Buletin Akademik Mei 2012 - Terengganu

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Buletin Akademik Mei 2012 - Terengganu
Walaupun beliau bukan merupakan seorang ahli sukan tetapi
sebagai seorang doktor, beliau sedar akan kepentingan bersukan. Di
bawah kepimpinan beliau, banyak sukan-sukan antarabangsa telah
dianjurkan oleh Malaysia. Antaranya ialah Sukan Komanwel, bola
sepak Piala Dunia Remaja 1997, lumba basikal Le Tour de Langkawi,
lumba kereta F1 dan lumba motosikal Grand Prix. Mengikut pendapat
penulis, terdapat tiga sebab kenapa Mahathir menganjurkan sukansukan yang bertaraf dunia, pertama ialah ia dapat memartabatkan
negara Malaysia di kaca mata dunia, kedua dari segi ekonomi dapat
membawa masuk banyak keuntungan apabila ramai orang luar
datang menonton acara sukan tersebut dan ketiga sebagai seorang
nasionalis, beliau mahu anak bangsa terlibat dan menonjolkan diri
dalam aktiviti sukan yang dianjurkan.
iv-
Peranan Islam dalam pentadbiran;
Legitimasi politik Mahathir melalui pemikiran Islam Mahathir dapat
dilihat daripada pembentukan ciri-ciri kesederhanaan antara nilainilai yang wujud dalam agama untuk memenuhi keperluan domestik
dan antarabangsa. Selama 22 tahun Mahathir berjaya membentuk
kesedaran baru mengenai nilai-nilai agama Islam. Beliau juga
menghubungkan Islam dan pembangunan ekonomi. Matlamat
ini membolehkan pendidikan, pendapatan dan pekerjaan dapat
dipertingkatkan di kalangan orang Melayu terutama di bawah DEB.
Mahathir mahu Malaysia menjadi negara moden Islam. Pembinaan
sekolah agama, Universiti Islam, sistem perbankan Islam membolehkan
nilai Islam disemat dan dalam masa yang sama membenarkan
pelaburan asing ke negara ini terutama dari kalangan negaranegara Islam. Kritikan ke atas dasar beliau menyebabkan Mahathir
bimbang sama ada dasar Islamisasi ini dapat membawa perubahan
ke atas pembangunan masyarakat pada masa depan. Walau apa pun,
Mahathir telah membuktikan bahawa tanpa pengubahsuaian dalam
penerimaan ke atas amalan tertentu, negara tidak mungkin akan
dapat dibangunkan serta dapat bersaing di pasaran antarabangsa.
v-
Pengiktirafan antarabangsa;
Dasar Luar merupakan antara unsur penting legasi Mahathir.
Persekitaran antarabangsa yang sering berubah membolehkan
beliau memanipulasi isu yang timbul untuk mengukuhkan kedudukan
beliau. Karisma kepimpinan beliau berdasarkan kepada pengalaman
memimpin dan kelantangan dalam mempertahankan kedaulatan
negara dan jurucakap Dunia Ketiga merupakan pendorong kejayaan
beliau.
Terdapat empat elemen utama yang boleh dijadikan asas untuk
melihat bagaimana Mahathir telah berjaya mempengaruhi dunia
antarabangsa untuk meraih sokongan masyarakat tempatan.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Gaya kepimpinan mengubah ekonomi Malaysia serta kedudukan
negara yang stabil tanpa hutang yang membebankan.
Keupayaan mempertahankan kestabilan politik negara.
Keberanian dan ketegasan menggunakan isu negara Dunia
Ketiga untuk berhadapan dengan negara Dunia Pertama.
Personaliti berkarisma dan kepetahan berbahasa Inggeris
sebagai alat artikulasi dengan kepimpinan luar membolehkan
hubungan yang lebih yakin dan berjaya diwujudkan.
Patrons >>
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Samad Abdol Nawi | Assoc. Prof. Dr. Baharom Abdul Rahman | Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mazidah Puteh
Advisor >>
Noor Sharulniza Sau Hamid
Chief Editor >>
Gopala Krishnan
Editors >>
Asri Salleh | Raja Mariam Raja Baniamin | Goh Ying Soon
Layout & Graphics >>Roziani Mohamad (HEA)
BOARD
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EDITORIAL
vi-
Krisis-krisis politik yang telah dilalui;
Krisis lazimnya akan menghakis sokongan kepada pemimpin tetapi
amat berbeza dengan Mahathir dimana krisis yang dihadapi lebih
memperkukuhkan kedudukan politik beliau. Dengan gaya kepimpinan
yang tersendiri berdasarkan pemikiran beliau yang sangat kritis, maka
semua krisis tersebut dapat ditangani, begitu juga institusi raja-raja,
badan kehakiman dan parti yang dipimpinnya juga berjaya dikuasai.
4
RUJUKAN
Ahmad Atory Hussein (2003), Bagaimana Pemimpin Dilahirkan, Massa,
Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Melayu Berhad.
