Conférence sur la malbouffe

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Conférence sur la malbouffe
Celiac Disease vs
Gluten Sensitivity
Lecture presented March 21, 2015 by
Romain Gagnon,
Engineer and Baker
What is gluten for?
Where does it come
from?
What is it?
Gluten allows bread making
What is bread actually?
Flour
+
Yeast
+
Water
Bread making
The yeast digests the flour starch and
produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and
alcohol (CH2OH)
CO2 bubbles remain trapped in the
gluten network of the flour and the
dough expands
Thus the bread "rises"
Then the bread is cooked and keeps
its volume
The importance of gluten
No gluten = no bread
A gluten-free bread is actually a cake
Only wheat and rye can make bread
What is bread flour?
It is
ground
wheat
(rye)
grain
What is Wheat?
Grain belonging to the genus Triticum of
the Grass family
Third most important cereal world-wide
after Corn and Rice (600 Mt)
First cultures dating back more than
10,000 years ago (Neolithic era)
The ancestor of wheat is a wild grass that
grows in the Middle East: the Goatgrass.
The modern wheat is the result of multiple
genetic selections over several thousand
years (14 to 42 chromosomes)
The ancestral wheats such as Spelt,
Khorasan (Kamut) and more recently Red
Fife have undergone little or no changes
The modern Wheat
In the last century, wheat has undergone
several genetic selections to increase
productivity and resistance to pesticides
This genetic selection was made at the
expense of nutritional values (more
calories, less micronutrients and fiber)
To expedite the process of breeding wheat,
mutations were induced artificially by
exposing DNA to highly carcinogenic
chemicals
Some wonder if these mutations are
responsible for contemporary gluten
sensitivity in some people
The ancestral grains
Some grains are called ancestral because they have
undergone less genetic transformations with millennia
Spelt (Triticum spelta) is richer in protein (lysin), but also
magnesium, zinc, iron and copper
Kamut (Triticum turgidum) or Khorasan wheat is less
caloric, and also very rich in proteins and minerals
(selenium, zinc, magnesium)
Rye (Secale cereale) tastes stronger than wheat. It is very
rich in fiber and contains many antioxidants
Red Fife is a Canadian ancestral wheat that grew here
until 1900.
The gluten intolerant individuals generally respond better
to the ancestral grains
Gluten comes from the wheat grain
(and rye)
The grain has 3 distinct parts: interior
(Endosperm), envelope (Bran), and
Germ
The bran is rich in fiber
The germ is rich in vitamins and
minerals
The endosperm consists mainly in
carbohydrates (starch) but also 15%
protein (gluten)
Flour making
The grain is milled to give flour
Once, the grain was ground on millstone
driven by a windmill or even animals
The flour is then roughly sifted to remove
part of the bran and germ
White flour contains only milled
endosperm (gluten & starch)
A so-called whole-grain flour contains at
least 90% of the original weight after
sifting; it retains the germ and most of the
bran
Stone-ground flour
The flour is milled at low speed which
prevents overheating (44°C)
The vitamins are protected and the germ can
be saved
The whole-grain flour is slightly sifted to
remove only the coarse bran
It contains at least 90% of the original weight
after sifting
The fiber is saved
The white flour is sifted to remove more bran
Industrial flour
The flour is milled on steel cylinders at high
speed and overheats (200°C)
The vitamins are destroyed and the germ
must be removed
The flour is then sifted to remove bran and
germ
Therefore the fiber is gone
Then the flour is bleached with chemical
products (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, benzoyl peroxide,
double aluminium sulfate , ammonium persulfate , ammonium
chloride, acetone peroxide , azodicarbonamide)
At the end, the flour is so poor that it needs
to be enriched (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, niacinamide,
folic acid, iron)
To make whole-grain flour, some bran is
added back
Yeast
Most breads, either industrial or craft
made, use yeast
It is a single strain of Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, a yeast genetically selected for
its performance
This yeast is very aggressive. It produces
large quantities of carbon dioxide from the
digestion of wheat starch
It therefore produces more airy and soft
breads
This modern process has nothing to do
with the original process to make bread
Sourdough
The first breads were made from
sourdough not yeast
Sourdough occurs naturally when
fermenting a mixture of water and flour
This fermentation is the result of a
symbiosis between lactic bacteria and
alcoholic yeast
Sourdough makes a denser and harder
bread
He also leaves a slightly sour taste to
bread
Sourdough degrades bad gluten
(prolamins)
Sourdough lowers glycemic index of
starch
Sourdough degrades the phytic acid, a
natural yet toxic fungicide in the bran
Gluten
The word "gluten" comes from Latin and literally means "glue"
It is a mixture of proteins, mainly prolamins and glutenin
It is its viscoelastic properties that allow bread making
Wheat and rye naturally contain gluten but not buckwheat, corn, rice
nor millet
Only grains that contain enough gluten can be used to make bread
Said buckwheat (or rice, or millet) breads actually contain at least
75% wheat.
