Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Ministry of Internal Affairs, the juvenile crime rate is on the
increase, as of the late 2012. The press service of the regional Prosecutor’s Office reported that the number
of minor accomplices to crimes has risen in 2012 by 32.8% to reach 672 adolescents, of whom each fifth
was a school dropout. The number of adolescents committing crimes under the influence of alcohol, as well
as of repeat adolescent offenders – accomplices to crimes committed by other minors and adults – is on
the increase as well. Almost every fourth of adolescent accomplices committed crimes earlier and,
consequently, had criminal records, and every fifth of them committed crimes under the influence of beer
or stronger drinks.
Especially grievous juvenile crime rates are shown by Arkhangelsk, Severodvinsk, Koryazhma, Plesetsk
and Kotlas districts, where records evidence an increase in the number of crimes committed and the minor
accomplices involved. Among root causes of juvenile crimes are socially disadvantaged neighbourhood and
family background, alcohol consumption, idleness, lacking leisure-time activities, contact with delinquent
individuals, low-performing preventive measures undertaken by the dedicated agencies.71
10. Relationship between different religious and ethnic groups
Marriage rates (and divorce, if data is available) individuals with different ethnic background
According to the experts, the marriages between different ethnic communities are quite common in
Arkhangelsk Region. The express manifestations of Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict do not occur here in this
the region.
According to the Statistics provided by the Vital Statistics Agency of the Arkhangelsk region for 20092014 (in the tables below) it’s also indicated the presence and sustainable number of the marriages
between citizens of the Russian Federation and foreign citizens for the analysed period. Analysis of the
number of marriages and divorces among representatives of different ethnic backgrounds is quite difficult
due to incomplete representation (ethnicity indicated by spouses).
70
2013 Drug Trafficking in Arkhangelsk Region Report. URL: - http://29.fskn.gov.ru/2009-11-10-07-00-44/967-2013.html
71
Official web-site of Government of Arkhangelsk Region. URL: - http://www.dvinaland.ru/prcenter/release/33490/
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Table 11. Marriages concluded in Arkhangelsk Region during 2009-2014 by individuals of different nationality and
ethnic background72
Marriages between male RF citizens and Marriages between RF citizens of different
female foreign citizens + marriages between ethnic background (where indicated by
male foreign citizens and female RF citizens
spouses)
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
(as of 01.08.14)
47+ 106=153
51+99= 150
52+90= 142
67+ 109=176
57+104= 161
25+83= 108
Table 12. Divorce rate among individuals of different nationality and
Region during 2009-201473
Divorces between male RF citizens and
female foreign citizens + marriages between
male foreign citizens and female RF citizens
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
(as of 01.08.14)
5+ 19= 24
9+12= 21
6+19=25
6+17=23
4+15= 19
0+6=6
67
58
49
34
37
14
ethnic background registered in Arkhangelsk
Marriages between RF citizens of different
ethnic background (where indicated by
divorcees)
12
9
8
10
9
0
Marriage rates (and divorce, if data is available) among individuals with different religious beliefs
No statistical data is available. According to the experts, the religious affiliation can influence the
marriage rate but only to a limited extent.
Establishment of friendly relations: to what extent can ethnic and religious backgrounds influence it?
(expert estimation)
The majority of the experts agree that ethnic and religious backgrounds constitute no obstacle to
establishing friendly relations, but there exist “rules and customs to be observed”.
Interaction challenges encountered by different ethnic and religious communicities in political,
economic and educational discourse and everyday life
The experts agree that the interaction process in Arkhangelsk Region is generally not challenged by
communicants’ ethnic or religious affiliation, provided that certain national peculiarities are taken account
of, especially when conducting business or negotiations.
72
73
Statistic Data provided by the by the Vital Statistics Agency of the Arkhangelsk region for 2009-2014 on request. .
Statistic Data provided by the by the Vital Statistics Agency of the Arkhangelsk region for 2009-2014 on request.
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Present and past manifestations of racism
The situation can be described as stable. Experts conclude that mass ethnic riots, nationality conflicts or
cases of violent or armed extremism are none.
Latent and individual racism: No information available.
Institutional discrimination against ethnic groups and migrants: No information available. No case on
record.
Religious discrimination: The number of cases is very low.
Grievous or violent ethnic and religious conflicts: The situation can be described as stable. Experts
conclude that “over the last few years there occurred no national or religious conflict.”
Referring to the so-called ‘Pomor conflict’, some of the experts note that it is more likely to be a political
game to win resources, rather than come down to real impairment of ethnic minorities’ rights.
Xenophobia and stereotypes strongly associated with ethnic/religious communities
According to the experts, expressly xenophobic acts occur almost next to never, especially if compared
to big Russian cities. The reasons can be several:
– low migrant influx;
– absence of the ‘irritant’ and eating by migrants into working places;
– northerners tending to display tolerance.
What can occur, according to the experts are “repercussions of the conflicts, which are explained by
certain individuals’ ignorance rather than the public sentiment.” There are no mass xenophobic attitudes
being displayed.
When it comes to the religious side of migrant influx, the focus of concern may be its radical
manifestation that may result from “loss of the control over the groups of migrants ignorant of law”.
11. Associations and other organizations involved in the development of the dialogue between
different ethnic and religious groups
Arkhangelsk Region operates a system of organizations designed to constructively promote the dialogue
with ethnic and religious communities. It includes:
– public sector institutions (Ministry for Promoting Local Self-Government of Arkhangelsk Region,
Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service, Centre for Countering Extremism under the
Ministry of Internal Affairs’ Office in Arkhangelsk Region, dedicated advisors);
– advisory boards (Commission for Harmonization of Inter-Ethnic Relations in Arkhangelsk Region,
Advisory Board under Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service);
– Pomor Inter-Ethnic Social Centre;
– Regional Social Organization “Nationalities Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region”;
national and cultural autonomies and associations of fellow-countrymen;
– Regional Social Organization “Reviving Russian Culture”.
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National actors at regional level
Ministry for Promoting Local Self-Government of Arkhangelsk Region, an executive governmental
authority established in Arkhangelsk Region to deal with regional and local national and cultural
autonomies, other civil society and religious associations, <…> as well as to interact with federal-level public
bodies and other state-owned authorities in the Russian Federation.74
Being an actor involved in the implementation of the national policies on regional level, the Ministry is
entrusted with authority to:
– elaborate and implement Arkhangelsk Region’s national policy conducive to civil, inter-ethnic and
interdenominational concord;
– establish and coordinate, on behalf of the Governor of Arkhangelsk Region, the Government of
Arkhangelsk Region and other executive authorities of Arkhangelsk Region, the cooperation with nationalcultural and other civil society and religious associations;
– inform and update the Governor of Arkhangelsk Region on the activities being conducted by civil
society and religious associations in Arkhangelsk Region, including the initiatives these associations come
up with;
– render assistance to local and region-level national and cultural autonomies;
– monitor the socio-political situation in Arkhangelsk Region via web-based mass media and printed
matter;
– conduct opinion polls;
– provide the Governor of Arkhangelsk Region and the Government of Arkhangelsk Region with
analytical materials <…>, including the likely scenarios and forecasts of events occurring in Arkhangelsk
Region;
– implement, within the competence established, counter-terrorism or counter-extremism measures;
– provide the Council for Cossack Affairs under the Governor of Arkhangelsk Region with
informational, technical and organizational support;
– collect and analyse the data on the status of interdenominational relations in Arkhangelsk Region;
assist in actions targeting to counter religious extremism.
It should be noted that the experience the governmental bodies of Arkhangelsk Region have gained
interacting with the ethnic communities and, in particular, their associations, is positive. The social council
that existed from 1999 to 2004 under the head of Arkhangelsk Region administration, united around 150
social organizations. It had a section tasked exclusively with enhancing the interaction between ethnic
associations and national-cultural autonomies.
