Pendekatan Psikologi Dalam Pengurusan Efektif



Pendekatan Psikologi Dalam Pengurusan Efektif
Pendekatan Psikologi
Dalam Pengurusan Efektif
Prof. Madya Dr. Suppiah
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
A. Pengurusan Sumber Manusia
(Modal Insan)
 The right person at the right place
 The right time with the right attitude
 Melibatkan aktiviti khidmat
nasihat, peningkatan
motivasi kepuasan kerja.
 Menerapkan kemahiran
pengurusan isu dan
masalah psikologi di
tempat kerja seperti
pengurusan tekanan,
pengurusan konflik,
pengurusan perubahan
sikap dan lain-lain.
 Melibatkan aktiviti penyelidikan yang
mengkaji permasalahan penjawat awam
di tempat kerja seperti penyelidikan
interaksi antara manusia dan faktor faktor pencetus dan penghalang motivasi
di tempat kerja.
 Templer in The Rules Of Management
menyatakan, “A team doesn’t pull together
well when each individual member focuses
on their own target.”
 Mengurus masalah secara berkesan melalui
Program Pengupayaan Kendiri (PPK) yang
mengandungi aktiviti mentoring,
pembimbing rakan sekerja dan kaunseling.
 Setiap individu perlu memahami dan
mempraktikkan nilai, minat dan sikap
yang diperlukan dalam organisasi.
 Organisasi yang mempunyai amalan
berkongsi nilai, minat dan sikap pekerja
akan memberi keuntungan jangka
panjang kepada organisasi itu sendiri
(Noe, 2004)
 Memastikan penjawat
awam mempunyai sikap
yang positif,
berkemahiran dalam
pengurusan kendiri dan
berkeupayaan serta
berkemahiran dalam
membantu mencapai
wawasan, misi dan
objektif organisasi.
B. Pengurus yang Efektif
Kemahiran-kemahiran termasuklah seperti
berikut:a) Creative Problem Solving Skills:
1. Describing and analyzing a problem,
2. Identifying causes of a problem,
3. Developing creative options and choosing
the best course of action, and
4. Implementing and evaluating effective and
efficiency of the decision.
b) Communication Skills:
1. Listening skills
2. Presentation skills
3. Feedback Skills
4. Report writing skills
c) Conflict Management Skills:
1. Identifying sources of conflict
2. Understanding personal style of
conflict resolution
3. Choosing the best strategy for
dealing with a conflict
4. Developing skills in promoting
constructive conflicts in
organization and teams.
d) Negotiation Skills:
1. Identifying common mistakes in
negotiation and ways to avoid
2. Developing rational thinking in
3. Developing effective skills in
negotiation that benefits all
parties involved
e) Self-Awareness and Improvement:
1. Understanding the concept of selfmanagement,
2. Evaluate the effectiveness of selfmanagement,
3. Developing creative and holistic thinking,
4. Understanding the importance of
emotions in work as well in selfdevelopment,
5. Understanding of self-motivation, and
6. Effectively managing self-learning and
C. Pengurus yang Berkualiti
a) Good Communicator
i. ability to effectively
ii. use persuasion when
necessary to ensure the
success of the team and
iii. support individual and team
achievements by creating
guidelines for
accomplishing tasks and for
the career advancement of
team members
b) Enthusiasm
i. manager with
enthusiasm, with a
bounce in their step,
with a can-do attitude.
ii. committed to their
goals and express
this commitment
through optimism.
“Winning isn't everything. Wanting to win is.”
