Guest Speaker - 12 November 2015 Arya Duta Manado Indonesia



Guest Speaker - 12 November 2015 Arya Duta Manado Indonesia
Proceedings of the 1th International
Seminar on
Quality and Affordable Education
(ISQAE -2012):
“Developing Qualified and Affordable
Education System For All”
21 – 23 May, 2012
Grand Sahid Jaya Hotel, Jakarta
Organized by:
Prof. Dr. Ir. Musliar Kasim, MS –Deputy Minister of Education and
Culture, Indonesia
Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd. – Head of Educational Resource
Development and Education Quality Assurance,
Ministry of Education and Culture Indonesia
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto., M.Pd - Rector of State University of Jakarta,
Prof. Dr. Djaali - Director of Graduate Program,
State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D- Andalas University, Padang,
West Sumatera, Indonesia
Prof. Dr. Saedah Siraj - University of Malaya, Malaysia
Prof. Dr. Noor Azlan Ahmad Zanzali – University Technology Malaysia,
Ir. Isran Noor, M.Si - General Chief of Indonesian
Local Government Association, Indonesia
Dr. Ir. Willy M. Yoseph, MM - The Regent of Murung Raya,
Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Prof. Dr. H. Djaali
Prof. Dr. Mukhlis R. Luddin
Prof. Dr. Saedah Siraj
Prof. Dr. Mohamad Bilal Ali
Pof. Dr. Yetti Supriyati
Prof. Dr. H. Emzir, M.Pd.
Dr. Wardhani Rahayu, M.Si.
Dr. Yuliatri Sastrawijaya, M.Pd.
Dr. Endry Boeriswati, M.Pd.
On behalf of the organizing committee please allow me to welcome
you, guest speakers and participants to this seminar. We also render our
gratitute and appreciation for your attendance. This seminar is truly
internasional seminar, since it is hosted by three universities, namely: the
State University of Jakarta, Universiti Malaya, Malaysia, and Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia. The guest speakers also come from several countries
such as Indonesia, Malaysia and other countries, and attended by
participants from various countries, such as: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand,
the United Arab Emirate, India, the United States of America, Iran, and the
To improve social welfare and alleviate poverty, the government of
Indonesia has established a policy in the field of eduactional system to fulfill
the increasing demands of science and technology and labor market. The
objective of the policy is to increase participation rate 100% for elementary
education and 96% for secondary education. Even the target has been
achieved 94,6% in 2009, it is far from the whole objective.
Based on the data of Education Development Index (EDI), several
countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar
and Cambodia are in the category of middle level in the EDI countries, while
other countries such as Brunei Darussalam is in the higher level. In other
words, quality education is still a problem in those countries.
The effort to expand the access to affordable education in terms of
geographical and economic development, improving the quality and
relevance of education, strengthening governance and accountability of
educational services must be realized to accelerate the achievement of
universal primary education by 2015. Such an effort should be implemented
to include: (i) education and competence of tachers; (ii) teachers
professionalism; (iii) financial education management and human resource
management; (iv) politics of education; (v) the paradigm and politics of
education; (vi) development of organizational education; (vii) quality
assurance of education; (viii) education and gender equality; and
(ix) education for all.
Regarding those above issues, the seminar is aimed to produce
strategic formulas to solve such a problem, particularly to find a solution how
to develop a qualified and affordable education system. In line with that aim,
the theme of this seminar is “Developing a Qualified and Affordable
Education System for All”.
This international seminar would not be possible without the
contributions and support from our sponsors, partners, and supporters, for
which we give our heartflet thanks. We hope our collaboration would
contribute a great merit to the development of education in our societies.
Committee Chairman
Ir. Syaiful Anwar, M.Bus., MA
State University of Jakarta
Message from State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
Message from University of Malaya, Malaysia
Message from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Keynote Speaker
Prof. Dr. Ir. Musliar Kasim, M.S.
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto, M.Pd
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Djaali
Guest Speaker
Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Saedah Siraj
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Noor Azlan Bin Ahmad Zanzali
Guest Speaker
Ir. Isran Noor, M.Si
Guest Speaker
Dr. Ir. Willy M. Yoseph, M.M
The 1th International Seminar on Quality And Affordable Education
(ISQAE 2012)
Model Peningkatan Mutu Pendidikan di Kabupaten
(Studi Kasus SMA di Kabupaten)
Performance Management to Build The Quality of Teaching at
Sekolah Smart Ekselensia Indonesia
Examining The Areas of ICT Utilization Among School Teachers and
Principals in Malaysia
Kazi Enamul Hoque, Mosa. Fatema Zohora, Rahmad Sukor
Ab.Samad, Saedah Siraj, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak
Partnerships for Teacher Professional Development
Basuki Wibawa, Tuti Iriani
Quality and Affordable Education
Atwi Suparman, Udan Kusmawan
Enhancing The Role of Educational Technology by Adopting New
Technology in Higher Learning Institution: UTM Experiences
Mohamad Bilal Ali, Noraffandy Yahaya, Mohd Fadzli Ali,
Abdul Razak Idris
Pengaruh Budaya Organisasi untuk Meningkatkan Efektivitas Kerja:
Studi Kasus PD Dharma Jaya Jakarta (2009)
Basuki Ranto
Hasrat Belajar Mahasiswa Kedinasan Berasrama Sekolah Tinggi
Sandi Negara: Ditinjau Dari Faktor Sarana Prasarana, Kemampuan
Pendidik, dan Pelayanan Tenaga Kependidikan
Hermawan Setiawan, Tri Wahyudi
Pemanfaatan ICT dalam Meningkatkan Kinerja Sekolah,
Pembelajaran Efektif dan Kualitas Sekolah Unggul Masa Depan
M. Hosnan
Perlaksanaan Amalan Refleksi Secara Kolaborasi:
Strategi dalam Meningkatkan Kualiti Guru Sains yang Berkesan
Nor Hasniza Ibrahim, Johari Surif, Mohammad Yusof Arshad,
Noor Azlan Ahmad Zanzali
Political: Involvement Education of Committee in Managing Policy
Ninin Herlina
The Relationship Between Organization Culture and Inter-Personal
Communication Interpersonal with Employee Work Achievement:
A Survey at PT. Kal Star Aviation, 2011
Francis Tantri
Descriptive Study of Skills Programme Implementation at Islamic
Senior High School in Jakarta
Intan Irawati, Kun Sri Wardhani
Orientation Study of Supervisor and Principal Duties
(An Idea of Conducting Revitalization of Role and Function of
Institutional Supervision in The Educational Decentralization)
Hamzah B. Uno, Rasuna Talib
Material Development for Early Childhood Education Through
The Use of Technology
Gita Mutiara Hati
Accommodating Parental Participation in Managing School
Moh. Syahrun Ibrahim
Pentingnya Strategi Manajemen dalam Organisasi Olahraga
untuk Mencapai Efektivitas Organisasi
Moch. Asmawi
Devolving Authority: Public Secondary Schools’ Perception and
Response to School Based Management Policy in Indonesia
Bambang Sumintono, Nora Mislan, Hamdan Said
Penerapan Pembelajaran Terpadu pada Proses Pembelajaran
Vokasional di Program Studi Penerbitan Politeknik Negeri Media
Kreatif Jakarta
Irene Maria Juli Astuti
Strategy of Human Resource Performance Improvement Pass
by Quality Management in Area of Education Go to Good
Dwi Deswary
Implementasi SCL (Student Centered Learning) pada Pembelajaran
Kuliah Jaringan Komputer: Studi Kasus: Politeknik Telkom
Yahdi Siradj
Pengaruh Kepemimpinan dan Kinerja terhadap Kualitas Pelayanan
Rifana S.S.I Kawet
Media Komunikasi dalam Pembelajaran: Video Conference Sebagai
Media Komunikasi dan Informasi Mahasiswa
Reni Nuraeni
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Message from State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
Assalamu’alaikum Wr.Wb.
First of all let us pray praise and gratitude the presence of Almighty
God, because with God permits we are still in good health so that we can all
attend an international seminar on this day.
I think this forum is important, because this kind of academic forum,
built and operated by three leading universities are neighboring each other.
These three universities (Universiti Malaya, State University of Jakarta, and
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia) has long been cooperating in various fields of
activities (academic, student exchange, faculty exchange, goodwill visits and
so on) to improve the knowledge, skills and friendship to build an academic
On this day, one of the forms of cooperation that, in the form of an
international seminar organized jointly between the three universities of this,
we can follow and watch. I warmly welcome and feel optimistic that the
model of this kind of concrete cooperation can improve the quality of
academic life.
Indeed, we are now, we should not sit back and feel of its own.
Moreover, such feelings, often, not accompanied by an increase and
continual updating of knowledge. And we also understand that the
development of science is so very quickly. And often precede the
development of science is a growing aspirations of our community in mind (in
Asia or ASEAN). We recognize that developments in science that we must
grasp with more systematic and continuously, because we also require that
what we understand today can help us provide a new understanding of
behavior change our lives in times to come.
I consider that the issues which was raised at an international
seminar this time is very precise and strategic. Important because the issue
relates to the real problems being faced by our society, especially those who
live in ASIAN region or ASIA. Issues to be discussed at this conference is very
compatible with the development aspirations of our society, let alone a
region, and of course ASEAN, is expected to make greater contributions to
the resolution of societal problems being faced by the world community. Asia
and ASEAN become the foundation of an alternative solution to the problem
of human life.
One of the most important attention on the problems of life are in
the area of education. We still have a big homework-completing the disparity
between on the one hand there is a tremendous leap in the advancement of
science and technology, so that urban communities enjoy more access to
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
(service) of modern life; on the other hand we also have to still deal with
many of our communities not yet covered by the quality of education
services, especially in people residing in remote areas (remote areas).
Therefore, the international seminar organized jointly by some of the
best universities in the region will give a significant meaning to the
emergence of a model 'academic relationship' between members of the
education community. In this kind of forum, we can exchange ideas, share
understanding, developing academic discourse, so that we will gain a new
understanding of what is being developed and what is being shared attention
in our efforts to improve the quality of our lives together.
I hope that the activities of this international seminar may be
maintained and held in rotation, from one university to another. From one
country to another. From one city to another. Thus, in addition we can
improve the knowledge and skills of each of us, we also can build a more
comprehensive understanding of the cultural richness, diversity of life
models, thus further enhancing mutual understanding and strengthen ties
the oneness of origin in this region.
Finally, I extend a welcome to all participants, especially those
coming from our friendly countries, hopefully you all can enjoy this kind of
academic activity. I also hope that we all can meet, discuss and exchange
knowledge on the other occasion with new hope and new inspiration. Once
again, I congratulate to held seminar, thank you.
Wassalamu'alaikum Wr.Wb.
Jakarta, May 21th, 2012
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto, M.Pd.
Rector of the State University of Jakarta
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Message from University of Malaya, Malaysia
First of all, I would like to congratulate the State University of Jakarta
for organizing the First International Seminar on “Quality and Affordable
Education 2012” or ISQAE 2012 and also for inviting the Faculty of Education
of the University of Malaya as co-organizer.With the theme of ‘Developing a
Qualified and Affordable Education System for All" this seminar is timely and
important because quality and affordability will ensure both success and
access in education.
I am pleased that this cooperative effort between the Faculty of
Education of Universiti Malaya and State University of Jakarta will strengthen
the ties between our institutions, lead to publication of scholarly works of
practical value and usefulness and also provide the basis for further
collaborative research in future.
I also hope that the next three days (May 21-23) will enable us to
explore in depth the issues related to ensuring quality in education and ways
to maintain affordability without sacrificing quality. Because in the
challenging and competitive globalized world today, education – especially
higher education -- is no longer a luxury but a necessity to maintain national
competitiveness and population well-being.
The Faculty of Education of UM appreciates being given a role to play
on this auspicious occasion. Thank you for allowing us to participate and
exchange ideas and I hope this is only the beginning of a strong, fruitful and
lasting collaboration.
Terima kasih dan selamat maju jaya.
Prof . Dr. Saedah Siraj
Dean Faculty of Education, University of Malaya
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Message from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Assalamualaikum warahmatullah hi wabarakatuh
Excellency’s, Distinguished Delegates, Ladies
and Gentlemen.
It gives me great pleasure and privilege to
extend to you all a very warm welcome on behalf of
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) to this
International Educational Seminar which also cohosted together with Universiti Malaya (UM) and
Universitas Negeri Jakarta (UNJ). A special thanks goes to the Government of
Republic of Indonesia and UNJ for hosting this seminar and for all the
facilities which will undoubtedly highly contribute to the success of this
It is gratifying to note that the agenda of this Seminar covers a wide
range of very interesting topics relating to the educational fields. One of the
purposes of this seminar is to exchange ideas and I personally think that this
is high an opportune time to create and establish contacts and discuss
problems of mutual interest among participants with different background
and experiences as delegates for this seminar coming from different
countries. This is a good start to develop and strengthen capacities of
individuals and institution in a joint collaboration. I believe that this seminar
will help in building the progress and set an ambitious new version for the
future in taking the leap in advanced academic setting. I hope this seminar
will provide an opportunity to share our unique perspectives and experiences
with other and renew commitment to an important step in strengthening the
cooperative network among the institutions.
In conclusion, I wish you every success in your deliberations and a
very pleasant stay in Jakarta and enjoy the seminars. Hopefully this event is
not the last and we may see each other in the next similar seminar.
Associate Prof. Dr. Mohamad Bilal Ali
Dean Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Keynote Speaker
Prof. Dr. Ir. Musliar Kasim, MS started his
career as Secretary of the Research Institute of the
University of Andalas, Chairman of the Institute for
Community Service University of Andalas, Vice Rector
for Administration and finance of University of
Andalas, Rector of the University of Andalas, Inspector
General of the Ministry of National Education, the
Deputy Minister of Education and Culture Education.
He received his doctorate from the University of the
Philippines at Los Banos in 1992 and had attended Training Administration
Management for Higher Education in Saga University in Japan. Prof. Dr. Ir. H.
Musliar Kasim, MS. Also actively researching and developing SRI Cultivation
(The System of Rice Intensification) for Indonesia. He is also initiator and
Research Team trial planting of wheat Cooperation between the University of
Andalas with Slovakia. The award that has been received are the best
graduates student in faculty of agriculture, cumlaude for his master and the
best lecturer of Andalas University (1994) and Runner up of The Best National
Lecturer Indonesia.
Prof. Dr. Ir. Musliar Kasim, M.S.
Vice Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd is a professor
in State University of Medan. His educational
background are: Doctor degree at educational
management , State University of Jakarta. Magister
degree was completed at Educational Research and
Evaluation, IKIP Yogyakarta. Between 2003 – 2007,
Syawal Gultom had been Vice Rector II, State
University of Medan. Some of his research are
Relationship Between Mathematics and Physics
Ability High School Students In accordance with
Curriculum 1984 in municipality, Skills Analysis of High School Students To
Apply Mathematics in Physics in the municipality of Yogyakarta, Evaluation
Research. Reasoning Ability, Numerical Ability and Control Materials
Mathematics And Its Relation With the ability to use mathematics in physics,
Media Effectiveness Concept Map Functions On The Teaching Calculus I
Lectures in the Department of Mathematics Faculty State University of
Medan. Beside of, he has participated in SEMINAR, upgrading, WORKSHOPS,
and scientific meeting: Experimental Design, Testing relationships:
correlation and regression analysis, accuracy of Research Data Processing,
Data Analysis Package Using Various Research, Problem Formulation
Research: Theory and Applications, World Development Education
Technology Education, Development and Implementation of CompetencyBased Curriculum in UNIMED Environment, Development And
implementation of Competency-Based Curriculum.
Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd
Head of Educational Resource Development and Education Quality
Assurance, Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto, M.Pd. is a rector of
State University of Jakarta. He received his doctoral
degree in State University of Jakarta (IKIP Jakarta) and
his master in State University of Padang (IKIP Padang).
His specialization is in Educational Management. He
joined some training such as National Defense
Institute, Internal Management Improvement and
Integrated Quality Management. His started his
carrer as education consultant in Jakarta Office of
Education in some project and research such as
Supervisors, School Principals and Teachers Recruitment in Local Autonomy
Era Project, Basic Education Development Project, Secondary Education
Development Project, Compulsory Education Pilot Project, Subject Matter
Teachers Need Analysis Project and Junior Secondary Education Quality
Improvement Project and DKI Jakarta Dezentralised Baisc Education Project.
Before become the rector he was Vice Dean, Faculty of Education for
Academic Affair and Head of Institute for Community Service in State
University of Jakarta.
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto., M.Pd
Rector of State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. H. Djaali is Director of Graduate
Program in State University of Jakarta, kind a precious
University in East Jakarta. He is concurrently a
Professor of Education at the State University of Jakarta
and also a member of National Standards Bodies of
Education. He has 15 years experience at State
University of Jakarta. He was the Head of Educational
Research and Evaluation Studies Graduate Program,
State University of Jakarta and also Chairman of the
College of Management Sciences Budi Bakti. Previous to this position he was
the Chief Secretary cum Development Program Doctoral Program Graduate
State University of Jakarta. He was also a Consultant for The World Bank's
Strategic Plan for Development of National Education Ministry, Partnership
for Governance Reform in Indonesia UNDP, the Evaluation Team Leader
duties Sisdik Police, Police Officer Education Curriculum Development,
cosecutively for almost a decade. He received his Professor from State
University of Jakarta in 1999. He achieved his Doctoral directly without any
Master degree after his graduation in 4 years after. He devoted his life to
teaching since graduated in Makassar until now in Jakarta. In addition to
teaching at State University of Jakarta, he also taught as a lecturer at several
universities flew home and abroad, such as High School of Accounting
Sciences Administration of State Institutions, College Police Science,
Bhayangkara University Center, Moestopo University, Pakuan University,
Northern University Malaysia, Jayabaya University, State University of
Makassar and became a member of the Senate of few of the university.
Prof. Dr. Djaali
Director of Graduate Program
State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D received his Ph.D.
from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA at
1991 in the field Science of Community Nutrition
with a Minorin Epidemiology and Southeast Asia
Studies Program. He was a Deputy Minister of
Education, Ministry of National Education Republic of
Indonesia during 2010-2011. Before that position, he
was Director General of Higher Education, Ministry
of National Education (2007-2010), Director General
for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education
Personnel, Ministry of National Education (2005-2007), Director General of
School Education and Youth, Ministry of National Education (2001-2005),
Advisor to the Ministerof National Education Sector Education Resource
(2000-2001).He was a delegation leader in Internasional forum to USA,
Canada, Italy, Norwegia, Mexico, Chille, Mesir, Brunei Darussalam, Singapore,
Jerman, Belanda, Inggris, Australia, Jepang, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia,
Philippina, Sri Lanka, India, Jordania, and China. Fasli Jalal ia also Keynote
Speaker at:
E-9 Senior Officers Meeting “ Programs Offered for
Collaboration” Jakarta 24 Oktober 2008, International Conference on Higher
Education “ The Role of Higher Education Institution in Empowering
Community in Indonesia” Malaysia 24 August 2008, The International
Education Workshop "Quality Teacher Education" Jakarta 20 - 22 Agustus
2008. Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D is an author and editor for:
Reduction Strategy Paper-Based Capacity Building of Human Resources of
Poor Families", Chairman of the Task Force III TKP3 Commission, the
Coordinating Ministry for People's Welfare, May 2004., "Indonesia Human
Development Report 2004",
Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D
Professor of Andalas University, Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Professor Dr Saedah Siraj is Dean of Faculty of
Education, University of Malaya. Her specialization
areas are Curriculum Development, Curriculum Design,
Curriculum Evaluation, Curriculum Management,
Curriculum and Instruction, Comparative Curriculum,
Future Curriculum, mLearning Curriculum, Family and
Children Education. She achieved some awards: Silver
Medal Award, International Exposition of Research and
Invention of Institutions of Higher Learning (PECIPTA
2009), Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia and
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre (KLCC), Oct 8-10, 2009.
(Group Research: Mirroring your teaching style through student’s learning style).
As a frofessor in Curriculum and Instructional Technology has contributed in
education world: Member of The Council of National Central Curriculum
[Malaysia] (July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2011), Evaluator of University of Malaya
Research Grant Scheme (UMRG) (2008-2011), Committee of Humanities and
Ethics Research Cluster University of Malaya (Jan 2009-Dec 2010), Expert and
Main Speaker in the Committee Meeting of Curriculum Design for the Training
Institute of Statistics Malaysia, Department of Statistics Malaysia (Dec 26, 2009).
[Online] Professor Dr Saedah Siraj is also author of
Kurikulum masa depan (Future curriculum) (1st ed.)., Learning: a new dimension
of Curriculum advancement. Pendidikan anak-anak (Children education,
Perkembangan kurikulum: teori dan amalan (Curriculum development: theory
and practice) (2nd ed.)., Cognition and learning: issues and strategies, Buku teks
guru prasekolah komponen Bahasa Melayu (Preschool Teacher’s textbook of
Malay Language component, Kurikulum Baru Prasekolah Kementerian
Pendidikan Malaysia: buku kerja 1 komponen Bahasa Melayu (Preschool New
Curriculum Ministry of Education Malaysia: Malay Language component
workbook 1, Kurikulum Baru Prasekolah Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia: buku
kerja 2 komponen Bahasa Melayu (Preschool New Curriculum Ministry of
Education Malaysia: Malay Language component workbook 2). , Kurikulum Baru
Prasekolah Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia: buku kerja 3 komponen Bahasa
Melayu (Preschool New Curriculum Ministry of Education Malaysia: Malay
Language component workbook 3).
