Buletin Akademik Ogos 2012 - Terengganu

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Buletin Akademik Ogos 2012 - Terengganu
AURAT: Bukan Sekadar Bertudung
oleh; Mu’allim Bin Mohd Bakri
“Wahai anak-anak Adam! Sesungguhnya Kami telah menurunkan
kepada kamu (bahan-bahan untuk) pakaian menutup caurat kamu,
dan pakaian perhiasan…”(Surah al-‘Acraf (7) : 26)
Menurut al-Qurtubi, ayat ini adalah dalil kepada hukum wajib menutup
aurat kerana di dalamnya ada menyebut “untuk menutup auratmu”.
Selain daripada nas al-Qur’an ini, terdapat juga Hadith Nabi saw yang
menjelaskan kewajiban menutup aurat. Hadith ini bermaksud:
“Daripada cAbd al-Rahman Bin ’Abi Sacid al-Khudriyyi daripada
bapanya, sesungguhnya RasuluLlah saw bersabda : Orang lelaki
tidak boleh memandang kepada aurat lelaki dan orang perempuan
tidak boleh melihat kepada aurat orang perempuan. Dan orang lelaki
tidak boleh menyentuh lelaki yang lain di dalam satu pakaian. Dan
orang perempuan juga tidak boleh menyentuh perempuan yang lain
di dalam satu pakaian”
Hadith ini jelas menunjukkan bahawa haram lelaki melihat aurat lelaki
dan wanita melihat aurat wanita. Manakala hukum haram lelaki melihat
aurat wanita dan haram wanita melihat aurat lelaki sabit melalui ijmac.
Bagi Aurat wanita, terdapat ayat al-Quran yang menjelaskan dengan
terperinci berkaitan dengan Aurat wanita. Sebagaimana Firman Allah
dalam Surah Al-Nur ayat 31 yang bermaksud:
Dan katakanlah kepada perempuan-perempuan yang beriman
supaya menyekat pandangan mereka (daripada memandang
yang haram), dan memelihara kehormatan mereka; dan janganlah
mereka memperlihatkan perhiasan tubuh mereka kecuali yang
zahir daripadanya; dan hendaklah mereka menutup belahan leher
bajunya dengan tudung kepala mereka; dan janganlah mereka
memperlihatkan perhiasan tubuh mereka melainkan kepada
suami mereka, atau bapa mereka, atau bapa mertua mereka, atau
anak-anak mereka, atau anak-anak tiri mereka, atau saudarasaudara mereka, atau anak bagi saudara-saudara mereka yang
lelaki, atau anak bagi saudara-saudara mereka yang perempuan,
atau perempuan-perempuan Islam, atau hamba-hamba mereka,
atau orang gaji dari orang-orang lelaki yang telah tua dan tidak
berkeinginan kepada perempuan, atau kanak-kanak yang belum
mengerti lagi tentang caurat perempuan..(Surah al-Nur (24): 31)
Ayat al-Qur’an ini jelas menerangkan batas-batas aurat bagi wanita.
Selain memelihara kehormatan diri, kaum wanita juga dilarang
memperlihatkan perhiasan tubuh mereka kecuali yang zahir sahaja
seperti muka dan kedua tapak tangan. Berkaitan dengan larangan
memperlihatkan perhiasan tubuh ini termasuk di dalamnya dengan
memakai pakaian-pakaian yang sendat sehingga menampakkan
bentuk badan. Selain itu, kaum wanita juga hendaklah menutup kepala
mereka dengan tudung. Namun begitu terdapat kelonggaran sekiranya
mereka bersama dengan mahram seperti yang dijelaskan di dalam ayat
31 surah al-Nur di atas.
Begitu juga dari sudut cara berjalan, sebagaimana firman Allah SWT
dalam Surah al-Nur ayat 31 yang bermaksud:
Maksudnya :…Dan janganlah mereka menghentakkan kaki untuk
diketahui orang akan apa yang tersembunyi dari perhiasan mereka...
(Surah a-Nur (24): 31)
Ayat al-Qur’an ini jelas menerangkan bahawa kaum wanita dilarang
menhentak-hentakkan kaki ketika berjalan sehingga terdengar bunyi
gelang kaki. Selain cara berjalan, pergerakkan yang ditonjolkan juga
perlu dijaga ketika berurusan dengan ajnabi. Oleh yang demikian,
mereka janganlah menonjolkan pergerakkan yang terlalu kasar dan
terlalu lemah gemalai yang mampu menarik minat sesiapa yang
melihatnya. Bahkan, penggunaan alat solek dan wangian juga dilarang
sama sekali sekiranya berurusan dengan golongan yang berbeza
jantina. Ini kerana, kedua-dua unsur tersebut boleh menyebabkan
wujudnya daya tarikan yang mampu menimbulkan fitnah
Berdasarkan dalil-dalil dan hujah-hujah yang dinyatakan sebelum
ini, jelas menunjukkan bahawa Islam mewajibkan umatnya menutup
aurat. Tuntutan menutup aurat ini lebih diutamakan apabila umat
Islam berada di dalam keadaan yang memerlukan percampuran
antara lelaki dan wanita ajnabi. Oleh yang demikian, wajiblah bagi
lelaki dan wanita Islam menutup had aurat mereka sebagaimana
yang telah ditetapkan oleh Islam. Selain menutup aurat, Islam juga
amat memelihara tatatertib yang perlu dipelihara ketika melakukan
urusan yang melibatkan percampuran lelaki dan wanita. Tatatertib
yang dinyatakan perlulah dipelihara agar percampuran lelaki dan
wanita yang wujud dapat mengelakkan perkara-perkara yang boleh
menimbulkan fitnah.
Kesimpulannya, Islam merupakan agama yang sempurna, lengkap,
menyeluruh dan indah. Segala peraturan yang telah ditetapkan
bukanlah untuk menyekat kebebasan dan bersifat jumud. Namun
begitu, segala yang telah ditetapkan mempunyai Maqasid atau
objektif yang telah ditetapkan oleh Allah SWT. Antara objektif tersebut
adalah untuk memelihara, agama, nyawa, keturunan, akal dan harta.