In 2007, the regional social organizations and the administration of Arkhangelsk Region developed and
adopted the Nationalities Policy Conception for Arkhangelsk Region – a document to define the key
parameters for interaction between the governmental agencies, the local self-government bodies and the
regional social organizations to promote the region’s nationalities policy and harmonize the inter-ethnic
relations.
In the autumn of 2008, the issues of inter-ethnic relations became the responsibility of a newly
established Public Relations Department of Arkhangelsk Region. Today they are the jurisdiction of the
74
Regulations on the Ministry for Promoting Local Self-Government of Arkhangelsk Region. Web-site of the
Government of Arkhangelsk Region. URL: http://dvinaland.ru/power/departments/depos/locs/index.php [02.05.14]
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Ministry for Promoting Local Self-Government of Arkhangelsk Region, namely, its Section for Public
Relations and Cooperation with Religious Associations.
On 25 April 2009, there was opened the Pomor Inter-Ethnic Social Centre. A standing subsidiary body, it
seeks to:
– arrange for the activities aiming to consolidate civil society;
– promote interaction with social associations and other non-commercial organizations operating in
the region;
– create conditions conducive to stability of social and political environment, and to inter-ethnic and
interdenominational concord in Arkhangelsk Region.
The centre serves a venue for the national-cultural autonomies, communities and fellow-countrymen
associations to host their events and activities, of which 176 were held in 2012 and the first half of 2013.
The current underlying documents that regulate the nationalities policy include:
– RF Presidential Edict 602 dd. 7 May 2012 “Concerning the Promotion of Inter-Ethnic Concord”;
– RF Presidential Edict 1666 dd. 19 December 2012 “Concerning the Nationalities Strategy of the
Russian Federation up to 2025”;
– 2013-2015 Action Plan for implementing the Nationalities Strategy of the Russian Federation up to
2025;
– Federal Target Programme on Strengthening the unity of the Russian nation and ethnic and cultural
development of the peoples of Russia (2014-2020);
– Regional Strategy for Implementation of the RF Nationalities Policy 2025. Approved by Government
Resolution 222-пп dd. 27 May 2014 (the first strategy developed in North-West Russia).
The public hearings were held (in particular, as part of the extended meeting of the Commission for
harmonization of inter-ethnic relations, 12.09.2013) of the region’s Action Plan for the Nationalities
Strategy of the Russian Federation 2025.
Among the suggested modes and formats of cooperation and implementation of the strategy are the
following:
- Ethnic cultural holidays and events;
- Nationalities’ Council (as a body to promote the interaction);
- Pomor Inter-Ethnic Social Centre;
- “Big Circle” promotional event;
- Northern inter-ethnic fora;
- Grant allocations for target projects;
- Cooperation with law-enforcement bodies.
The measures identified by Arkhangelsk Region as key priorities in implementing the nationalities’
strategy seek to enhance and strengthen:
- public administration;
- inter-ethnic concord;
- environment to foster social/cultural adaptation/integration of migrants;
- ethnic and cultural diversity;
- information support;
- interaction with civil society institutions;
- unity and spiritual commonality.
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The Government of Arkhangelsk Region is assisted by reliable partners – national-cultural autonomies,
associations of fellow-countrymen, RSO “Nationalities Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region”
(established in 2006). They are working in constant partnerships to provide and arrange for:
– information, counselling and organizational support;
– information exchange;
– joint activities;
– social organization members’ participation in task forces and expert panels under governmental
agencies, etc.
Also, a number of advisory boards and auxiliary agencies have been set up to facilitate their work.
The Ministry also launches information campaigns seeking to prevent inter-ethnic conflicts and counter
ethnic or religious extremism. The dedicated materials are regularly covered in the regional and local media
(more than 100 articles on inter-ethnic cooperation was publishes in the first six months of 2013).
Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service, the FMS’s territorial office authorized to
carry out law enforcement functions involving control, supervision and the rendering of state services in
the area of migration; as well as to implement the tasks and duties as may be stipulated in the RF legal acts
or instructed by Russian Federal Migration Service. In particular, the Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal
Migration Service is tasked with:
- execution and issuance to foreign nationals or individuals destitute of nationality, of RF entry visas,
sojourn and residence permits;
- supervision of compliance by foreign nationals or individuals destitute of nationality with the
established rules of residence and sojournment in the RF;
- implementation, jointly with federal authorities’ dedicated offices, of measures to prevent and
counter illegal migration;
- enforcement of the RF legislation concerning refugees and forced migrants; provision, in accordance
with established procedure, of political refuge to foreign nationals or individuals destitute of
nationality;
- exercising, as provided in the RF legislation, of control and supervision of incoming labour migration;
attraction of foreign nationals to work in the RF; employment of RF nationals outside the RF.
There is an advisory board established under the FMS Arkhangelsk Regional Office (please see details
below). The Office is an active participant of the annual “Big Circle” promo action, the Northern Civil
Congress, and the round tables addressing the inter-ethnic and migration issues.
62 working meetings were held in 2012 by the officials of the FMS Arkhangelsk Regional Office and the
ethnic communities in 2012 and 59 in 2013. The agenda of these meetings include issues such as
integration, mutual tolerance and measures to identify and counter manifestations of extremism.
The chairs of the ethnic organizations and the ethnic communities are aware of the administrative and
criminal liability incurring for violation of the RF migration regulations, inciting of ethnic hatred or
assistance to terrorism or extremism.
Work was conducted to raise awareness among the ethnic communities on patenting/licensing issues.
Foreign nationals and individuals destitute of nationality have been explained the procedures for Russian
knowledge testing, etc.
Centre for Countering Extremism under the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ Office in Arkhangelsk Region,
a structural unit of Arkhangelsk Regional Office of the RF Ministry of Internal Affairs established to address
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the issues of extremism and terrorism (Federal Law Concerning Countering of Extremism №114-ФЗ dd.
25.07.2002). The head of the Centre is member to the Commission for Harmonization of Inter-Ethnic
Relations in Arkhangelsk Region under the Governor of Arkhangelsk Region.
Advisory boards
Commission for Harmonization of Inter-Ethnic Relations in Arkhangelsk Region, established by
Arkhangelsk Region Governor’s Decree № 40-у dd. 28.03.2011.
The Commission functions as an auxiliary body designed to coordinate the actions of Arkhangelsk
Region’s governmental bodies, the administration of Governor of Arkhangelsk Region, the Government of
Arkhangelsk Region, Arkhangelsk Region’s territorial agencies, federal executive authorities, local selfgovernment authorities in municipalities and other stakeholders, that seek harmonization of the interethnic relations in the region. The Commission is also designed to foster interaction with national-cultural
autonomies, religious organizations, communities and fellow-countrymen associations, as prescribed in the
approved 2013-2014 Comprehensive Action Plan for Harmonization of the Inter-Ethnic Relations in
Arkhangelsk Region.
Advisory Council under Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service, an advisory body
established by Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service in 2007 to:
1. address the public, research community’s and decision-makers’ initiatives offering solutions to
migration-related challenges;
2. foster interaction between Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service, public
associations and research institutions with a view to employ each other’s potential in enhancing the
efficiency and performance of the RF migration legislation and in shaping rational proposals for the national
migration policy;
3. promote cooperation with public associations, research and business communities on:
– supervision of performance of the national obligations concerning refugees and forced migrants;
– benevolent welcome and accommodation of returnees;
– enforcement of the legislation concerning labour migrants;
– involvement of socially responsible businesses in promoting the efficiency of the migration
infrastructure;
– facilitating the regularization of status of migrants lacking legal status;
– facilitating the formation in Arkhangelsk Region of civilized market of non-state services for labour
migrants.
