Original Method and Self Instructor on the Ukulele

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Original Method and Self Instructor on the Ukulele
UNIVE SITY OF HAWAII LIBRARY
IUUlllllUIUlllllllllllllllllllllllll lllHlln111111n11111ftlllllllllllllllllllllllllUllllllllllllllllllUlf~
----==-ORIGINAL METHOD and --=
---=
SELF-INSTRUCTOR
ON THE
=
--=--=
----------=-=
----a
--=
-------
UKULELE_..., I
~
BY
A A SANTOS and ANGELINE F. NUNES
Published by
SANTOS-NUNES STUDIOS
1187 Garden Lane. Honolulu. Hawaii
----------------E
-
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111111111111
\111111111111111111m1111n11111111111111111111111111
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Copyright 1915
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SANTOS TRIO
THE UKULELE
HE UKULELE was introduced into the Hawaiian Islands by Mr. M.
Nunes in 1879 A. D. This little instrument made Mr. M. Nunes a favorite with His Majesty King Kalakaua, who encouraged him in the manufacture of these instruments .
.... ··r..J;he Hawaiians immediately lost interest ip their primitive instruments
(which'consisted of the "Hano" or nose flute, and the "Uke-ke," which is
siniply a Jew's harp in the rough), and adopted this little instrument, which
on account of its size and the careless way in which the natives ran their
fingers rapidly back and forth, was given the name "Ukulele," the literal
meaning of which is "bouncing flea."
Mr. Nunes experimented with various woods here in Hawaii before he discovered that Koa and Kou were the only woods which possessed resonance
adapted to the Ukulele. They are now made of Koa entirely, as Kou has
become extinct.
This instrument has become so popular that there is a recognized demand
for a Standard Method.
There are several methods in circulation which are adapted to the taro
patch instead of the Ukulele. In fact, it is the taro patch method which has
been applied to the Ukulele.
We herewith present to the public the true and original method on the
Ukulele, a method which will be appreciated by anyone who wants to learn to
play the Ukulele beyond just the mere strumming.
Anyone who can sing will be satisfied with the strumming, but those, who
cannot sing and who do not intend playing in an orchestra, will want to take
advantage of this method and before they realize it will be able to play anything from simple, but beautiful, ''Aloha Oe'' to the difficult and fhmous
"Stars and Stripes Forever" (march) .
3
TUNING
The original way of tuning the Ukulele has not been put into print, consequently it is unknown to most people. Since it enables one to play, not only
the chords (strumming Hawaiian fashion), bnt melodies with full harmony, it
should be r ecognized as a Standard Method .
......
Tnne 1st string to D (above high C) .
2nd
"
"
B
3rd
"
"
G
4th
''
"
D (above middle C).
FRET TUNING
Tune 1st string to D (above high C). .
Press 3rd fret of the 2nd or B string .and you get unison with the 1st string.
Press the 4th fret of the 3rd or G string and you get unison with tlw open
•) d f, t.ring.
.
.:..I!
Pt>ess the 5th fret of the 4th string and y ou get unison with the open 3rd
string.
F1or those who are familiar with the Tonic Sol-F1a system, the tuning will
seem very simple.
Call the 1st sol (and gef pitch to suit the range of your voice).
The 2nd string is mi; the 3rd, doh, and the 4th, low sol.
the top-S MD S 1 or beginning at the bottom, S 1D M S.)
,. . .
J
(Beginning at
A. A. SANTOS
(ILLUSTRATING THE UP STROKE)
6
MANNER OF HOLDING THE
INSTRUMENT
Left Hand.
Let the neck of the Ukulele rest btween the thumb and first joint of the
forefinger, but do not rest the neck of the Ukulele in the palm of your hand
as it will interfere with the fingering of the different chords.
When pressing on the strings bend the knuckles and use the tips of the
fingers. Do not press the strings too heavily, as this tends to stiffen the muscles in the hand and arm, and lessens the activeness of the fingers in changing
.chords.! Press down just hard enough to produce perfect tones.
The Right Hand.
Bend the wrist and keep the hand and fingers very limber and entirely relaxed.
.
-Let'the middle of the forearm press the back edge of the Ukulele to your
body, holding it rather tight, so that yo.u may be able to play either in a sitting
or standing position.
When strumming, the forearm is held in one position and must not swing
up and down; it js all wrist movement.
STROKES
The Common Stroke.
Since this is the simplest of all the strokes it is advisable for beginners to
acquire it before attempting the more difficult strokes.
U
D
·o
D
Start up with the nail of the
thumb and come down with the
nails of the fingers, saying to
y ourself, ' ' Up, down~ down,
down,'' keeping good time.
The time in this stroke is the
same as in a- only the first stroke
is down (D) and the other three
up (U). Down with fingers and
up with nail of thumb.