Sekiranya Aurat yang telah diwajibkan tidak dilaksanakan dengan
betul boleh mengakibatkan pelbagai kerosakan di dalam masyarakat.
Pelbagai kerosakan yang mampu terjadi, antaranya pencabulan,
rogol, zina, pengeksploitasi wanita, dan sebagainya. Jadi, sempena
kempen menutup aurat yang sedang giat dijalankan oleh Pusat
Pemikiran dan Kefahaman Islam (CITU) UITMT marilah kita bersamasama bermuhasabah tentang kekurangan yang perlu diperbetulkan.
Semoga hidup kita diberkati dan diredhai Allah SWT.
RUJUKAN
Qurtubi, ’Abi cAbdu’Llah Muhammad bin ’Ahmad al-’Ansari al-(2002), alJamic li ’Ahkam al-Qur’an (Tafsir al-Qurtubi), 10 j. Kaherah: Dar al-Hadith
Nawawi, ’Imam Mahyuddin ’Abi Zakariya Yahya bin Sharaf al-(t.t), Sahih
Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi, 9 j. Mansurah, Misr: Maktabah al-’Iman
Mustafa Siba’ei (Dr.) (1986), Wanita Menurut Syariat Islam Dan Peradaban
Moden, Sdr. Halimuddin (terj.), Kuala Lumpur: Pustaka Antara
Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Dr.) (2001), Fatawa Mucasarah, 3 j. c. 9. Kaherah:
Dar al-Qalam
Patrons >>
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Samad Abdol Nawi | Assoc. Prof. Dr. Baharom Abdul Rahman | Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mazidah Puteh
Advisor >>
Noor Sharulniza Sau Hamid
Chief Editor >>
Gopala Krishnan
Editors >>
Asri Salleh | Raja Mariam Raja Baniamin | Goh Ying Soon
Layout & Graphics >>Roziani Mohamad (HEA)
BOARD
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EDITORIAL
Namun begitu, setelah menutup Aurat, para wanita juga telah diajar
untuk menjaga adab dan tatatertib agar dapat mengelakkan daripada
timbulnya fitnah yang mampu membawa kerosakan. Antara adab dan
tatatertib yang dianjurkan oleh Islam adalah sebagaimana Firman
Ayat ini jelas menunjukkan bahawa Allah swt memerintahkan agar
isteri-isteri Nabi saw bercakap dengan menggunakan kata-kata
yang petah, kasar dan sopan serta melarang bercakap dengan
menggunakan kata-kata yang lembut dan lemah longlai yang mampu
menaikkan nafsu apabila berhadapan dengan kaum lelaki. Namun
begitu, ayat ini merupakan ayat hukum yang melingkupi keseluruhan
kaum wanita yang beriman.
08/ 2012
ENSYARAH…
ENGAJAR?
ENDIDIK?
Normala Binti Ismail
Mohamad Kamil Ariff Bin Khalid
Umum
mengetahui
bahawa
pensyarah
memainkan peranan yang penting dalam proses
pendidikan, pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Pensyarah yang
mempunyai sahsiah yang baik boleh melaksanakan dengan
berjaya pendidikan yang bersepadu berasaskan Falsafah
Pendidikan Negara yang dapat melahirkan rakyat Malaysia
yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia,
bertanggungjawab dan berkeupayaan mencapai keyakinan diri
serta memberi sokongan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran
masyarakat dan negara.
Justeru, pensyarah turut bertindak sebagai ‘pengurus’ kerana
melaksanakan beberapa fungsi pengurusan dalam bilik kuliah bagi
melaksanakan kurikulum. Proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran
melibatkan interaksi antara pensyarah dengan pelajar. Hasil
perhubungan ini akan menentukan sama ada pensyarah boleh
mengajar, manakala pelajar pula bersedia untuk belajar. Oleh
itu, keberkesanan pengajaran pensyarah bergantung kepada
bagaimana seseorang pensyarah itu dapat menyesuaikan diri dan
memahami masalah pembelajaran pelajarnya.
Kajian Normala Ismail dan Mohamad Kamil Ariff Khalid [2007]
mendapati bahawa pengajaran pensyarah tidak dipengaruhi oleh
kehadiran pelajar ke kuliah, sama ada pelajar mempunyai asas
dalam sesuatu kursus yang diambil, minat dan program pengajian.
Sebaliknya, ia adalah berdasarkan jantina, kursus yang diambil,
kategori pelajar dan bahagian pengajian. Kajian mereka turut
mendapati terdapat empat faktor yang mempengaruhi persepsi
pelajar terhadap pengajaran pensyarah, iaitu personaliti [peribadi]
pensyarah, pensyarah dalam pengajaran, hubungan pensyarah
dengan pelajar dan sikap serta sahsiah pensyarah.
Dari aspek personaliti, kajian menunjukkan pelajar mengkehendaki
personaliti pensyarah yang berketrampilan, rajin, peramah,
penyabar, menghormati pelajar, prihatin dan yang paling tidak
diminati oleh pelajar adalah pensyarah yang garang.
Pensyarah dalam pengajaran pula boleh dilihat dari tiga aspek, iaitu
pensyarah sebelum memulakan pengajaran, semasa pengajaran
dan di akhir pengajaran. Dari aspek perlakuan pensyarah
sebelum memulakan pengajaran, hampir setiap pelajar mahukan
pensyarah yang mempunyai pengetahuan mendalam terhadap
isi pelajaran supaya pensyarah dapat memberi penerangan
dengan jelas dan mudah difahami. Pensyarah mestilah tahu akan
tahap kemampuan dan kemahiran pelajarnya. Ramai pelajar
yang bersetuju bahawa pensyarah perlu meluangkan masa dan
berbincang untuk menyelesaikan sesuatu masalah dari latihan
yang diberikan. Pensyarah juga mestilah memastikan bahawa
pelajar telah mencuba latihan dan menyelesaikan masalah itu
bersama daripada bergantung sepenuhnya kepada jawapan
pensyarah. Dari aspek perlakuan pensyarah semasa pengajaran
pula, pensyarah seharusnya mempunyai suara yang jelas, yang
boleh didengar oleh setiap pelajar, di samping menggunakan
bahasa yang mudah difahami. Pensyarah juga perlu merancang
pengajarannya dengan mempelbagaikan kaedah pengajaran.