As part of the official collaboration effort, the chair of Regional Social Organization “Nationalities’
Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region”, the managers of Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijanian and
Tadzhik communicites are all members of Advisory Council under Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal
Migration Service.75
The working meetings and the sessions of the Council constantly update the communities on the
‘migration status’ of the region and discuss the current issues of the inter-ethnic relations, such as:
– implementation of the National Programme for Facilitating the Voluntary Migration of FellowCountrymen Abroad to Arkhangelsk Region (March 2013);
75
2013 Report by Arkhangelsk Region Office of Federal Migration Service. URL: http://www.ufmsarh.ru/materials.php
[14.07.14].
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– outcomes of the first stage of the Conception of National Migration Policy of the Russian Federation
up to 2025, with focus on one of its priority areas – learning of Russian and Russian cultural traditions (June
2013);
– performance by the Office of its duties concerning issuance to foreign nationals and individuals
destitute of nationality of work permits (August 2013);
– 2013 performance by the Office of the measures to identify and combat violations of migration
legislation; deportation of foreign nationals or individuals destitute of nationality; Russian language courses
being offered by Northern (Arctic) Federal University (December 2013).
Social organizations
There are currently 59 national-cultural autonomies, ethnic-cultural organizations, unions and fellowcountrymen associations operating in Arkhangelsk Region.
Almost all the experts surveyed agree that the Nationalities’ Council functions as an important mediator
between the public and the governmental bodies, that seeks “the environment conducive to stronger interethnic and interdenominational cooperation”.76
The Regional Social Organization “Nationalities’ Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region” was
established in 2006. Originally a union of 4 organizations, it functions as a venue “to address the issues of
the nationalities residing in the region.”77
The Nationalities’ Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region is currently North-West Russia’s first
and only ‘naturally’ established organization of its kind. One of its founders V.I. Stanulevich notes that the
underlying principles of the Council come to “in the first place, peer-to-peer dialogue that should involve all
the communities with membership in the Council, and, secondly, calling the authorities to interact with on
a peer-to-peer, not master-and-slave basis.”78
As was noted by the experts, at the time the Council was being set up it might well be among the first
organizations of its kind in Russia. The recent events have triggered the formation under governments,
governors and mayors of structures, analogous to the Council, that seek promotion of the national and
cultural autonomies.
According to chair of “Nationalities’ Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region” M.L. Gechkyan,
“there is very close contact with authorities – meetings with the governor, the mayor, the responsible
minister, the deputy governor – and the parliament, too. They foster ideas, discussions, proposals, further
prospects. The society realizes that the authorities are not at all indifferent and the authorities realize that
all this is a part of the society. So, the discussion climate is good and it’s spreading. What is more, feeling
that there’s understanding and trust, the Nationalities’ Council itself starts to be more active. This synergy
has proved productive.”
The Nationalities’ Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region currently consists of 12 social
organizations:
76
Шехонина В.А. Опыт взаимодействия органов государственной власти Архангельской области и
общественных объединений // Этнокультурные технологии профилактики экстремизма и ксенофобии.
Материалы межрегионального семинара. Вологда, 2009.С.88.
77
Гекчян М.Л. Вступительное слово//Совет национальностей города Архангельска и Архангельской области.
Юбилейный выпуск. Архангельск, 2011.
78 Станулевич В.И. Искать пути нашей многонациональной страны //Совет национальностей города
Архангельска и Архангельской области. Юбилейный выпуск. Архангельск, 2011.С.16.
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– Regional Social Organization “Ukrainian National and Cultural Autonomy”;
– Regional Social Organization “Hebrew National and Cultural Autonomy in Arkhangelsk Region”;
– Regional Office of All-Russian Social Organization “Armenian Union of Russia”;
– Regional Social Organization of Chechen-Ingush Culture “Vainakh”;
– Regional Social Organization “German National and Cultural Autonomy in Arkhangelsk “Nordlicht –
Polar Lights”;
– Estonian Cultural and Outreach Society “Viru”;
– Regional Social Organization “Polish Cultural and Outreach Society “Polonia”;
– Regional Social Organization “Tartar National and Cultural Autonomy in Arkhangelsk Region
(РООТНКА АО);
– Regional Social Organization “Georgian Association of Fellow-Countrymen “Sakartvolo”;
– Regional Social Organization “Azerbaijanian Association of Fellow-Countrymen “Shirvan”;
– Regional Social Organization “Association of Nenets Fellow-Countrymen “Tosavey”;
– Regional Social Organization “Belarus” Association of Fellow-Countrymen”.
The social cultural organizations, that bring together so diverse nationalities, have proved reliable
partners. They assist the administration of Arkhangelsk Region in its effort to strengthen inter-ethnic
relations and maintain ‘tolerant neighbour’ relations within society.
The ethnic and cultural associations of Arkhangelsk Region address such issues as cultural leisure and
domestic challenges of their members. They render legal counselling and, occasionally, help the local
orphanages, schools and socially disadvantaged citizens.
The experience of hosting cultural and sporting events participated by the above associations has shown
that the associations set up in Arkhangelsk Region are ready to interact constructively among themselves
and with authorities at all levels.
RSO “Reviving Russian Culture”. Established in 1999, one of the goals laid down in the charter of this
organization is to facilitate and harmonize inter-ethnic relations, contribute to trust-building among
nations, and support the Russian peoples’ striving to gain mutual understanding. In line with its mission, the
organization hosts, since 2010, ‘tolerant and conflict-free behaviour’ workshops for students and
educators, where it addresses dispute settlement procedures – in general and applicable to inter-ethnic
conflicts. Big focus is laid on issues of cross-cultural communication. Also in line with its mission, the
organization has set up the International Friendship Club, which is designed to foster cultural exchanges
between international students and RF ethnic communities in Arkhangelsk Region.
Best available practices and launched initiatives
The governmental and self-government authorities have recently managed to arrive at a streamlined
system to coordinate inter-ethnic and interdenominational relations in the region:
— there have been adopted relevant legal acts (Arkhangelsk Regional Law Concerning Rendering
Assistance to National and Cultural Autonomies; Regional Strategy for implementing the RF Nationalities
Policy in Arkhangelsk Region 2025; Action Plan for implementing the RF Nationalities Policy dd.
27.12.2013);
— there has been set up Pomor Inter-Ethnic Social Centre (see details in Section 1);
— the representatives of national and cultural autonomies are members of advisory boards under
Arkhangelsk Regional ministries;
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— cooperation is maintains with RSO “Nationalities’ Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region”,
based on the agreement with the Government of Arkhangelsk Region;
— the regularly hosted (since 2009) Northern International Forum serves as venue to discuss the
inter-ethnic issues via seminars and round tables that also involve performance analysis and a concert
programme. The Forum is attended by law-makers, executive agencies’ officials, political and public figures,
national and cultural autonomies, educators, students, etc.;
It is at the discussion venues being offered by the Forum that the constructive dialogue can be started
with authorities and law-enforcement bodies on how to prevent xenophobia and counter extremism, or
discuss the scientific side of inter-ethnic relations in modern Russia. The 2013 Northern International
Forum discussed the Strategy for implementing the RF Nationalities Policy in Arkhangelsk Region. Since
2014, the Northern International Forum is expanded with national culture days. The 2014 Armenian Culture
Days will be followed in 2015 by Tartar Culture Days;
— “Big Circle”, a promo action touring (since 2009) around Arkhangelsk Region, is arranged to feature
ethnic folk groups and to demonstrate different cultures;
— The United World, a newspaper published by the Nationalities’ Council to cover key political and
cultural events, books, interviews with famous people, referred to by V. Shekhonina as Russia’s first interethnic paper;
— Round tables, meeting, situation monitoring (initiated by Nationalities’ Council, regional
administration, public chamber);
— Meetings with NArFU and NSMU students hosted by Deputy Governor for Regional Policy S.M.