Awang Had Salleh (2002), Pendidikan Dalam Pemikiran Dr. Mahathir,
Kertas Pembentangan Dalam Kolokium Pemikiran Dr. Mahathir, Melaka.
Chamil Wariya (1990), Pandangan Politik Era Mahathir, Kuala Lumpur:
Fajar Bakti.
Chandra Muzaffar (2002), Rights,Religion and Reform, London: Routledge.
Edmund Terence Gomez; Jomo K.S (2001), Malaysia’s Political
Economy: Politics, Patronage and Profits, Singapore: Cambridge
University Press.
Ghazali Mayudin (2000), Politik Malaysia: Perspektif Teori dan Praktik,
Selangor: Penerbitan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Hambali Abdul Latiff (2001), Dr. Mahathir-Amanah & Visi, Selangor:
Penerbitan Wadah Karya.
Hilley, John (2001), Malaysia: Mahathirisme, Hegemony and the New
Opposition, London: Zed Books.
Ismail Ibrahim (2002), Pemikiran Dr. Mahathir Tentang Islam, Kuala
Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn.Bhd.
Mahadzir Khir (2002), Pemikiran Mahathir Mengenai Politik, Kertas
Kerja yang Dibentangkan di Kolokium Pemikiran Dr. Mahathir, Melaka.
Mahathir Mohamad (2000),”A Bleak Future”, Asian Affairs, No;
12-Summer, Hong Kong: Oriental Strategic Studies.
Mahathir Mohamad (2002), Reflections On Asia, Kuala Lumpur:
Pelanduk publications.
Mohamad Abu bakar (2002), Polemik Negara Islam dan Pembudayaan
Politik Malaysia, Selangor: Institut perkembangan Minda.
Mohd Sayuti Omar (2003), Undurkah Mahathir: Dilema Dollah Badawi,
Kuala Lumpur: Tinta Merah.
Musa Hitam (2003), Pemimpin Artifisial Tidak Kekal, Massa, Kuala
Lumpur: Utusan Melayu Berhad.
Mustapa Mohamed (2001), Kemelut Politik Melayu, Selangor: Media Centre.
Mustapa Mohamed (2002), Pemikiran Perdana Menteri Dalam Menjana
Pembangunan dan Mengurus Ekonomi Malaysia, Kertas Kerja yang
Dibentangkan di Kolokium Pemikiran Dr. Mahathir, Melaka.
Ng Tieh Chuan (2002), Mahathir Mohamad: A Visionary & His Vision of
Malaysia’s K-Economy, Kuala Lumpur: Pelanduk Publications.
S.H. Alattas (2002), Mahathir Mudah Lupa, Selangor: Le Grand Printmax.
Shaharom TM Sulaiman (2001), Pemikir Membangun Tradisi Intelektual,
Pemikir, Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Melayu Berhad.
Shome, Anthony (2002), Malay Political Leadership, London: Routledge.
Stewart, Ian (2003), The Mahathir Legacy: A Nation Divided, A Region
At Risk, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Welsh, Bridget (2001), A New Political Landscape? Reflections On
Malaysia’s 1999 General Elections, Kertas Kerja yang Dibentangkan
di 3rd International Malaysian Social Sciences Conference, Universiti
Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Yahaya Ismail (2002), Mengapa Mahathir Sukar Digugat, Selangor:
Usaha Teguh Sdn.Bhd.
Yusof Harun (2001), Dr. Mahathir Mohamad: Perjuangan Tanpa
Sempadan, Kuala Lumpur: Pustaka Antara.
Zainuddin Maidin (1994), The Other Side of Mahathir, Kuala Lumpur:
Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.
Zainul Ariff Hussain (2002), Wawasan 2020, Kertas Kerja Yang
Dibentangkan di Kolokium Pemikiran Dr. Mahathir, Melaka.
05/ 2012
Believe it or not? Stone turtle at Bukit Che Hawa by; nur intan syafinaz ahmad
Have you ever been to Bukit Che Hawa in Rantau Abang?
When I was offered work in UiTM about 3 years ago, one of
the first places that my friend took me to, was Bukit Che Hawa.
What’s so special about this hill? This hill is famous for its stone
turtle. The first time I saw the stone turtle, I was so amazed.
It looked so real! What’s the story behind this stone turtle?
Who’s the first person who found this stone turtle? When was
here but could not get any conclusive answer.
From some of the story that I heard, there appear two stone
turtles. One stone turtle is situated at Bukit Che Hawa, which I
have seen, other one is apparently situated at the river mouth
which leads to Bukit Che Hawa. The one that is situated at
Bukit Che Hawa is a female turtle measuring approximately 3.5
meters while the turtle at the river mouth was said to be a male
one.
Many efforts have been made to find and carry the male turtle
from the river but all efforts failed. I was really eager to find this
male turtle. If given a chance I really want to dive into the river
and see the male turtle for myself. I’m sure the male turtle is
still preserved in the river.