Prof. Dr. Saedah Siraj
Dean of Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Contact no: +6(03) 7967 5000; Email: [email protected]
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Noor Azlan Bin Ahmad Zanzali is Head of
Department Science and Mathematics Education
Department, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia. He received his Ph.D. at
University of Wisconsin, Mdison, United State of
America in1987. He has taught at Fakulti
Pendidikan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia since
1982. Several his works are Managing the holistic
assessment system, The continuing issues of
experience, Issues in designing an authentic
assessment in mathematics education. Plenary Paper in Proceedings of the
4th East Asia Regional Conference in Mathematics Education, Perkembangan
dan cabaran pendidikan matematik dalam kurun ke-21. Ceramah Perdana
Profesor, Problem posing abilities of primary school children, Evaluating The
Levels of Problem Solving Skills Of Secondary School Students,
Implementation of the Mathematics Curriculum: Teachers’ beliefs about
problem solving, Managing Education for Future Citizenship Proceedings of
the 1st Regional Conference on Educational Leadership and Management,
Developments and trends in mathematics education, Assessment from the
Islamic Perspectice. Holistic Student Assessment System in IKRAM-MUSLEH
Schools, The role of Holistic Assessment in IKRAM-MUSLEH schools in the
process of Tarbiah (character building), Educational Management from
MUSLEH’s perspectives, Improving the quality of mathematics education:
Malaysian Experience, Comprehensive indicators of mathematics
understanding among secondary schools stduenst, Engineering Elements
Profile among First- and Final-Year Engineering Students in Malaysia.
Prof. Dr. Noor Azlan Bin Ahmad Zanzali
Head of Department Science and Mathematics Education Department,
Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Ir. H. Isran Noor, M. Si. received a
master's degree of Development Communication
from the University Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. He is
also active as a Board of the Association of Muslim
Scholars of Indonesia (ICMI) East Kalimantan
Region, and had been Secretary of Daily BruneiIndonesia-Malaysia-Phillipines East ASEAN Growth
The Area (BIMP-EAGA), Chairman of the
Agricultural Extension Society of Indonesia
(PERHIPTANI) Province of East Kalimantan, board
member of Kosgoro in East Kalimantan, Board Member of Coordination of
Student Affairs (BKK) Mulawarman University and Chairman of the Student
Representative (BPM) Faculty of Agriculture Mulawarman University. Ir. Isran
Noor, M. Si. is also fluent in three foreign languages are active (English,
French, and German).
Ir. Isran Noor, M. Si.
General Chief of Indonesian Local Government Association of
Regency all over Indonesia (APKASI)
The Regent of Kutai Timur, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Willy M. Joseph received a Doctor of
Educational Management, State University of
Jakarta in 2011. A master's degree obtained from
STM PPM Jakarta 1995. In addition to formal
education, he also had to follow: EIA course of
1987 in Ambon, Personal Management Training
Workshop in 1990 in Jakarta, the National
Seminar on Wages in 1990 in Jakarta, the
National Seminar on K-3 in 1990 in Jakarta, and
Workshops employment Rules work in 1996 in
Jakarta. In addition to the Regent of Murung
Raya, Willy M. Yoseph also as General Manager of PT. Austral Byna of in
Muara Teweh and Managing Director of PT. Stars grace Itah of 1999 in
Palangkaraya. Also been involved in several companies, including PT. Surya
Alam Lestari, Managing Director of PT. Lumber Mighty Jaya, PT. Abaditama
embankment, PT. Hargas Industries, PT. Kayu Lapis Indonesia Group, PT.
Mangole Timber Producers (Barito Group) and PT. Binareksa Alam Lestari
(Barito Group). Until recently he also was Vice Chairman of the Association of
Indonesian Regency Governments and Chairman of the Regional Indigenous
Council of the District Joyless Raya. Signs Services / Awards ever received by
him include: Certificate of UNEP Finance Initiatives Top Participation
Roundtable UNEP Finance Initiatives In Tokyo (2003), Memory of Climbing
the Great Wall provided the Government of the Republic of China to the
Regent Murung Raya at the time of executing visits and cultural promotion in
Beijing, China (2004), Certificate in Leadership Award given by the
Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia to the people of Willy M.
Yoseph Murung Raya as Regent for the participation in decision Socialization
Indonesia People's Consultative Assembly (Year 2009), Charter Mark
Satyalancana Wira Karya Honorary President of the Republic of Indonesia
which, given the Regents Murung Raya To Top Services - Services to support
the Great Development of the National Family Planning Program in the
District of Murung Raya (July of 2010), Signs Award Primary Service Star
honor by the President in Jakarta to the Regent Murung Raya's commitment
in developing education in the District of Murung Raya(August of 2010).
Dr. Ir. Willy M. Yoseph., MM
The Regent of Murung Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
The 1th International Seminar on Quality And
Affordable Education (ISQAE 2012):
Developing Qualified And Afforadable Education System For All
To improve social welfare and alleviate poverty, government of Indonesia has
established a policy in the field of educational system shown by effort of
development and relevance of education to comply with the increasing
demands of science and technology and labor market needs. For that
purpose, participant rate 100% for elementary education and 96% for
secondary education has been set up. Such a target has been fulfilled 94,6%
in 2009. But the success hasn’t been able to answer the target of MDG’s,
because the quality of education can’t be achieved if only viewed from the
aspect of enrollment rate.
Based on data of Education Development Index (EDI) Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar dan Cambodia are in the category of middle
EDI countries while Brunei Darussalam is the highest. In other words, those
countries are facing problems related to the quality improvement in
education. The effort to expand the access to affordable education in terms
of geographical and economic development, improving the quality and
relevance of education, strengthening governance and accountability of
educational services must be realized to accelerate the achievement of
universal primary education by 2015. The program should be implemented to
include: (1)education and competence of teachers, (2)professionalism of
teachers, (3)financial education management and human resource
management, (4)politics of education, (5)the paradigm of education,
(6)development of organizational education, (7)quality assurance of
education, (8)education and gender equality. In order to implement the
program, the seminar is aimed at producing strategic formulas to solve such a
problem, particularly to find a solution how to develop a qualified and
affordable education system.
A. Main Theme : Developing Qualified And Afforadable Education
System For All
B. Sub-theme:
1. Education Quality Improvement Policy
2. Critical Issues in Expanding Access to Education
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Education Evaluation System
Education Partnership Program
Education Management
Teacher Professionalism
Teacher Education System
Remote Area Education
Early Childhood Education
Formal and Informal Education
Education Facilities and Infrastructures
Grand Sahid Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia
21-23 May, 2012
Call for Papers and Presentation Guidelines
ISQAE 2012 welcomes research papers in all fields related to stakeholders of
including policy-makers,
administrators, educationists,
government representatives, academics, and concerned NGOs. Applicants
are invited to participate in the seminar and contribute to the dialogue by
presenting papers on the sub-themes mentioned above.
The abstract should not be longer than 300 words and be either an MS Word
or PDF file sent via email to [email protected] Paper format can be
downloaded on the ISQAE website.
Each accepted paper will be assigned to a parallel session with relevance
theme to be presented by the author. Each paper will presented in 15
minutes followed by group discussion in the panel.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
State University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
The indicators National ofquality of educationone of themis
determined from the results ofnational examinations. The results
ofnational examinations students describe absorption of
competence has not been satis factorily tested. The low absorption
is partly due to the ability of teachers toteach specific competencies
in the development of materials, methods, and media. This study
aims to develop models of quality improvement of teachers to teach
subjects Indonesian, English, Mathematics, Economics, Geography,
Sociology, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Incubator Modelis a
model of lesson study is developed for the region with a distance of
one school to another schoola part. Incubator models developed
using the concept of a learning laboratory nursery school and school
system impact. Schools are used as seeding is that the school has
the facilities and infrastructure requirement sare used as a learning
laboratory and particular subject. This model has the real power
that the training is teaching the competencies that are difficult.
During the training of teachers have real experience on the
problems that actually face. Impact school got swept up in the
nursery teacher experience during training innursery school. Based
on the results of the feasibility study model, the modelis fit for use in
the district that the school is located far apart.
Keywords:quality of educational resources, development incubator,
model of teachers quality
Pengukuran standar kompetensi lulusan dan standar kompetensi
mata pelajaran (standar isi) ini dapat berfungsi sebagai (i) sarana
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pertanggungjawaban (akuntabilitas) publik proses pendidikan secara
nasional, (iii) gambaran kinerja pendidikan secara nasional, dan (iv) balikan
bagi penyempurnaan kebijakan nasional pendidikan khususnya kebijakan
tentang standar nasional pendidikan dan kebijakan nasional lain untuk
memenuhi standar nasional pendidikan. Dengan demikian, pengukuran
ketercapaian standar kompetensi lulusan dan standar kompetensi mata
pelajaran (standar isi) merupakan sebuah aktivitas yang harus
diselenggarakan secara kontinyu dan berkelanjutan.
Pengukuran ketercapaian standar kompetensi lulusan dan standar
kompetensi mata pelajaran (standar isi) secara nasional dapat menggunakan
(i) ujian pada level sekolah (yang disebut Ujian Akhir Sekolah, UAS), (ii) ujian
pada level nasional (yang disebut Ujian Nasional, UN) atau (iii) kombinasi
ujian pada level sekolah dan ujian pada level nasional (UAS dengan UN).UN
sebagai alat pengukuran ketercapaian SKL-SI tersebut dapat berfungsi
sebagai (a) pemetaan capaian SKL-SI secara nasional, (b) pemetaan mutu
pendidikan secara nasional, (c) pemotretan kinerja pendidikan nasional,
(d) salah satu penentu kelulusan siswa, (e) penjaminan mutu atau
pengendalian mutu pendidikan secara nasional, (f) pertanggungjawaban
(akuntabilitas) publik atas proses pendidikan atau pembelajaran dan (g)
bentuk pemaduan proses pendidikan pada masa otonomi daerah ke dalam
Di samping itu, hasil-hasil UN sebagai alat pengukuran SKL-SI secara
nasional dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai (h)pemicu kinerja pembelajaran oleh
guru dan motivasi belajar siswa, (i)perluasan diagnostik pembelajaran,
(j)pembanding mutu pendidikan atau prestasi belajar antar-daerah, antarsekolah dan antar-siswa, (k)balikan bagi kebijakan pendidikan dan perbaikan
pembelajaran di sekolah, (l) dasar penentuan dan pengembangan intervensi
atau perlakuan tertentu oleh pemerintah kepada daerah untuk
memeratakan dan meningkatkan mutu pembelajaran, dan (m)salah satu
pengendali keindonesiaan sistem pendidikan nasional.
Berdasarkan fungsi Ujian Nasional tersebut yang salah satunya
adalah memperoleh informasi mengenai kinerja guru sebagai motor
pelaksana pendidikan, maka informasi ini merupakan umpan balik yang harus
ditindaklanjuti dengan tindakan implementasi. Hasil penelitian yang
pemetaan mutu pendidikan di Kabupaten Karawang, Purwakarta, Bekasi,
Bogor dan Sukabumi mengungkap fakta bahwa pelaksanaan pembelajaran
belum optimal untuk mencapai mutu pendidikan yang diharapkan. Dalam hal
selama ini
menyelenggarakan pendidikan dengan segala keterbatasan yang ada. Hal ini
dipengaruhi oleh ketersediaan sarana-prasarana, ketersediaan dana, serta
kemampuan guru untuk mengembangkan model pembelajaran yang efektif.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Dalam PP No 19/2005 tentang standar nasional pendidikan disebutkan dalam
pasal 19 sampai dengan 22 tentang standar proses pendidikan, bahwa proses
pembelajaran pada satuan pendidikan diselenggarakan secara interaktif,
inspiratif, menyenangkan, menantang, memotivasi peserta didik untuk
berpartisipasi aktif, serta memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi prakarsa,
kreativitas, dan kemandirian sesuai dengan bakat, minat, dan perkembangan
fisik serta psikologis peserta didik.
Kondisi yang terungkap dari hasil penelitian pemetaan mutu
pendidikan antara lain mengungkapkan bahwa penyebab rendahnya daya
serap kompetensi yang diujikan dalam Ujian Nasional adalah guru yang
kurang menguasi kompetensi dalam mengajar. Profesionalisme guru yang
belum menunjukkan kualitas yang memadai, disebabkan oleh banyak guru
yang mengajarkan mata pelajaran yang bukan bidangnya atau kompetisinya.
Rendahnya profesionalisme guru di antaranya kurang berkualitas dan
menyampaikan materi pelajaran, sehingga kurang mampu menyajikan dan
menyelenggarakan pendidikan yang benar-benar berkualitas. Jadi,
ketidaksesuaian antara kemampuan guru dengan apa yang diajarkan
membuat para siswa tidak mencapai prestasi yang baik. Guru umumnya,
enggan membuat konstruksi tes yang bagus karena banyaknya buku
suplemen yang menyajikan latihan materi pelajaran. Padahal salah satu
faktor penguat keberhasilan siswa dalam mencapai Ujian Nasional adalah
guru banyak memberikan latihan-latihan dalam pembelajaran.
Berdasarkan masalah tersebut di atas, maka model peningkatan
mutu pendidikan yang dikembangkan ini ditujukan untuk meningkatan
profesionalisme guru. Guru yang profesional adalah adanya keteladanan
pendidik, adanya perencanaan, pelaksanaan, penilaian, dan pengawasan
yang efektif dan efisien dalam proses pembelajaran. Dengan demikian, sudah
selayaknya profesi sebagai seorang pendidik membutuhkan kompetensi yang
terintegrasi baik secara intelektual-akademik, sosial, pedagogis, dan
profesionalitas yang kesemuanya berlandaskan pada sebuah kepribadian
yang utuh pula, sehingga dalam menjalankan fungsinya sebagai pendidik
senantiasa dapat mengembangkan model-model pembelajaran yang efektif,
inovatif, dan relevan.
Model Peningkatan Mutu Pendidikan yang dikembangan ini dengan
nama Model Inkubator secara khusus bertujuan meningkatkan kemampuan
guru dalam:
1. Penguasaan bahan, seperti bahan bidang studi dalam kurikulum sekolah
dan penerapannya yang disesuaikan dengan pekembangan IPTEK.
2. Pengelolaan program belajar mengajar yang mencakup penjabaran
standar kelulusan, merumuskan tujuan kompetensi dan indikator,
penggunaan metode, pemilihan dan penyusunan prosedur instruksional.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
3. Pengelolaan kelas untuk menumbuhkan suanana akademik yang dinamis.
4. Penggunaan media/sumber belajar yang mencakup pemilihan,
penggunaan, dan pengembangan media yang sesuai dengan karakteristik
materi pelajaran.
Outcomes yang diharapkan dari program ini adalah terjadinya
peningkatan kemampuan guru dalam mengajar di sekolah sasaran. Hal ini
tercapai apabila guru mampu melakukan inovasi pengajaran di sekolah, guru
mampu mendorong siswa memanfaatkan berbagai sumber belajar, dan siswa
memiliki kesadaran belajar secara mandiri.
Dalam meningkatkan mutu pendidikan, dituntut pula adanya usahausaha peningkatan profesionalisme guru agar dapat memberikan pelayanan
yang lebih berkualitas dan untuk tercapainya hasil belajar yang lebih optimal.
Seorang guru professional, yang mempunyai standar kompetisi I (Penguasaan
Bidang Studi), profesi menunjuk pada suatu pekerjaan atau jabatan yang
menuntut keahlian, tanggung jawab dan kesetiaan pada profesi. Profesi
adalah suatu bidang pekerjaan yang menunutut digunakannya teknik dan
prosedur yang bertumpu pada landasan intelektual yang secara sengaja
harus dipelajari dan kemudian secara langsung dapat dikatakan bagi
kemaslahatan orang lain. Sehubungan dengan itu, profesi merupakan bidang
pekerjaan yang menuntut para pekerjanya memiliki landasan pengetahuan
dan keterampilan yang didapatkan melalui pendidikan dan pelatihan dalam
waktu yang panjang.
Tiga karakteristik suatu pekerjaan dapat dikatakan sebagai profesi,
yakni (a) profesi merupakan suatu pekerjaan dengan aturan yang sangat
khusus yang diperoleh dari peran khususnya dalam masyarakat, (b) profesi
merupakan bidang pekerjaan yang menuntut para pekerjanya memiliki
landasan pengetahuan dan keterampilan yang didapatkan melalui pendidikan
dan pelatihan dalam waktu yang panjang dan (c) profesi merupakan bidang
pekerjaan yang menuntut para pekerjanya mampu memberikan pelayanan
ahli kepada sasaran pelayanan serta mampu mengevaluasi sendiri unjuk
kerjanya sebagai balikan bagi upaya pengembangan pelayanan itu sendiri.
Secara umum, ciri suatu jabatan profesi ada tiga hal, yaitu
(1) expertise, yaitu jabatan yang didasarkan pada keilmuan/keahlian tertentu,
(2) responsibility, yaitu pemberian jasa yang didasarkan pada keilmuan
tersebut yang disertai dengan tanggung jawab demi untuk kemaslahatan
orang lain (penerima jasa), dan (3) collegial organitation, yaitu terikat pada
satu organisasi kesejawatan/profesi. Secara lebih rinci.Ciri profesi sebagai
berikut, (1) masyarakat mengakui layanan yang diberikan, (2) memiliki
seperangkat ilmu yang mendukung profesinya, (3) diperlukan adanya proses
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pendidikan tertentu, (4) dimilikinya mekanisme untuk menyaring sehingga
mereka yang dianggap kompeten boleh melakukan pekerjaan profesional
tersebut, dan (5) dimilikinya organisasi profesional untuk melindungi
kepentingan anggotanya dan meningkatkan mutu layanannya kepada
masyarakat, termasuk kode etik profesional.
Guru profesional dituntut memiliki beberapa kompetensi, antara lain,
(a)menuntut adanya keterampilan yang berlandaskan konsep pengetahuan
yang mendalam, (b) menekankan pada suatu keahlian dalam bidang tertentu
sesuai dengan bidang profesinya, (c)menuntut adanya tingkat pendidikan
tinggi, (d)adanya kepekaan terhadap dampak kemasyarakatan dari pekerjaan
yang dilaksanakannya, dan (e)memungkinkan pengembangan sejalan dengan
dinamika kehidupan.
Guru yang professional dituntut memiliki, (a) kualifikasi pendidikan
profesi yang memadai, (b) memiliki kompetensi keilmuan sesuai dengan
bidang yang ditekuni, (c) memiliki kemampuan berkomunikasi yang baik
dengan anak didiknya, (d) mempunyai jiwa kreatif dan produktif,
(e) mempunyai etos kerja dan komitmen tinggi terhadap profesinya dan
(f) selalu melakukan pengembangan diri secara terus menerus
Peningkatan profesional guru ditujukan pada peningkatan lima
kompotensi dasar, yaitu penguasaan materi pelajaran yang akan diajarkan,
pemahaman terhadap pembelajar, pemahaman terhadap prinsip-prinsip
keterampilan mengajar dan penerapannya dalam praktik, pemahaman
terhadap cabang-cabang pengetahuan lainnya, dan pemahaman serta
apresiasinya terhadap profesi keguruan..
Pemahaman terhadap materi pelajaran.merupakan kebutuhan
sentral dalam pembelajaran. Guru yang efektif adalah guru yang memahami
secara luas dan mendalam konte. Guru atau calon guru harus mendapatkan
kuliah-kuliah seperti yang akan mereka ajarkan di kelas (NRC, 1996).
Komponen kedua yang esensial bagi tugas-tugas mengajar dan mendidik guru
adalah pemahaman terhadap pembelajar.Yang dimasudkan dengan
pemahaman terhadap pembelajar adalah pemahaman terhadap
pertumbuhan dan perkembangan manusia (Lardizabal, et al, 2000:2-5). Jika
guru berharap mengajar dengan efektif, ia harus tahu berapa banyak siswa
yang berada pada berbagai level kedewasaan dan kemampuan memahami.
Mereka harus tahu minat siswa dan pengalaman awal yang bisa digunakan
untuk memotivasi belajarnya.
Agar pembelajaran menjadi efektif, seorang guru harus mengetahui
bukan hanya apa yang akan diajarkan, tetapi juga bagaimana
mengajarkannya. Jadi, komponen ketiga yang esensial bagi tugas mengajar
adalah keterampilan-keterampilan metode mengajar. Metode mengajar
meliputi pemahaman terhadap teori dan praktik kurikulum, hakikat dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
prinsip-prinsip belajar, tipe-tipe belajar, tipe-tipe hasil belajar, dan psikologi
motivasi dan perbedaan individu.Pengetahuan ini merupakan dasar bagi
pemilihan dan mengorganisasikan pengalaman belajar. Guru harus mampu
menunjukkan bagaimana kaitan antara materi pelajarannya dengan bidang
lainnya, khususnya untuk masalah-masalah kehidupan nyata, yaitu berharap
membantu siswa memahami dan mengapresiasi dunia, di mana mereka
hidup, mereka harus memahami saling keterkaitan dan saling
kebergantungan berbagai bidang pengetahuan.