Pensyarah yang mengajar kaedah pengajaran yang menarik
dengan menggunakan alat bantuan mengajar akan membuat
pelajar seronok untuk belajar. Akhir sekali, dari aspek perlakuan
pensyarah pada akhir pengajaran, pelajar mahukan pengajaran
yang disampaikan oleh pensyarah mestilah dapat menimbulkan
minat mereka. Seseorang pelajar yang berminat dalam perkara
yang dipelajarinya akan menunjukkan pencapaian yang tinggi.
Pensyarah mestilah membuat rumusan dan kesimpulan terhadap
apa yang telah diajar di samping menjawab soalan pelajar dengan
memberikan jawapan yang memuaskan.
Selanjutnya, dalam hubungan pensyarah dengan pelajar,
pensyarah sepatutnya memberi dorongan dan galakan kepada
pelajar supaya berusaha dengan lebih gigih. Di samping itu,
pensyarah juga digalakkan memberi persaingan yang positif
sesama pelajar, selain menerima pendapat dan pandangan
pelajar dan tidak mendakwa pelajar dengan ancaman ataupun
denda.
Penemuan kajian mengenai sikap dan sahsiah seterusnya
mendapati bahawa pelajar memerlukan pensyarah yang bersifat
adil dengan tidak membezakan pelajar selain dari sifat bertimbang
rasa dan menunjukkan simpati atas kelemahan pelajar. Pensyarah
juga tidak seharusnya mencari kesalahan atau menyindir dan
memperkecilkan pelajar. Di samping itu, pensyarah juga harus
memberi pujian kepada pelajar yang memberi jawapan yang betul
sebagai motivasi agar pelajar minat belajar. Pelajar juga tidak
suka pensyarah yang suka berleter atau marah tanpa sebab.
Keseluruhannya, kajian mendapati bahawa pensyarah yang baik
adalah pensyarah yang dapat menguasai isi kandungan pelajaran.
Apabila seseorang pensyarah mempunyai pengetahuan yang
mendalam mengenai isi pelajaran, beliau akan lebih berkeyakinan
semasa pengajaran dan dapat menyampaikannya dengan baik.
Persediaan yang rapi sebelum memulakan pengajaran juga
merupakan salah satu faktor penting yang dapat mempengaruhi
kualiti pengajaran pensyarah.
Akhir sekali, pengurusan masa merupakan satu lagi aspek penting
yang perlu diberikan perhatian. Pensyarah hendaklah sentiasa
menepati masa. Pensyarah perlu peruntukkan sedikit masa untuk
sesi perbincangan, tidak kira sama ada untuk membincangkan
masalah yang timbul dari latihan yang diberikan ataupun masalah
yang wujud semasa sesi pengajaran dan pembelajaran dalam kuliah.
Proses pengajaran adalah sesuatu yang kompleks. Justeru itu,
pengajaran yang menarik dan berkesan merupakan pengajaran
yang boleh menghasilkan pembelajaran pelajar sebagaimana
yang diharapkan oleh masyarakat dan negara. Menurut George
[1976] pengajaran yang berkesan merupakan pengajaran
yang boleh meningkatkan pembelajaran dalam diri pelajar.
Pembelajaran yang efektif hanya boleh berlaku dalam suasana
yang sihat, bersemangat dan demokratik. Hasil pembelajaran
akan mengubah tingkah laku pelajar akibat daripada penerimaan
pengetahuan atau kepercayaan yang baru. Perkembangan
seseorang pelajar itu pula merangkumi aspek jasmani, emosi,
rohani dan intelek.
Rujukan
• Normala Ismail dan Mohamad Kamil Ariff Khalid. (2007).
Persepsi Pelajar Terhadap Keberkesanan Pengajaran
Pensyarah dalam Kursus Ekonomi. IRDC: UiTM
• George, J. M. (1976). Psychology for Effective Teaching.
Third Edition. New York: Holt and Rinehart Incorporation.
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Sesungguhnya, kewajiban menutup aurat ini jelas dinyatakan dalam
nas-nas al-Qur’an dan al-Sunnah. Antara Nas al-Qur’an yang
menjelaskan kewajiban menutup aurat ini adalah sebagaimana firman
Allah SWT dalam Surah al-‘A’raf ayat 26 yang bermaksud:
Allah SWT dalam Surah al-Ahzab ayat 32 yang bermaksud:
Oleh itu, janganlah kamu berkata-kata dengan lembut manja
(semasa bercakap dengan lelaki asing) kerana yang demikian boleh
menimbulkan keinginan orang yang ada penyakit dalam hatinya
(menaruh tujuan buruk kepada kamu), dan sebaliknya berkatalah
dengan kata-kata yang baik (sesuai dan sopan). (Surah al-’Ahzab
(33) : 32)
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“Saya malulah nak memakai tudung, nanti kawan-kawan akan
mentertawakan saya”, “Saya tak bertudung pun, tapi hati saya baik
tak macam kawan-kawan saya yang bertudung kerana mereka suka
mengata orang”, “Belum sampai seru lagi untuk saya bertudung”, “Rimas
la ustaz sebab panas dan pendengaran pun terhad bila memakai tudung
ni”,”Ahh tak vogue la bertudung, tak boleh nak berfesyen macam Lady
Gaga, Beyonce dan Tyra Bank” dan pelbagai lagi alasan-alasan yang
diberikan kerana tidak mahu bertudung. Rentetan daripada alasanalasan ini telah memberikan satu tanggungjawab kepada penulis untuk
menjelaskan konsep aurat. Penumpunan di dalam penulisan ini adalah
terhadap aurat wanita.