This stroke is used a great deal in solo work where, as the melody descends,
the last string sometimes is not used, coming up. The effect is beautiful, especially in ''Aloha Oe. '' (See song arrangement.-)
7
These two are very simple to execute and the only difference being in the
time-the number of strokes to a beat.
2.
The Waltz Stroke.
This stroke is very simple, yet if played properly is very beautiful.
3. The All-Finger Stroke.
1st Beat: Start up with the nail of the thumb, followed by the fleshy part
of index or forefinger, making a continued effect. Second Beat: Go down
with all the :fingers, beginning with the small and the rest following. For the
third and fourth beats use the ordinary stroke.
4.
The Roll, Organ, or Mandolin Stroke.
Use only the first or index-finger. Run it quickly back and forth over the
strings, producing a continued effect. This stroke is used a great deal in solo
playing-and wh er ever notes are held. lt may be applied to either waltz or
common tempo.
5. The Triple Stroke.
Use the index finger and follow out the count and strokes very carefully.
8
6.
The Rag Stroke.
The secret of the rag stroke lies in the proper accenting of the stroke. If
the music is written with a sixteenth followed by an eighth note, then accent the eighth note, or the accent comes on the second stroke. The rules for
syncopation apply here as in other music.
......
EXERCISES .
Refer to diagrams. Start with Key of C and practise changing fro111 one
chord to the other.
There are three principal chords in harmony. These are the rronic (or
first ), Dominant (or second), and the Sub-Dominant( or third) . rrhese chords
have their relative minors as will be found in the diagrams.
The Tonic (or first), and Dominant (or second) are used mostly, with an
occasional Sub-Dominant. Then there is the introduction of an occasional
minor chord.
Practise the 3 major chords until ycu can change rapidly, using only th~
common and waltz strokes at first. Then familiarize yourself with the relative
minor chords.
This work consists of the strumming-native fashion-and is used for
accompaniment work only.
To train your ear so you can change front one chord to another, lnun or
whistle some familiar strain and listen to see if you chau ge corr ectly. Your
ear will detect false changes.
Refer to " Aloha Oe " and go through it, first, playing only the accompaniment as indicated. When y ou are able to get the accompaniment correctly y ou
will find th at by holding down the chords as indicated y ou will be able to pick
the notes of the melody in those same chords, bringing out full h armony.
Be careful and nse strict time from the beginning and you will have no
difficulty with it later. Count as y ou play and see that you do not lose time
when changing from one chord to another. This will seem difficult at first, but
practice will bring it about.
When you know " Aloha Oe" quite t horoughly, try " One Two, Three,
Four,'' which is also written and arranged ]n the K ey of C.
Follow the same directions in your &tudy of the other two songs.
You may find it necessary to master th e sc::tles in order to play solos. The
following diagram gives you th e scale of C as a pattern. For the othe1·s you
may refer to the finger-board at beginning of book.
9
G
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6
C.
) t d
EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAMS.
In each diagram the four vertical lines represent the strings, the first
string being on the right, and the horizontal lines represent the frets.
The dot denotes the string and fret to be pressed.
The number above the dot denotes the finger to be used (the fore or index
finger is the first and the litle finger is the fourth) .
The letters below the dot denote the notes forming the chord and correspond with the notes in the clef above.
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The sign indicates that the finger designated above the
arch is to be held across the fret, holding down as many strings
as are indicated within the arch. This is known as barring,
and is used a great deal in solo work where the melody and
accompaniment are played at the same time.
10
KEY OF C MAJOK
KEY OF A MINOR
[ R elative to Key CJ
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KEY OFF# MAJOR
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Sub- domm.ant
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s ignature we already have Clf. and tci get the
r nant of the minor key we raise the fifth, (in this
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12
KEY OF D MINOR
KEY OF F MAJOR
(Relative to Key F)
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KEY OF Eb MAJOR
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KEY OF Ab MAJOR
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.... .
ANGELINE F. NUNES
(THE COMMON STROKE)
15
SONGS.
Th e following songs h~v e been so hITanged that a.11yone can p lay eith er
t.J1e accompaniment or solo, or both combined, according as efficie11cy is a~­
quired.
CHORD ABBREVIATIONS.
T. stands for Tonic .
. D. stands for Dominant.
S. D . stands for Sub-Dominant.
T. of Em stands for Tonic of E Minor.
D. of Em stands for Dominant of E Minor.
S. D. of Em stands for Sub-Dominant of E .MiHor.
Proficiency in accompaniment work is very essential before the melody
may be attempted. Whenever you hear musie listen to see if you can tell
when the different chords are used. Thir.. is excell ent practice. Try to accompany as many songs as you can and gradually y ou will prepare yonrself for
solo work.
NOTE.
'rhe Authors are arranging for piano and ukulele famous Hawaiian sougs,
classical and popular music which they intend compiling into an inexpensiv e
book.