Ok, back to the story. Elders said, the female giant turtle come
from the sea and climbed the hill and subsequently turned into
stone. This female giant turtle became a ‘mother turtle’ to all
turtles. That is why back in the 70’s-90’s, so many turtles came
and laid their eggs in Rantau Abang. All of these stories have
become legends today.
Photo of the Giant Turtle.
What do you think? Do think it is a real turtle?
it found? Until now nobody knows the answer. There are many
stories regarding this big stone turtle. Some say that the stone
turtle was a real turtle which had suffered a curse. I tried to find
the answer by searching through internet and asking people
The so called stone ‘mother’ turtle has been much damaged
today. What happened ? Some say, this is because the ‘mother
turtle’ has ‘died’ due to damage caused by many people
touching it. Some people have even broken off parts of the
turtle and taken away parts of the turtle’s body. Whether this
story is true or false, I myself am not very sure. Some say that
all the stories are myths and it is just by chance that the stone
got shaped like a turtle. So, what do you think?
Siri 2 MyUfm - Teknologi Radio Kampus
Oleh: Mohd Talmizie Amron
Perkembangan teknologi kini memungkinkan
sesiapa sahaja untuk menggunakan
sebarang kemudahan digital itu untuk
pelbagai tujuan. Antaranya ialah penyebaran maklumat
dan hiburan (audio) secara online atau lebih dikenali
sebagai streaming. Secara tradisional, penyiaran radio
secara frekuensi hanya boleh dilakukan dengan adanya
kemudahan seperti transmitter, antenna, studio dan
peralatan audio.
Namun, dalam kecanggihan dunia teknologi dan banyaknya
pilihan aplikasi di internet membolehkan siaran radio
boleh disiarkan tanpa peralatan-peralatan diatas. Hanya
memerlukan talian internet, aplikasi pemain lagu dan encoder,
cukup untuk membolehkan seseorang itu menyiarkan lagu
serta audionya ke serata dunia. Malah, format audio yang
boleh didengari oleh pendengar pula dalam pelbagai format
seperti MP3, WMA, RealAudio, dan accPlus.
Seperti yang dijanjikan pada siri pertama yang lalu, edisi kali
ini akan melihat kepada teknologi dalam penyiaran radio
kampus. Kelebihan yang nyata radio internet ini berbanding
radio komersial sediada adalah liputan pendengar. Siaran
menerusi frekuensi adalah terbatas mengikut geografi
kawasan yang dipancarkan sahaja, tetapi siaran melalui
internet ini pastinya boleh didengari di seluruh dunia.
Samada menggunakan server sendiri mahupun menyewa
server radio yang dikenali sebagai shoutcast server.
Gambar rajah menunjukkan bagaimana seseorang boleh
menyiarkan audio dan lagu daripada komputer peribadi
ke seluruh dunia dengan menggunakan shoutcast server
yang boleh dimuatturun secara percuma.
Walau bagaimanapun, jika tidak mempunyai server sendiri,
seseorang itu boleh menggunakan shoutcast hosting yang
disediakan samada secara percuma mahupun berbayar.
Terpulang kepada kualiti siaran dan bilangan pendengar
yang dikehendaki.
Siri akan datang nanti akan menerangkan contoh
bagaimana untuk seseorang itu menyiarkan audio dan lagu
serta apakah yang diperlukan untuk tujuan tersebut.
Rujukan:
http://www.videodesk.net/Streaming.aspx,
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_radio
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Bersesuaian dengan perdedaran zaman dan di bawah Wawasan
2020, Malaysia Southeast Asia Satellite, MEASAT-1 telah dilancarkan
dari Kourou, French Guiana pada 13 Januari 1996 yang berfungsi
untuk memenuhi keperluan internet, penyiaran dan telekomunikasi
Malaysia serta negara lain di rantau Asia. MEASAT-2 pula telah
berjaya ditempatkan di orbit pada 14 November 1996 yang mampu
memberi liputan sehingga ke Australia dan Hawaii.
3
KESIMPULAN
Mahathir adalah seorang modernis, pragmatis dan strategis. Beliau
sesungguhnya suatu enigma yang dimanifestasikan dalam perkataan
‘Mahathirisme’ yang merangkumi seluruh pemikirannya walaupun
ada antaranya dianggap kontroversial. Beliau tidak mengubah hala
tuju pembangunan politik, sosial dan ekonomi yang diwarisi daripada
mantan-mantan Perdana Menteri sebelumnya. Walaubagaimanapun
apa yang berubah adalah gaya dan pendekatan kepimpinan beliau
yang amat signifikan dengan latar belakangnya sebagai rakyat biasa.