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OCEAN ACIDIFICATION
Prepared by: Siti Munirah binti Muda & Yazarina binti Yahya
1.0
INTRODUCTION
The consequences of Man using fossil fuels such as coal, oil
and natural gas which cause global warming have grabbed
everyone’s attention. Sea water acidification is another example
of global warming effect. Although it is much less known,
this has resulted in approximately 79 million tons of carbon
dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere every day which
is mostly not only consumed by fossil fuel burning but also by
deforestation and production of cement. About one third of the
CO2 released in the atmosphere is caused by anthropogenic
(human related) activity that has been absorbed by the world’s
seas during the beginning of the industrial revolution. This
will lead in moderating climate change. Due to the capacity of
the oceans, the CO2 content in the atmosphere would have
caused much higher global warming and its consequences
would be more dramatic.
The evidence of seawater acidification caused by carbon
dioxide emission and the pH of seawater play an important
role in the ocean’s carbon cycle. However, pH measurement
is complicated due to the chemical properties of seawater
and several distinct pH scales which exist in chemical
oceanography. Although the natural absorption of CO2 by
the world's oceans helps to mitigate the climatic effects
of anthropogenic emissions of CO2, it is believed that the
decrease in pH will have negative consequences, primarily to
oceanic calcifying organisms.
mainly through the combustion of fossil fuels, cement
production, agriculture and deforestation. The concentration
of CO2 in the atmosphere has been increasing from its recent
pre industrial level of about 280 parts per million (ppm) to
about 380 ppm. Atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to
continue to increase for at least the next century and probably
longer, unless emissions are substantially reduced, which may
well reach levels exceeding 1000 ppm by 2100, higher than
anything experienced on Earth for several million years.
The carbon cycle comes in two forms which are the organic
carbon cycle and the inorganic carbon cycle. The inorganic
carbon cycle is particularly relevant when discussing ocean
acidification for it includes the many forms of dissolved CO2
present in the Earth’s oceans. When CO2 dissolves, it reacts
with water to form a balance of ionic and ionic chemical
species like dissolved free carbon dioxide (CO2(aq)), carbonic
acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonate (CO3-2).
2.1
The long term inorganic carbon cycle
Students who have higher quality outcomes normally adopt good approaches to learning under the following situations: the lecturer provides
ample and useful feedback, makes clear the lesson objectives; the assessment criteria and what is expected of students, presents the
significance of the course and endeavours to make it interesting, produces opportunities for questions and time for consultations, is good at
explaining things and makes an attempt to understand students’ complexity. The abundance of literature on effective teaching that relates
to student achievement bears witness to the ongoing quest for a better understanding of the effect of lecturer characteristics and attributes
(inputs) on student learning gain. What is rarely looked at is how the lecturer actually performs in the classroom and how that performance
translates into student learning advantage.
Hence, the relationship between lecturer teaching contribution and student learning gain can be expressed in four dimensions of lecturer
teaching attributes: rapport, clear explanation, preparation and organization, and feedback. Each has different effects towards student
learning gain.
1.1 Rapport
It is vital that lecturers acknowledge student's personalities, exhibit stability of character, and build healthy relationships with the students. The
lecturer will be able to motivate each student extensively once a mutually respectful and good rapport has been created. By developing a good
relationship with their students, the lecturer would be able to assist them in regarding learning as a positive experience. Crosnoe, R., Johnson, M. K., & Elder, G. H. (2004) stress on the intergenerational connection between students and their teachers, such as
how a student distinguishes his or her teacher (i.e. fair, caring, etc.), and investigate how that rapport influences the student’s performance
in school (Crosnoe, et al., 2004). Lecturer’s job is not simply disseminating information. He or she can be a person with whom students
need to feel trusting and confident. A robust bond between student and lecturer is crucial for generating and upholding a productive and
positive classroom environment. The entire learning system could easily descend if good communication is lacking between an educator and
students. On the contrary, if students and lecturer maintain respect for each other, students will feel safer and more comfortable; which would
result in higher concentration on learning content.
1.2 Clear Explanation
According to Chin & Brown (2000), explanation refers to how or why an occurrence arises. Lee & Fradd (1998) highlight it as the notion
of instructional congruence to point out the process of reconciling the nature of academic content with students' language and cultural
experiences to make such content comprehensible, meaningful, and applicable for various students. Lecturers should learn both from
experience and other educators the best way in conveying the message and explaining to students in order to make them understand (Edge,
2002). Freeman (1993) proposes that expressing implicitly would give educators greater control in sharing their classroom practice through
articulating the ideas in professional and local language. With clearly articulated notions, it would maximize comprehension and promotes
higher quality outcomes among students.
1.3 Preparation And Organization
Only highly professional individuals and people with the necessary teaching expertise should be trusted in the profession of teaching because
the process is very important and complicated. As such, to be successful in their profession, lecturers must possess a wide knowledge and
background of other disciplines, such as pedagogy, psychology and methodology, significant features in disseminating the knowledge to the
students. Part of the preparation for lecturers is getting themselves and their classrooms well organized. Lecturers who have made proper
preparation and classroom management plans would tend to have well-managed classrooms. Organized educators and classrooms create
a positive learning environment which encourages students to pay attention and work hard. Educators who are not well-managed are often
ineffective in the classroom and they often report high levels of stress and have symptoms of burnout (Brouwers & Tomic, 2000).
The flow chart below shows the overview of subtopic for better
understanding of ocean acidification.
Insufficient preparation is one of major causal factors to the classroom management problems faced by educators. Although the significance
of effective classroom organization and behavior management is extensively acknowledged by educators, many fail to establish productive
classroom environments (Baker, 2005).
3.0
IMPACTS OF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION
As we know, over 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by
the oceans, which are home to an incredibly diverse flora and
fauna. They play a key role in regulating the climate and levels
of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is one of the main greenhouse
gases.
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Carbon dioxide is being produced in substantial quantities
Ocean acidification could potentially reduce marine biodiversity
in a number of ways. Firstly through a loss of those species
which are sensitive to changes in CO2 and pH. Secondly,
if sensitivity to acidification is a function of an organism's
taxonomic group, acidification may also reduce taxonomic
The authors, however, are of the opinion that whatever amount of preparation and good rapport with students, lecturers must give priority
to the ability to explain clearly and provide good feedback to students so that students will attain higher learning gain in their class. For this
reason, lecturers can make a difference !