Kovalev (the plan is to make them regular and involve labour migrants, also with focus on students as a
resource for better integration);
— Support for the events being hosted by ethnic communities (Sabantui, Navruz festivals, etc.) – by
providing funding, materials, technical and organizational resources.
Among the other landmark events, as referred to by the experts, that have been supported by the
regional authorities, are the Days of Poland in Arkhangelsk, the Days of Jewish Culture, Muslim festival
“Navruz”, Tartar national festivities “Sabantuy”, min-football international tournament “Soglasiye
(Concord), etc.
Winding up this brief overview of the initiatives, it is relevant to cite M.L. Gechkyan, chair of
“Nationalities’ Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region”, who points that the initiatives should
always come ‘in package’. Since the society is living organism with its own stances and questions, the
authorities should always be aware of everything that is going on, so that they understand the current
situation: “It is only through a cluster of activities that we can arrive at a fruitful result, and it is only when
the inter-ethnic dialogue is regarded as important as any other burning issue that we can be successful.”
The experts also point at the historical, the geographical and the social background in Arkhangelsk
Region that has led to the high level of tolerance in the residents towards alien nationalities – a fact which,
when supported by the Government and contributed by the initiatives on the side of ethnic associations,
enables a step-wise implementation of the nationalities policy without causing any inter-ethnic strain.
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Performance efficiency
The governmental and self-government authorities have recently managed to arrive at a streamlined
system to coordinate inter-ethnic and interdenominational relations in Arkhangelsk Region. The
cooperation between the governmental bodies and the social organizations (primarily, the Nationalities’
Council) can be described as going in peer-to-peer format and agreement-based.
Due to the joint constructive effort, the relations between the communities and fellow-countrymen
associations in the region can be described as smooth, with the migration situation remaining stable and
adjustable. National or ethnic hatred never manifests itself here in its violent form, and there has occurred
no inter-ethnic conflicts in this area.
Of course, there’s room for enhancing this effort, for instance, through:
– interaction with the youth with migrant background, as younger people are a more flexible part of
migrant societies;
– cultural adaptation of migrant employees who come for shorter periods (seasonal workers or
development project workers) using the communities’ resources;
– regional state programme “Strengthening the Identity of the Russian Nation” (as an additional
funding lever);
– intensified coordination and interaction with national-cultural autonomies at local self-government
level.
Cooperation with social organization: See Section 1 (social organizations) and 2
Challenges
Challenging is the fact that Arkhangelsk Region currently lacks the infrastructure necessary to facilitate
social integration and adaptation for migrants – centre for migrant social and cultural adaptation;
adaptation courses for foreign citizens and stateless individuals.
Among priority activities, as stated by the experts, are the activities seeking (cultural) adaptation of
youth with migrant background and of migrant employees coming for shorter periods.
National and cultural autonomies: See Section 1
Regional Assembly of Ethnic Groups and its relations with the regional authorities: See Section 1
(Nationalities Council)
Organizations addressing the issues of immigrants
Since migrant adaptation and mutual tolerance, as set out in Conception of National Migration Policy of
the Russian Federation up to 2025, are multi-faceted tasks that require peer-to-peer dialogue between
authorities and society, they are being addressed by Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration
Service jointly with the social organizations involved – Nationalities’ Council and ethnic associations.
There are currently 10 officially registered ethnic association and social organizations operating in
Arkhangelsk, Kotlas. The largest of them are Azerbaijanian community, the Armenia Union of Russia,
national-cultural autonomy “Ukrainians of Russia”, Georgian Association of Fellow-Countrymen
“Sakartvolo”, Association of Fellow-Countrymen “Belarus”, “Tadzhik Association of Fellow-Countrymen”.
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The experts note that all the national-cultural autonomies and ethnic associations work to support their
fellow-countrymen who come to North. Given that here the migration flows are small, unlike in bigger
cities, the associations and communities are better aware of the situation and often appear more efficient
working with authorities and other social organizations.
The conditions for migrant adaptation are facilitied by the Ministry for Promoting Local SelfGovernment, that relies in its activity on national and cultural autonomies.
The duties of migrant registration are assumed by Arkhangelsk FMS Office. As part of the official
collaboration effort, the chair of Regional Social Organization “Nationalities’ Council of Arkhangelsk and
Arkhangelsk Region”, the managers of Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijanian and Tadzhik communicites are all
members of Advisory Council under Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service.
The issues of academic migrants are being addressed by local universities (NArFU, NSMU). Actually, the
migrant adaptation issues are to a greater extent addressed by universities, which, too, are staying in close
contact with Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service and the Ministry for Promoting Local
Self-Government.
Supported by Arkhangelsk Regional Office of Federal Migration Service, M.V. Lomonosov Northern
(Arctic) Federal University offers Russian language courses and tests foreign citizens’ knowledge of Russian
(a prerequisite for obtaining RF citizenship).
Non-governmental organizations promoting the lawful interests of immigrants and ethnic groups: See
Section 1
Political parties’ stance (collaborative, extremist)
The majority of the experts describe the political parties’ stance as collaborative. M.L. Gechkyan, chair of
“Nationalities’ Council of Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk Region” notes: “now that the country has adopted
the nationalities’ policy and strategy, all the parties, to my mind, should agree on the necessity to maintain
integrity within the society and the state.”
12. Overview of previous studies into the issues relating to the project tasks
International and federal legislation
International legislation
 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (New York, 7 March
1966)
 Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (Strasbourg, 1 February 1995) ETS №
157
 European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (Strasbourg, 5 November 1992) ETS № 148
Federal Laws
 Federal Law Concerning National and Cultural Autonomy №74-ФЗ dd. 17 June 1996 (rev. 21.03.2002 №
31-ФЗ, 10.11.2003 № 136-ФЗ, 29.06.2004 № 58-ФЗ, 22.08.2004 № 122-ФЗ, 30.11.2005 № 146-ФЗ,
01.12.2007 № 309-ФЗ, 09.02.2009 № 11-ФЗ, 09.02.2009 № 14-ФЗ)
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 Federal Law Concerning the Guarantee of Rights of Indigenous Minorities of the Russian Federation (rev.
22.08.2004 № 122-ФЗ, 26.06.2007 № 118-ФЗ, 13.05.2008 № 66-ФЗ, 30.12.2008 № 309-ФЗ, 05.04.2009
№ 40-ФЗ)
 Federal Law Concerning the General Principles for Establishing the Communities of Indigenous Peoples
of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation (rev. 21.03.2002 № 31-ФЗ, 22.08.2004
№ 122-ФЗ, 02.02.2006 № 19-ФЗ)
 Federal Law Concerning the Territories of Traditional Use of Natural Resources by Indigenous Peoples of
the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation (rev. 26.06.2007 № 118-ФЗ, 23.07.2008 №
160-ФЗ, 03.12.2008 № 250-ФЗ)
 Federal Law Concerning Education in the Russian Federation N 273-ФЗ dd. 29.12.2012 (rev. 03.02.2014)






Legislative the regulatory acts issued by President of the Russian Federation
RF President Decree On Approval of Nationalities Policy Conception of the Russian Federation №909 dd.
15 June 1996.
RF President Decree On the Strategy for the Nationalities Policy of the Russian Federation 2025 № 1666
dd. 19 December 2012.
2013-2015 Action Plan for implementing the Strategy for the Nationalities Policy of the Russian
Federation 2025 (approved by RF Government Resolution N 1226-р dd. 15 July 2013).