Selepas 22 tahun menerajui kepimpinan dan politik Malaysia, Mahathir
dengan rasminya berundur pada 31 Oktober 2003. Pengundurannya
cukup dirasai sebagai suatu kehilangan yang besar kepada negara
dan bangsa. Pemikiran politik intelektual beliau sangat dikagumi
dan ini menjadi paksi penting legitimasi politik kepimpinan beliau.
Sesungguhnya beliau bersara pada ketika legitimasi politiknya yang
kukuh dengan meninggalkan satu sistem pentadbiran yang mantap
dan efektif menjadikannya satu legasi. Namun, apa yang pasti citra
dan kegemilangan rekod politiknya akan terus bersemadi dalam
sejarah bangsa Malaysia dan dunia.
http://
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adalah bertujuan untuk melahirkan negara maju pada masa hadapan.
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Weak passwords
According to an article in The Economist magazine of
Mar, 24th 2012, two decades ago only spies and systems
administrators had to worry about passwords. But today
they say that one has to enter a password even to do
humdrum things like turning on a computer, downloading
an album or buying a book online. No wonder many
people use a single, simple password for everything.
The Economist article says that analysis of password
databases, often stolen from websites (something that
happens with disturbing frequency even in Malaysia),
shows that the most common choices include “password”,
“123456” and “abc123”. But using these, or any word
that appears in a dictionary, is insecure. Even changing
some letters to numbers (“e” to “3”, “i” to “1” and so forth)
does little to reduce the vulnerability of such passwords
to an automated “dictionary attack”, because these
substitutions are so common. The fundamental problem
is that secure passwords tend to be hard to remember,
and memorable passwords tend to be insecure.
The Economist article points out that weak passwords
open the door to fraud, identity theft and breaches of
privacy. An analysis by Verizon, an American telecoms
firm, found that the biggest reason for successful security
breaches was easily guessable passwords. Some viruses
spread by trying common passwords. Attacks need only
work enough of the time—say, in 1% of cases—to be
worthwhile. And it turns out that a relatively short list of
passwords provides access to 1% of accounts on many
sites and systems.
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Hackers Caused Losses
In Malaysia, deputy Minister in the Prime Ministers
Department Datuk Liew Vui Keong stressed that, all
Malaysians need to become part of the solution if the
country is to fight the rising threat of cybercrime. He
said that the country has suffered losses amounting to
RM2.75bil in just five years from 2005 to 2010, and it
looks like its only getting worse.
According to Liew, a total of 13,173 incidents related to
online security issues were reported in 2011, a 112.3%
jump from the 6,204 incidents in the previous year. He said
studies indicated that cyber attacks are not limited to just
business and financial operations, but also Government
websites.
Liew added that attacks on Government online assets
are dangerous as it could cripple the nation's critical
information network and, in turn, impact the people's
social well-being and economic development, he added.
According to the article in The Economist, fingerprint
scanners and devices that generate time-specific
codes offer greater security, but they require hardware.
Passwords, which need only software, are cheaper. In
terms of security delivered per dollar spent, they are hard
to beat, so they are not going away so soon. But they
need to be made more secure.
The Economist article reports that, the solution, according
to security researchers, is to upgrade the software
in people’s heads, by teaching them to choose more
secure passwords. One approach is to use passphrases
containing unrelated words, such as “correct horse
battery staple”, linked by a mental image. Passphrases
are, on average, several orders of magnitude harder to
crack than passwords.
The Economist article further reports that, a new study
by researchers at the University of Cambridge finds that
people tend to choose phrases made up not of unrelated
words but of words that already occur together, such
as “dead poets society”. Such phrases are vulnerable
to a dictionary attack based on common phrases taken
from the internet. And many systems limit the length of
passwords, making a long phrase impractical.
Stolen Passwords Can Send You to Jail
According to an article in The Star (June ,17 2012)
Malaysians are now waking up to the reality that they
can no longer be so nonchalant about protecting their
accounts, following recent amendments to the
Evidence Act, whereby the account holder is deemed
to be the publisher of any material under his account
unless he can prove otherwise. Thus, it pays to be
careful with our passwords so that a hacker cannot get
at them.
The Star (June 17, 2012) reports that, there is much
debate over the New Evidence Act and how it will impact
on our use of the Internet. The writer stressed that these
issues should be examined and the policy makers must
be prepared to listen to the concerns voiced by so many.
According to Marina Mahathir (2012), the new laws mean
that a person is considered guilty if a hacker were to use
his e-mail password for example, to do something illegal
like sending out a seditious mail. She says that the newlyinserted Section 114A of the Evidence Act. basically,
means that until you can prove that you are innocent of
Lawson, K. (1998). Involving your audience: Make it active.
Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Mondy, R. W. and Noe, R. M. (2006). Human resource
management. Texas: Prentice Hall.
Mulder, M. (2001). Customer satisfaction with training programs.
Journal of European Industrial Training, 25(6), 321-331.
Noe, R. A. (2010). Employee training and development (5th ed.).