Baker, P. H. (2005). Managing Student Behavior: How Ready Are Teachers to
Meet the Challenge? American Secondary Education, 33(3), 13.
Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (2000). A longitudinal study of teacher burnout and
perceived self-efficacy in classroom management. Teaching and Teacher
Education, 16(2), 239-253.
Chin, C., & Brown, D. E. (2000). Learning in science: A comparison of deep and
surface approaches. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(2), 109-138.
Crosnoe, R., Johnson, M. K., & Elder, G. H. (2004). Intergenerational bonding
in school: The behavioral and contextual correlates of student-teacher
relationships. Sociology of Education, 77(1), 60.
Edge, J. (2002). Continuing cooperative development. Ann Arbor, University of
Michigan Press.
Feldman, K. A. (1976). The superior college teacher from the students' view.
Research in Higher Education, 5(3), 243-288.
Freeman, D. (1993). Renaming experience/reconstructing practice: Developing
new understanding of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9(5-6), 485497.
Hunter, M. (1982). Mastery teaching: Increasing instructional effectiveness in
elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and universities. El Segundo: TIP
Publications.
Jones, F. H., & Jones, P. (2007). Fred Jones Tools for Teaching: Discipline,
Instruction, Motivation: Fredric H. Jones & Associates.
Lampert, M. (2002). Appreciating the complexity of teaching and learning
in school: A commentary on Cobb; Forman and Ansell; McClain; Saxe;
Schliemann; and Sfard. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 11(2/3), 365368.
Lee, O., & Fradd, S. H. (1998). Science for all, including students from nonEnglish-language backgrounds. Educational Researcher, 27(4), 12.
Marsh, H. W. (1987). Students' evaluations of university teaching: Research
findings, methodological issues, and directions for future research. International
Journal of Educational Research, 11(3), 253-388.
Reiser, B. J., Tabak, I., Sandoval, W. A., Smith, B. K., Steinmuller, F., & Leone,
A. J. (2001). BGuILE: Strategic and conceptual scaffolds for scientific inquiry in
biology classrooms. Cognition and instruction: Twenty-five years of progress,
263-305.
Sanders, W. L., & Horn, S. P. (1998). Research findings from the Tennessee
Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) database: Implications for
educational evaluation and research. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in
Education, 12(3), 247-256.
Sherman, T. M., Armistead, L., Fowler, F., Barksdale, M. A., & Reif, G.
(1987). The quest for excellence in university teaching. The Journal of Higher
Education, 66-84.
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THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE
Jones & Jones (2007) recommends a feedback system that makes certain students receive attention and feedback from educators on
progress. It would help promote effective classroom management and positive education environment. Lecturers can monitor students’ work
by praising, prompting, and then leaving or moving on to the next student. According to Hunter (1982), the practice enable educators to give
first-rate feedback while verifying for student understanding.
References
References
2.0
1.4 Feedback on Continuous Assessment
Assessment is the process of attaining information needed in making educational decisions about students and providing feedback about
their progress, strengths, and weaknesses. Assessment techniques comprises of formal and informal observation, qualitative analysis of
pupil performance, paper-and-pencil tests, oral questioning, and analysis of student records.
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Figure 1: Overview of subtopic in acidification of seawater
Calcium ions in the oceans are supplied by the weathering
of carbonate-silicate rocks in sea spreading brought to the
surface. The calcium ions in these rocks are then recycled.
The calcium carbonate (limestone) deposits on the sea floor
are subducted in the mantle align plate boundaries like the
one a few hundred miles off the Washington coast. As the
limestone heats up, it undergoes metamorphosis. The carbon
is expelled in the form of CO2 in volcanic eruptions. The
calcium reacts with quartz to form calcium silicate. Eventually
the “metamorphic” calcium silicate rock in sea floor spreading
returns to the surface and makes its way onto land where it
becomes subject to erosion. The calcium ions are then carried
by rivers into the ocean where they become available to shell
forming phytoplankton, thereby completing the cycle.
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On the other hand, GMO products from pigs or dogs may be
allowed for external use, such as cosmetic products. The reason
is that the physical element of pigs or dogs cannot be detected or
traced in the product, whether during processing or in the finished
As a conclusion, it is safe to say that GM products are considered
fit for Muslims consumption as long as they originated from halal
sources. Therefore, Muslim should always be careful in choosing
GM food and be sure of the sources before consuming them.
HELLO,
SHOPPERS!
by; Wan Mardiana Wan Musa and Jusniza Abdul Jamal
While online shopping has become a trend nowadays, it sounded
alien to me, until recently, when I discovered myself pregnant.
Suddenly, I became interested in my sister’s (who conceived 6
months earlier) online shopping activities. She introduced me to
various websites befitted our current needs such as maternity and
nursing garments and appliances.
I became an addict almost immediately and found myself browsing
almost every day and regularly placing my orders. Another
excitement was waiting for the delivery man to arrive at the front
door and impatiently tearing out the wrappings of our packages to
see the goods.
The anti-climax was when we found that the quality of the goods
was not as what we had expected and sometimes, the goods
received were different from what we had ordered. I’m sure other
online shoppers out there might have experienced the same
problems throughout their purchases. So what can we do about it?
In Malaysia, all purchases are protected by the Sale of Goods
Act 1957. Section 15 and 16 of the Act are most relevant when it
comes to online shopping. Section 15 provides as follows:
Where there is a contract for the sale of goods by description,
there is an implied condition that the goods shall correspond
with the description; and, if the sale is by sample as well
as by description, it is not sufficient that the bulk of the
goods corresponds with the sample if the goods do not also
correspond with the description.
Therefore, shoppers have all the rights to demand the goods to
correspond with the description as agreed by the parties in the
contract. If you ordered 30 packs of Carter’s rompers 5 in 1 set,
packed in three different boxes, the goods should arrive as per
your request, if it was agreed earlier.