National Migration Policy Conception of the Russian Federation 2025.
Conception of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation. Approved by RF President V.V. Putin on 12
February 2013.
Conception of the National Policy of the Russian Federation in the Field of Domestic Labour Training for
Foreign Countries in Russian Educational Institutions. Approved by RF President V.V. Putin on 18
October 2002.
Draft Laws
 Draft Law Concerning the Development of Comprehensive Strategy for Export of the Russian Higher
Education and Competitive Advantages Thereof on the World Education Market.
Region-level legislative the regulatory acts
– Regional Strategy for implementing in Arkhangelsk Region of the Nationalities Strategy of the Russian
Federation up to 2025. Approved by Arkhangelsk Region Government Resolution №222-пп dd. 27 May
2014.
Legislative the regulatory acts issued by Government of the Russian Federation
 Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 20 августа 2013 года № 718
"О федеральной целевой программе "Укрепление единства российской нации и этнокультурное
развитие народов России (2014 - 2020 годы)"
 Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 24 марта 2000 г. №255 «О Едином
перечне коренных малочисленных народов Российской Федерации»
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 Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 13 октября 2008 г. №760 «О внесении
изменений в Единый перечень коренных малочисленных народов Российской Федерации»
 Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 10 марта 2009 г. №217 «Об утверждении
Правил распределения и предоставления из федерального бюджета субсидий бюджетам
субъектов Российской Федерации на поддержку экономического и социального развития
коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока Российской Федерации»
 Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 18 мая 2010 г. №352 «О внесении
изменений в Единый перечень коренных малочисленных народов Российской Федерации»
 Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 17 июня 2010 г. №453 «О внесении
изменения в Единый перечень коренных малочисленных народов Российской Федерации»
 Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 11 апреля 2005 г. №370-р «О проведении
V Съезда коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока»
 Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 17 апреля 2006 г. №536-р
«Об утверждении перечня коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока
Российской Федерации»
 Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 27 мая 2006 г. №758-р «Об образовании
Национального организационного комитета по подготовке и проведению в Российской
Федерации Второго Международного десятилетия коренных народов мира и утверждении его
состава»
 Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 19 ноября 2007 г. №1639-р
«Об утверждении комплекса первоочередных мер по подготовке и проведению в Российской
Федерации Второго Международного десятилетия коренных народов мира»
 Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 23 июня 2008 г. №895-р «О внесении
изменений в комплекс первоочередных мер по подготовке и проведению в Российской
Федерации Второго Международного десятилетия коренных народов мира»
 Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 4 февраля 2009 г. №132-р
"Об утверждении Концепции устойчивого развития коренных малочисленных народов Севера,
Сибири и Дальнего Востока Российской Федерации"
 Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 8 мая 2009 г. №631-р "Об утверждении
Перечня мест традиционного проживания и традиционной хозяйственной деятельности коренных
малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока Российской Федерации и Перечня
видов традиционной хозяйственной деятельности коренных малочисленных народов Севера,
Сибири и Дальнего Востока Российской Федерации"
 Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 28 августа 2009 г. №1245-р
"Об утверждении плана мероприятий по реализации в 2009-2011 годах Концепции устойчивого
развития коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока Российской
Федерации"
 Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 12 октября 2012 г. № 1906-р
"Об утверждении плана мероприятий по реализации в 2012 - 2015 годах Концепции устойчивого
развития коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока Российской
Федерации, утвержденной распоряжением Правительства Российской Федерации от 4 февраля
2009 г. N 132-р"
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 Комплексный план мероприятий по социально-экономическому и этнокультурному развитию
цыган в Российской Федерации на 2013-2015 годы, утвержденный заместителем Председателя
Правительства Российской Федерации Д.Н. Козаком 31 января 2013 г. (№ 426п-П44)
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RF migration legislation
Federal Laws
Федеральный закон от 19 февраля 1993 года №4528-1-ФЗ "О Беженцах"
Федеральный закон от 18 июня 2006 года №109-ФЗ "О миграционном учете иностранных граждан
и лиц без гражданства в РФ"
Федеральный закон от 15 августа 1996 года №114-ФЗ "О порядке выезда из РФ и въезда в РФ"
Федеральный закон от 25 июля 2002 года №115-ФЗ "О правовом положении иностранных
граждан в РФ"
Федеральный закон от 18 июля 2006 года №110-ФЗ "О внесении изменений в федеральный закон
"О правовом положении иностранных граждан в РФ" и о признании утратившими силу отдельных
положений федерального закона "О внесении изменений и дополнений некоторые
законодательные акты РФ""(18 июля 2006 года №110-ФЗ)
Закон РФ от 19 февраля 1993 года №4530-1 "О вынужденных переселенцах".
Федеральный закон от 12 ноября 2012 г. N 187-ФЗ "О внесении изменения в статью
25 Федерального закона "О порядке выезда из Российской Федерации и въезда в Российскую
Федерацию"
Федеральный закон от 12 ноября 2012 г. N 186-ФЗ "О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон
"О беженцах" и статью 8 Федерального закона "О правовом положении иностранных граждан в
Российской Федерации""
Федеральный закон от 25 июня 2012 г. N 88-ФЗ "О внесении изменений в статью 54 Федерального
закона "О полиции" и статью 6 Федерального закона "О внесении изменений в Федеральный
закон "О судебных приставах" и отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации""
Федеральный закон от 23 июля 2013 года № 207-ФЗ «О внесении изменений в отдельные
законодательные акты Российской Федерации в целях совершенствования миграционного
законодательства и ответственности за его нарушение»
Федеральный закон от 23 июля 2013 года № 224-ФЗ «О внесении изменений в отдельные
законодательные акты Российской Федерации»
Федеральный закон от 23 июля 2013 г. N 204-ФЗ "О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "О
правовом положении иностранных граждан в Российской Федерации" и Трудовой кодекс
Российской Федерации"
Legislative the regulatory acts issued by President of the Russian Federation
 Указ Президента РФ от 19.07.2004 N 928 "Вопросы Федеральной миграционной службы"
 Указ Президента РФ от 22.06.2006 N 637 "О мерах по оказанию содействия добровольному
переселению в Российскую Федерацию соотечественников, проживающих за рубежом" (вместе с
"Государственной программой по оказанию содействия добровольному переселению в
Российскую Федерацию соотечественников, проживающих за рубежом")
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 Указ Президента РФ от 14.11.2002 N 1325 "Об утверждении Положения о порядке рассмотрения
вопросов гражданства Российской Федерации"
 Указ Президента РФ от 12.01.2010 N 60 "О внесении изменений в Государственную программу по
оказанию содействия добровольному переселению в Российскую Федерацию соотечественников,
проживающих за рубежом, и в план мероприятий по реализации Государственной программы по
оказанию содействия добровольному переселению в Российскую Федерацию соотечественников,
проживающих за рубежом, утвержденные Указом Президента Российской Федерации от 22 июня
2006 г. N 637"
 Указ Президента РФ от 21.07.1997 N 746 "Об утверждении Положения о порядке предоставления
Российской Федерацией политического убежища"
 Указ Президента Российской Федерации 14.09.2012 № 1289 О реализации государственной
программы по оказанию содействия добровольному переселению в Российскую Федерацию
соотечественников, проживающих за рубежом
 Указ Президента РФ от 7 мая 2012 г. N 606 "О мерах по реализации демографической политики
Российской Федерации"
 Указ Президента РФ от 11.03.2012 N 291 "О внесении изменения в Положение о Федеральной
миграционной службе, утвержденное Указом Президента Российской Федерации"
 Указ Президента РФ от 03.12.2011 N 1577 "О внесении изменения в Указ Президента Российской
Федерации от 19 июля 2004 г. N 928 "Вопросы Федеральной миграционной службы"
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Legislative the regulatory acts issued by Government of the Russian Federation
Постановление Правительства РФ от 15 ноября 2006 г. N 681 "О медицинском страховании
иностранных граждан, временно находящихся в РФ, и российских граждан при выезде из РФ".