Hi
Aloha Oe
(Farewell to Thee)
s and Music by
ty Qieen Liliuolcalani
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NOTE··· You change ch ords- very often in this song on account of g<'lting in tht
melody with full harmony .
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By the
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Arranged by
A ngeline F. N unes
One, Two, Three, Four
(Ukulele Duet)
S. Kalama
Jack Alau
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Angeline F. Nunes
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_r:r ::r
T
s-t!
-
the heathen Chi.
--
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t
.
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they
will
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· left,
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and
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J
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T
c~
2.
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-41
--
I
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t
·._"
Chorus :-One, two, three, etc.
3. Down by the stream where I first met my idol,
Garlands of wild flowers no longer I weave;
Bread-winning spares me no moments to idle,
So garlands and stream banks to spoonies I leave.
!:
Chorus :-One, two, three, etc.
•
l.'·
ji•
II._
19
]
three.
Down by the stream. where I first met my treasure,
One eve I asked her ~o love 'me alone;
Her dark eyes made answer in sparkles of pleasure,
And prouder was I than a king on his throne.
I.'
~
]
Note.-First study 2nd Ukulele part and when very familiar with the
various changes, then play the solo, or 1st Ukulele part. Later you may
combine both parts by picking the melody, and playing the accompaniment.
r_,
--
t
T
two
One,
I~
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-
t l !.
II
I
get
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l
Like no Like
"Constancy "
H. Berger
0
0
(f)
"
t
t .
5d
d
;.d d
d
s.d .t -
-l
a
ka ni •
th,,t flow'rs lov'd
J__.=_
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le
so
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4
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a
t1 -
well,
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i
e
it
ma•
t hee
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d
Cnof!A.
A
. a • na,
C'all-ing,
.w
~
I •
a
ke
a - la i ka'na
with - in
the woodland
our
~ ~ I'- I'- I'- ~ _}'-
IZ
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from
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I~ thrills
Ku'u
It
" ."' "" ""
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......
l-. ~
......
...... -..
II-.
s·d I
"
i
hi • ki a • hi
with love for thee !'- a.
::x " -'.. __..
::I
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:I :I .f=I
A
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nJ
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ma • nu,
stan • cy
f'. !\. I'-
f'.- ,.._
fades
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nev
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t
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d •-t "
d
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II
REPF.A"r CHORUS SOFTLY:
__.a._L
JI·
ho ev.,-
I;:.
!'-
_.I".-
er
o
true
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:JI ...... :Ji
2.
Q
ka con •
"j
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r ..
I'll
....
...t!!!.
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0 ke
"I ts
a - hi,
lone,
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t
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-
M
t
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..JI
d
0
My
:r --
~
.:!'.._
le.
~"'-~~1\-~_l
::F ~
a - 1,
ev • er,
el
he clell
..
ke
to
I'__.
.lf
a
thee mv
Iii.. "
'.IL
. ... .
O•
NoTE---By pressing down the .chords'
as indicated you will be able to play
the melody as written, with fu ll har·
mony.
moe.
__.__
Maa nei mai ka ua,
H e w elina paa ika piko,
A nan no wau e imi mai,
A loaa ike aheahe a kamakani.
~.
20
I
English.
Where the moonlight sheds its splend<l
And the perfum 'd zephyrs blow,
'!'here we'll roam in raptnre t enclrr.
In the evening's mellow, gold e11 glo~
,..
1.1'
'·'
The Old Plantation
Ids by Mrs. A. A. Montano
Arranged for Piano and Ukulele
by Angeline F. Nunes
jc by David Nape
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411
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tl
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21
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i ... •
ti lj.D
ka - 1 • la
kapa - la • i
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ka 1 i - ka
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1 •
Ill
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nu -
a
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ka
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a
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o - Ju
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ko- u pu u - wa -
i
111
Plan - ~tion .
o ld
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Ho - me pu-me-ha-na i
e
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22
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Ice a - lo -
::e1!:-=:I:
J. :e.~ 4
~
!!!:
-
ha
na
Note.- \IVhen playing the accompaniment of the song, refer to diagrams
for correct positions cf chords. Be sure you get the minor chords in just
the right place.
English Translation.
J_.
Often I love to think,
Of a corner sweet and dear;
Of wate1· clear as crystal,.
Drawn softly by the old win<l mill;
'Tis there I love to ponder,
Where my heart yearns ever to be.
2.
Gently permeates the fragran,ce of :flowers,
Sent forth by the falling dew;
Happily the birds, with their love notes, ·
Make love to the plumes of the cocoanut trees.
Tenderly drop the silvery leaved ferns on the terrace,
In the shadows of th e old plantation.
Chorus.
Old Plantation, beautiful art thou,
Home warmed by love,
Dwelling 'neath the shades of the cocoanuts,
In the heart of fragrance.
HONOLULU, T. H .
HONOLULU STAR-BULLETIN, LTD.
J!)]5.
........