Similarly, if you asked for Carter’s, then it should be Carter’s
and not other brand name even though the quality might be the
same. Such right is provided by Section 16(1) of the 1957 Act. The
section reads as follows:
(1)
Subject to this Act and any other law for the time being
in force, there is no implied warranty or condition as to the quality
or fitness for any particular purpose of goods supplied under a
contract of sale, except as followsWhere the buyer, expressly or by implication makes known
to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods are
required, so as to show that the buyer relies on the seller’s
skill or judgment, and the goods are of a description which
it is in the course of the seller’s business to supply (whether he is
the manufacturer or producer or not) there is an implied condition
that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such purpose:
Provided that, in the case of a contract for the sale of a specified
article under its patent or other trade name there is no implied
condition as to its fitness for any particular purpose.
Where goods are bought by description from a seller who
deals in goods of that description (whether he is the manufacturer or producer or not) there is an implied
condition that the goods shall be of merchantable quality:
Provided that if the buyer has examined the goods, there shall be
no implied condition as regards defects which such
examined ought to have revealed.
The above section saved my sister when she found that one of the
baby jumpers she ordered was torn and had a hole in the fabric. It
is her right to get the baby jumper as of the quality promised by the
seller and because of that, they agreed to compensate her loss by
refunding money or delivering a new, similar item to her.
It is also important to make thorough check of the website in which
you would like to place your orders. Usually, I would choose the
ones that are frequented by my sister or fellow friends. They are
the living testimony to the trustworthiness of the websites and
hence reduce the risk when buying online.
The mode of payment should also be taken seriously if you are
new to online shopping. Make sure that the website management
provides customer friendly modes of payment and ensure efficient
corresponding methods to avoid any miscommunication. If you
are new to the website, try to minimize your order so that you can
test it first.
Through my experience, online shopping is very convenient as
well as time and money saving since I don’t have to spend on
fuel and parking ticket. Furthermore, it also helps to reduce the
temptation to shop and buy unnecessary things that are not even
in my list. The goods offered are cheaper too compared to ordinary
convenient stores or hypermarkets as most online traders have no
business premises and operate from home.
In addition, as the fundamental chemistry of the oceans is
changing, the impacts to marine life from these changes will
make an impact on the society. Thus, the socio-economic
value of coral reefs for example has been highlighted (Brander
et al., 2009). This is because, ocean acidification will affect the
society through its impact on fisheries, with the possibility of
declining harvests and loss of fishery revenues from shellfish
and their predators. According to the United Nations Food and
Agriculture Organization, 6 global fisheries provide around 15
percent of the animal protein consumed by humans worldwide
(much higher in Africa and Asia), provide direct and indirect
employment for nearly 200 million people, and generate
$85 billion annually. Ocean acidification could therefore lead
to “substantial revenue declines, job losses, and indirect
economic costs” (Cooley and Doney 2009). The economic
losses from decreased fishery harvests will be concentrated in
specific regions that rely heavily on such income.
4.0
CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, the ocean acidification leads to natural source
of green house gas emission which is CO2 gas release. Ocean
acidification will cause climate change such as hurricanes,
snow pack, glacier, water supply, drought, heat waves, fires,
ecosystem imbalance, sea level rises and also extreme event
which is climate change.
Besides that, the buildup of green house gas caused by
anthropogenic sources which are from human activities such
as land-use changes, the combustion of fossil fuels and the
production of cement will lead to a new flux of CO2 into the
atmosphere.
5.0
REFERENCES
• Brander, L. M., Rehdanz, K., Tol, R. S. J. & Beukering, P.
J. H. (2009). The Economic Impact of Ocean Acidification
on Coral Reefs. Retrieved from http://www.tara.tcd.ie/
handle/2262/27779
• Buesseler, K.O. (2001). Ocean Biogeochemistry and the
Global Carbon Cycle: An Introduction to the U.S. Joint
Global Ocean Flux Study. Oceanography 14(4), 5-121.
• Cooley, S. R., & Doney, S. C. (2009). Anticipating ocean
acidification's economic consequences for commercial
fisheries. Environmental Research Letters, 4 (2), 1-8.
• doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/4/2/024007
• Guinotte, J.M., Orr, J., Cairns, S., Freiwald, A., Morgan,
L. & George, R. (2006). Will human-induced changes
in seawater chemistry alter the distribution of deep-sea
scleractinian corals? Front. Ecol. Environ., 4, 141–146.
• Krauskopf, K. B. & Bird, D. K. (1995). Introduction to
Geochemistry (3rd ed.).
• McGraw-Hill Inc. :New York.
• Laque, F.L. (1975). Marine Corrosion: Causes and
prevention. John Wiley: New York, USA.
• Richard, Z. & Gattuso, J. P. (2006). " Marine carbonate
chemistry." In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J.
Cleveland Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information
Coalition, National Council for Science and the
Environment.
• Orr, J.C. (2005). Anthropogenic ocean acidification
over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying
organisms. Nature, 437, 681–686.
• Science Policy Briefing 37. (2009). Impacts of Ocean
Acidification. European Science Foundation.
• Williams, N.(2010). Arctic acid test. Current Biology, 20(6),
255-256.
RESEPI AIR TANGAN BONDA MENJADI INSPIRASI DALAM PERNIAGAAN
REMPAH ADAMI FOOD & SPICES INDUSTRIES SDN BHD Oleh JANNAH MUNIRAH BINTI MOHD NOOR
Tiada kesenangan tanpa kesusahan. Dan tiada kemanisan tanpa
melalui kepahitan,itu lah yang dilalui oleh pengusaha rempah
ini saat berbicara mengenai dunia keusahawanan. Pengalaman
adalah sesuatu yang teramat bernilai. Setiap orang mempunyai
pengalaman berbeza-beza, begitu juga dengan Pn Zulaika
Jamaliah Harun. Bermula dari zaman remaja bidang masakan
merupakan hobi yang diminati, berbekalkan seribu semangat
beliau sentiasa mengimpikan mempunyai perusahaan sendiri
dalam bidang masakan.