Salas, E., Burke, C. S., Bowers, C. A. and Wilson, K. A. (2001). Team
training in the skies: Does Crew resource management (CRM)
training work? In Lee, K. L. (Ed.), Evaluating the effectiveness of
a conceptual skill training: A quasi-experimental approach (pp.4).
The Malaysia University of Science: Dissertation.
Sekaran, U. and Bougie, R. (2010). Research methods for
business: A skill building approach. New York: John Wiley & Son
Ltd.
Wise, D. and Ezell, P. (2003). Characteristics of effective training:
Developing a model to motivate action Retrieved June 30, 2010,
from http://www.joe.org/joe/2033april/a5.php
ULASAN BUKU OLEH Khamisah Abd Manaf
LEGASI MAHATHIR OLEH: DR. SIVAMURUGAN PANDIAN
1.
MAHATHIR
DALAM
KONTEKS
POLITIK MALAYSIA
Kepimpinan Mahathir dalam konteks dan
arena politik Malaysia adalah amat penting
untuk dinilai kerana beliau merupakan individu yang begitu dominan
sehingga setiap kejayaan Malaysia sepanjang tempoh perkidmatan
beliau sebagai Perdana Menteri dikaitkan dengan beliau. Kejayaan
ini berpaksikan legitimasi politik beliau yang boleh dianggap sebagai
genre politik ‘Doktrin Mahathir’. Dengan latar belakang orang
kebanyakan dan bukannya daripada golongan bangsawan, beliau
amat menyerlah dengan imej sebagai seorang ‘thinking politician’.
Terdapat beberapa paradigma yang boleh dijadikan asas perbincangan
legitimasi politik di bawah pimpinan Mahathir.
Antaranya ialah:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Semangat jitu nasionalisme Melayu yang diperjuangkan oleh
beliau dari awal penglibatan dalam politik.
Penentangan ke atas konsep penjajahan semula.
Krisis dalaman/persaingan kuasa/ penentangan yang dihadapi
oleh beliau dalam UMNO.
Memaksimumkan dasar ekonomi di bawah Dasar Ekonomi Baru
(DEB).
Menonjolkan imej keislaman sederhana bersesuaian dengan
masyarakat majmuk Malaysia.
Pengiktirafan di peringkat antarabangsa terutama di kalangan
negara-negara membangun.
Menjadi jurucakap Dunia Ketiga.
Keberkesanan pentadbiran berasaskan perubahan sains dan
teknologi.
2.
FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI LEGITIMASI
POLITIK MAHATHIR
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Personaliti dan pemikiran Mahathir;
Idea-idea untuk membangunkan bangsa dan pembentukan dasardasar tertentu untuk kepentingan Negara adalah hasil dari pemikiran
beliau yang turut mempengaruhi keutuhan kepimpinan beliau sebagai
pemimpin kerana struktur pemikiran ini telah banyak membawa
perubahan serta kejayaan sepanjang 22 tahun beliau memimpin
kerajaan Malaysia. Mahathir adalah seorang pemikir-intelektual dan ini
boleh di lihat daripada penulisan beliau sehingga kini. Corak pemikiran
beliau dapat dikupas dari cara pengucapan awam dan tulisan beliau
yang boleh didapati dalam ucapan-ucapan utama UMNO,A New Deal
For Asia, The way Forward, The Challenge, The Malay Dilemma dan
tulisan dalam akhbar Straits Times. Secara keseluruhannya, kesemua
hasil tulisan beliau memaparkan kesinambungan idea pemikiran
beliau yang telah ditransformasikan ke dalam pelaksanaan ataupun
penggubalan sesuatu dasar. Rentetan idea beliau jelas bertujuan
untuk mempertingkatkan martabat bangsa Malaysia dan bukan lagi
di gelar negara kerdil tetapi memiliki hak yang sama dengan negara
lain di merata dunia. Penulisan beliau amat unik kerana rakyat dapat
memahami beliau dengan lebih dekat lagi dan sekaligus memberi
mandat untuk memerintah atau sebagai alat legitimasi kepada
kepimpinan beliau.