Peningkatan profesional guru dapat ditempuh melalui beberapa cara,
yaitu studi lanjut, inservice training; memberdayakan musyawarah guru mata
pelajaran (MGMP), memberdayakan organisasi profesi, mengevaluasi kinerja
mengajar di dalam kelas, sertifikasi dan uji kompetensi. Secara terorganisir,
usaha peningkatan dan pengembangan profesionalisme guru ini dapat
dilakukan secara serius dan terjadwal melalui kegiatan Kelompok Kerja Guru
(KKG), untuk guru-guru Sekolah Dasar dan Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran
(MGMP), bagi guru-guru SMP dan SMA/SMK.
Upaya peningkatan profesional guru peran MGMP ditingkatkan
menjadi sebuah gugus kendalai mutu pendidikan . Di gugus ini, para guru
berkumpul secara berkala untuk membahas masalah-masalah yang berkaitan
dengan profesi mereka dan tugas-tugas mengajar mereka.Peningkatan
profesional guru dalam satu bidang studi sangat dimungkinan melalui MGMP.
MGMP diharapkan dapat mengembangkan profesi guru, akan tetapi
kenyataan di lapangan masih banyak hambatan dan masalah untuk
mewujudkan tujuan MGMP karena beberapa alasan berikut: a) Organisasi
MGMP berada pada tingkat kabupaten/kota sehingga kegiatan-kegiatan yang
dilaksanakan tidak efektif dan tidak merefleksikan kebutuhan serta kondisi
guru. b) Kegiatan-kegiatan MGMP biasanya dirancang berbasis proyek, kalau
ada biaya baru diadakan kegiatan, bukan atas inisiatif guru sendiri. c) Tidak
seluruh guru mata pelajaran dapat mengikuti kegiatan MGMP,biasanya
sekolah hanya mengirim wakil-wakilnya saja karena keterbatasan biaya yang
disediakan sekolah. d) Guru-guru di daerah terpencil sulit menghadiri
kegiatan MGMP yang biasanya diselenggarakan di pusat kabupaten/kota,
karena hambatan waktu, transportasi, dan biaya.
Model peningkatan mutu pendidikan ini difokus untuk meningkatkan
profesionalisme guru, mengacu pada model prosedural (procedural model)
yang dikembangkan oleh Kemp, Morrison & Ross. Model yang dikembangkan
oleh Kemp, dkk adalah model melingkar. Model melingkar tidak menentukan
awal atau akhir mendisain suatu pembinaan. Model melingkar bahkan
diasumsikan dinamis, karena tahap pertama dan akhir dapat ditentukan dari
komponen mana saja oleh pengguna. Asumsi pemilihan model Kemp dkk
adalah Model melingkar itu dinamis, disain pembelajaran dapat dimulai dari
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
mana saja. Tidak perlu berurutan, sebagaimana disimbolkan oleh suatu
lingkaran yang tidak memiliki garis putus. Model ini menarik karena
bentuknya melingkar, sebagai variasi dari model lain yang bersifat naratif
(uraian) atau skema.
Model Pembinaan profesionalisme Guru bertujuan memberikan
penguatan pada guru untuk mampu mengembangkan diri secara mandiri dan
bermutu. Komponen sintak atau tahapan-tahapan kegiatan, berkaitan
dengan langkah-langkah atau prosedur kegiatan pemebinaan yang harus
dilakukan oleh guru dalam proses pembinaan. Tahapan-tahapan pembinaan
ini sering disebut sebagai siklus pembinaan. Siklus pembinaan ini
menggambarkan langkah-langkah atau prosedur pengelolaan kegiatan
pembelajaran yang dilakukan tutor untuk memberikan pengalaman belajar
kepada guru. Oleh karena itu, kegiatan di dalam setiap tahapan pembelajaran
harus dirancang untuk memberikan pengalaman belajar seperti apa yang
akan dialami oleh guru dalam proses kegiatan pembelajaran untuk mencapai
kompetensi atau tujuan yang telah ditetapkan.
Analisis Kondisi Awal
Berdasarkan hasil penelitian pemetaan hasil ujian nasional dapat
diungkapkan bahwa :
a. Umumnya guru masih menyusun KTSP Buku II (silabus, RPP dan LKS)
dengan teknik menyalin dari yang sudah ada, yang berarti mereka belum
menyusun silabus, RPP dan LKS berdasar keperluan dan kondisi sendiri;
b. Pengajaran di kelas berbeda dengan apa yang dituliskan dengan apa yang
diimplementasikan di kelas.
c. Metode yang digunakan tidak variatif lebih dominan, banyak
menggunakan ceramah,
d. Pengelolaan kelas dilakukan secara konvensional.
e. Evaluasi/assesmen guru umumnya menggunakan tes secara tertulis,
f. Guru kelas XII dalam persiapan Ujian Nasional cenderung mengadakan
drill dan latihan soal-soal ujian.
g. Media dan laboratorium tidak mencukupi/tidak ada;
h. Jam mengajar guru terlalu banyak
i. kegiatan-kegiatan yang dilaksanakan oleh MGMP tidak efektif dan tidak
merefleksikan kebutuhan serta kondisi guru.
j. Kegiatan-kegiatan MGMP biasanya dirancang berbasis proyek, bukan atas
inisiatif guru sendiri.
k. Guru-guru di daerah terpencil sulit menghadiri kegiatan MGMP
yangbiasanya diselenggarakan di pusat kabupaten/kota, karena hambatan
waktu, transportasi, dan biaya.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Model Inkubator
Peneliti mengembangkan model pembinaan guru berbasis sekolah
yang sistematik dan berkelanjutan untuk membangun kemandirian. Model
inkubator bertujuan membangun sistem peer teaching dengan memanfaat
sumber yang ada di lingkungan. Model inkubator dipilih dengan argumentasi,
bahwa Kabupaten yang memiliki wilayah luas tidak memungkinkan
melakukan pelatihan pada satu lokasi. Hal ini kurang efisien karena
memerlukan biaya yang besar dan guru mengalami kesulitan transportasi.
a. Guru sering mengikuti program peningkatan mutu pendidikan melalui
workshop, namun pada saat mengimplementasikan di kelas, guru sering
mengalami kesulitan karena kondisi kelas yang nyata berbeda dengan
kondisi kelas yang diajarkan oleh narasumber. Guru memerlukan
pelatihan pembelajaran pada konteks nyata (real teaching) bagaimana
narasumber mengimplementasikan inovasi pembelajaran pada kelas yang
mengimplementasikan inovasi pembelajaran yang diberikan, guru dapat
mengatuhi faktor kesulitan yang akan ditemui di lapangan, sehingga guru
tersebut dapat berkonsultasi dengan narasumber untuk memecahkan
masalah tersebut.
b. Model inkubator mendorong guru utuk melakukan inovasi dalam
mengajar secara berkelanjutan dan mandiri.
c. Bantuan teknis dari UNJ dapat dilakukan melalui implementasi Model
Inkubator berbasis MGMP/sekolah. Melalui implementasi Model
Inkubator, dosen dan guru berkolaborasi mengkaji/melakukan inovasi
pembelajaran secara berkelanjutan berlandaskan prinsipprinsip
kolegialitas dan mutual learning.
d. Model inkubator dilakukan secara multi level dapat menekan biaya
penyelenggaraan yang harus ditanggung oleh Dinas Pendidikan, karena
penyelenggaraan dilakukan secara kemitraan dengan Universitas Pembina
dan Sekolah Induk yang menyediakan fasilitas pembelajaran. Model multi
level pemagangan dapat digambarkan seperti gambar di bawah ini.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Gambar 1. Model Inkubator secara Multi Level
Dalam satu kabupaten ditetapkan satu sekolah yang akan digunakan
sebagai sekolah induk untuk menyemai guru dari sekolah sekitar yang akan
disemai di sekolah tersebut. Sekolah yang dijadikan sebagai sekolah induk
setiap sekolah hanya satu bidang studi.
Syarat sebagai sekolah induk adalah memiliki:
a) akreditasi A
b) laboratorium yang sesuai dengan mata pelajaran yang akan disemai
di sekolah tersebut.
c) Media/sumber belajar yang memadai
d) Guru senior yang mumpuni dalam bidangnya
Gambar 2. Sekolah Induk sebagai Inkubator
Tahap Pelaksanaan
Pelaksanaan inkubasi dilakukan dengan tahapan sebagai berikut:
a. Guru pengajar pada sekolah induk adalah guru yang telah mengikuti
pelatihan (ToT) yang dilakukan bersama guru MGMP di tingkat Dinas
Pendidikan Kota/Kabupatan oleh dosen Universitas Negeri Jakarta.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
b. Guru magang adalah guru dari sekolah imbas yang ada dari wilayah lain
yang akan menjadi tutor di wilayahnya. Guru magang bertindak sebagai
observer yang mengamati guru sekolah induk mengajar di kelas.
Gambar 3. Tahapan Proses Inkubasi
c) Setiap selesai jam mengajar yang diikuti oleh guru magang, guru
sekolah induk dan guru magang melakukan diskusi untuk membahas
proses pembelajaran yang diamati oleh guru magang.
d) Guru magang setelah menyelasikan program magang akan mengajar
di sekolah imbas dan akan diikuti oleh guru lain yang magang dalam
e) Guru yang telah melaksanakan Program Inkubasi Inovasi
Pembelajaran melakukan program Lesson Study di MGMP wilayah.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Deskripsi Model
Tujuan : Model ini bertujuan untuk memberikan pendampingan dalam proses
pengajaran bagi sekolah yang mempunyai karakteristik penyebab
rendahnya daya serap peserta didik terhadap kompeetensi dasar
mata pelajaran yang disebabkan antara lain:
a) Guru mengalami kesulitan penguasaan materi yang ada dalam
b) Guru mengalami kesulitan dalam mengajarjan KD
c) Guru mengalami kesulitan dalam menggunaan media dan Lab
d) Siswa sulit melakukan perisapan menghadai Ujian Nasional
Model ini cocok bagi kabuapten dan kota yang memiliki wilayah yang luas
dan sulit dipusatkan dalam satu kegiatan.
Sasaran : Kabupaten Purwakarta, Karawang, Bogor, dan Sukabumi
Tahap 1. Workshop Pendampingan
1) Melakukan workshop dengan guru MGMP dan Pengawas Sekolah untuk
persamaan persepsi terhadap perangkat yang akan diberikan dalam model
ini, yaitu:
a. Pelatihan bedah SKL dan Kisi-kisi UN
b. Pelatihan pembuatan Bank Soal
2) Pengembangan materi
3) TOT untuk Pengawas Sekolah dan
Tahap 2. Pendampingan Mengajar di Sekolah Induk
1) Dinas Pendidikan menyiapkan sekolah yang akan dijadikan induk
pendampingan mengajar. Sekolah yang dijadikan induk memiliki sarana
dan prasarana yang memadai kualitas dan kuantitasnya. Setiap sekolah
hanya dijadikan induk satu mata pelajaran dengan demikian fasilitas yang
dimiliki sesuai dengan karakteristik mata pelajaran.
2) Pendampingan dilakukan pada Kompetensi dasar yang sulit diajarkan oleh
3) Guru dari sekolah yang akan mengikuti persemaian ditentukan oleh
pengawas sekolah yaitu sekolah yang mengalami kesulitan yang sama dan
dalam satu jangkaun dengan sekolah induk
4) Selama pelaksanaan pendampingan didampingi oleh dosen dan pakar
bidang studi.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Tahap 3. Pembiasan
1) Guru dari SMA semai yang telah mengikuti pendampingan mengajar
kembali pada sekolah masing-masing untuk mempraktikan apa yang telah
diperoleh selama inkubasi.
2) Selama mempraktikkan apa yang diperoleh selama inkubasi, guru tersebut
didampingi oleh Pengawas Sekolah yang telah mengikuti ToT
3) Guru dari SMA satu wilayah menjadi kolaborator di dalam kelas.
4) Guru dan kolabarator dari SMA mitra bergabung dalam Lesson Study
dengan didampingi oleh guru MGMP
Tahap 4. Penguatan
1) Pelatihan dan Pendampingan Bedah SKL dan kisi-kisi UN
2) Pelatihan dan Pendampingan Pengembangan Materi Ajar
3) Pelatihan dan Pendampingan pembuatan Bank Soal
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Gambar 4: Prototype Model Inkubator
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Sekolah merupakan basis pembinaan guru untuk meningkatkan
mutu pendidikan yang salah satunya tercermin dari Nilai Ujian Nasional.
Faktor yang mempengaruhi Nilai UAN sangat kompleks mencakup
seluruh sistem pendidikan. Oleh karena itu sekolah harus memberi
kesempatan pada guru untuk berpartisipasi dalam program in-service
yang difokuskan pada perolehan pengetahuan tentang kurikulum baru,
pendekatan pengajaran baru, atau perkembangan ilmu terkini. Beberapa
kegiatan dapat berupa pelatihan guru dalam mengimplementasikan
suatu pendekatan baru, pengayaan penguasaan materi subjek misalnya
meningkatkan kemampuan guru dalam membimbing nilai ujian nasional
yang baik.
Berdasarkan analisis lapangan, model ini dapat dilakukan pada
wilayah yang memiliki jangkuan luas yang tidak memungkinkan untuk
dipusatkan di suatu tempat. Kepala sekolah harus bekerja sinergis
degan pengawas sekolah dalam membangun guru yang profesional.
Untuk itu pengawas harus memiliki kemampuan dalam membantu guru
dalam memecahkan masalah pembelajaran di kelas. Kerja yang sinergis
antara kepala sekolah dengan pengawas pendidikan mutlak diperlukan
dalam meningkatkan kinerja guru. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan pertemuan
berkala membahas pencapaian kinerja guru dan cara untuk
meningkatkannya. Dengan model ini lebih memudahkan pengawas
memantau dan melakukan supersivi pembelajaran bagi guru binaannya.
Faktor yang penting dalam meningkatkan profesionaslisme guru
adalah pemberian pelatihan secara berkala. Setiap tahun guru harus
diberi kesempatan untuk meningkatkan kemampuannya melalui
pelatihan yang terprogram dan sistematik. Pelatihan ini juga merupakan
arena untuk penyegaran dan tukar menukar pengalaman antar guru.
Guru yang profesional adalah yang menguasai bahan ajar, menguasai
peserta didik, trampil dalam memilih dan menggunakan metode
pembelajaran, dan menjadi teuladan dalam penampilan maupun ucapan
di kelas dan di sekolah maupun di masyarakat. Model Inkubator dapat
digunakan untuk melatih guru secara real teaching dan dialami sendiri
oleh guru. Efektivitas model ini adalah model berbasis MGMP dan biaya
yang relatif murah karena dilakukan bersamaan dengan waktu – waktu
di sekolah.
Pelaksanaan model ini akan lebih efektif dengan melibatkan
pemerintah daerah sebagai fasilitator dalam pemenuhuan sarana
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Garmston, R., & Wellman, B. (1999). The adaptive school: A sourcebook
for developing collaborative groups. Norwood, MA:
Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.
Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 20 Tahun 2007 Tanggal
11 Juni 2007.
Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia Nomor 19
Tahun 2007 Tentang Standar Pengelolaan Pendidikan oleh
Satuan Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah.
Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models. A new
paradigm ofinstructional theory, Volume II (pp. 633-651),
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Richey, R. C., Fields, D. C., Foxon, M. (with Roberts, R. C., Spannaus, T., &
pector, J. M.) (2001). Instructional design competencies: The
standards (3rd ed.). Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on
Information & Technology.
Trowbridge, L.W. & Bybee, R.W. (1990).Becoming A Secondary School
Science Teacher.Fith Edition. Colombo: Merril Publishing
Van den Akker, J. 1999. Principles and Methods of Development
Research. Dalam Plomp, T; Nieveen, N; Gustafson, K; Branch,
R.M; dan van den Akker, J (eds). Design Approaches and Tools
in Education and Training. London: Kluwer Academic Publisher.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
(2001) Peran Kolaborasi Sekolah-Universitas dalam
Mutu Pendidikan Matematika dan Ilmu
Pengetahuan Alam di Indonesia. Makalah disampaikan pada
National Seminar on Science Education Faculty of Science and
Mathematic Education on Collaboration with Japan
International Cooperation Agency and Directorate General of
Higher Education. Bandung August 21, 2001.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Faculty of Education, Ibn Khaldun University, Bogor, Indonesia
[email protected]
This research focuses on how performance management to build
the quality of teaching at Sekolah Smart Ekselensia Indonesia is
conducted. The sub focuses are how the planning, the evaluation,
and the study and the development of the performance are
conducted. This reasearch is descriptive and qualitative in nature.
Interviews with many informants, various observations and various
were applied to gain the data. Effective
performance management involves performance planning,
evaluation and the study of the evaluation result and the
performance development.The performance planning conducted by
Smart is the formulation of Sasaran Kerja Individu (SKI) which is
formulated based on the jobdetails of teachers completed with the
aspects, the standards and the time-limits. The details in SKI are
classified into 3 domains based on the key responsibilities of a
teacher in Smart, i.e. the internal processes, the learning growths
and customer. Evaluation conducted by the teacher himself/herself,
peer teachers, Makmal, students, HRD and principal based on
criteria taken from SKI and matched with HRD’s are followed with
feedbacks. The evaluation result is reported to HRD and to QRD as a
control of Smart’s KPI achievement. This is, then, studied by HRD,
Smart manager and principals to determine what to develop for
the teachers’ performance. The developments conducted are
trainings, advocation, and opportunities to be training instructors in
other schools. The performance management to build the quality of
teaching at Sekolah Smart Ekselensia Indonesia proves to be very
effective. This demands teachers to perform their best to build the
quality of teaching in this school.
Keywords: perfomance management, quality, planning, evaluation,
the study of the evaluation result, the performance
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Various attempt to develop our education quality need to be
conducted. Performance management is one of attempts needs to develop.
In developing this management system It is important that we review a
school model.
Adam as quoted by UNICEF ((United Nation for International Children
and Education Fund) stated that efficiency, effectiveness, equality and quality
are often equalized. S. Whereas Arikunto dan C. S. Abdul Jabar said that an
education is an attempt to treat students to gain the learning
outputs/outcomes.Therefore, quality of teaching is an attempt to gain
qualified learning outputs/outcomes (2008: 2). A teacher is not the only
component affecting the outputs/outcomes. Students, teachers,
curricula/materials, facilities, management and environment linearly affect
it. (Arikunto, 2008: 12).
A. Sudiyono describes the quality of teaching is the teaching process
which creates the attainment of the instructional goal (2008: 14-17).
Whereas OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)
describes that the quality of teaching can be concluded as a process creating
skillful output who is ready to get involved in the global, competitive
economic activities (Henard, 2010: 9). Initiativesfor these activities are
classified into Institutional and quality assurance, internal supports, program
monitoring, and supports to the teaching and learning process.
Pollit in Doherty stated that in the end it is those who use the service
who can tell whether it is of high quality. If it meets their wants and needs, it
is a quality service, if it does not, it is not. But, since it is not easy to define a
quality clearly, Doherty prefers to discuss quality system pragmatically. The
methods to measure quality, according to her, arequality assurance,quality
control, quality management, quality audit, quality assessment and quality
enhancement (2005). Whereas Indonesian government in an attempt to
enhance the education quality by implementing education quality
improvement and assurance involvingthe application of national standards
for education, application controls with national examination, accreditation
and survey on literacy, provision of formal and informal education,
development of quality improvement by applying school based management,
and development of commitment and awareness of education stakeholders
(EFA: 164-165).
Smart Ekselensia Indonesia is one of schools in Indonesia developed by
Lembaga Pengembangan Insani (LPI) under Dhompet Dhuafa (DD), a board of
Indonesian alms, which has shown the quality of teaching. Unlike other
schools which normally have 6 year periode of study for Junior and senior
high school, this school develops a 5 year periode of study, involving junior
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
and senior high school. The quality is proven by the various achievements
gained by students either academically or nonacademically both at regional
and national level, the graduate precentage which is always 100% during 3
year graduation periods, the number of the graduate acceptance in state
universities in Indonesiawhich is always 100% during 3 year graduation
periods as well, and school quality certifications (rewarded A score for
certification from BAN-SM, Indonesian certification board and CIBI
certification for the provision of education for smart and talented students.
These achievement are, surprisingly, gained by a school which has just 3
years been graduating the students since it was built in 2004.
What lays behind this success needs to learn as a best practice to
model.Performance management is one of managements practiced in this
school. This study focuses on how the performance management is applied in
this school, i.e. how the performance planning, evaluation, and development
Performance Management Planning
Sofo said that performance planning is a process to locate the
organization expectancy and the job key responsibility and to describe the
employee’s job target. In line with these Dessler stated that the activity of
performance management is determining the goal and standards of the job.