To improve teaching and learning in university, study on student learning can be very helpful. The factors that influence student learning
gain are particularly useful for lecturers who want to understand their students' learning and create learning environments which encourage
students to achieve desired learning outcomes. Sanders and Horn (1998) indicate that the single most important factor in determining university
student academic success is the lecturer. Classrooms are complex systems where many factors influence student learning including tools,
lecturers, and peers (Lampert, 2002). Reiser et al.(2001), argue that the role of the lecturer is essential in structuring and guiding students'
understanding of theories.
Marsh (1987) carried a definitive review of the massive literature on the use of student evaluations and their relation to teaching effectiveness. He identified workload, lecturers’ explanations, empathy (interest in students), openness, and the quality of assessment procedures (including
quality of feedback), among his nine dimensions of effective instruction at university level. Similarly, Feldman’s (1976) scheme included
nineteen similar categories of instructional effectiveness, including stimulation of student interest, lecturer sensitivity to class level and
progress, clarity of course requirements, understandable explanations, respect for students and encouraging independent thought. According
to Sherman, T. M., Armistead, L., Fowler, F., Barksdale, M. A., & Reif, G. (1987), five characteristics had been regularly and consistently
attributed to university instructors selected as excellent: enthusiasm, clarity, preparation/organization, stimulating, and love of knowledge.
Berkat usaha dan sifat tidak putus asa beliau, beliau berjaya
menghasilkan produk perencah rempah ratus Adami yang
kini telah menembusi pasaran antarabangsa. Perjalanan dari
Terengganu ke Bandar Maharani, Muar, menyingkap seribu
pengalaman usahawan wanita berjaya, biarpun perjalanan
mengambil masa 8 jam, perasaan gembira menemuramah dan
by; Sakinah Mat Zin | Hajjah Rohana Yusoff | Nor Aini Hassanuddin
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Putting aside direct biological effects, it is expected that ocean
acidification in the future will lead to a significant decrease in the
burial of carbonate sediments for several centuries, and even
the dissolution of existing carbonate sediments. This will cause
an elevation of ocean alkalinity, leading to the enhancement of
the ocean as a reservoir for CO2 with moderate implications
for climate change as more CO2 leaves the atmosphere for
the ocean.
Jatuh bangun dalam dunia perniagaan adalah resam dalam
dunia perniagaan, malah beliau sentiasa berprinsip kerugian itu
bukan satu kegagalan atau kesalahan tetapi sebagai terapi diri
untuk belajar menjadi yang lebih baik untuk dijadikan sebagai
sandaran dan pengalaman. Menyingkap kisah sejarah permulaan
menceburi dunia perniagaan, pada peringkat permulaan ,beliau
hanya memulakan perniagaan rempah sebagai hobi, dan bermula
hanya 2 periuk sahaja. Menjaja di tepi jalan dan rumah ke rumah
sudah menjadi kebiasaan bagi beliau, berbekalkan seribu
semangat beliau, perasaan putus asa tiada di dalam kamus,
biarpun usia menginjak ke 40 an, beliau masih mengagahkan diri
ke Kursus- kursus keusahawanan anjuran FAMA, MARDI dan
juga beberapa agensi kerajaan yang lain.
In a nutshell, online shoppers need not worry if the goods ordered
are not satisfactory or defective as the Sale of Goods Act 1957
provides some remedies in a form of monetary compensation, a
refund or a replacement. So, happy shopping you guys!
LECTURERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE: THEIR ATTRIBUTES ON STUDENT LEARNING GAIN
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diversity. Thirdly, the loss of keystone or a reduction in their
activity (e.g. predation, grazing, bioturbation), could reduce
habitat complexity and also reduce the biological regulation of
competition.
berkongsi pengalaman bersama beliau adalah suatu kenangan
yang tidak dapat dilupakan.
SEJARAH ADAMI FOOD & SPICES INDUSTRI SDN BHD
• Dibangunkan 11 tahun yang lalu dengan satu kedai dan satu
periuk khas masakan perencah
• Kini, ADAMI telah memiliki 6 lot bangunan sebagai
kilang memproses dan 12 periuk (2 tan pengeluaran dan
menghampiri 20, 000 paket sehari).
• Dulu ADAMI mengisar penyediaan bahan mentah di tempat
lain, kini kami mampu mengisar bahan mentah sendiri untuk
mengekalkan kualiti produk dan menjamin mutu kebersihan
STRATEGI PEMASARAN
• ADAMI menguasai 90% pasaran di Johor
• 60% di Melaka
• 60% di Negeri Sembilan
• 30% di kawasan tengah & Utara
• 15% di kawasan timur
•
•
•
Sebagai Pengilang produk penjenamaan semula kepada
koperasi & agensi kerajaan seperti Koperasi Celcom
Bhd(jenama Nasi Berianigam KOPCEL BEST), Koperasi
Felda (jenama Nasi Berianigam SELERA), FAMA (jenama
Mee Bandung Agromas, Soto Agromas).
ADAMI sentiasa berusaha mencari peluang dan ruang untuk
memasarkan produk ini ke peringkat antarabangsa.
Sekrang ini ada beberapa negara yang berminat untuk
memasarkan produk ADAMI di negara Brunei Darul Salam,
China & Australia
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product. Therefore, according to Islamic principles, they do not
have to meet the criterion of prohibition.
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of the IJC on GMOS. IFANCA acknowledges that discussions on
food derived from biotechnology are ongoing.
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Discover the Temple of Jupiter, Pompeii
by; Ernie Melini Mohd Jamarudi
It was summer 2007; I and another friend went for a back-pack
trip for 16 days to Austria and Italy. Among all places that we
have been, I wish to share my humble experience in discovering
the Temple of Jupiter, Pompeii, Italy.
Proses menyejukkan bahan yang dikisar...
Proses
menyejukkan bahan yang dikisar...
MENYEJUKKAN BAHAN YANG DI KISAR
Proses Memasak produk...
However, my enthusiasm over Pompeii arose when I discovered
one of the world famous tourist attractions, the Temple of Jupiter.
It was a very large temple which situated in distance to the
Vesuvius Volcano. Historically, it was not just a main temple for
religious practice but it was also a place for the locals largely
were the members of aristocrat to enjoy the therapeutic roman
bath built in the temple.
MEMASAK
Proses memasakPROSES
produk...