Постановление Правительства РФ от 2 апреля 2003 г. N 188 "О перечне инфекционных
заболеваний, предоставляющих опасность для окружающих и являющихся основанием для отказа
в выдаче либо аннулирования разрешения на временное проживание иностранных гражданам и
лицам без гражданства, или вида на жаительство, или разрешения на работу в РФ".
Постановление Правительства РФ от 15 января 2007 г. N 9 "О порядке осуществления
миграционного учета иностранных граждан и лиц без гражданства в РФ".
Постановление Правительства РФ от 24 марта 2003 г. N 167 "О порядке предоставления гарантий
материального, медицинского и жилищного обеспечения иностранных граждан и лиц без
гражданства на период их пребывания в РФ".
Постановление Правительства РФ от 30 июня 2003 г. N 382 "О проставлении отметки
о запрещении въезда в РФ некоторых категорий иностранных граждан и лиц без гражданства".
Постановление Правительства РФ от 17 февраля 2007 г. N 97 "Об установлении случаев
осуществления трудовой деятельности иностранным гражданином или лицом без гражданства,
временно пребывающими (проживающими) в РФ, на территории которого им выдано
разрешение на работу (разрешено временное проживание)".
Постановление Правительства РФ от 1 ноября 2002 г. N 794 "Об утверждении положения о выдаче
иностранным гражданам и лицам без гражданства вида на жительство".
Постановление Правительства РФ от 1 ноября 2002 г. N 789 "Об утверждении положения о выдаче
иностранным гражданам и лицам без гражданства разрешения на временное проживание".
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 Постановление Правительства РФ от 8 июля 1997 г. N 828 "Об утверждении положения о паспорте
гражданина РФ, образца бланка и описания паспорта гражданина РФ".
 Постановление Правительства РФ от 9 июня 2003 г. N 335 "Об утверждении положения
об установлении формы визы, порядка и условий ее оформления и выдачи, продления срока ее
действия, восстановления ее в случае утраты, а также порядка аннулирования визы".
 Постановление Правительства РФ от 17 июля 1995 г. N 713 "Об утверждении правил регистрации и
снятия граждан РФ с регистрационного учета по месту пребывания и по месту жительства в
пределах РФ и перечня должностных лиц, ответственных за регистрацию".
 Постановление Правительства РФ от 25 ноября 1995 г. N 1158 "Об утверждении требований к
сертификату об отсутствии вич-инфекции, предъявляемому иностранным гражданам и лицам без
гражданства при их обращении за визой на въезд в РФ на срок свыше трех месяцев".
 Постановление Правительства РФ от 23 декабря 2006 г. N 797 "Об утверждении Положения о
лицензировании деятельности, связанной с трудоустройством граждан Российской Федерации за
пределами Российской Федерации".
 Распоряжение Правительства РФ от 17 марта 2011 г.N 442-р "Об утверждении перечня документов
(сведений), обмен которыми между органами и организациями при оказании государственных
услуг и исполнении государственных функций осуществляется в электронном виде".
 Постановление Правительства РФ от 09.04.2001 года №274 "О предоставлении временного
убежища на территории Российской Федерации».
 Постановление Правительства РФ от 8 октября 2012 г. N 1022 г. Москва "Об утверждении
Положения о лицензировании деятельности, связанной с оказанием услуг по трудоустройству
граждан Российской Федерации за пределами территории Российской Федерации"
 Постановление Правительства РФ от 16 августа 2012 г. N 838 г. Москва "О внесении изменения в
Положение о пребывании иностранных граждан и лиц без гражданства, подлежащих передаче в
соответствии с международными договорами Российской Федерации о реадмиссии, иностранных
граждан и лиц без гражданства, принимаемых в соответствии с международными договорами
Российской Федерации о реадмиссии, но не имеющих законных оснований для пребывания
(проживания) в Российской Федерации, в специальных учреждениях Федеральной миграционной
службы"
 Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 13.07.2012 N 711 "О вопросах
Федеральной миграционной службы" (вместе с "Положением о Федеральной миграционной
службе")
 Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 15 января 2007 г. N 9 "О порядке
осуществления миграционного учета иностранных граждан и лиц без гражданства в Российской
Федерации"
Analytical reviews and reports
covering Arkhangelsk Region:
 Аналитический обзор миграционной ситуации и деятельности УФМС России по Архангельской
области по реализации государственной миграционной политики в регионе за 6 месяцев 2013
года. Архангельск 2013.
 Доклад о результатах и основных направлениях деятельности УФМС России по Архангельской
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области на 2013 год и плановый период 2014-2016 годы. Архангельск 2014.
 Пресс-релиз «Об итогах служебной деятельности Управления Федеральной миграционной службы
по Архангельской области за 2012 год и задачах по реализации государственной миграционной
политики в 2013 году» - URL: http://www.ufmsarh.ru/pressreliz3.php
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covering Russia (inclusive of the information on Arkhangelsk Region):
Рейтинг межэтнической напряженности в регионах России. Осень 2013 – весна 2014 года. ЦИНК
(Центр
изучения
национальных
конфликтов).
URL:
http://clubrf.ru/thegrapesofwrath/01/thegrapesofwrath01.pdf
Бюллетень «Численность и миграция населения Российской Федерации в 2012 году» - выпуск
2013г. (опубликовано 05.07.2013г.) URL: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b13_107/Main.htm
Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2002 года [Текст] : офиц. издание : в 14 т. / РФ, Фед.
служба гос. стат. - М. : ИИЦ "Статистика России".
Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года [Текст] : Фед. служба гос. стат. - М. : ИИЦ
"Статистика России".
Articles, volumes and collections, periodicals, monographs (covering Arkhangelsk Region)
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Андрианова Е.В. Демографические составляющие как важнейший индикатор социальноэкономического развития региона (на примере Архангельской области) // Экология человека.
2008. № 7. С. 40-42.
The article concerns the analysis of demographic situation in the Arkhangelsk region, the factors
influencing on its change, as well as it outlines trends in future changes.
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Международная научно-практическая конференция «Мировой экономический кризис XXI века
и социально-экономическое положение Архангельской области» - сборник статей / М-во
образования и науки Российской Федерации, Федеральное агентство по образованию, Фил. Гос.
образовательного учреждения высш. проф. образования Всероссийского заочного финансовоэкономического ин-та в г. Архангельске. Архангельск, 2009.
The edition presents a collection of the conference articles that analyse the socio-economic situation of
the Arkhangelsk region in the period of world economic crisis of 2008. The factors influencing on
economical situation change and trends in its future development are outlined.
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Место северных регионов в бюджетной системе Российской Федерации и оценка последствий
массовой миграции / И. Горшунов, П. Кадочников, К. Ньюбоулд и др. - М. : [б. и.], 2002.
The problem of the Russian North social and economic development regulation is one of the most critical
parts of the Russian economy reform. This problem is complex and covers a number of legal, social,
economic, financial, national, historical, ecological and other aspects. The authors of the paper consider
two interrelated issues: financial flows from the federal budget to the budgets of the regions of the
North; theoretical and empirical analysis of factors influencing on the emigration from the northern
regions of the Russian Federation, and evaluation of the government programs effectiveness towards
migration processes facilitating.