The goal should be spesific, measureable, challenging but applicable, and
demanding the participation of the employee in determining the goal
(Dessler: 2008: 292-291). In addition, Milanowski, Kimbal dan White, clarify
that there are 2 questions refer to the performance planning, i.e. first, what
yields and how to achieve and second, what standard to achieve, how fast,
how good, and how much (Dessler, 2008: 280-282). Ivancevich stated more
clearly that performance management is basically a process to determine the
performance standard and criteria (2010). Performance standard, Nawawi
said, is a number of criteria used for measuring the performance evaluation
which includes the tasks an employee has to do, the best way to do the task,
and maximum yield to achieve (2008: 243-244). Whereas criteria which are
commonly used, according toNoe, are character (attitude, performance,
initiative), behaviour (related to the tasks, leadership, colleague
development, cooperation, customer service), competency (knowledge, skill,
character and behaviour technically related to the tasks and business goal),
goal achievement, and improvement ability (Noe and Mondy, 2005: 252253).
Performance planning in building the quality of teaching isconcluded
as a process to formulate the teacher standard performance.This includes
determining the teacher’s key responsibility and the target to achieve, how
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
to achieve maximum yield, and how the performance mechanism is designed
to support the organization goal.
Performance Evaluation
Ivancevich stated that performance evaluation is an activity to ensure
that an employee has worked effectively. This involves determining the
performance standards and a policy about when, how often, and who will
evaluate, the data collection, data-based performance evaluation, discussion
with the employee about the evaluation results, making conclusions and
filing the evaluation results into archive (2010: 256). Sofo added that
performance evaluation and feedback is a regular and consistent evaluation
to give the performance feedback. This is conducted in order that the
deviationof the intended target can be anticipated earlier.
The essence of performance evaluation, according to Hadari
Nawawi,is a control process of the employee doing the tasks. From this
control, measurement is conducted to know the failure and success of the
individual in doing the tasks. These findings are compared to the
performance standards and criteria (Nawawi, 2008: 234-278). In line with this
idea Amstrong as defined by the Advisory,Conciliation and Arbitration Servive
(ACAS) stated that performance evaluation is a process of recording the
employee’s performance, the potency, and the need for the performance
development. The processes are determining the goal, performance analysis
and evaluation, giving feedback, discussion about the performance and
training needed (Amstrong, 2009: 18-171). The procedures, according to
Dessler, are setting the performance standards, the performance evaluation
itself, and giving feedback to motivate the employee and to minimize the
employee’s shortage (Dessler: 2008: 294). The steps are, as Sofo said, setting
the goal, criteria, and methods of the data collection, negotiating what
become the proves and how to collect them, determining the time, place,
and sources needed, ensuring the clear understanding on what has been
achieved and what should be achieved as the follow up of the evaluation
(Sofo, 2003: 150-153).
To sum up, the teacher performance evaluation is a process of
control and assessment of the teacher doing tasks. This is conducted to
know whether what a teacher has done meets the standards to improve the
performance. The processes are setting the criteria and policy for the
evaluation, how evaluation is conducted and what methods of evaluation
used, who does the evaluation, when to do and where, and how feedbacks
are given.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Performance Development
Performance development is conducted after the performance
evaluation. This is a process where an employee is drawn to think toward
which direction he wants to progress. Amstrong describes that performance
development is a process to learn the performance along the year to improve
the performance, conducted either formally or informally. The result of the
review is individual development planning. This plan deals with how to work
effectively. And this is a learning activity which can be in the form of
trainings, role modeling, analysis of good jobs, job enrichment, special job,
getting involved in other section, learning from other person having similar
tasks, doing the tasks, e-learning and reading guidance (Sofo, 2003: 228-249).
He further said that there are two points to consider, a) a framework for the
planned development, b) employee has opportunity to join this development
(Amstrong, 2009: 246). Ivancevich added that training and development is an
attempt to give information, skill, and understanding about the organization
and the goal to the employee. This process is made tu help an employee
contributes positively toward the organization. Training and development are
conducted after a need assessment is taken from the performance
evaluation. Therefore performance development is a follow up of the
performance evaluation (Ivancevich, 2010: 391. Noe also emphasized that
the performance evaluation needs to be reviewed to determine the need of
training and development (Noe and Mondy, 2005).
A teacher performance development is concluded as a process to
review the teacher performance evaluation to give constructive inputs about
the performance of the teacher in one period and to invite the teacher about
what to develop. The processes are reviewing the result of the performance
evaluation, discussing the shortage and directing teacher about what to
develop, and making the development plan to match the standards set by
the organization.
This reseach is descriptive, qualitative in nature. Data were taken
from various interviews, observations and documentations.There are two
types of data, i.e. primary data (taken from interview), and secondary data
(taken from observation and documentation).
The sampling for the determined data sources waspurposive
sampling technique. Purposive sampling is a sampling technique based on a
certain consideration. The consideration here was the parties chosen were
the ones considered as the knower to gain the information needed
(Sugiyono 2010). Informants were classified into main informants, supporting
informants and informants for triangulation. The data for the performance
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
planning, evaluation and development were taken from those informants
either from interview, observation or documentation. Whereas to gain valid
data, lengthening the data collection phase, increasing the persistency,
triangulation, studying negative case, using references, and member check
were conducted for the data reduction and display before the conclusion was
The key responsibilities, the aspects and standard performance of
Smart Ekselensia teachers have been set out clearly in the items in
performance evaluation which is designed by Human Resources
Development (HRD). The key responsibilities are the job’s yield, job skill,
discipline, cooperation, initiative, and responsibility enhancement. These
responsibilities are described in detail in SasaranKerjaIndividu (SKI) which is
based on the teacher’s field work. In SKI the six key responsibilities are
described in detail including the targets, the aspects, the standards and the
time limit for doing the tasks. The detail descriptions are classified into 3
domains, namely the internal process, learning growth, and customer.
These standards are made through a mechanism which view the
organization (DhompetDhuafa/DD) strategic plan and the Key Performance
Indicators (KPI) owned by LembagaPengembanganInsani (LPI), a division of
DD managing education and where sekolah Smart Ekselensia is under it.
From this (KPI-LPI), the key performance indicators to control the
achievement of sekolah Smart Ekselensia (KPI-Smart) was set. To reach the
KPI-Smart, SKI was made based on the job field of teachers.
The performance evaluation in this school was conducted based on
the criteria and standard planned. The evaluation was made by the individual
(every month) using documentations, peer teachers (end of semester) using
questionnairs, students (end of semester) using questionnair, division of
Makmal, a division in caring for the teacher development, (in the class
observation session), and the principals (along the period) through
observation. The results of the evaluation were scored using Likert scale 1 to
5. Feedbacks of the evaluation were given by Makmal personnel right after
the observation and by the principals at the end of semester based on their
evaluation and inputs gained from the evaluation of individual himself/
herself, peer teachers, students and Makmal.
Whereas the performance development was conducted after
summary of the performance evaluation made by the principals and signed
by the manager submitted to HRD division. The HRD together with the
principals and manager review the result of the evaluation and determined
the development needed.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
The performance development in sekolah Smart Ekselensiawas
conducted collectively and individually. Collectively, this development was
conducted based on collective teacher shortages gained from evaluation or
the school future projection. This development is scheduled twice a year,
held at the beginning of semester. Individually, this was done based on the
individual performance evaluation. Trainings were planned but held
incidentally depended on the public training provision. Besides, teachers with
high performance are given opportunities to be trainers for other teachers
both regionally and nationally after trainings prior to his/her job mentioned.
This finding describes that the performance planning of sekolah
Smart Ekselensia to build the quality of teaching has been conducted well
through organizational mechanism to reach the goal and clear criteria,
aspects what and how to do and the standards set. The planning is even
more complete by determining the time limit of doing the job. The
performance evaluation has also been conducted excellently. The standard
and criteria have been set clearly, the methods used are clear, the personnel
incharge of the evaluation are clear, the time, place and the scoring system
are clear as well. The results of the evaluation was also used to give feedback
to the teacher either conducted by Makmal or the principals. Whereas the
performance development which cares for teachers with shortage, high
performance teachers and school projection kriteria are a very ideal
performance development.
The performance management involving the performance planning,
evaluation and development which has been implemented well is very
influential for the teacher performance. The school quality which is proven
byvarious achievements gained by students either academically or
nonacademically both at regional and national level, the graduate
precentage, the number of the graduate acceptance in state universities in
Indonesia, and the school quality certifications described above has been the
result of this management. This management can be a model to develop the
quality of teaching for other schools, not only nationally but also
Amstrong, Michael. (2009). Amstrong’s Handbook
Management, India: Replika Press, Pvt. Ltd.
AnasA. Sudiyono. (2008). Pengantar Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Raja
Grafindo Persada.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Dessler, Gary. (2008). Human Resource Management, New Jersey: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Doherty, Geoffrey D. (2005). Developing Quality System in Education.
London: Taylor & Francis e-library.
Hadari Nawawi. (2008). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Yogyakarta:
Gadjah Mada University Press.
Milanowski, Anthony T. (2004). Kimball, Steven M. dan White, Brad. The
Relationship between Standard-Based Teacher Evaluation Scores
and Student Achievement: Replication and Extention at Three Sites,
Madison: Consortium for Policy Research in Education.
Noe, Robert M. dan Mondy, R. Wayne. (2005). Human Resource
Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Sekretariat EFA. 2005-2009 EFA Report, Education for All Indonesia. Jakarta:
Departement Pendidikan.
Sofo, Francesco. (2003). Human Resource Development. terjemahan Jusuf
Irianto. Surabaya: Airlangga University Press.
Sugiyono (2010). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan: Pendekatan Kuantitatif,
Kualitatif, dan R & D. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Suharsimi Arikunto dan Safrudin Abdul C. S. Abdul Jabar. (2008). Evaluasi
Program Pendidikan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Kazi Enamul Hoque1, Mosa. Fatema Zohora2, Rahmad Sukor Ab.
Samad3, Saedah Siraj4, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak5
Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur,
[email protected]
The purpose of this research was to find the areas of ICT utilization
among teachers and principals of Malaysian schools. Quantitative
method was used in this study with a representative sample of 260
school teachers, teachers-supervisors and principals. The finding of
the research demonstrates that 84% of the teachers are not aware
of national ICT policy though it exists. Finding also shows that most
of the schools .80%. do not have ICT policy at school level though
the facilities and equipment of ICT are available in most Malaysian
schools. Almost all the teachers have a high level of skills in using
computer and profoundly the basic skills needed for teachers in IT
are attained by all the teachers. Likewise, 95% schools have photo
copy machines and scanners while multimedia projector is available
in 85% schools. Besides, 72% schools are equipped with video
camera, over Head Projector and laptop. However, it is interesting
that their expertise and skills are not integrated with educational
management or with teaching/ classroom purposes. Rather they
are used for daily administrative purposes. The findings of the study
will benefit the policy makers of developing countries, Ministry of
Education, Principals, teachers and other education related
personalities of Malaysia and likewise.
Keywords: use of ICT, national policy, school policy, principals,
Information Communication technology .ICT. is a term that covers all
forms of computer and communications equipment and software used to
create, store, transmit, interpret, and manipulate information in its various
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
formats (UQ, 2002). ICT is widely used in the entire globe for different
purposes, including business, health, transport, communication, and
education. The advancement in ICT ranging from electronic chips, mini
computers, to large scale devices, has its impact on every sector, and has
crossed every nation in the world. But, the way they utilize it differs from
country to country. Computer and internet have integrated a lot of
information and communication technology, leading to e-commerce, ebanking, e-government, e-learning, e-library and more.
Education system tries to inculcate the ICT in its efficient ways to
enable teachers and students to access and gain knowledge. Teaching and
learning cannot happen like the analogy of a spoon feeding knowledge at a
given time. Therefore, ICT has an enormous role in making teachers and
students to reach the knowledge. Apart from the pedagogy, ICT penetrated
into the educational management in the system. The hierarchy in educational
management from federal educational management to the school
management requires the latest technological advancements in planning,
organizing, leading and controlling educational organizations. The relation
between stakeholders and the school can be built through a better
communication channel. Hence, ICT is the best tool for communication
among them. The evaluation of input and output of the school is necessary
for the future vision of the school. In the school, teachers are the fore
frontiers who need up to date information and skills for better education of
coming generation. Hence, teachers need professional development in
pedagogical knowledge and technology. In addition, financial and
administrative executive in the school enhance organizing, leading and
monitoring the academic and non-academic activities. With respect of all
these mentioned, ICT is the key element in educational effectiveness in
With this realization, Malaysia has introduced ICT as many sectors,
ranging from the transport, communication, health, commercial transactions,
sports, education and more to social affairs. From 1996 to this end, reforms
are being carried out covering the areas of educational legislation reforms
towards a technological society; enriching and diversifying the curriculum;
higher education reforms; teacher education; and organizational changes.
Therefore, the Ministry of Higher Education (2010) has responded by
implementing wide-ranging reforms to give schools, universities and other
higher education institution skills and competence to ride the crest of the IT
wave. It is also added “Already the education system is putting interactive IT
at the core of the teaching and learning and, management process. Smart
Schools are being set up where learning will be dynamic, lively and brimming
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with interaction through the use of multimedia technology and worldwide
networking” It is believed that most of the schools in every state have
Information technology resources, despite of very rural areas or remote
islands. Even then, it is unknown how much resource and facilities are
utilized in the schools, and how educational framework enhances ICT
integrated teaching and learning. Moreover, how these facilities assist school
management to enhance quality of education. Hence, it is important to
examine the utilization of ICT among teachers and principals in facilitating
innovation in education.
The aim of the study is to understand the use of Information and
Communication Technology .ICT. among teachers and principals in
Malaysia.In order to achieve this aim, the study has considered the following
- To investigate the ICT policy awareness and its implementation on
pedagogic and co-curricular activities
- To understand how well teachers and principals of Malaysian schools utilize
the efficiency and capacity of ICT in school management and
Research Question:
The following research questions lead to respond the objectives used
in the research.
1. What extent do teachers and principals try to implement ICT policy in the
schools by integrating ICT in teaching and learning and educational
management of schools?
2. What extent does ICT use in school management and administration in
relation with ICT access, efficiency and capability in ICT skills, and use in
financial and strategic management?
3. How much Malaysian schools are equipped with ICT facilities and access
to the teachers for pedagogical and teacher learning activities?
4. How do teachers and principals of Malaysian schools use ICT in terms of
communication, evaluation and monitoring of different necessary
5. Why is there lack of ICT integration in pedagogy and school management
in Malaysian schools?
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Use of ICT in Education
Educational technology can be viewed differently, including any
media that can be used in instruction. However, a narrower explanation on
the subject would be confined to educational technology to computers,
computer peripherals, and related software that are used for teaching and
learning. On the other hand for technologists, educational technology is any
hardware that is used in the classroom (Chai et al., 2009); (Cuckle et al.,
Formal education is the major part of education system, which is
delivered through school system from primary education to higher
education. Even, pre-primary education is regular in most of the countries.
The education involves mainly teaching and learning where knowledge is
shared and generated. Ultimately to achieve the purpose of education in the
modern world with high technology, ICT is widely used throughout the
The uses of ICT in education are described with the functions; ICT as
object by referring learning about ICT; ICT as an ‘assisting tool’ while making
assignments, collecting data and documentation, communicating and
conducting research; ICT as a medium for teaching and learning; and ICT as a
tool for organisation and management in schools (Cuban, 2002); (Davis et al.,
2009); (Dexter, 2002); (Divaharan & Ping, 2010). These four dimensions are
foremost in educational system. In many countries evidence has clearly
demonstrated that ICT can improve the quality of education (Lever-Duffy &
McDonald, 2008); (Hoque et al., 2010). Thus, the role of ICT in education can
be viewed from its practice in diverse countries, whereas few countries are
observed. In general, it can be stated that a large percentage of educational
institutes in the Netherlands have access to and make use of ICT with 97
percent of all institutes facilitate a Learning Management System, an
electronic learning environment including an electronic portfolio
system.Brummelhuis & Wijngaards, 2010..The ICT facilities and internet
broaden the capacity of ICT use in every institution. In Netherland it is found
that, of studied schools, 95 percent provide access to the Internet: some 83
percent by broadband and some 72 percent via Hotspot Wi-Fi network
facilities. Brummelhuis & Wijngaards, 2010.. In Turkey, a school in Ankara has
one computer laboratory with 21 computers, 15 classrooms have a
computer, and there are 350 Classmate PCs donated by Intel. The lab has
broadband Internet and a wireless hub. (Light, 2009); (Demiraslan & Usluel,
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Uses of ICT in pedagogical activities are widespread in the education
system. Teachers use computer software to make lesson plans, PowerPoint
presentations, and use smart boards for interactive lessons. Distant
education consumes best use of ICT, and e-learning is also accelerating in an
efficient way. E-Learning covers a continuum of educational applications with
Word, Excel, Access and PowerPoint as the main gadgets on one end with no
or little impact on teaching, learning and administrative practices on the
other end (Herselman & Britton, 2002); (Ng, 2010). Apart from audiovisual
technology used in the classrooms for teaching and learning process, phone
technologies, email, electronic discussion and online classrooms are used
(Niederhauser & Perkmen, 2010); (Stuart, 2009).
ICT in Malaysian Education
According to Azian T. S. Abdullah (2006), since Malaysia’s
independence in 1957, education has always figured prominently as an
integral part of the government’s developmental policy. As ICT has been the
essential part of educational development, Malaysia has taken various
initiatives to facilitate integration of ICT in education, as outlined in its ICT
Master Plan. In order to revolutionize education and learning, the National IT
Council .NITC. was formed under the Sixth Malaysia Plan 1990-1995. to
ensure the integration of ICT into Malaysia society Ministry of Education,
2001. To further the agenda, the Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005. and the
Ninth Malaysia Plan 2006-2010. continues to reform the education and
training system through lifelong learning via multiple ICT-related media, the
establishment of community colleges, open universities and distance
education .Ministry of Education, 2001. The implementation of Malaysia,
Ministry of Education’s policy in ICT can be seen through several major ICT in
education projects, like smart schools. The implementation of the Smart
School project was scheduled to go through four waves, viz; the pilot project
1999-2002, the post-pilot 2002-2005, making all schools smart 2005-2010,
and consolidation and stabilization 2010- 2020.
Educational Management and ICT in Malaysia
The education management development plans of Malaysia aim to
enhance and accelerate the efficiency and effectiveness of management in
different aspects such as administration, monitoring and evaluation,
curriculum and assessment, personal, finance and infrastructure
development. The Ministry of Education (MOE) aims to overcome some
bureaucraticissues in the educational management as its structure is
hierarchical and centralized. Therefore, the MOE faces challenges to improve
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the quality of leadership at all levels of education department. Management
effectiveness and efficiency are expanded through e-management at all
levels of education management and trainings for officers and staff. The MOE
also intensifies efforts to improve the management and maintenance of ICT
tools at all levels of education institutions. In their efforts, bilateral
cooperation increases between educational institutions under MOE with the
local community and the private sector in the development of ICT in
education. In order to improve the quality of school management, principals
or headmasters play important roles to strengthen the monitoring,
evaluation, and assessment activities of education programmes in
accordance to the objectives of Education High Quality Standard.
As curriculum leaders, principals or headmasters have to understand
that the function of ICT in schools does not serve primarily to promote
computer literacy, neither it was due to technology deemed as the ‘wave of
the future’. Rather, the function of technology in schools is to enhance
teaching and learning in accordance with the curriculum and assessment
(Hong & Koh, 2002). Principals have to assess education technology as a
mean of solving instructional problems.
The strategies for better monitoring, inspection, and evaluation
system include extending the role of school heads or principals as curriculum
leaders and main supervisors in teaching and learning in schools, increasing
the number of qualified personnel in the field of inspection, strengthening
the implementation of Education High Quality Standard in all educational
institutions and a wider dissemination of inspectorate reports.
One of the greatest challenges in ICT use in the education area is the
balancing of educational goals with economic realities. ICTs in education
programs require large capital investments and developing country like
Malaysia needs to be prudent in making decisions about what models of ICT
use will be appropriate to be introduced whilst being conscious of
maintaining economies of scale.
The MOE needs to provide more ICT facilities in order to expand the
usage of ICT in teaching, learning and education management sufficiently. In
this regard, computer literacy elements were included in the National
Preschool Curriculum in 2002. At the primary level, ICT has gradually evolved
into a necessity. At the secondary level, the integration of ICT is aimed at
developing students with knowledge and skills in ICT and their ability to use
information critically and creatively to improve their academic performance.
At the tertiary level, ICT must be expanded to all fields of knowledge.
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Uses of ICT at School level
Most administration and management tasks can be facilitated using
ICT. Similarly, every organization requires a complete, comprehensive up-todate information, which is created in the organization and passing through
(Gev, 1995). School as an educational organization, principal is the leader and
the manager of a school, and the importance of strong leadership in
effectively implementing ICT in education is evident from many of the
country reports (Gosmire & Grady, 2007). Today’s rapid technological
changing milieu requires the principal and teachers as a technology leader to
become involved in discovering, evaluating, installing, and operating new
technologies of all kinds, while keeping teaching and student learning as the
guide and driving force behind it all (Gao et al., 2010).