ii-
Kepentingan ekonomi;
Dasar-dasar ekonomi yang
memastikan kesejahteraan hidup
masyarakat amat mempengaruhi corak pengundian dan sokongan
serta kesetiaan terhadap kepimpinan beliau. Strategi ekonomi
Mahathir adalah untuk membina syarikat dan usahawan Malaysia
yang berjaya dan dapat bersaing dengan syarikat multinasional yang
mampu menentukan ekonomi global. Implementasi Dasar Ekonomi
Baru (DEB) dilihat telah menyumbang kepada pencapaian Mahathir
sendiri. Kejayaan DEB jelas kerana komuniti bumiputera telah
berjaya menakluk hampir kesemua bidang termasuklah perbankan,
pengeluaran, penjualan dan pemasaran. Ini melibatkan golongan
bumiputera professional yang berpendidikan. Dasar penswastaan
dan kapitalisme ada kelemahannya dan krisis ekonomi 1997-1998
memberi satu pengajaran. Namun Mahathir telah berjaya mencari
jalan penyelesaian sehingga membolehkan pasaran antarabangsa
tidak tergugat malahan menyokong kedudukan domestik Malaysia
dan sekaligus usaha untuk menjatuhkan kepimpinan beliau gagal
sama sekali. Ini dapat dilihat dengan lebih tajam dan luas apabila
mahkamah di Paris telah menjatuhkan hukuman sebanyak 2.2 juta
euro (RM8.4 juta) kepada George Soros, maka telah membuktikan
dakwaan Mahathir yang Soros menjadi penyebab krisis ekonomi 1997
adalah benar. Malahan selepas krisis ekonomi tersebut bank-bank di
Malaysia muncul sebagai bank yang mempunyai ketelusan terbaik di
Asia di samping Korea. Agenda ekonomi baru telah dibuat berdasarkan
ketelusan dan good governance hasil daripada pengalaman ini.
iii-
Perkembangan sains dan teknologi;
Pertumbuhan ekonomi turut mempengaruhi dan membolehkan peranan
sains dan teknologi berkembang menjadi asas kepada legitimasi
Mahathir. Beberapa pembaharuan teknokratik secara simbolik telah
bermula seawal beliau menjadi Perdana Menteri. Antaranya ialah
penyeragaman waktu di antara Semenanjung Malaysia,Sabah dan
Sarawak pada 31 Disember 1981, memperkenalkan sistem metrik
menggantikan sistem timbangan yang lama, sistem perakam waktu,
tag nama serta manual pekerja, malahan penjawat awam juga
perlu mengumumkan aset mereka yang mana ia bertujuan untuk
membenteras rasuah.
Begitu juga dengan sektor pembinaan dan seni bina, beliau telah
merealisasikan pembinaan bangunan Dayabumi, Komtar, Jambatan
Pulau Pinang, Bangunan Berkembar Petronas (KLCC), Menara Kuala
Lumpur, Putrajaya, Cyberjaya dan KLIA yang bertujuan untuk menarik
pelabur asing serta pelancong asing datang ke Malaysia. Ini dapat
menggalakkan pertumbuhan ekonomi dalam jangka masa panjang.
Begitu juga dengan kelahiran Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) yang
bertujuan untuk mempersiapkan rakyat Malaysia untuk menempuh
abad digital serta menjadi sebahagian daripada komuniti global dalam
era masyarakat bermaklumat.
Pusat pentadbiran kerajaan elektronik telah berpindah ke Putrajaya
dimana ia dimuatkan dengan teknologi multimedia dan menjadi
paperless administration centre. Konsep smart school juga
telah diperkenalkan yang mana kesemua sekolah akan memiliki
perkhidmatan dan peralatan IT pada tahun 2010 bagi melahirkan
generasi yang kreatif dan inovatif. Mykad juga telah diperkenalkan bagi
memuatkan segala maklumat warganegara Malaysia dan berfungsi
sebagai kad pengenalan, lesen kereta, kad telefon, kad keahlian
kelab tertentu dan pelbagai kegunaan yang lain. Begitu juga dengan
pembinaan KLIA yang dilengkapi dengan kemudahan berteknologi
tinggi yang diintegrasikan dengan MSC menjadikan KLIA simbol
kebanggaan bangsa Malaysia. Apa yang dilakukan oleh Mahathir
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Introduction
In this day and age, almost
everybody, young or old,
uses IT. Whether it is e-mail,
facebook, twitter or any
other social networking sites,
someone or other is using them. Nowadays, people even
do online banking and online shopping. A lot of our private
and personal data is now online. We may have our credit
card numbers online too. With so many people doing so
many things online, the inevitable question arises. How
save are our passwords. People are often in the dilemma
when it comes to choosing a password. Passwords that
are secure are hard to remember whereas passwords
that are easy to remember are also easily compromised.
For the sake of convenience, many people use the same
password for all their online applications. This means
that if a hacker can get hold of your password, he will be
able to access all your online accounts, whether it is your
e-mail, your facebook or even your banking account. This
article discusses the issues of password security in online
applications.
New York, NY: Mc Graw Hill.
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by; Hanith Iskandar & Gopala Krishnan
Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. H. (2000). The adult
learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human
Resource Development. Houston, Texas: Gulf Professional
Publishing Co.
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Training is one of
the most pervasive
methods for enhancing
the
productivity
of
individuals and communicating organizational goals to new
personnel. It is a learning process that involves the acquisition
of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing
of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of
employees. According to Mondy & Neo (2006), training is
designed to provide learners with knowledge and skills needed
for their present jobs to achieve organizational goals. But from our
observation, the training for lecturers is still not effective maybe
because of certain contributory factors. These can be seen from
the training or programmes organized, not all of the participants
could adapt nor have they undergone any change after the training.