Gluten Toxicity
For the majority (82%) of the population, gluten is no problem, no
matter the amount ingested.
In some cases (<1%), gluten causes severe inflammation that
destroys part of the intestinal wall and causes many health problems
(anemia, fatigue, abdominal pain ...). This is the celiac disease.
Since it is an immune problem, it is easy to diagnose from
antibodies in the blood.
Among some individuals (<6%), gluten causes a non-immune
inflammatory response which causes digestive discomfort; it is the
gluten sensitivity (Gibson 2011)
Gluten Toxicity
Other individuals (5%) have real intestinal symptoms when they
ingest wheat products but gluten is not concerned. Instead it would
be a sensitivity to FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo-Di-Monosaccharides and Polyols), some small chains of carbohydrates.
Yet 18% of the population consumes gluten-free products. The
difference (6%) is probably psychosomatic (Gibson 2013). This is
the concept of the "nocebo"
Gluten Toxicity
Celiac Disease <1%
Gluten sensitivity <6%
FODMAPs sensitivity 5%
No reaction 82%
Psychosommatic 6%
Research&Development project
Gluten concentration (ELISA test)
The scam of Whole-Grain bread
A real Whole-Grain bread is a sourdough bread made from stoneground whole-grain flour
In France, the term “Intégral" (“Whole-Grain” in English) has a legal
definition and counterfeiting is severely punished.
In Canada, the terms “Whole-Grain" and “Intégral” have no legal
definitions
Most so-called Whole-Grain breads on the market in Canada have
nothing to do with the French definition
They contain white flour and/or added gluten
Very few bakeries produce sliced sourdough bread
The explanation is that commercial bakeries want bread both soft
and nutritious, two incompatible qualities
The consequence is an astronomically high gluten content (from
10% to 30%)
How to denature a whole-grain bread
Genuine Whole-Grain bread
Germ + bran + gluten + starch
+ nothing – nothing
= Germ + bran + gluten + starch
Industrial Whole-Grain bread
Germ + bran + gluten + starch
– germ – bran
= Gluten + starch
Counterfeit Whole-Grain bread
Germ + bran + gluten + starch
+ gluten + starch
= Some germ + some bran + gluten + starch
Ingredients of the most popular « WholeGrain » bread on the market
Organic whole-wheat flour, organic wheat
gluten, organic sugar, organic soy oil, sea salt,
cultured wheat starch, yeast, organic soy flour,
organic apple cider vinegar, enzymes, organic
hulled barley flour, ascorbic acid
Gluten content
Modern wheat:
Spelt:
Khorasan (Kamut) :
1.0 : 1.0
1.3 : 1.0
1.0 : 3.5
In addition, sourdough degrades
prolamins by a factor of 4
Gluten content (ELISA test)
Inéwa has solutions to every problem
Celiac disease
Gluten-free
FODMAPs sensitivity
Spelt
Wheat allergy
Rye
Gluten sensitivity
Khorasan
Modern wheat sensitivity
Red Fife
References
Tavakkoli A, Lewis SK, Tennyson CA, Lebwohl B, Green PH. Characteristics of
patients who avoid wheat and/or gluten in the absence of celiac disease. Dig Dis Sci.
2013. doi:10.1007/s10620-013-2981-6 [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed]
Carrocio A. Mansueto P. & al. Non6coeliac wheat sensivity diagnosed by double blind
placebo-controlled challenge : exploring a new clinical entity. Am J Gastroenterol
2012;107:1898-1906.
Biesiekierski JR, Peters SL, Newnham ED, Rosella O, Muir JG, Gibson PR. No
effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary
reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates.
Gastroenterology. 2013;145:320–328.
DiGiacomo DV, Tennyson CA, Green PH, Demmer RT. Prevalence of gluten-free diet
adherence among individuals without celiac disease in the USA: results from the
Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Scand J
Gastroenterol. 2013;48:921–925. [PubMed]
Sapone A, Bai JC, Ciacci C, Dolinsek J, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Kaukinen K,
Rostami K, Sanders DS, Schumann M, Ullrich R, Villalta D, Volta U, Catassi C,
Fasano A. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature
and classification. BMC Med. 2012;10:13. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-13. [PMC free
article] [PubMed]