The ICT in school setting enhances teaching and learning process and
motivates students to learn. In the school management level, ICT is used in
detailed student data management, on the level of test and term mark;
teacher data management, such as attendance and weekly lesson plans
(Hadjithoma-Garstka, 2011). Other than follow up of students’ achievements,
the information gained from the computer enables management to follow up
on each and every teacher’s work (Popkewitz, 2000). Rather than facilitating
teaching and learning in the schools, the principal should evaluate the input
of the teachers and output of the students. School management information
system enhances planning, organizing, and monitoring, and is used as a tool
for improving the effectiveness of the educational system in school
(Hadjithoma-Garstka, 2011).
Leading is the next component of management which relates to
coordinating staff and other stakeholders. Administrators, as school leaders
need to make dramatic adjustments regarding effective leadership, as
suggested by Kotter .Samath, (2010), “Leadership is about coping with
change”. Therefore, the principal and teachers should have an effective
communication net work with students, parents and stakeholders. Use of
email and mobile phones will enhance this trend. Principal and teachers need
to use technology for personal management skills, and budgets are prepared
on spreadsheets, parent letters require a word processor, and occasionally
they must use a database for compiling certain kinds of data of students and
administivia (Creighton, 2003). Thus, effective school administration are key
indicators to large-scale, sustainable education reform. Rapid changes in
technology have led to new possible ways for managing and leading schools.
(Hamzah et al., 2010).
Schools are themselves responsible for the implementation of ICT in
education, and integration of ICT into the curriculum, where these activities
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consist of projects, programmes and learning communities conducted by
organisations that provide the necessary support to meet the existing needs
of schools. Brummelhuis & Wijngaards, 2010. However, ICT integration in
subjects and this aspect is lacking in the existing curriculum of Malaysian
education. One of the most important prerequisites for successful
implementation of school information system (SIS) is, of course, a highquality SIS (Visscher, 1995). Thus, the school principals and teachers’
initiative provide path for these educational advancements.
When evaluated the Malaysian school principals and administrators
role in implementing educational advancements such as facilitating ICT in
schools, it is observed that most of the school heads do not acquire the
knowledge and technical skills in managing education, perhaps integrating
ICT in education and educational management as they are not from the field
of management (Hamzah et al., 2010). Rather the culture exercising in the
system is promoting a ‘good teacher’ as a teacher-supervisor or head of the
school, and thus during this promotion period, ‘the knowledge gap’ of a
teacher and an administrator is not bridged.
Conceptual Framework
Based on literature review, it is revealed that Malaysian government
has put much effort to equip the school with modern ICT facilities. In spite of
enormous government effort, it is concern to what extent it is being used in
its major domains as strategic policies, availability of resources and access,
efficiency and capacity of ICT use in pedagogy, monitoring and evaluation of
teachers and students in Malaysian schools. Based on each domain several
indicators are taken used in research contextual area.
Under policy and strategic plan, there are two major indicators, as
first is to know the awareness of national, educational, and school ICT policy
or strategic/master plan, and second is to know the extent of
implementation in schools. As far as considering resource and access as a
benchmark, ICT availability, networking, and ICT penetration in education or
schools are taken as some indicators. In addition, ICT access for teachers to
enhance teaching and professional development is used. Capability and
efficiency in ICT usage as a major domain looks for the extent of ICT use and
ICT related activities, pedagogical use of ICT and ICT based-learning in
classrooms, and teacher and student use of ICT in education. Other than
these, use of ICT in teacher learning and extent of use in professional
development programs are considered. Monitoring and evaluation focuses
on extent of ICT use in evaluating students’ academic and co-curricular
activities and teacher evaluation, with regard of teacher lesson plan checking
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
and supervision. These indicators are measured and evaluated through
combination of research methods.
Research Methodology
Quantitative approach was used in this research. The questionnaires
were filled by 260 principals, teachers and teachers-supervisors who are from
different schools of different states of Malaysia.
Population and Sampling
Since this research studies about the ICT use in Malaysian school
management, we selected teachers, teacher-supervisor and school principals
who are studying in Masters in Educational Management Program in
2009/2010/2011 in the Faculty of Education at University of Malaya,
Malaysia. These teachers are those who have been selected by a rigorous
screening process from all over Malaysia by the University Authority. As all
these teachers were selected for pursuing higher education by the university,
the researcher considers them as the proper sample that represents the
whole Malaysia.
The respondents were selected based on their past jobs and their
experiences in the education fields. There are 215 teachers and 45
principals/Assistant principals/supervisors in the list who have worked in
managerial position for 2 to 8 years before they joined the classes in the
university. Thus, 215 teachers and 45 principals or teachers’ supervisors filled
in the questionnaire for this study.
Research Instrument
A questionnaire is a self report instrument useful for economically
and speedily obtaining data from a good number of respondents .Brown,
2001.. The questionnaire is aimed to obtain information basically on three
1) ICT policy awareness and its implementation
2) Availability of IT resources and its accessibility
3) Efficiency and capacity of staffs and use of ICT in managerial tasks
The first section of the questionnaire is about the personal
information like gender, number of years in the service in educational field,
designation and type of school they are working .public or private..In the
second section, respondents have to answer the questions about the ICT
policy, both national ICT policies as well as school policy. Section three is
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about the ICT related resources and its accessibility in the school. Section
four is about the efficiency and capacity and use of ICT in managerial tasks.
This section also discusses the usage of internet facilities and individual
staff’s ability in different software such as Word processing, Spreadsheets
Presentation tools , PowerPoint, E-mailing Internet, browsing, Statistical tools
and Database management.
Instruments: Validity and reliability
Reliability is the degree of consistency that an instrument or data
collection procedure demonstrates, while validity is the quality of data
collection procedure that enables it to measure what it is intended to
measure (Best & Kahn, 1998). Denzin & Lincoln (2000), hence, with this
knowledge as the background knowledge, this study was conducted. The
opinion of professional colleagues was sincerely considered to standardize
the content validity of the instruments whether it would cover the research
areas. It has been proven that in order to receive proper, specific, valid and
reliable data, attention must be paid to the triangulation of samples (Cohen
et al., 2000). We, therefore, selected our respondents from three categories:
Principals, teacher-supervisor and teachers. The Chronbach alphas of the
measures were all above the lower limit of acceptability Chronbach alpha .60
(Nunnaly, 1978). Hence, all the measures were highly reliable.
Documental Reviews
The documents we reviewed including National Developmental Plan
of Malaysia 2001 – 2010, National ICT policy of Malaysia, Ministry of
Education’s ‘Smart school policy and National curriculum of Malaysia. Besides
a number of text books were reviewed to materialize this research.
Policy Awareness and Implementation
Figure 1 shows that out of the 260 respondents, 84 percent are not
aware of the national policy on ICT and 80 percent has responded that the
schools do not have an ICT policy of school level. Teachers or leading
teachers have said that schools have not shared the school ICT policy with
the staff. However, out of the 45 principals, 10 have an ICT policy in their
schools and they have shared it with the staff. It is seen that 36 percent
believes that the schools promote or support ICT-based innovations by
teachers in the school. However, 72 percent of the schools do not have a
separate IT department or unit to facilitate these innovations and 56 percent
of the schools are run without an IT in charge or coordinator to monitor IT in
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the schools. Moreover, the alarming figure in the research on this topic is the
88 percent saying that there is no master plan for ICT in schools; however
with regard to school implementing the national/regional/provincial policy
on ICT in education 28 percent agrees that they implement it in the schools.
Concerning code of conduct for using computers and internet in schools 72
percent said that there is a one to follow. Finally, a vast majority .80 percent.
have said that ICT can facilitate school management.
On the topic of schools being aware of ICT policy and implementation
in education, the important finding to be noted is that 80 percent schools do
not have an ICT policy. Furthermore, in all the schools, to develop ICT in
schools or in general in education some kinds of programmes are being
conducted such as using ICT in teaching and learning specific subjects.
Another amazing finding is about having a code of conduct for using
computers and internet in schools. With relation to this concern 72 percent
schools have a code of conduct and this exists not because a code of conduct
was prepared for using ICT in schools rather it was because in schools there
are rules and regulation or procedure to be followed in every matter in the
school from basic class room rules to significant other rules.
Awareness of ICT Policy
Awareness of Ict Policy
Figure 1. Awareness of ICT Policy
Knowledge and technical skills
The second finding for discussion is the topic; knowledge and
technical skills of the human resource of schools. With relation to the level of
expertise in computer technology, on average, the respondents appear to
have a high level of technical skills in using computer. As the figure 2 depicts
almost all the people have a high level of skills in using computer and
profoundly the basic skills needed for teachers in IT are attained by all the
people. On the other hand, the skill of using statistical tools and database
management are the areas that require expertise. Thus, this may have
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
happened as usually there are special programs and software for maintaining
data and these work are carried out by people who are responsible for
sustaining the records.
Very good
No Capability
Figure 2. Level of expertise of teachers/ teachers-supervisors
in using computer technology
Similarly the data gathered on the percentage of people who know
how to operate different ICT related facilities. Figure 3, the least percent of
people 25 percent know how to use interactive boards or smart board and
the second least 46 percent know how to use multimedia projector. On
contrary, all the people know how to use computers and cassette players and
other equipment that are of daily use in administrative work in schools. Thus,
figure 2 and 3 shows that staff in schools has acquired the basic skills of using
IT and ICT in daily administrative and management work of the schools.
Figure 3.Operation of different ICT related facilities
Therefore, the knowledge and skills of the staff in the Malaysian
schools need to be evaluated further and it is obvious that this research has
revealed a correlation to this human resource power in terms of knowledge
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
and skills as a strong one because of the sample taken for this research, and
hence the sample taken has educational background with bachelors degree
and 54 percent has received ICT training of some kind. However, it is
interesting that their expertise and skills are not integrated with educational
management or with teaching/ classroom purposes. Rather they are used for
daily administrative purposes.
Resources and Access to ICT Facilities
One finding of the research related to resources and access of ICT
facilities in Malaysian schools is represented in Figure 4 as the figure shows
all the schools that participated in the research are equipped with ICT
facilities such as desktop computers and printers. Likewise, 95% schools have
photo copy machines and scanners while multimedia projector is available in
85% schools. Besides, 72% schools are equipped with video camera, Over
Head Projector and laptop. Unlike these facilities that are widely used for
teaching and learning and for administrative work on daily basis, ICT facilities
such as interactive boards or smart boards and digital notice boards are not
available in most of the schools. Hence, out of total schools only 30% schools
have smart boards.
Don't have
Figure 4. Use of ICT resources
Thus, the above findings reveal that the types of facilities that are
widely used in schools are services that are needed for daily administrative
purposes of the school and that of teaching and learning. In this regard,
facilities that are mostly available in the schools are computers, photo copy
machines and thus these are needed for daily teaching and learning and for
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administrative work. One very important fact to be deduced from these
findings is that even though the schools are equipped with most of the ICT
facilities, the question of these facilities availability and access in terms of
student ratio and teacher ratio is not understood from this research.
Therefore, the beneficial and effective use of these cannot be measured from
the findings.
Thus, these findings support that in Malaysian schools ICT is used for
administrative work as the locations of ICT facilities available and the
locations (Figure 5) where people use them are quite similar. On the other
hand the use of ICT for classroom purpose is less and teachers using ICT in
other places more than classroom elucidates that teacher are not integrating
ICT in teaching as curriculum is not integrated with ICT. Hence, text books do
not deploy lessons of ICT; therefore, teachers do not integrate ICT in
teaching. Moreover, this finding supports the finding of the most common
resources or ICT facilities available in schools. With regard to the discussion
topic, the research explains that Malaysia schools are equipped with ICT
facilities that are needed for daily administrative work and these equipment
are available mostly in administrative office and staffroom, hence they are
used for administrative purposes and not for educational management
functions as there are no ‘set up’ that enhances use of ICT in Malaysian
schools in school management.
Location of the computers in Malaysian schools
s office
staff room
Figure 5. Locations where teachers use computers
In relation to the topic use of ICT in Malaysian schools, the research
findings confirm that schools use ICT for daily administrative purposes and
ICT is not appropriately used for school management purposes. Among the
most usual purposes include ICT for administrating test, preparing report
cards of students, preparing lesson plans and learning for enrichment as well
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as for accessing information. On the other hand ICT is least used for
developing logic and reasoning skills in students and the second least include
regular instruction and training for developing computer skills and remedial
Finding shows Figure 6 that a large number of teachers 72% teachers
use ICT facilities for playing games and for having fun while 68% of the
teachers useICT for helping with school and administrative work.
Percentage of using ICT at schools in different aspects
Percentage of using ICT at
schools in different aspects
Figure 6. Using ICT at schools in different aspects
A similar pattern is observed in Figure 7 about the frequency of ICT
use in the schools. Once again the most frequent use is for preparing report
cards 60 percent and it has been rated as very often. Finding and accessing
information 56 percent rated as very often and monitoring students as well
as for personal development both 48 percent. In contrast to these findings,
ICT is never used for communicating either with parents 56 percent never or
students 44 percent never and for teaching computer skills 40 percent never.
Therefore, from these findings and results of the research, it can be
summarized that ICT is used in Malaysian schools for administrative purposes
of schools.
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Figure 7. Frequency of ICT use in different purposes
by teachers and leading teachers
Other finding from the research on internet using, it shows (Figure 8)
that almost 80% to 90% teachers use internet for collecting hands out,
preparing papers and lessons, making presentations and teaching specific
lessons in different subjects. Teachers 20% rarely use internet to
communicate with students. Few teachers 50% use internet for
communicating among themselves and a very few teachers 40% have access
and use online for developing their critical analyzing skills.
Figure 8. Use of internet by staff in padagogical activitites
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Findings show that the use of ICT in Malaysian schools is not much
for school management purposes; rather it is used for daily administrative
functions of the school. Furthermore, ICT is not used appropriately and
effectively in schools and as Ministry of Education do not have a policy for
ICT, it is not being facilitated or supported in schools appropriately. Even
though staffs have basic skills of using ICT, knowledge and technical skills in
ICT and educational management is lacking in schools as a whole. Hence,
schools do not have efficiency and capacity for using ICT in educational
Also, the results of this study indicates that the use of ICT can be
used in school management by building physical structure and equipping
schools with ICT facilities and by providing training for human resource for
the system. One of the limitations of this study is the socio demographic
Since this study had limitations to a fixed context, it is recommended for
further studies to be carried out on this topic. Furthermore, planning must be
done at policy level in which it should be shared with the entire stakeholders
and information must be dismissed and decisions should be transparent.
Moreover, financial assistance is needed for all the schools and finally, school
based professional development program or in-service training must be given
for staff.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Basuki Wibawa1, Tuti Iriani2
State University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
The purpose of this paper is to highlight about partnerships, teacher
professional development, the number of models reported in the
literature, and the combinations, those interested in promoting,
designing and implementing teacher professional development
certainly have a large variety of options and opportunities. It is of
paramount importance, however, to pay attention to the
characteristics of the context in which these professional
development models will be implemented, as well as other factors
that may support these efforts. Partnerships for professional
development activities should be considered to be a fundamental
component of any professional’s career path. Lifelong learning is
perceived to be a key requirement for all, and especially for those
who are key stakeholders in the educational development of the
next generation. For growth, prosperity and success to occur
contemporary organisations have recognised that on-going training
and development of their staff is essential. The challenge faced by
teacher education systems is how to ensure that there are
adequate and effective professional development
available to all educators over the duration of their teaching
careers. The problems of how to provide adequate and effective
professional development to educators are reflective of concerns
experienced by technical educators on a worldwide basis. With the
growing recognition that teacher quality is critical in preparing
students for a society undergoing far-reaching economic and social
changes, the need for policies and strategies to strengthen teacher
Keywords: partnerships, model, teacher professional development
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Teacher education institution has to build a strong foundation in
terms of the structure and partnerships programmes of its teacher
professional development. Building a high-quality education system relevant
to 21st century need has become a top priority for most governments and
nations. Focus the idea of a quality education system is the quality of the
teaching provided by teachers to students. High quality teaching will be
characterized by: (1) greater emphasis on teachers’ values, skills and
knowledge that are fundamental to good teaching; (2) expanded teachers’
roles and responsibilities of teachers that are shared collaboratively
withother professionals; (3) different career expectations and aspirations
resulting from changing teacher demographics and new job opportunities;
and (4) “personalizing” learning for individual students to accommodate
greater diversity in learning.
There is an urgent need to improve of how we prepare a new
generation of teachers. Teacher education is enhanced by comprehensive
teacher programme that lays a foundation for lifelong career learning.
Lifelong learning incorporates professional development practices conducted
by an individual over the duration of their life. The professional development
may be organised by the individual or controlled and structured by the
organisation at which the individual is employed. The workforce of the new
millennium can no longer work under the assumption that initial education
acquired in youth will provide the required learning for a lifetime.
Technological advances and the rapid and continuous changes at the
workplace have provided an arena where learning throughout the entire life
span is essential to keep abreast of ever increasing changes in professional
practice. Lifelong learning is the concept of continual development of
individuals well past the mandatory secondary education requirements.
Individuals welcome learning opportunities and continue to keep pace with
the ever changing work environment. Individuals adopt the position of
continually updating or learning new skills and knowledge to keep currency in
his/her chosen career path. The philosophy of lifelong learning needs to
permeate the culture of the organization (Williams, 2009).
Teachers’ continued learning and professional development are key
avenues for developing the knowledge, skills and dispositions required to
teach all students to reach higher standards. Effective professional
development strategies must: (1) lead to changes in knowledge and skills of
teachers to more effectively respond to the problem of practice; (2) seek the
active involvement of teachers, be largely school-based, developmental in
nature and ongoing;(3) acknowledge that schools are valuable sites for
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
learning; (4) create opportunities for teachers to learn together with others
in the school and in more extended networks of teachers; and (5) provide
enough time and ensure a supportive school environment that will allow
teachers to integrate their learning from daily practice into a comprehensive
change process.
Models of Teacher Professional Development
Professional development, in a broad sense, refers to the
development of a person in his or her professional role. Professional
development includes formal experiences and informal experiences (Ganser,
2000). This conception of professional development is, therefore, broader
then career development, which is defined as “the growth that accurs as the
teacher move through professional career cycle” and broader than staff
development, which is defined as “the provision of organized in-service
programmes designed to foster the growth of group of teacher; it is only one
of the systematic intervention that can be used for teacher development “
(Glatthorn, 1995).
Teacher professional development has several characteristics: (1). It
is based on constructivism ; (2). It is perceived as a long-term process ; (3). It
is perceived as a process that takes place within a particular context. (4). this
process as one that is intimately linked to school. (5). A teacher is conceived
of as a reflective practitioner. (6). It is conceived of as a collaborative process.
(7). It may look and be very different in diverse settings. There is not one
form or model of professional development better than all others and which
can be implemented in any institution, area or context. Schools and
educators must evaluate their needs, cultural beliefs and practices in order to
decide which professional development model would be most beneficial to
their particular situation (Eleonora Villegas-Reimers, 2003).
Models are specific processes and opportunities that are planned to
provide professional development to teachers from the beginning of their
preparation. However, a system requires a wider perspective that includes
the interconnections between: ((a) the goals, objectives and purposes of
professional development; (b)
the context in which professional
development is to take place; (c) the personal and professional
characteristics of the participants of the system; (d) the models, techniques,
and procedures to be implemented; (e) the costs and benefits of
professional development; (f) a determination of who is to make which
decisions; a process to evaluate and assess the effectiveness of professional
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
development on different constituencies; (g)
a determination of
infrastructure support for professional development.
Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2001), describe three approaches, or
systems of professional development, that “co-exist in the world of
educational policy, research and practice and are invoked by differently
positioned people in order to explain and justify quite different ideas and
approaches to improving teaching and learning”. They are: (1). Knowledgefor-practice: Assumes that university-based researchers generate formal
knowledge and theory for teachers to use in order to improve practice. (2).
Knowledge-in-practice: Some of the most essential knowledge for teaching is
perceived as ‘practical’ knowledge, or knowledge that is embedded in
practice. (3). Knowledge-of-practice: Knowledge is not divided into formal
and practical knowledge. Teachers gain knowledge for teaching when they
have the opportunity to reflect on their practice and use a process of inquiry
in their own environments to learn more about effective teaching. There are
some ‘guidelines for success’ when planning and implementing professional
development for teachers, that are: to recognize change as being both an
individual and an organizational process; to think big, but start small; to
work in teams to maintain support; to include procedures for feedback on
results; to provide continuous follow-up, support, and pressure; to integrate
programmes (Guskey,1995).