- Catfish Hunter
c) Competence
i. Managers will be chosen based on their
ability to successfully lead others
ii. The ability to challenge, inspire, enable,
model and encourage must be
demonstrated if managers are to be seen
as capable and competent.
d) Ability to Delegate
i. Trust is an essential
element in the
relationship of
manager and his or
her team
ii. You demonstrate
your trust in others
through your actions
e) Cool Under Pressure
when leaders encounter a
stressful event, they consider it
interesting, they feel they can
influence the outcome and they
see it as an opportunity.
f) Team-Building Skills
i. defined as a strong person who
provides the substance that
holds the team together in
common purpose toward the
right objective.
ii. the leader must understand the
process and dynamics required
for this transformation.
iii. He or she must know the
appropriate leadership style to
use during each stage of team
iv. The leader must also have an
understanding of the different
team players styles and how to
capitalize on each at the proper
time, for the problem at hand.
g) Motivation
If your team lacks motivation, you can’t
be successful, they can’t be successful
and your company can’t be successful.
h) Change Management
Managing change
successfully is an
essential skill which
all managers have
to master at some
point. If you do it
badly, the result
can be anxiety,
uncertainty and demotivation.
i) Communicate the big
i. Open communication
helps foster loyalty and
gives a employee a
sense of pride.
ii. It helps them understand
how their work
contributes to the
company's success.
j) Delegate work and responsibilities
Some employees, share their
workload with them and assign
the work according to people's
strengths and weaknesses, and
let employees develop their own
good work habits and abilities.
k) Help employees set goals
i. Setting deadlines and goals
helps keep employees
focused, busy and motivates
them to do their work.
ii. Talk to each of your
employees about the
company's goals, and work
with them to set individual
goals directly linked to your
business's mission.
iii. Make sure employees
understand their professional
growth path in the company.
l) Recognize problems
i. It is impossible to know about personality
conflicts, lagging productivity or other problems
in the office if you have your head in the sand.
ii. If you notice a change in an employee's work
habits or attitude, try to get to the root of the
problem before it starts affecting the rest of your
m) Reward employees
i. Everybody appreciates raises
and bonuses, but monetary
rewards aren't the only way to
thank employees for a job well
ii. In fact the easiest way to
recognize a worker's contribution
— by simply saying "thank you"
— is often the most overlooked.
iii. Whether you do it with words,
money, an employee-of-themonth program or other
incentives, make sure your
employees know you value their
efforts and contributions.
n) Be a mentor
As a manager, one of the
greatest gifts you can give your
employees is sharing your
knowledge and experience.
o) Give reviews
i. Employees need feedback about their
performance to improve their skills and grow
ii. Set up a formal review program and give
performance appraisals once or twice a year.
iii. If you set goals and give performance reviews
in the same meeting, make sure you spend
equal time addressing past performance and
future goals.
p) Have a heart
i. Family emergencies, illnesses and other unplanned
events always arise, so get used to it.
ii. Show employees some compassion by being flexible
with work hours and time off so they can tend to
important matters.
iii. Employees always appreciate a sympathetic boss, and
as long as your business won't suffer, make every effort
to accommodate workers who have special needs.
It is better to have a heart without words
than words without a heart!
- John Bunyan
q) Take the time to be a manager
i. During busy times when work's piling up, don't forget
to be a manager. Employees depend on your
strength and guidance — especially when they're
stressed out.
ii. Give employees your undivided attention when they
want to talk. If you can't do that in your office, head
out to a neighborhood café and chat over a cup of
D. Masalah Pengurusan
1. Prestasi rendah
2. Ketidaksesuaian untuk bekerja
kerana bidang tidak sesuai
3. Kerja acuh tak acuh
4. Kurang motivasi
5. Tidak mahu mendengar
rungutan masalah pekerja
E. Pendekatan Psikologi Dalam
Mewujudkan kepuasan kerja
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
 Pengurusan yang efektif
bercirikan beberapa kriteria.
a) Kenal pasti kekuatan dan
kelemahan diri dan orangorang di sekeliling.
b) Perlu ada objektif kursus dan
merancang untuk
c) Perlu membina satu pasukan
untuk berkongsi hasrat
d) Perlu membantu setiap ahli
untuk mencapai objektif yang
ditentukan oleh ketua jabatan
atau organisasi.