Proses membungkus...
PROSES MEMBUNGKUS
A
ADAMI
Penulis VARIASI
(kanan) PRODUK
bersama KELUARAN
tenaga pengusaha
produk Adami, Puan Jamaliah
PRODUK SIAP UNTUK DI EDA RKAN
Bersama selebriti Chef Wan...
Tanjung Puteri Ke Kuala Sedeli,
Singgah Membeli Ikan Tenggiri,
Kalau Pelajar Ke Bandar Maharani,
Cari ADAMI Istimewa Di Hati.
Variasi Produk Keluaran ADAMI...
•
4
MEMBURU IMPIAN SEBAGAI USAHAWAN
• Kekuatan Jati Diri
• Rajin
• Sabar
• Tiada rasa putus asa(kecewa)
• Penuhkan dada dengan ilmu
• Jika gagal, cari kelemahan dalam diri sendiri
• Jika sudah berjaya, jangan lupa diri (Bersyukur atas nikmat kurniaan Allah)
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Visi ADAMI 15 tahun akan datang untuk berada di papan utama Bursa Malaysia. Untuk merealisasikan visi ini, ADAMI memerlukan
kekuatan dalaman industri, pemasaran yang hebat & 5 anak syarikat di bawah ADAMI sebagai ADAMI group.
Being guided with the digital tour, I was
informed about the date when the temple was built and its
development was influenced by the ancient Roman era. By
looking at the leftover buildings, temple maps and the overall
structures, I could imagined how beautiful the temple would
be had it not been destroyed by the volcano’s lava in decades
ago. Now, only left are the excavated buildings covered with
lava dust.
There are also few human statutes in different kind of forms
can be seen in this temple. According to the digital tour guide,
these statutes are real dead bodies which had been buried in
the dried lava. These dead bodies had been taken out from the
lava and they were preserved by using some kind of chemical
in order to let them remain in form of stone statute.
The story which I have written here are totally based from
my observation and also based on what I have listened from
the digital tour guide. Further information about the Temple of
Jupiter can be found on the internet. In a nut-shell, I would
recommend this place for a visit especially for those who are
interested with historical buildings and stories.
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD: A CHALLENGING HALAL ISSUE
by; Jusniza Abdul Jamal | Rosmawati Abdul Rahman | Noorimah Misnan
challenging and difficult question regarding the halal issue
is the controversial Genetically Modified (GM) food and
processed food containing GM elements. During the last ten to
fifteen years, Genetically Modified Crops (GMC) and the scientific
techniques that inspired them have become a routine issue that
attracts a lot of controversies.
Produk siap untuk diedarkan...
View of Mount Vesuvius from Temple of Jupiter
Nowadays, it is very difficult for Muslim consumers to make sure
that the products that they are buying are clean and permissible in
Islam. It is because of today’s technologically advanced methods
used in production and processing of food and care products. One
of them is the genetically modified food.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) is something new to
Muslim scholars, especially when it comes to food products.
However, Muslim scholars are encouraged to study new
technologies for the betterment of humans’ lives. These include
not only new ingredients from conventional raw materials, but also
GM products.
In agriculture, genetic engineering allows useful genetic traits to
be artificially inserted, instead of the plant acquiring them through
pollination. The inserted gene sequence (the transgene) may come
from wild relatives, another unrelated plant or from a completely
different species including fish, animals, bacteria or virus.
The problem arises when DNA from animals such as pig, is used to
manipulate genes of crops. In order to form a GM crop, a bacterial
vector is required so as transport the genetic material from one
species to another. Usually the bacteria used as the vector is of
the Agrobacterium Tumefaciens type, which can interact naturally
with almost all types of plants. The foreign gene is inserted into
the bacterial vector, which in turn, is transferred into a plant to
be genetically modified. The DNA which contains the gene code,
from the foreign gene would then replicate itself in the plant. The
part of the plant with the foreign gene is cultured and used to form
a new type of plant. This new type of plant is so called transgenic
GM crop, which would then produced the GM food.
Is GM crop halal in Islamic point of view? To determine whether
GMO products are halal or not, one has to go to the principles of
halal (lawful) and haram (forbidden) in Islam, as guided by the
Quran and the Hadith, while observing the following principles: (1)
anything that is harmful to the human body is haram; (2) four types
of food are clearly haram—carrion, blood, swine and dog flesh
and anything immolated to anyone other than God. GMO products
are lawful if they originated from lawful sources, including genes
from lawful animals. They become haram or highly questionable
if they originated from unlawful sources such as genetic material
from pigs or dogs.
According to the Malaysian National Fatwa Committee, since
Islam prohibits the eating of swine and product derived from it,
a GM food derived from crop using transgenic biotechnological
method incorporating swine DNA is against the Syari’ah and
therefore, it is haram. But according to Islamic Fiqh Academy,
there is no fatwa issued on this matter.
According to the Islamic Jurisprudence Council (IJC), food derived
from biotechnology-improved GM crops is halal which means that they
are fit for consumption by Muslims. Some scholars have suggested
that food derived from biotechnology-improved crops could possibly
become haram if they contain DNA from forbidden sources.
For example, swine DNA in soy could make the soy product
haram. This issue is still the subject of some debates among
scholars and certifying organizations. Today, a product that is
brought to the market with a gene from a haram source, would
at least be considered Mashbooh (questionable) if not outright
haram. However, all biotechnology-derived food on the market
today is from approved sources.
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Penulis (dua dari kanan) bersama tenaga pekerja
Adami Food Sdn Bhd...
Nothing fascinated me when the first time I stepped into Pompeii.
It was always
crowded and
dusty due to
the Vesuvius
Volcano
situated
n e a r b y.
Some of the
locals are a
bit
strange
because
they
have
yellowish
coloured iris
eyes which made me felt spooky and there were a lot of wild dogs
everywhere (I mean dogs with no owners). Strangely, these dogs
are tame and like to follow people sort of like offering themselves
to be pampered as a pet.
The Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America (IFANCA), the
main North American halal certifying body supports the position
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Jannah Munirah shared Makanan Tradisi Melayu by ADAMI
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