The first step in any process of developing a professional in any field
is the initial professional preparation of that person. In teaching, this
preparation takes very different shapes and forms and varies dramatically
from country to country. Different conceptual orientations about the role of
teachers and their preparation have shaped the nature of the initial
preparation of teachers. Eleonora Villegas-Reimers, (2003), for example,
describe the following orientations: (a) The academic orientation emphasizes
teachers’ subject expertise and sees the quality of the teachers’ own
education as their professional strength. (b) The practical orientation,
emphasizes the classroom technique of the teacher. The key ingredient in
this orientation is the practical experiences in the classroom, and the
apprenticeship model of preparation. (c) The technical orientation
emphasizes the knowledge and behavioural skills that teachers require. It is
associated with micro-teaching and competence-based approaches, and is
solidly inspired by the behaviourist model of teaching. (d) The personal
orientation emphasizes the importance of interpersonal relationships in the
classroom The key element in teaching preparation is, therefore,
experimentation and discovery of personal strengths. (e) The critical inquiry
orientation views schooling as a process of social reform, and the role of
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
schools as promoting democratic values and reducing social inequities. A key
element of this perspective is to promote the development of critical and
reflective practices in teachers so that they can become agents of social
change. These orientations are not necessarily mutually exclusive. However,
depending on the culture and values of a particular society, the historical
time, and the society’s perception of teachers and teaching, whichever
orientation is decided upon will have a great effect on which type of
education and professional-development opportunities are available to
Besides the familiar pre-service and in-service teacher training
models, some new ones have been developed in the last two decades or so in
the developed countries. These are presented below:
Models of pre-service education
Pre-service teacher education varies dramatically around the world in
such aspects as institutional context, content areas, time allocation,
challenges and limitations and in how societies perceive its purpose.
Calderhead and Shorrock (1997) inEleonora Villegas-Reimers (2003) present
the following three models of early professional development found in
different countries around the world. Each model places a different emphasis
on specific aspects of learning how to teach and is based on a variety of
different approaches to the learning process.
The enculturation, or socialization into the professional culture
model, emphasizes the socializing processes in professional development.
Teaching is perceived as a demanding task that takes place in a material and
ideological context. The organization, physical resources of schools, and
values embedded in institutional practices exert a powerful influence on the
teachers, and may often overrule the practices acquired in the institutions of
teacher preparation. This is, in fact, a complex model, as schools generally
have multiple ideologies. Research has found that the pressures experienced
by first-time teachers when trying to integrate a new school usually explain
how they can, in a manner of speaking, abandon what they learned in their
initial preparation as teachers, or their own exploration of their personal
teaching style.
The technical, or knowledge and skills model, emphasizes the
knowledge and skills teachers need to acquire in order to contribute to
classroom practices. In the 1960s and 1970s, the model focused on classroom
behaviour, for example micro-teaching, questioning techniques or behaviour
control during times of transition. More recently, an effort has been made to
conceptualize these skills, not only in terms of behavioural practices, but also
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
in terms of thinking processes. In addition, this model also focuses on
pedagogical content knowledge; that is, the kind of knowledge that expert
teachers usually have and which novice teachers need to acquire. This
includes knowledge of children, teaching strategies, curricula, school rules,
the availability of materials, subjectmatter, how to facilitate understanding in
others, etc.
The teaching as a moral endeavour model,emphasizes on a method
of teaching which involves caring for young children, taking into
consideration their interests, preparing them to be a part of a future society,
and influencing the way in which they live and relate to each other. It has
been claimed that this constitutes an important aspect of teaching, which is
highly valued by teachers, parents and children, but is usually ignored in
discussions on the professional development of teachers.
Model of in-service education
The meaning of ‘in-service’ education is changing, and it varies from
country to country depending on the level of preparation teachers receive
prior to their entering the profession. Greenland (1983) in Eleonora VillegasReimers (2003) has described the following four categories of in-service
education and training: (a) for unqualified teachers (mainly certification
courses); (b) to upgrade teachers; (c) to prepare teachers for new roles, such
as teacher educators or principals; (d) curriculum related, particularly when
there are curricular changes in the system, or when teachers require some
form of refresher course. Despite the fact that most educators and policymakers agree on the importance of in-service training, the motives behind
their interest vary.
There are three rationales have been used to explain the importance
of in-service teacher training and education. One is human resource
development, the second is the management of planned change, and the
third is based on self-development by schools and teachers. In regard to
human resource development, there are two main concerns: to have enough
personnel who are adequately prepared; and to maximize the preparation of
anyone working in the system. In regard to the second rationale, it is in the
interest of the system to prepare the personnel who will implement any
planned change. In other words, to enable education systems to be
reformed, teachers act not only as subjects, but also as objects of that
reform. Finally, the rationale of self-development is based on three factors: it
is believed that schools and teachers will be more likely to commit
themselves to change when they have initiated the change themselves; this
change is more likely to become institutionalized when teachers are better
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
prepared to plan and implement it; and needs and priorities will be identified
more effectively at the local level, and thus the plan to change will respond
to realistic rather than to perceived needs.
New models
Over the last two decades, several new models of teacher
professional development, that can be classified in two groups, (1)
Organizational partnership models and (2) Small group or individual models,
have been developed and used in some of the educationally highly developed
countries. They are:
Organizational Partnership Models
Professional development schools.
These schools represent an organizational set up involving
partnerships between teachers, administrators and university faculty
members. The Professional Development Schools (PDS) attempt to
restructure the preparation and induction of teachers into the teaching
profession, improve their working conditions, raise the quality of education
imparted to the students and provide opportunities for professional
development to teachers as well as the administrators. The student-teachers
gain new knowledge and enthusiasm, the experienced teachers are better
informed of the latest research and development in the profession, and the
university-level faculty benefit from the partnership with actual practitioners
of the profession in the schools. In the recent years many PDS have been
converted into e-PDS with emphasis on the use of technology in the
professional development model.
The University-school partnerships.
This model seeks to establish firm base in two distinct cultures,
school and university, to cross institutional boundaries, to ensure inclusive
decision making and to create new venues for educator development. These
partnerships are a kind of networks which connect the practitioners who
share common interest and concerns about education and are found in
schools with the institutions of higher learning and research like the
universities. The partnerships are with a number of schools with the
universities of the area, but sometimes the area boundaries are also crossed
Inter-Institutional colaborations.
This model is a step further than the University-school partnership
model in that it envisages partnership between the schools, universities, local
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
institutions, ministries of education and other organizations involved directly
or indirectly in professional development in the educational field. Pre-service
and in-service training institutes are also roped in. The idea is to draw upon
wider experience and at varying levels of educational activity with the
expectation that teachers’ professional horizons will be widened
Schools’ networks
Under the school network model a number of schools are brought
together in the culture to share experiences, curriculum development effort,
research activities etc. There have been several projects which have included
the creation of school networks to support teachers’ professional
development, school change, and educational reform at a higher level. One
of these innovations is the Innovative Links Project. This project involves a
formal partnership between schools and universities in an attempt to carry
out research and implement practices that promote the professional
development of teachers both in schools and universities. Teachers
associated with this project have developed skills and competences that have
enhanced their professional development, such as learning, participation,
collaboration, co-operation, activism and research.
Teachers’ networks.
Teacher networks are formal or informal associations of school
teachers in their personal capacities who hold regular meetings to discuss
professional problems, innovations, research and benefit there from in their
professional development. These teachers’ networks generally do not derive
any funding from the school or the state, exceptions apart, but their
associations provide help, if necessary.
Teachers’ networks bring teachers together to address the problems
whichthey experience in their work, and thus promote their own
professionaldevelopment as individuals and as groups. These networks can
be createdeither relatively informally, through regular meetings between
teachers; orformally, by institutionalizing the relationships, communication
and dialogueThere are many examples of effective teacher networks in
differentparts of the world.
Distance education.
Distance education has caught with the imagination of the teachers,
educators, administrators, planners, etc. all over the world and its popularity
is increasing day by day. Many developed and most of the developing
countries have adopted this mode of mass teacher education in the last
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
couple of decades. There is no doubt that distance education has come as a
boon to millions of primary and elementary school teachers working in the
remote areas, small villages, hills, forests, deserts, small islands, different
country, etc to acquire professional qualifications for career advancement.
Distance education is backed by organizational set ups. Use of technology
(computers, satellite based telecommunication, internet, website, facsimiles,
cell phones etc) has virtually reached education to the door steps of the
Table 1: Model of Learning
Organizational partnership
Schools’ networks
Teachers’ networks
Distance education
Small group or individual models
Workshops, seminars, courses,
Case-based study
Self-directed development
Observation of excellent practice
Teachers’ participation in new
Skills-development model
Reflective models
Project-based models
Action research
Use of teachers’ narratives
Generational or cascade model
Models practiced by small groups and individuals.
So far we have discussed models which depend upon institutional
support or organizational backing for successful operation. Partnerships with
other institutions at different levels is also envisaged in these models. There
are several other models of teacher professional development which are
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
practiced by small groups and even individuals. Such models are presented,
very briefly, in the following section.
Supervision in the class-room is an age-old practice to examine a
teacher’s competence, class control, students’ response, etc. The older-time
inspectorate system has now given way to a meaningful discussion between
the teacher and the observer so that the teacher is enabled to change for the
better in career development. In its most traditional format, this process also
called ‘inspectional’ modelis typically completed by an administrator or
principle who comes into a classroom, either takes notes or checks according
to a list of criteria whether the teacher is achieving all the necessary
requirements, and then leaves the classroom, giving no feedback (immediate
or otherwise) to the teacher. Based on this brief evaluation, the teacher may
receive or be denied promotion, tenure, or even a renewed contract for the
following year. Clinical supervision was a means of fostering teacher
development through discussion, observation and analysis of teaching.
Today, clinical supervision is perceived as an effective model of professional
growth and development, and it is one of the most common elements of
initial teacher education.
Performance Assessment of students model relates teacher’s
competencies to students’ achievement. Some researchers are proposing a
new perception of students’ assessment as a form of teachers’ professional
learning and development, and the creation of a new evaluation system
which would contribute significantly to the quality of teaching. In developing
this new system, quality assurance would be merged withprofessional
Workshops, seminars, conferences and courses perhaps the most
traditional form of professional development is the typical ‘in-service staff
training’ that includes the use of workshops, short seminars and courses.
There are some cases that show that offering workshops, seminars and
courses, when accompanied by other types of professional-development
opportunities, can be quite successful.
Case-based professional development.This model involves using
“carefully chosen, real-world examples of teaching to serve as springboards
for discussions among small groups of teachers. Cases can help teachers
discover ambiguity, conflict, and complexity within a deceptively simplelooking teaching situation. The case method is based “on the conception that
knowledge is constructed, built on prior knowledge, coupled with experience,
transformable, evolving, and consequential, and thereby, provides students
with insight into alternative solutions rather than ‘correct’ answers. Using
cases for teachers’ professional development must be an ongoing process,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
where teachers have the opportunity to reflect on each aspect of the
situation, and frequently meet with the same group of colleagues to discuss
any issues raised.
Self Directed Development model. Teachers set for themselves
certain targets to be achieved in a given time-frame and work hard to
achieve them. In the Cooperative or Collegial development model a group of
teachers comes together for professional development. Matters like
professional hazards and issues, curriculum development are discussed, peer
supervision is valued, some times action research is cooperatively carried
out. In this type of professional development, teachers identify one goal
which they consider to be of importance to them – either individually or in
small groups, list the activities that they will implement to reach that goal,
the resources needed and the ways in which their progress and
accomplishments will be assessed. In such a situation, teachers take
responsibility for their own development, and the role of the administrators
and supervisors is to facilitate, guide and support that development.
Objective feedback is certainly needed if this model is to be effective.
Co-operative or collegial development.In this model, teachers
develop their own plan for professional development in small groups. This
kind of co-operative model makes teachers – as a group – in each school
continuously responsible for quality. This can be implemented in the
following ways: (a) professional dialogues to discuss professional issues of
personal interest; (b) curriculum development where teams of teachers
develop curriculum units; (c) peer supervision; (d) peer coaching/peer
assistance; (e) action research to collaboratively inquire about a real problem
in theirteaching. In order for this model to be effective, the following
conditions arenecessary: (a) that there be a true collaborative school context
(and thus, this is notimposed on teachers); (b) that administrators support
the efforts; (c) that teachers have sufficient time to complete all the tasks
listed above; (d) that teachers receive some training on how to implement
this model effectively. Several projects have implemented the collegial
model in such a way that it focuses on curriculum development (training,
specialization, practice) as a form of promoting teachers’ professional
development. Teachers work in teams (rather than independently during
their own personal time) to develop curriculum materials and to evaluate the
implementation of particular curriculaand curricular practices. Results show
that teachers feel a sense of accomplishment in their work and in their
development as teachers.
Observations of excellent practice model. Teachers are provided
opportunities to observe colleagues who are recognized for their expertise
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
and excellence. In the Teacher Participation Role model teachers are allowed
participation in such activities as management, organization, support,
monitoring etc. A number of professional-development programmes offer
teachers the opportunity to observe colleagues who have been recognized
for their expertise and excellence in teaching. In this way, teachers have the
opportunity to learn and reflect on the knowledge, skills and attitudes that
excellent teachers implement in the classroom. On many occasions, these
observations constitutepart of a larger professional-development effort,
whereas in others, they represent the core of the professional-development
opportunity. One example of this model is the Teachers International
Professional Development Programme, implemented by the British Council.
This programme sponsors British teachers to visit different schools in a
variety of countries and settings, so that they can observe first hand aspects
of teaching and teachers’ work, and so that they can later share their
experiences with other teachers in their schools and communities.
Increasing teacher participation in new roles. This model is based on
the idea that the professional development of teachers is improved by
increasing the participation of teachers in, and their influence on, activities
such as: management, organization, support and monitoring.When teachers
are responsible for their own inservicepreparation, that preparation is
significantly more effective.
Skills development model. This model was designed to develop new
teaching techniques and skills such as higher-order questioning, inquiry
teaching and group work. Teachers are given time off from the class-room
work to experiment new techniques and skills. In order for this model to be
effective, a significant amount of ‘time off-the-job’ is necessary. Following
that time, teachers are slowly reintegrated into the classrooms with
substantial coaching. The five components of their model are: (a) an
exploration of theory through lectures, discussions and readings; (b) the
demonstration of skills through videos and life training; (c) practice under
simulated conditions (20 or 25 trials in a period of 8 to 10 weeks); (d)
feedback provided by peers under guidance (audio and video recordings are
encouraged); (e) coaching during the transition from training to actual
classroom teaching.
The Reflective model. This model requires the teacher to note down
his/her daily routine and events and activities during the school-day and
reflect upon them with a view to searching the plus as well as minus points,
limitations, mistakes, etc and learn lessons for improvement. This model has
been tried in the pre-service as well as in-service teacher training programs in
many developed countries with good results. This model builds on teachers’
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
personal classroom experiences. It requires that the teacher pay attention to
daily routine and the events of a regular day, and to reflect on their meaning
and effectiveness. The major assumptions upon which this model is based
include: teachers’ commitment to serve the interest of students by reflecting
on their well-beingand on which aspects are most beneficial to them; a
professional obligation to review one’s practice in order to improve the
quality of one’s teaching; and a professional obligation to continue
improving one’s practical knowledge. Ther are four ‘traditions’ ofreflective
thinking, each with a different focus on reflection: (a) the Academic tradition
focuses on the representation of subject matter to students in order to
promote understanding; (b) the Social Efficiency tradition focuses on the
intelligent use of generic teaching strategies proposed as a result of research
undertaken on teaching; (c) the Developmentalist tradition focuses on the
process of learning, development and understanding of the students; (d) the
Social Reconstructionalist tradition focuses on issues of equality and justice,
and the social conditions of schooling.
Project-based models. The primary goal of these models is “to
develop the student-teachers’ and teachers’ capacity to work independently
and collaboratively as reflectiveprofessionals, a goal that is supported not
only by their own project experience but by accompanying discussion,
comparison, and contrast with accounts in the literature and the work of
their fellow-students. A secondary goal is to make a positive contribution to
students’ own institutions, which helps to sustain their support for the
course. These models need teachers for leadership roles in the classroom
and the school, andimprove the general quality of their professional
Portfolios. A portfolio is a collection of items gathered over a certain
period of timeto illustrate different aspect of a person’s work, professional
growth and abilities. In teaching, a portfolio is usually a tool used to engage
teachers and students in discussions about topics related to teaching and
learning. There are three forms of portfolios usually used by educators: (a) an
employment portfolio; (b) an assessment portfolio (as a way of showing
attainment of prescribed competences and outcomes); and (c) a learning
portfolio (a collection of items that helps teachers think about, and describe,
learningoutcomes). Several studies report the successful use of portfolios to
support teachers’ professional development, as they provide an opportunity
for teachers to reflect on their own work, goals, activities in and out of the
classroom, etc.
Action research. Process of investigation, reflection and action
whichdeliberately aims to improve, or make an impact on, the quality of the
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realsituation which forms the focus of the investigation. It is a form of
inquirywhich involves self-evaluation, critical awareness and contributes to
the existingknowledge of the educational community. Implementing a model
of action research for professional development does not imply a process of
individual inquiry or research in isolation. In fact, most initiatives that have
promoted action research have used at least one of the following
collaborative formats: whole-school projects; small-group actionresearch
projects; and individual reflection with small-group support. Theseforms of
collaborative action research have been evaluated as being a veryeffective
form of professional development.
Teachers’ narratives. Some authors have reported on the
tremendous impact that teachers’ own narratives (or ‘autobiographical
research’) on their experiences in theclassroom can have on their
professional development. One important learning model is to reflect on
one’s own experiences; one way of collecting ‘data’ about one’s
ownexperiences is by writing about daily experiences in the classroom. The
narratives are discussed at length. Usually teachers focus first on the specific
event that is being reported, and then go a step further and begin to
establish connections and observe the isolated event within a larger context.
Teachers’ responses to this experience have beenpositive. By listening to
others’ narratives, teachers can live some experiences vicariously; those who
are the authors of the narratives are able to ‘step outside’ of their own
personal experiences and perceive/analyze themselves as any other teacher
in a particular learning and teaching instance.
The generational model, the cascade model, or the training-oftrainers Model.In this model, a first generation of teachers is trained or
educated in a particular topic or aspect of teaching or subject matter, and
after a certain amount of time become the educators of a second generation.
Careful attention must be paid to the planning of such a programme and
process, and to the selection of the first generation. This can continue
effectively for up to three generations. This model has been successfully
implemented in a number of settings.
Coaching/mentoring/Nurturing, is the process by which a colleague
who is “a critical listener/observer, asks questions, makes observations and
offers suggestions that help a teacher grow and reflect and produce different
decisions.This process provides opportunities and structures for teachers’
professional development. Mentoring is a form of coaching and nurturing
that tends to be short-term. Other forms of coaching can be ongoing and
longterm. Coaching is a learned skill, therefore coaches and mentors need
training. “A mentor provides the newcomer with support, guidance,
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feedback, problem-solving guidance, and a network of colleagues who share
resources, insights, practices and materials. As a form of professional
development, mentoring affects both the new teachers who are being
mentored, and the experienced teachers who will serve as mentors.
New designs or models combination for teacher professional
development will need to rest on strong partnerships in the context of
meaningful involvement by key stakeholders in the education process. Broadbased partnerships designed to facilitate better engagement of the
community in teacher education must: (1) extend beyond the practicum
phase of teacher education to include the lifelong learning and
development of teachers;(2) engage experts from different university
faculties, partner schools, education boards, diverse business communities,
social, health and civic organizations, and parents in the design,
development, delivery and evaluation of teacher development programmes;
(3)address needs and issues that are indigenous to schools, school districts
and communities taking into consideration the diversity in socio-economic
backgrounds of the student population; (4) provide opportunities for
teachers to not only acquire content mastery and pedagogical skills but also
develop interpersonal and communication skills and enhance empathy for
the views and perspectives of others in the community; and (5)result in
improved teacher quality and higher student achievements and educational
Successful partnerships not only start with suffi cient government
support and resources but also attract resources from the private sector to
continue and deepen the partnership among university faculties, schools and
teachers and relevant stakeholders outside education. More importantly,
successful partnerships must: (a) have shared goals and purpose developed
collaboratively, taking into account the different stakeholders interests; (b)
establish clear objectives and a flexible strategy to accomplish those
objectives; (c)respect each stakeholder’s beliefs, perspectives, experiences,
expertise and knowledge; (d)structure regular, clear and responsive
communication to foster respect and trust to help raise the levels of
understanding, productivity and collegiality among stakeholders; and (e)
allow for creative ways of adequately resourcing all partners.
We need more expansive and comprehensive partnerships that
better address the complexity of schooling and education and the growing
diversity of learners. Partnerships are not only about internship or working
with teachers to acquire skill sets for classroom teaching and/or to
understand policies and practices of the school system. Redefi ned
professionalism requires models of partnerships that engage both expert
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teachers and university faculties in the design, development and evaluation
of teacher preparation programmes. Such partnerships cannot be limited to
the period of the internship or practicum; university faculty are increasingly
involved in other school activities such as school planning and curriculum
Kim Williams. (2009).“Exploring Professional Development Practices for
Vocational Education and Training Practitioners, Australian”.Journal
of Teacher Education.Volume 34 Issue 4 Article 1
Eleonora Villegas-Reimers. (2003).“Teacher professional development: an
international review of the literature UNESCO:International
Institute for Educational Planning 7-9 rue Eugène Delacroix”, 75116
Cochran-Smith, M.; Lytle, S.L. (2001). “Beyond certainty: taking an inquiry
stance on practice”. In: Lieberman, A.; Miller, L. (Eds.), Teachers
caught in the action: professional development that matters. New
York: Teachers College Press.