Most companies which are committed to total quality invest heavily
in training and education. Training plans should be based upon job
skill requirements and strategic initiatives of the company (Evans
and Lindsay, 2002). In UiTM, we could see that the management
has allocated a big amount of budget just for the lecturer’s training
but it’s better if they can pause and consider whether the training
carried out is worth the cost and time involved. They should also
analyze whether the training has produce any substantial impact
on the lecturers.
Salas, Burke, Bowers and Wilson (2001; cited in Lee, 2007) thus
asserted that training evaluation helps to determine whether the
training has been effective in relation to the job that needs to be
performed. This was emphasized by Grensing-Pophal (2004; cited
in Lee, 2007), they stressed that it is important to assess training
effectiveness and that training effectiveness should be tied in with
the actual work performance. So, in our research, we managed
to see which factors that contributed substantially towards the
effectiveness of training in the university.
Contributing Factors Towards the Effectiveness of
Training
In relation to the contributing factors towards training
effectiveness, three factors to be considered are management
support, training methods and trainer. These factors are frequently
mentioned in the literature.
Training Effectiveness
Human Resource Management is concerned with the
planning, acquisition, training & developing human beings for
getting the desired objectives & goals set by the organization. The
employees have to be transformed according to the organizations'
& global needs. This is done through an organized activity called
Training. Training and development is defined by Dessler (2008)
as a process that utilizes various methods to provide new and
existing employees with the skills they need to perform the job.
c)
Trainer’s Characteristics
Lawson (1998), stated that the trainers act as facilitators in a
training program where they play two roles. In the first role, they
stand in front of a group and present information. The second role
involves trainers facilitating discussion and interaction among
trainees. Each requires a different set of skills. She also stated that
facilitation skills are particularly critical for processing activities
which will pertain to the effectiveness of the training.
Mulder (2001), in his research described a model of evaluation
of customer satisfaction about training programs. The model
is developed and implemented for an association of training
companies. The model is aimed at determining the quality of
training programs as perceived by project managers from the
organizations that purchased in- company training programs from
the training companies. The results show that this model is viable
for two categories of projects. The first category are those training
projects that is aimed at achieving learning results and the second
category is training programs that changes an individual’s job
performance.
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In order to recognize the effectiveness of the training, the
organization should also give their attention on ways to develop
an effective training evaluation. Several characteristics of effective
training evaluation was described by Burrow and Berardinelli
(2003) in their research Systematic performance improvement
– refining the space between learning and results. They pointed
out that all training must be objective and directed at important
outcomes, it should identify the important elements of the training
program (refer to the training method), the evaluation should match
the organizational philosophy, and last but not least the evaluation
procedures should be reasonable and focus on both the outcomes
and the process.
a)
Management Support
Whatever the case, the training program’s developer must take
into account the kind of training program that best suits the adult
learning theory. Malcolm Knowles’s Andragogy (Knowles, Holton,
and Swanson, 2000) is most frequently associated with adult
learning theory. Andragogy is based on the following assumptions
(a) adult learners bring life experiences to the learning process that
should be acknowledged, (b) adults need to know why they need
to learn something, and how it is relevant to their lives or jobs, (c)
experiential, hands-on learning is effective with adult learners, (d)
adult approach learning as problem-solving, (e) adults learn best if
the topic is of immediate value to them in their lives.
To top that up, Wise and Ezell (2003) provided four major criteria
to decide whether training program is effective or not. Effective
training should be learner focused, demonstrate productive
behavior and effective life skills. It should also inspire and motivate,
and also celebrate personal and group achievements.
b)
Training Methods
According to Noe (2010), management support refers to the
degree to which trainees’ perceive managerial support : (i)
management should emphasize the importance of attending
training programs and (ii) stress the application of training content
to the job. Management as well as managers can communicate
expectations to trainees by providing the encouragement and
resources needed to apply training to the job. This leads to the
second hypothesis
In conclusion, from the practical perspective, the findings of this
study can be considered as continuous improvement on training in
the organization. The top management may have additional insight
and knowledge pertaining to the impact of the implementation of
training practices on their employees. Moreover, the results of the
study would be of significant value to organizations which may use
them as a useful reference to provide efficient training for the staff.
References:
Burrow, J. and Berardinelli, P. (2003). Systematic performance
improvement: Refining the space between learning and results.
Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(1), 6-13.
Dessler, G. (2008). Human resource management (11th ed.). New
Jersey, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Evans, J. R. and Lindsay, W. M. (2002). The management and
control of quality. USA: South Western.
Grensing-Pophal, L. (2004). A sumforall reasons: A way to
reduce administrative headaches and cut costs when relocating
employees is to give them a lump sum--one check upfront--to cover
some or all of their expenses. In Lee, K. L. (Ed.), Evaluating the
effectiveness of a conceptual skill training: A quasi-experimental
approach (pp.4). The Malaysia University of Science: Dissertation.