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Михайловские чтения: религиозно-культурное пространство региона: вчера, сегодня, завтра :
сб. статей научно-практической конференции / ПГУ. Гум. фак. Каф. культурологии и
регионоведения; [сост.: В. Н. Абрамовский, Ю. А. Сибирцева ; редкол. В. Н. Абрамовский и др.]. Архангельск : КИРА, 2010.
The edition is a compilation of articles presented at a conference "Michael's readings", considering
religious and cultural issues of the Russian North in historical perspective.
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Много ли в Архангельской области мигрантов? // Аргументы и факты в Архангельске. - № 32 (12
августа 2013).
The article presents an analysis of the report by the Department of Federal Migration Service for the city
of Arkhangelsk and the Arkhangelsk region published in the first half of 2013. The main trends in
migration situation are distinguished: migration flows directions, population, ethnic composition.
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Назаренко А.П. Проблема социальной дезадаптации трудовых мигрантов в свете развития
Архангельской области // Арктика и Север. 2012. № 9.
The article is focused on the causes of labour immigrants social disadaptation, the positive role of
labourmobility in the light of the Arkhangelsk region development is emphasized.
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Образование в социально-культурном контексте Северного региона: материалы научнопрактической конференции (г. Северодвинск, апрель 2007 г.) / Федер. агентство по образов., ПГУ.
Северодвинский филиал; [сост. Е. В. Михайленко ; науч. ред. Э. И. Николаева]. - Архангельск:
Поморский университет, 2008.
The edition presents a collection of the conference articles focused on the main tendences in the field of
education in the Arkhangelsk region. The focus is made on particularities of education in the northern
socio-cultural context.
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Тарасова О. Религиозность в Архангельской области/О. Тарасова // Свеча-2002. Истоки: Север Центр. -Архангельск, 2002.-С.327-328.
The article presents the analysis of reliogiousness level of the Arkhangelsk region population against the
background of nationwide trends. The list of the most widespread in the region religious is given, and
personal attitudes of the Arkhagelsk region habitants towards their regious affiliation are presented.

Лукин Ю.Ф. Архангельская область в конце XX века: религиозность, конфессии/Лукин Ю.Ф. //
Религиозная жизнь Архангельского Севера: история и современность, Архангельск, 1997. т.С.35-48
The paper presents an analysis of changes in the religious situation of the Arkhangelsk region in the ed of
the 20 century. The main confessions are presented in historical perspective.

Гудим-Левкович Г.Е. Религиозность молодежь Архангельской области/Г.Е. Гудим-Левкович //
Молодежь Севера: прошлое, настоящее, будущее: Сб. материалов конф . -Архангельск, 2001.-С.6870.
The edition presents a collection of the conference articles focused on the theme of religiouness in youth
environment of the Arkhangelsk region. Confessions that are new for the region and widespred amoung
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young people, as well as the main tendencies in the religious situation are distinguished.

Гудим-Левкович Г.Е. Состояние религиозности населения Архангельской области на фоне
общероссийских тенденций/Г.Е. Гудим-Левкович // Мир и человек в философии и искусстве. Архангельск, 2001.-С.52-60.
The author considers new trends of the religious situation in the Arkhangelsk region: the problem of
changing the population's attitude towards faith in general, and the religious self-identification of the
Arkhangelsk region population for the period of 1998-2003.

Гудим-Левкович, Г. Религиозная ситуация и конфессиональная политика на Русском Севере (на
примере Архангельской области). Информационно-аналитического центра «Сова». URL: http://www.sova-center.ru/religion/publications/state-confessional/2004/03/d1890/
The article analyzes the changes in the religious situation of the Arkhangelsk region in the period 19802002 gg. In particular, the author examines the question of religious self-identification of the population
and tries to identify the factors influencing its change.

Губницына, О.П. Социологический анализ форм организации религии в социальноисторическом процессе: На примере религиозных организаций Архангельской области.
Диссертация. Санкт-Петербург. 2006. С. 157. URL: - Научная библиотека диссертаций и
авторефератов disserCat http://www.dissercat.com/content/sotsiologicheskii-analiz-form-organizatsiireligii-v-sotsialno-istoricheskom-protsesse-na-pr#ixzz3DBnSzWYy
The dissertation addresses the problem of various forms of religion organization on example of the
Arkhangelsk region. The author concludes that the forms of religion reflect the peculiarities of the sociohistorical development of a particular society (or its part), the specific features of its culture and social
life. Studying the features of the socio-historical development of the Arkhangelsk region, the author
reveals some models of religious life that successfully changed each other and had specific features and
forms of religion organization.
13. Conclusion
The Arkhangelsk region presents an example of a multicultural space that has been formed due to a
number of cultural and historical factors. The northern territories development began in the XI century by
Novgorod citizens, and then followed by several waves of migration, contributing to the establishment of
relatively peaceful coexistence of new settlers with the local population. The growth of migration flows was
especially connected with the foundation of Arkhangelsk, the port city, that in the XVIII century was the
only point through which the development of trade relations with the Western European countries was
possible. Thanks to the trade development, by 1782, a foreign colony consisting of 62 households
represented by citizens of Holland, England, Germany, and other countries was formed in the Arkhangelsk
region. The XX century in the history of the region is characterized by the increase of migration flows from
the southern republics of the USSR, which was caused by development of cooperation between the
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northern and southern regions of the country (in particular, between the Arkhangelsk region and
Azerbaijan).
At the moment the population of the Arkhangelsk region consists of 1.2 million of people and is
represented by 108 nationalities and ethnic groups. Among them, 95.6% are Russians, 1.4% - Ukranians,
0.5% - Belorussians, 0.6% - Nenets, 0.4% - Komi, 0.2% - Azerbaijanis, 0.2% - Tatars, and 1.3% representatives of other nationalities (Armenians, Chuvash et al.). Despite of a relative homogeneity of the
population (the majority of the inhabitants are representatives of the Russian ethnic group), the region is
characterized by diversity in national and ethnic composition. According to experts, this factor is one of the
key ones in explaining the stability of relations between different national and ethnic groups in the region.
In terms of demographic and socio-economic aspects, the region is characterised by outflow of
population. According to experts, the population outflow is caused, first of all, by relatively low level of life
quality in the region. In the ranking of Russian regions on the level of life quality, represented by the
analytical group "RIA-Novosti", Arkhangelsk region (without the Nenets Autonomous District) took the 64
place out of a total list of 82 regions of the Russian Federation (the Nenets Autonomous District took the 62
place). The rating point of the Arkhangelsk region is 37.52 (for comparison, rating point of Moscow is 74.17
points, which corresponds to the first place in the ranking, the lowest rate is 19.10 points). An income per
capita per month, according to data for 2014, was 23,147 rubles, while the average income for the Russian
Federation was 43,884 rubles.
According to experts, the region is characterized by socio-economic stratification of society, and people,
who have an income above the average, prefer to leave to the larger cities of the Russian Federation, in
particular Moscow and St. Petersburg. For the same socio-economic reasons, the Arkhangelsk region is not
highly attractive for external and internal migration. For several years the region has held the second latest
place in intensity of external migration flows in the North-West Federal District. In turn, the impact of
immigration flows on the economic development of the region is insignificant.
According to the official statistics of the Department of the Federal Migration Service for the city of
Arkhangelsk and the Arkhangelsk region, the total number of foreign citizens living on the territory of the
Arkhangelsk region amounted to 7,266 (0.6% of the registered population of the Arkhangelsk region) in
2013; among them, 1974 people had temporary or permanent residence permit and lived in the region
permanently. Most of the immigrants are citizens of visa-free countries. According to the National Census
of 2010, out of 5,114 foreign citizens participated in the survey, 2,007 people living in the Arkhangelsk
region originated from the CIS countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine), 100 people from the European states (Bulgaria, Germany,
Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia), 403 people from Asia (Israel, India, China, Syria, Turkey), 9 from Latin
America, and 70 from Africa. In addition, the Arkhangelsk region is home for 406 people who have no
citizenship. In 2010, the most numerous groups of immigrants from the CIS countries were citizens of the
following countries: Azerbaijan (591 pers.), Ukraine (488 pers.), Uzbekistan (270 pers.), Tajikistan (228),
Belarus (158 pers.), Armenia (126 pers.). Сitizens of India also have presented a group relatively significant
in number (368 pers.).