Ganser, T. (2000).“An ambitious vision of professional development for
teachers”. In: NASSP Bulletin, 84(618), 6-12.
Glatthorn, A. (1995). “Teacher development”. In: Anderson, L. (Ed.),
International encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education
(second edition). London: Pergamon Press.
Guskey, T.R. (1995). “Professional development in education: in search if the
optimal mix”. In: Guskey, T.R.; Huberman, M. (Eds.), Professional
development in education: New paradigms and practices. New York:
Teachers College Press.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Atwi Suparman1, Udan Kusmawan2
Professor in Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, Indonesia
Open University, Indonesia, and Graduate Program, State University of
Jakarta, Indonesia1,
Faculty of Education, Indonesia Open University, Indonesia2
[email protected]
Quality education offers various opportunities to bring about
highest efficiency and effectiveness in higher education. In
Indonesia, where exist over eighteen thousands islands,
implementing quality education will confront educational
accessibility and affordability due to geographical and economic
constraints. Despite geographical constraints, distance education
comes in such a way that the use of the advances of ICT,in addition
to using educational multimedia and printed materials, is to
penetrate thepoor infrastructure condition and to reach broader
communities in Indonesia. Meanwhile, with its industrial characters
of mass production processing, distance education system allows
for solution to economic constraints in Indonesia where population
with low-income poverty meets 29.89 million (12.36%).Finally, this
paper presents a comprehensive concept to quality education. This
being so, qualified educationalsystem and institution needs to be
accessible for all, and so is affordable.
Keywords: quality education, affordable education
Distance education programs have historically been viewed as
providing educational opportunities to learners who would otherwise have
no access to a conventional learning environment. Typically characterized by
the separation of time and/or space between and among learners and
instructor, it is generally shaped by one or more forms of electronic media,
and information and communication technologies, in addition to printed
materials that in many distance institutions sourced as main resource.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Issue of quality is in the meantime one of the concerns appearing
throughout the distance learning literature. Concerns have been expressed
by both proponents and opponents of distance learning. Instructional
innovations always face the challenge of demonstrating they do not
negatively impact the quality of instruction. Innovations should enhance
quality. At minimum, the experience of a distance learning student should be
as rich, both intellectually and affectively, as the experience of a student in a
traditional face to face (F2F) classroom. Given the additional resources
needed to develop distance learning courses, the expectation should be an
enhanced experience, not a weakened substitute for the traditional
In developing countries, including Indonesia, innovationsin distance
education should go over the challenges of geographical and
economicalconstraints. A number of 241 millions people of Indonesia are
distributed over 6000 Islands, of the 18,306 islands existing in Indonesia.
Infrastructures that linked up people’s communication among inlands and
between villages, especially those domicile outside of Java Island, have long
been found to limit people’s access to higher education. Various reasons
have contributedto such the limitation in addition to geographical factors,
such as cultural and financial factor.
The above restrictionshave restedon inequality of opportunities
among the people of Indonesia to gain better education for their better life.
Therefore, the writer believes that the International Seminar focused on
quality and affordable higher education is exceptionally important. We need
qualified educational system and institution that is accessible for all, and so is
inexpensive. This paper proposes way out to this expectation. Through this
paper, we are proposing that open and distance education may offer an
answer to the expectation of quality and affordable education.
What does quality mean in the context of education? A variety of
definitions addressed to quality in education exist, indicating the complexity
and multifaceted nature of the concept. The terms efficiency, effectiveness,
equity and quality have often been used synonymously. A paper presented
by UNICEF at the meeting of The International Working Group on Education
Florence, Italy, in June 2000, argued that considerable consensus exists
around the basic dimensions of quality education. Further the paper
addressed that quality education should include, at minimum:
 Learners who are healthy, well-nourished and ready to participate and
learn, and supported in learning by their families and communities;
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Environments that are healthy, safe, protective and gender-sensitive, and
provide adequate and appropriate resources and facilities;
 Content that is reflected in relevant curricula and materials for the
acquisition of basic skills, especially in the areas of literacy, numeracy and
skills for life, and knowledge in such areas as gender, health, nutrition,
HIV/AIDS prevention and peace;
 Processes through which trained teachers use child-centred
teachingapproaches in well-managed classrooms, schools, and skilful
assessmentto facilitate learning and reduce disparities;
 Outcomes that encompass knowledge, skills and attitudes, and are linked
tonational goals for education and positive participation in society.
Thisdefinition purses an understanding of education as a complex
system embedded ina political, cultural and economic context. This definition
also takes into account the global and international influences that drive the
discussion of educational quality, while ensuring thatnational and local
educational contexts contribute to definitions of quality in varyingcountries.
Establishing a contextualized understanding of quality meansto include
relevant stakeholders. Key stakeholders often hold different views and
meaningsof educational quality. In the meantime, the above definition is yet
perceptible in characterizing classroom that includethe advance of
information and communication technologies to accelerate teaching and
learning through multimedia. The school system in terms of the final goals
we set for our children, ourcommunity, and our country need no longer be
perceived as physical environment.
The above highlights indicate that local demand for educationhas to
contribute to a comprehensive meaning of quality education, including for
higher education. In Indonesia, where access to higher education is
considerable low (BPP Dikbud, 2011), consideration on quality education
needs to include the aspects of economic scale and geographical condition
where people are domicile. Tabel 1 shows that in 2010, of the total number
of 241 millions Indonesian people, a number of 25,366,600 people are in the
age of 19-23 years old, and only 18.36% (4,657,547 people) of them were
participating in higher education. Distance education with inclusion of the
advanced information and communication technologies (ICT), in addition to
appropriate media such as printed media (module) exists to minimize the
limitations due to geographical challenge of the people domicile spread out
through islands in Indonesia. While quality is often hardly obvious to define,
generally people know it when they see it. Distance learning programs can be
viewed in much the same way - students know a quality program when they
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
see it, or better yet, when they experience it. Distance education needs to
convey quality education to all people across country.
In addition to geographical constrains, economical factor has been
seen as to contribute to the low higher education participation rate. In
Indonesia, the allocation of finance to public education has been dominated
by the basic education level. A study by the World Bank (2007) demonstrated
that education spending per program and level of government on tertiary
education received less than 10% of education spending, while primary
education (preschool, primary school and junior secondary) and middle or
secondary education obtained about 75% and 15% of the total education
budget, respectively. This indicates that the government policy seems to
focus on the provision of basic education for the masses. Recent literature
has indicated that a number of low-income people (the people with per
capita expenditure per month below the poverty line) in Indonesia in
September 2011 reached 29.89 million, 12.36% (BPS, 2012). With this
incredible data, education in Indonesia is facing another real challenge to
quality higher education system definition. Distance education with mass
education system must however providesway out to contribute to the quality
education. With mass production in educational media and combined with its
usage of the advance of ICT, distance educationis offering reasonably cheap
and therefore affordable education to wider communities in Indonesia.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Table 1:Participation Rates of Higher Education (Provincial) Year 2009/2010
DKI Jakarta
Jawa Barat
n Barat
n Tengah
n Selatan
n Timur
year 19-24
Uni + U T
Partipation Rates
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year 19-24
Uni + U T
Partipation Rates
Source: BPP-PSP, Dikbud, 2011
Holistic approach to quality education. Recently, the distance
education has come to include a wide spectrum of learners with many
diverse academic goals and needs. To successfully address the numerous
needs of today's distance learners, universities must adopt a holistic
approach to the design, development, implementation and assessment of
distance learning environments. This approach is critical upon which every
aspect of distance education program is built. However, identifying the
elements that constitute a holistic approach to distance education can be a
challenging task, so as to recognize traditionally transparent factors. The
followings are concept adapted from the article published by the MBA
Program Worldwide, concerning the holistic point of view of education.
The most critical factor to success in any distance educational
system development is to shape organizational configuration in which
leadership are devised by highest level decision maker and commitment. And
more important from these is to share the leadership and commitment to all
the armada so as to enable driving new leaderswho are capable of dealing
with sustainable quality organization. Nothing can be more frustrating for a
distance learner than to enter a new learning situation without guideposts to
mark the way, or worse yet, conflicting guideposts, or to be caught in the
web of vague organizational bureaucracy. Just as it is important that a web
site be easy to navigate, it is equally important that the structure of the
distance education organization be easy to navigate. In this sense, quality
assurance system will be an answer, both academic and organizational
matters. Single points of contact, easy access to logistical information, carrier
pathway for faculty and staff that have answers and are empowered to make
decisions in a timely manner, full time personnel, and a mindset that is not
only responsive but anticipates learner needs are key traits of a quality
distance organization.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
A quality distance education program must be as well structured
and robust as ways of delivering all the learners to success. An intensive and
excellent planning works are essential element to support their learning
efforts. This enterprise covers technical supports of the administrative,
instructional delivery system and interactive technologies used in a distance
education. It includes supporting the logistical aspects of providing access to
and assistance with the application, registration, payment, and financial aid
processes for distance courses or programs. Supporting the distance learners
also includes providing them with career and academic counselling, access to
tutoring and supplemental educational assistance, and full and wider access
to library and other educational resources.
Supporting communication mechanisms, both synchronous and
asynchronous, allowing learners to interact with one another and with
faculty is also an essential part of maintaining a high quality experience.
While many distance learners value the flexibility of an independent
approach to their distance courses, the importance of a learning community
should not be overlooked as a vital part of a holistic approach to distance
education. In addition to the exchange of ideas and knowledge that being a
part of an organized learning environment brings, a sense of belonging is a
powerful tool. A quality distance learning program will encourage and
provide opportunities for learners to be part of a variety of learning
Having a range of actual educational programming available to
public is central for a quality distance program. What is more important,
however, is that these programs meet the needs and interests of the distance
learner as they are relevant to the job opportunities. Currently, programs
related with information and communication technologies have tremendous
value, because the job market actively seeks out individuals with this
knowledge and skill set. Course and program value is also determined by the
reputation of college or university. When choosing a distance learning
program, individuals should look at the portfolio of courses and programs
that the program offers.
Another critical to the quality distance education is the access to
advanced technologies. Technology is a tool that assistquality teaching and
learning process, not the driver of the process. Mature distance learning
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
programs know that there is no one 'best' technology, except that which
works best for the learner. What technology and a good technological
infrastructure does is provide options and alternatives for faculty to choose
from when designing their course. Latest technology breaks down many of
the barriers of time and space, and to some extent allow for reaching big
number of learners with reasonable price for learners. Telling this is easier
than applying this in reality. But distance university must develop system that
is capable of developing skills and performances so as to allow staff be
keeping updated with current various technologies that is appropriate for
distance teaching and learning.
Above all, I believe that people (quality personnel) play the most
import part in establishing a quality distance education program. A
competent and caring faculty and staff are essential ingredients for
organisation to success. Not that distance learners can't succeed without a
program's personnel - it is just not necessary. There are too many institutions
involved in distance education to settle for a program that does not value the
critical roles of faculty, learner and support staff. A quality distance program
will attract quality faculty - those who are knowledgeable, outstanding
communicators, experts in their field and talented researchers. A quality
distance program will also attract quality support staff and administrators those who are highly skilled, who work as a team, and who place value on the
customer –both learners and faculty members.
Growth in educational opportunities through distance learning will
continue to occur as people seek more time, more flexibility and more
knowledge. For those pursuing these opportunities, it is important that they
find a program that meets their needs and expectations. Therefore, the
write believes that if we would like to work on affordable and quality
education, distance education program offers an opportunity – a quality
distance education system that meets the above characteristics. Even
though, those are not the most, but are not the least.
Quality education has long been reviewed by many scholars
including in its context of distance education. Quality education promotes
learners a vehicle that is capable of transporting them towards their goal that
is supported by families and communities, and that is relevant to the
markets. Meanwhile, quality education promoted through distance
educational system offers broader access to quality education. A more
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
important value to the quality distance education which makes use of the
advance of information and communication technologies is promoting
affordability for people who are planning to reach their quality life but are
having geographical and economical constraints. While promoting quality
and affordable education, we need to permeate the stated five components
program development, namely organisation, student support systems,
program of interests and values, technology infrastructure, and the people.
IPEA World Bank . (2007). Spending For Development: Making the Most of
Indonesia’s New Opportunities. Indonesia Public Expenditure
Review 2007. Retrieved from http://siteresources.
PEReport.pdf, 4 May 2012.
MBA Course . (2012). Distance Education a Holistic Approach to Learning.
Retrieved, 4 May
2012 from
Jalal, F &Sardjunani, N. (2011).Adult Education and Development Germany:
DVV International
PusatStatistikPendidikan BPP Dikbud . (2011). AngkaPartisipasiKasar (APK) PT
menurut Provinsi. Retrieved from http://www.psp.kemdiknas., 5 May 2012
UNICEF . (2000). Defining Quality in Education.The International Working
Group on Education Florence. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.
org/education/files/Quality Education.PDF, 3 May 2012.
Nur.(2011). Pendidikan yang Terjangkau. Retrieved from yang-terjangkau-.html
Meilanikasim. (2009). Makalah “Masalah Pendidikan di Indonesia”. Retrieved
from makalahmasalah-pendidikan-di-indonesia/
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Supriyanto, A. (1997). Mutu Pendidikan Sekolah Dasar Di Daerah Diseminasi.
Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan. November 1997, Jilid 4, IKIP.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Mohamad Bilal Ali1, Noraffandy Yahaya2,
Mohd Fadzli Ali3, Abdul Razak Idris4
Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia1,2,3,4
[email protected], [email protected],
[email protected], [email protected]
The application of Information and Communication Technologies
(ICTs) especially the online technology has changed the landscape
of higher institutions. As many educational organisations have
adopted a robust social media platform, the delivery of teaching
and learning materials in higher learning institutions has changed
and brought a new pedagogy implication. University Technology
Malaysia (UTM) aims at integrating the Internet technology into its
administration and teaching practices. This paper discusses two
important purposes on how the Internet technology is used in
UTM. First, the Internet technology is expanded to complement
classroom learning so as to reach more students in discussions and
thus, supporting flexible learning. Second, the assessment option
facilitates the process of monitoring the students’ learning
Keywords: educational technology, higher learning institutions
Since the emergence of the Information Communication Technology
(ICT) namely the Internet is becoming a mainstream technology, the role of
Educational Technology in higher learning has drastically changed. The
Internet is a regarded as a tool that has a significant effect on teaching and
learning and it revolutionises the way how education in tertiary institutions is
delivered to students. According to Jones and O’Shea (2004), the Internet
technology has been consistently applied in the teaching and learning
process in higher learning institutions worldwide. Other advantages of the
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Internet technology are that it is viewed as cost effective and offers great
flexibility in learning. As the Internet is exceedingly flexible, faculty has to
decide how best to apply it in educational technology.
Educational Technology isanimportant element inimproving the
qualityof teaching and learning in higher education and it can increase the
efficiency of education in educational settings (Keser & Ozcan, 2011). In the
face of new technology such as online technology, the role of educational
technology in teaching and learning process should be revised to include the
pedagogy implication and strengthened with policy.
At higher education level, it appears that educational technology is
not solely incorporated in teaching but has a big impact in designing and
managing educational resources including human capability, use of
technology and learning design and processes. Therefore, it is an obligation
of the higher learning institutions to provide individual faculty member with
the knowledge of educational technology. Each faculty member has a vital
role to play in disseminating knowledge among the students in his or her best
efforts to produce high quality students with valuable educational
opportunities and experiences in educational technology.
Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT)
defines educational technology as ‘the study and ethical practice of
facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and
managing appropriate technological processes and resources(Januszewski,
2008). As for International Society for Performance Improvement, (ISPI)
educational technology is described as an instructional system and an
instructional design. In the UK, Council for Educational Technology (CET)
refers Educational Technology to development, application and evaluation
systems, techniques and aidsto improve the process of human learning.
Educational Technology, from the views of professional bodies in UK
and US, suggests that educational technology is a systematic process,
whereby the quality of its elements are controlled, towards the development
of products that will aid in producing an effective and efficient teaching and
learning environment.
According to Kemp (1991), Educational Technology is “the process
approach to instructional planning – reflected the new thrust of technology
in education. “ He emphasises on the planning process in designing
instruction with the focus on the use of technology to enhance learning.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Roblyer (2006) further elaborates the process as integration between the
processes and tools in order to aid the needs and problem with the support
of technologies.
The Internet technology which has wireless feature is part of the six
trends introduced by Roblyer (2006). Other trends are merging of
technologies, development of portable devices, and availability of high speed
communications, visual immersion systems and intelligent application. The
six trends by Roblyer (2006) can be summarised in the Table 1.
Internet technology offers new perspective to the students in
collaborating and working together using new technologies tools such as elearning and social networking and becomes a major driver in enhancing the
technology infrastructure. This has enabled new learning tools to be
new ways
of teaching and learning with
new activities for lecturers and students.
Table 1. Six Trends by Roblyer (2006)
Development of
Availability of
Fast connectivity without
Anytime and anywhere
Flexibility in learning
High learner control
Wifi area,
Labs, School wide
de\vices, pda.
Mobile Phone, SMS
All in one tools
and MMS
Ease of use
Faster connections
Higher quality,
Reliable voice and video
Head mounted VR
 Current applications
System, Augmented
 New way of teaching
Reality Systems, 3-D
 New environment
imaging systems
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
 Capabilities
persistent problems in
 High technology
Grading Systems and
Intelligent Tutors
The six trends clarified by Roblyer (2006) implicate new environment
in educational setting that could be influenced with the emerging trends of
technological development. These new trends present a unique challenge for
teachers to determine appropriate supports in order to help the students
reaching their learning goals. For instance, the use of wireless and new
portable device can offer quick access of learning materials at anytime and
anywhere while visual immersion system can help the students who have
trouble to grasp the complex concepts in learning.
It becomes evident that the emergence of new technology may
confer many different effects on education specifically in higher education
institution. The higher learning institutions must equip their lecturers with
the latest ICT knowledge so that they could acquire new skills and
continuously re-train themselves to be well-prepared engaging in their
regular professional development. These include developing new skills in
teaching and learning using technologies, integrating technology in learning
environment and producing new methods in educational development.
Today, the evolution of Web technologies has rapidly prompted the
development of new tools in learning. Martin et al (2010) listed several
technology tools which are freely available for academic use.
Web 2.0
According to Grosseck (2009), Web 2.0 is “ … the social use of the
web which allows people to collaborate, to get actively involved in creating
content, to generate knowledge and to share information online.” The
utilisation of web 2.0 does not only focus on social interaction and
information sharing but promote high engagement among users. The tools
such as blogs, wikis, RSS, social bookmarking, media sharing, social
networking sites and others, in many cases can promote collaboration,
communication, information-sharing and on-line productivity (Danciu &
Grosseck, 2011).
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As a result of this widespread web technology, the real challenge for
higher learning institutions is not how to use the tools, but how to teach the
efficient use of these tools to increase students’ motivation, knowledge and
interests toward learning. This has posed an additional challenge in the
aspects of teaching and learning for the lecturers and students.
Learning Object
According to Martin et al (2010), learning objects has become one of
popular tools in learning. Polsani (2003) describes learning object as ‘‘…an
independent and self-standing unit of learning content that is predisposed to
reuse in multiple instructional contexts’’. Meanwhile, Kay & Knaack (2007)
define learning object as ‘‘interactive web-based tools that support learning
by enhancing, amplifying, and guiding the cognitive processes of learners”
Several research have been done to investigate the impact of learning objects
in learning including student engagement and performance.( Kay & Knaack,
2008). Obviously, these learning objects have positive impact on students
since its first inception as it can provide timely feedback, helped them learn
and offer high learner control .( Kay & Knaack, 2008).
Social Operating System
It is evident that the existence of social networking system will
continue to have a profound impact on the learning paradigm. From the
aspect of learning, social network system can promote interaction, sharing
the media and work collaboratively among students (Usluel & Mazman,
2009). According to Lee and McLoughlin (2008), this system can be regarded
as pedagogical tools that must be efficiently utilised by the lecturers to share
information together, support interaction and facilitate connection between
the students.
Various research have been conducted to investigate the
effectiveness of social networking system in learning and their impacts on the
students (Hew,2011; Roblyer et al,2010 & Dogruer, 2011). For example, a
particular study by Hew (2011) who examined students’ usage profile using
facebook, the effects of using Facebook, and students’ attitudes toward
Facebook while Roblyer et al (2010) investigated the comparison between
lecturer and students in terms of the adoption and uses of SNS (Social
Networking System)
Immersive Environment
Learning in immersive environment allows student access to richer
interfaces and increase social interaction among them (Freitas & Neumann,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
2009). Immersive learning tools such as simulation, computer modeling and
virtual environment create new way of learning by integrating it in the
classroom and it allows knowledge construction from direct experience
(Limniou et al, 2008). According to Bently (2010), immerse learning
environment can be categorized as social network system, mobile learning,
game-based learning and simulation-based learning. However, learning
through immersive environment has the potential to pose dramatic
challenges for lecturers and students as well as cause frustration (Sanchez,
2007) and thus, require high skills and knowledge in such technology.