The Economist (Mar 24, 2012) suggests an alternative
approach to safer passwords. The approach was
championed by Bruce Schneier, a security guru. He
suggests to turn a sentence into a password, taking the
first letter of each word and substituting numbers and
punctuation marks where possible. “Too much food and
wine will make you sick” thus becomes “2mf&wwmUs”.
This is no panacea: the danger with this “mnemonic
password” approach is that people will use a proverb, or
a line from a film or a song, as the starting point, which
makes it vulnerable to attack. However, Bruce cautions
that, one shouldn’t use popular idiomatic expressions as
these can easily be compromised.
The Economist correspondent reports that some websites
make an effort to enhance security by indicating how
easily guessed a password is likely to be, rejecting weak
passwords, ensuring that password databases are kept
properly encrypted and limiting the rate at which login
attempts can be made. More should do so. But people
should not rely on it happening. Instead, they should
enhance their own security by upgrading their brain to use
mnemonic passwords.
Thus, in view of the new laws in Malaysia, it pays to use
very secure passwords.
References :
Zainal Abidin, Mahani (2010). Steps Being Taken to Draw
Investments, New Straits Times, July 31.
The Economist Correspondent, (2012). Online Security.
The Economists, March 24, 2012.
The Sunday Star, (2012). Easy Passwords Make Blaming
Part Easier, The Star, June 17.
Mahathir, Marina (2012). Cyber Law Make Malaysians
Guilty, Unless Proven Innocent,The Star, June 7.
Vui Keong, Liew (2012) Malaysians need to come together
to fight cybercrime. The Star, April 17.
Pensions
Source : The Economists, Apr 7th 2011
A review by : Hanith Iskandar & Gopala Krishnan
The raising of retirement age
Recently, the Malaysian government
increased the retirement age by two years
enabling civil servants to retire at 60 should
they so desire. This was welcomed by members of civil
service especially the older generation. However, the
new move also raised some fears among certain sectors
especially the younger generation who thought that they
will be fewer vacancies for new entries if the older one
leave later.
In many countries, the governments have started to deal
with the ageing problem. They have announced increases
in the official retirement age that attempt to hold down the
costs of state pensions while encouraging workers to stay
in their jobs or get on their bikes and look for new ones
according to an article in The Economists of Apr 7th 2011.
According to the article, since 1971 the life expectancy
has been increasing all over the world. They predict
that by 2050, people will live ever longer. The average
retirement age in Europe in 2010 was 63, almost one year
lower than in 1970. Just as in the West, life expectancy in
Malaysia is also expected to rise, what is applicable in the
West also applies in Malaysia.
The Economist article reports that most governments in
the world are already planning increases in the retirement
age. America is heading for 67, Britain for 68. Others are
moving more slowly. Belgium allows women to retire at
60, for instance, and has no plans to change that. Under
current policies the mean retirement age by 2050, in the
West will still be less than 65, barely higher than it was
after the second world war. Thus, it is not out of place for
Malaysia to also raise its retirement age.
Working longer has three great advantages either in the
West or in Malaysia. The employee gets more years of
wages; the government receives more in taxes and pays
out less in benefits; and the economy grows faster as more
people work for longer. Older workers are a neglected
consumer market according to The Economist article.
The article says that too many people see longer working
lives as a worry rather than an opportunity—and not just
because they are going to be chained to their desks.
Some fret that there will not be enough jobs to go around.
This is also the case in Malaysia. Many people fear that
the younger generation would face unemployment if
the existing workers stay longer. This misapprehension,
known to economists as the “lump of labour fallacy”, was
once used to argue that women should stay at home and
leave all the jobs for breadwinning males. Now lump-oflabourites say that keeping the old at work would deprive
the young of employment. The idea that society can
become more prosperous by paying more of its citizens
to be idle is clearly nonsensical. On that reasoning, if the
retirement age came down to 25 we would all be very rich.
The article reports that raising retirement ages would
offset the impact of an ageing population. The older
workers with greater experience are an asset in creating
a knowledge based economy which is based on services
and not manufacturing alone.
According to the The Economist article, in knowledgebased jobs, age is less of a disadvantage. Although older
people reason more slowly, they have more experience
and, by and large, better personal skills. Thus, the older
people’s experience is an asset to the nation and the
young need not worry of less opportunity should the
older generation retire later. With older workers creating a
more viable service industry, the economy should expand
thereby absorbing more workers, so the young need not
fear the older workers leaving later.
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Wan Maziah Wan Ab. Razak | Syahrul Nadwani Abd. Rahman | Kartini Mat Rashid |
Bashir Ahmad Bin Shabir Ahmad
the charges, you are considered by the law as guilty. She
pointed out that this is a complete reversal of the usual
“innocent until proven guilty” axiom in most courts of law.
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Factors that Contribute to the Effectiveness of Training
among Academicians
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