According to experts, the most widespread reason of migration from the CIS countries is work, while the
goal of most immigrants from Asia, Africa and Latin America is getting higher education. A significant
portion of immigrants from Asia, Latin America and Africa are students of Northern (Arctic) Federal
University (NArFU) and Northern State Medical University (NSMU), both placed in Arkhangelsk. At the
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moment, more than 300 people from more than 45 countries are students of NarFU. Experts' opinion can
also be confirmed by official statistics on the age characteristics of foreign citizens living in the Arkhangelsk
region. The highest percentage of immigrants from the CIS countries are people aged 25-49 years, this age
corresponds to the age of working population; the most part of immigrants from Asia, Africa and Latin
America are 15-24 years old, which corresponds to the average age of students at bachelor and master
levels. The growth of academic migration to the universities of Arkhangelsk is caused by several factors,
such as quality of education and scholarships provided by government.
Besides the city of Arkhangelsk, the most attractive for labour migration areas of the region are the
largest city cities such as Kotlas, Korjazhma, Severodvinsk, Naryan-Mar, where most of region productions
and industries are placed: timber industry (Korjazhma, Kotlas), machine building, shipbuilding and ship
repairing (Kotlas, Severodvinsk), and oil industry (Naryan-Mar). In terms of age and sex composition, the
population of Kotlas, Severodvinsk, and Koryazhma is characterized by the prevalence of the male
population aged 20-39 years, which can be explained by higher demand for male labour force in industries
specific for these cities. In Arkhangelsk, the most numerous groups of population are young people aged
20-24 years. This tendency is primarily connected to internal and external educational migration flows of
young people: Arkhangelsk is a university centre of the region.
The tendency in population's employment within different economic sectors is the following. The largest
percentage of people is engaged in the field of manufacturing (18.1%). Second place goes to the sector of
wholesale and retail trade, repairing and services (14.5%); according to experts, this is the sector, where
the largest number of national minorities representatives and immigrants are employed, particularly ones
from Central Asia and the Caucasus.
Members of different ethnic groups represent business and political elite of the Arkhangelsk region.
According to experts, they are members of Georgian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Azerbaijani and Armenian
Diasporas. Nevertheless, the majority of business and political elite is presented by Russians (96-98%
according to experts' rough estimates).
With support of business and political elite representatives from ethnic and cultural minorities, a
number of public organizations, associations and NGOs were established in the Arkhangelsk region. Their
activities contribute to preserving cultural, language and religious differences of ethnic and national
minorities, as well as to adaptation and integration of immigrants. At present, there are 59 national-cultural
autonomies (NCA), ethno-cultural organizations, associations and groups in the Arkhangelsk region. The
largest ones are such as the regional branch of the “Union of Armenians in Russia”, Azerbaijani Diaspora,
national-cultural autonomy “Ukrainians of Russia”, “Georgian association “Sakartvelo”, association
“Belarus”, “Tajik fraternity” and others. According to experts, national associations and national-cultural
autonomies curate and assist to their fellow countrymen coming to the north. Since migration flows are not
as strong as in the major cities, the Diasporas and the NCAs are aware of the situation and are able to help
their countrymen, as well they engage into constructive interaction with authorities, NGOs and other
regional actors.
The main feature of the interaction between public authorities and social organizations of civil society is
partnership. Experts agree on a special role of the Council of Nationalities as an important mediator
between the authorities and society, acting in order to create conditions for inter-ethnic and inter-religious
cooperation development and strengthening. The Council of Nationalities was established in 2006 as a
platform “to discuss issues of ethnic groups living in the region”. According to the creators of the
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organization, the Council is ensuring the establishment of equal dialogue between all participants:
Diasporas, cultural and ethnic groups, etc. It is also promoting the dialogue development on an equal
footing with the representatives of the Arkhangelsk region administration.
At the levels of state, the main actors contributing to an inter-ethnic and inter-cultural dialogue
development are the following structures and organizations: the Ministry of Local Government
Development of the Arkhangelsk Region, The Department of Federal Migration Service for the city of
Arkhangelsk and the Arkhangelsk Region, Centre for counteracting extremism of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs for the Arkhangelsk region, specialized advisers, and consultative bodies (Commission on
harmonization of inter-ethnic relations in the Arkhangelsk Region, Public Advisory Council under the
Department of the Federal Migration Service for the Arkhangelsk region). In their work, these bodies rely
on national-cultural autonomies and build-up close cooperation with civil society organizations and
associations. According to experts, in the recent years the authorities managed to establish a systematic
work in the sphere of inter-ethnic and inter-cultural relations. The interaction between the authorities and
non-governmental organizations (the Council of Nationalities, first of all) can be described as based on
principles of equality, cooperation and mutual consent.
Due to the joint constructive work, the relationships between Diasporas, cultural and ethnic groups are
characterized by the absence of confrontations. The migration situation in the region remains stable and
controlled. There are no cases of national extremism, open ethnic conflicts, or ethnic discords. The number
of conflicts, caused by ethnic or religious tension, is very little. Only few cases are known, and they are not
connected to each other. Moreover, according to experts, they rather have socio-economic implications
than caused by the ethnic or national differences of their participants.
Nevertheless, despite a relative stability of the situation, the experts express their concern about the
absence in the region of a special educational centre, promoting the ideas of tolerance, especially among
students and young people. In order to prevent inter-ethnic and inter-cultural conflicts development, there
is need in special infrastructure providing adaptation and integration of immigrants. Particularly, the
experts' concern is focused on an increased number of young immigrants, who do not speak Russian
language. According to experts, the number of young people not speaking Russian and coming to the
Arkhangelsk region will increase in the future. This tendency is primarily caused by the cancellation of the
compulsory Russian language courses in the former Soviet republics after the collapse of the USSR. At
present, immigrants have an opportunity to take courses and exams in Russian language on base of NArFU.
In addition, the linguistic centre "Polyglot" (NArFU) provides courses training for language tests and
improving the linguistic competence; however, these services are available only for a fee, which
consequently limits the access to them for a large number of immigrants. In addition, language courses do
not include work aimed at adaptation and integration of immigrants into a new cultural environment. The
creation of special centre, aimed at socio-cultural adaptation of immigrants and providing language courses
for foreigners and people without citizenship, can be a solution of the problem. This possibility has been
discussed at different forums of the Arkhangelsk region.
In general, the experts agree that there is need for special measures preventing inter-ethnic and intercultural conflicts development in the following dimensions:
1. Strengthening work with young immigrants, particularly with academic immigrants (foreign
students), including development of adaptation system, assistance in legal help. The second target group:
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immigrants of the second generation (preservation of their national languages and cultures while studying
Russian language and culture);
2. Strengthening the system of multicultural education at various levels of the educational system in
the Arkhangelsk region, including non-formal education;
3. Development of a regional state program aimed at strengthening the identity of Russian citizens, as
members of a multicultural country (additional funding and developing mechanisms for the programme
implementation).
4. Coordination and intensification of work at the level of local government. Strengthening
cooperation between local authorities and representatives of national-cultural autonomies.
5. Working with migrants arriving for short-term work (eg, construction or seasonal work), their sociocultural adaptation involving Diasporas.
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