Flexible Learning Environments
The increasing number of students entering universities has posed
tremendous challenges on how the teaching trend should be conducted. It is
suggested that flexible learning should be adopted to overcome this
problem. As for UTM, flexible learning has been identified as a learning
strategy that can be implemented with the use of web 2.0 technologies,
immersive learning environment, learning object and social operating system
within classroom or on practical session.
In flexible learning environments, student will be able to choose their
learning materials using those technologies at anytime and anywhere
without any limitations to physical separations and time. For example,
lecturers can upload learning materials in the form of multimedia using
YouTube and Flickr and at the same time, they can be retrieved by the
students at their convenient time.
Adaptable Assessment Options
Investing in technology will be of a great help to people in becoming
more productive and dynamic workers. In higher education, technology can
save time on grading and tracking student work as this assessment is vital
element in evaluating student performance. New technologies can assist
educators to assess the student by monitoring student performance,
assessing their activities and managing students’ marks and grades.
UTM has vast experience in using technology in teaching and
learning. However, a continuing issue that is constantly being addressed by
UTM is to instill lecturers’ and students’ readiness toward technology.
Lecturers in UTM are trained to teach using ICT and be able to use the ICT
tools in assessing the student, managing online learning materials,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
monitoring student performance online and preparing various type of
learning aid electronically.
In the next session, this paper will further discuss the use of ICT in
UTM from the aspect of teaching and learning and how it can effectively
assist the university to facilitate the process of managing the student grades,
learning materials and their portfolio.
Providing Flexible Learning Environment in UTM
[email protected]
E-learning was first introduced in UTM since 1997 and it allows
students to interact with one another, synchronous and asynchronously. Elearning has definite benefits over traditional classroom. The students can
opt to choose learning materials at their own pace and level of knowledge. Elearning eliminates the problems of students’ interactions associated with
time and location. E-learning can also foster interaction among student and
lecturer which can stimulate understanding in engagement and participation
in the online activity.
Figure 1. [email protected] Website
UTMotion is a video-sharing website, created by CICT (Center of
Information Communication Technology) which allows users to upload,
share and view videos for the purpose of teaching and learning. Only
registered students have accesses to the contents, and they can even upload
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
any video clips that are related to their courses. At the same time, lecturer
may find UTMotion useful in preparing their learning materials in the form of
digital video and distribute to the students through e-learning website.
Figure 2. UTMotion Website
Besides uploading digital video, users may also send photos and
audio clips to the website and share them with other users.
[email protected]
The Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) project is one of the highly
promising technologies to be implemented in UTM using the Internet access
networks. It is expected to deliver it first service next year. IPTV project is
aimed at applying new developed technologies in digital video enabling the
student to access the recorded video in classroom. It can also create flexible
learning environment in UTM since there is no distance limitations to access
the content and provide unlimited distribution to the users. IPTV can be
accessed at anytime and anywhere.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Figure 3.IPTV Project UTM
Implementing Adaptable Assessment Options
In 2000, UTM developed the AIMS2000 system and is currently and
widely being used. The system manages the entire students’ marks on
courseworks and final exam as well as enables the lecturers and academic
advisors to continuously monitor students’ results.
Figure 4. AIMS2000
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
The significant advantages of using AIMS2000 are twofold. First, the
lecturers and academic staffs can submit the students’ coursework and final
exam marks through online at their convenient time and second, the
students can view their marks through online system after completing each
academic semester.
E-porfolio (MAHARA)
UTM is the first university in the Malaysia that developed an ePortfolio system. This system regularly monitors the students’ academic
performances and provides learning reflection. E-portfolio is strategically
based on the concept of learner-centered and it consists of web blog, resume
builder and social networking system which engage student to work in
collaborative environment and allow them to share their thoughts in relation
to their learning and academic progress.
Figure 5: E-portfolio Website
In UTM, it is compulsory for students to complete the e-portfolio
throughout their study. It means that every student should give feedback on
their learning reflection and the lecturer can monitor their performance and
progress every year. The data from e-portfolio will provide the lecturers and
academic staffs with the type of specific supports that can be offered to the
student in their learning.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
E-PPP is an assessment tools developed by UTM to evaluate and
asses an individual lecturer’s performance in their teaching. Lecturer can
obtain the response on their teaching progress and performance from the
student and do some reflections in order to improve it. Assessment will be
conducted at the end of that particular semester session.
Figure 6: E-PPP Website
The assessment instruments are divided into two constructs which
include lecturer’s performance assessment and generic skills development.
These performance assessments consist of teaching in relation to lecturer’s
mastery over content knowledge, their presentation in classroom and
students-Lecturer relation. While generic skill development constitutesthe
development of the generic skills among students during lectures such as
communication skills, problem-solving and critical thinking skills, teamworking skills, information management and lifelong learning skills,
entrepreneurship skills and finally leadership skills.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
As technology becomes a larger part in the field of education, it
connotes the importance of incorporating educational technology not only in
teaching and learning but in managing educational resources as well.
Educational technology encourages lecturers and students to progressively
strive for excellence in their educational experiences. Through high
quality educational programs and wise use of educational resources, the
students shall have the opportunity to excel in their chosen fields.
Danciu, E. & Grosseck, G. (2011). Social aspects of web 2.0 technologies:
teaching or teachers’ challenges? WCES 2011. Procedia Social and
Behavioral Sciences ,15 , 3768–3773
Dogruer, N., Menevi, I. & Eyyam, R (2011). What is the motivation for using
Facebook?. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 2642–
Freitas,S.D. & Neumann,T. (2009). The use of ‘exploratory learning’ for
supporting immersive learning in virtual environments. Computers
& Education, 52(2), 343–352.
Grosseck,G. (2009). To use or not to use web 2.0 in higher education? World
Conference on Educational Sciences 2009. Procedia Social and
Behavioral Sciences ,1, 478–482.
Hew, K.F. (2011). Students’ and teachers’ use of Facebook.Computers in
Human Behavior, 27, 662–676.
Januszewski, A. (2008). Educational technology : a definition with
commentary. New York:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, N.Y.
Kay, R. H., & Knaack, L. (2007). A systematic evaluation of learning objects for
secondary school students. Journal of Educational Technology
Systems, 35(4), 411–448.
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Keser, H. & Özcan, D. (2011). Current trends in educational technologies
studies presented inWorld Conferences on Educational Sciences ,
WCES-2011. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 3989–
Kay, R.H. & Knaack, L. (2008). A formative analysis of individual differences in
the effectiveness of learning objects in secondary school.
Computers & Education, 51(3), 1304–1320
Limniou, M., Roberts, D. & Papadopoulos, N. (2008). Full immersive virtual
environment CAVETM in chemistry education. Computers &
Education, 51(2), 584–593.
Martin, S., Diaz, G., Sancristobal, E., Gil, R., Castro, M., Peire, J.New (2011).
Polsani, P. R. (2003). Use and abuse of reusable learning objects. Journal of
Digital Information, 3(4).
Technology trends in education: seven years of forecasts and convergence.
Computers & Education, 57(3),1893-1906
Roblyer M.D., McDaniel, M., Webb, M., Herman, J. & Witty, J. V. (2010).
Findings on Facebook in higher education: A comparison of college
faculty and student uses and perceptions of social networking sites.
Internet and Higher Education, 13 (3), 134–140.
Roblyer, M. D. (2006). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. 4th
ed. Pearson. Education, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Sanchez, J. (2007). Second Life: An Interactive Qualitative Analysis. In C.
Crawford et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information
Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2007,
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Usluel,Y.K., & Mazman, S.G. (2009). Adoption of Web 2.0 tools in distance
education, World Conference on Educational Sciences 2009.
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 818–823.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Basuki Ranto
State University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
The purpose of this research is to determine the effect
organizational culture to improving work effectiveness. A survey
was conducted at the Regional Corporation Dharma Jaya Jakarta
with a sample of 40 selected randomly. Based on the result of
research, the organizational culture very influencing of work
effectiveness. This matter is shown by the fact applying
organizational culture at low category will own the work
effectiveness which relative lower. The research concludes that
there are positive effect between organizational culture with
improving work effectiveness. Therefore, the effectiveness work can
be improved by organizational culture.
Keywords: culture, improving work, effectiveness
Organisasi bisnis adalah merupakan suatu entitas bisnis yang
memerlukan manajemen yang baik termasuk segala upaya yang perlu
dilakukan dengan melibatkan semua sumber daya yang dimiliki baik dalam
bentuk finance maupun non finance untuk dapat dikelola dengan sebaikbaiknya sehingga mampu menghasilkan keuntungan yang maksimal.
Dalam kaitan tersebut diperlukan suatu organisasi yang baik ,
tangguh, handal dan profesional dalam arti yang sesungguhnya yaitu
bagaimana menjadikan organisasi sebagai sebuah nilai yang memiliki
pengaruh yang positif kepada mitra kerja, konsumen dan para pihak-pihak
yang berkepentingan (stake holders), sehingga diperlukan suatu kondisi yang
mampu memberikan jaminan kepercayaan kepada para pihak tersebut.
Dalam organisasi pada hakikatnya kualitas organisasi akan ditentukan
oleh tiga unsur yaitu : (1) struktur; (2) Kultur dan (3) Sistem. Struktur akan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
menentukan luasan fungsi dan tugas dan tanggung jawab yang ada
didalamnya, sedangkan kultur merupakan suatu kondisi lingkungan yang
berkait kepada kebiasaan, hubungan personal dan kebersamaan, sementara
sistem akan berkait kepada mekanisme hubungan kerja, interaksi dan
komunikasi yang mampu terbangun untuk menggarakan tujuan organisasi.
Budaya organisasi menjadi bagian pendukung didalam keberhasilan
organisasi, sehingga diperlukan suatu kondisi lingkungan kerja baik berupa
phisik maupun non phisik.Budaya organisasi memberikan gambaran tentang
suasana kerja yang mampu mendorong effektifitas kerja. Budaya organisasi
harus dibangun mulai dari top level, middle level, lower level dan dispekati
oleh semua unsur didalam organisasi.
Budaya organisasi menyangkut budaya masyarakat berkait kepada
etnik, nasional, norma kehidupan, keagamaan , tradisi, musim dan
lingkungan sosial lainnya merupakan suatu akumulasi yang terbentuk dalam
suatu kelompok masyarakat dan kelompok sosial. Budaya ini secara bersamasama dan indivual dibawa kedalam suatu lingkungan yang kemudian
berproses secara sosial yang pada gilirannya akan merupakan suatu kritalisasi
nilai yang menjadi kesepakatan bersama dan perlu dilaksanakan secara
konsisten dan berkelanjutan serta membawa konsekuensi logis bagi setiap
komponen dalam organisasi untuk bersinergi dalam membentuk sebuah
komitmen untuk menerapkan suatu norma dan nilai yang dianut.
Effektivitas diperlukan untuk mewujudkan sebuah nilai baru yang
diyakini mampu meningkatkan keberhasilan organisasi. Melalui effektivitas
diharapkan mampu mewujudkan inovasi dan pengembangan kreatifitas, yang
muncul dari kondisi budaya yang memiliki tata nilai dan norma . Effektifitas
merupakan ukuran keberhasilan melalui pemanfaatan sumber daya secara
maksimal. Effektifitas diukur dari tingkat perputaran mulai dari perputaran
aktiva , piutang, modal kerja , persediaan dalam menunjang hasil.
Hal-hal tersebut yang melatar belakangi penelitian ini , sehingga
diperlukan sebuah kajian secara empirik untuk mengetahui pengaruh budaya
organisasi dalam meningkatkan effektifitas kerja, dengan memilih obyek
penelitian di PD Dharma Jaya. Perusahaan Daerah Dharma Jaya (PD Dharma
Jaya) adalah merupakan salah satu Perusahaan milik Pemerintah Provinsi DKI
Jakarta memiliki fungsi ganda yaitu sebagai pelayanan masyarakat khususnya
untuk penyelenggaraan fasilitas umum Rumah Pemotongan Hewan (RPH)
yang bersih, hygines, sehat dan halal dan disisi lain sebagai badan usaha yang
berorientasi pada pencarian keuntungan sebagai kontribusi pendapatan asli
daerah (PAD) yang merupakan bagian dari laba yang dihasilkan. Untuk
mampu melaksanakan fungsi tersebut diperlukan organisasi yang effektif
melalui tata kelola perusahan yang mengarah kepada prinsip “Good
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Corporate Governance”, sehingga menghasilkan produktivitas yang tinggi
yang membawa perubahan perusahaan.
Sebagai fungsi layanan umum diperlukan kualitas layanan yang lebih
baik dan memenuhi standart : Aman, Sehat, Utuh dan Halal (ASUH) sehingga
mampu meningkatkan kualitas gizi masyarakat yang membawa pengaruh
terhadap peningkatan kualitas dan taraf hidup. Dengan demikian diperlukan
sumber pengelolaan yang berkait kepada investasi dan percepatan layanan
guna memberikan kepuasan kepada para pengguna. Sementara sebagai
Badan usaha yang beorientasi pada pembntukan laba, dituntut untuk dapat
mengelola dan memanfaatkan peralatan produksi yang secara optimal ,
effisien dan effektif sehingga mampu menghasilkan laba yang maksimal,
sehingga diperlukan Budaya organisasi yang baik dalam upaya meningkatkan
effektivitas kerja.
Banyak masalah yang berkait dengan budaya organisasi dalam
meningkatkan efektifitas kerja diantaranya : (1) bagaimana norma organisasi
yang digunakan; (2) bagaimana tata nilai yang dianut; (3) bagaimana sikap
inovatif yang dibutuhkan; (5) bagaimana sistem komunikasi yang digunakan;
(6) tingkat hasil yang diharapkan; (7) pemanfaatan sumber daya yang
dimanfaatkan dan masalah lainnya. Mengingat banyaknya masalah yang
diindentifikasi ,maka dalam pembahasannya dibatasi hanya kepada Budaya
Organisasi dan effektifitas kerja dilingkungan perusahaan. Berdasarkan
pembatasan masalah dapat dirumuskan dalam penelitian ini adalah ”Apakah
terdapat pengaruh Budaya Organisasi dalam meningkatkan Effektifitas kerja’.
Budaya Organisai
Stephen P. Robbin dan Timoty A. Judge (2007: 205) menyebutkan
bahwa Budaya organisasi adalah bagaimana sosialisasi kelompok masyarakat
dengan menggunakan norma dan nilai yang dianut dan dilaksanakan secara
konsisten. Selanjutnya Robert Krietner dan Angelo Kinicki (2003: 79-80)
menyatakan bahwa budaya organisasi adalah sutu wujud anggapan yang
dimiliki , diterima secara implisit untuk kelompok dan menentukan dan
bagaimana kelompok tersebut menentukan bagaimana kelompok tersebut
merasakan , memikirkan dan bereaksi terhadap lingkungan yang beraneka
ragam. Pengertian tersebut menyoroti tiga karakteristik penting dalam
budaya organisasi yaitu : (1) budaya organisasi diberikan kepada karyawan
baru sebagai bentuk sosialisasi; (2) budaya organisasi akan mempengaruhi
perilaku kerja dn (3) budaya organisasi berlaku berbeda pada tingkatan yang
bervariasi dalam kaitannya dengan pandangan keluar dan kemampuan
bertahan terhadap perubahan.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Stephen P. Robbin dan Mary Couler ( 2003 : 58) menyatakan,
”organizational culture as a perspective from which to understand the
behavior of individuals and groups within organizations has it limitations”.
Pendapat tersebut mengandung arti bahwa budaya organisasi sebagai
sebuah perspektif untuk memahami perilaku individu dan kelompok dalam
suatu organisasi yang memiliki keterbatasan. Lebih lanjut Stephen P. Robbin
et-all ( 2003 : 31) mengatakan bahwa ”organization culture is what the
employees perceive and how this perception creates a pattern of basic
assumption invented, discovered, or developed by given groups as it learns to
cope with the problems of external integration that has worked well enough
to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the
correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problem”
Budaya organisasi pada dasarnya menganut beberapa model
didalamnya adalah meliputi : (1) Norma, yaitu merupakan elemen dasar dari
budaya organisasi; (2) Nilai-nilai bersama, merupakan konsepsi mengenai apa
yang diharapkan dan (3) Asumsi-asumsi , yaitu asumsi yang dimengerti oleh
anggota organisasi .
Berdasarkan beberapa teori tersebut, dapat
disimpulkan bahwa budaya organisasi adalah suatu sistem makna yang dapat
dipersepsikan dan diterapkan dalam organisasi untuk mempengaruhi pola
pikir, sikap dan perilaku anggota organisasi dengan indikator: (1) norma dan
nilai; (2) inisiatif dan inovasi; (3) komunikasi dan koordinasi; dan (4) tingkat
kepedulian dan tanggung jawab.
Efektivitas Kerja
Ivancevich dan Matteson (1996:20) mengemukakan
efektifitas organisasi dapat dilihat dari tiga level yakni : individual, kelompok
dan organisasi. Hal tersebut berkait dengan tuntutan tanggung jawab yang
harus dilakukan terhadap pelaksanaan fungsi yang secara substansi dan
essensi juga dibedakan kepada tanggung jawab individu, kelompok dan
organisasi. Selanjutnya Ivancevich dan Matteson membedakan secara filosofi
tata nilai organisasi kepada : (i) behaviors; (ii) diversity; (iii) recognition; (iv)
Ethical practice dan (iv) empowerment. Perilaku pemimpin akan menentukan
bagaimana organisasi akan diarahkan, fasilitas akan diberdayaan dan tujuan
akan dicapai. Sementara pengakuan dan etika kerja juga menjadi bagian
tanggung jawab organisasi, sedangakan pemberdayaan diarahkan kepada
peningkatan kompetensi, pengembangan potensi dan peningkatan hasil
Mullin (2005 : 959) mengemukakan bahwa efektifitas organisasi akan
ditentukan oleh effisiensi dan produktifitas organisasi. Efisiensi merupakan
suatu kondisi bagaimana dapat melaksanakan dengan benar, memanfaatkan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
sumberdaya secara minimal dalam menghasilkan produk atau jasa.sedangkan
produktifitas adalah kemampuan untuk menghasilkan sesuatu dengan benar
dengan memperhatikan ratio antara input dan output yang mampu
menghasilkan produk dan jasa yang berkualitas. Robbin dan Judge (2007:27)
mengemukakan bahwa keefektifan diartikan sebagai pencapaian tujuan.
Dengan demikian efektifas berkait kepada efisiensi dan produktivitas. Hal
tersebut sejalan dengan apa yang dikemukan sebelumnya. Dalton (1997:426)
menyatakan : ” Effektifitas adalah gambaran yang relatif terhadap suatu
organisasi yang telah melaksanakan kinerjanya sesuai dengan kapasitas,
potensi dan tujuan secara umum”.Oleh karenanya sesuatu dapat dikatakan
effektif jika suatu tujuan dapat dicapai dengan konsisten dan optimal.
Terdapat dua pendekatan efektifitas sebagaimana dikemukakan Ivan
Sevich dan Matteson (2007:20) yaitu : (a) the goal approach dan (b)the
system theory approach. Pendekatan yang pertama diarahkan kepada
bagaiamana organisasi mampu secara eksis mencapai tujuan yang telah
ditetapkan, sedangkan pendekatan berikutnya diarahkan kepada suatu
konsep teori perilaku internal dan ekternal terhadap faktor yang dapat
mempengaruhi keberhasilan pencapaian tujuan. Terdapat lima kategori
dalam mencpai effektitas organisasi sebagaimana dikemukakan oleh Gibson
(2001: 7) yaitu : (i) efisiensi; (ii) effektitas; (iii) kepuasan karyawan;
(iv) adaptasi dan (v) kemampuan memperoleh sumber daya. sebkinerja
merupakan serangkaian kegiatan manajemen yang memberikan gambaran
sejauhmana hasil yang sudah dicapai dalam melaksanakan tugas dan
tanggung jawabnya dalam bentuk akuntabilitas publik baik berupa
keberhasilan maupun kekurangan yang terjadi. Kinerja merupakan job
performance, adanya semangat kerja di mana di dalamnya termasuk
beberapa nilai keberhasilan baik bagi organisasi maupun individu.
Dari beberapa teori tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa effektifitas
kerja adalah hasil yang dicapai organisasi dalam mewujudkan tujuan yang
telah direncanakan melalui proses pekerjaan yang benar dan waktu yang
tepat dengan indikator: (1) perencanaan; (2) pelaksanaan proses;
(3) pengambilan keputusan; (4) analisis dan (5) penyelesaian tepat waktu.
Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian ini adalah
untukmengetahuihubungan antara kinerja pengusaha industri kecil
denganfaktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya, secara lebih rinci. Tujuan
operasionaldari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengungkapkan pengaruh
budaya organisasi dalam meningkatkan effektifitas kerja. Penelitian dilakukan
mulai bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2009 untuk uji coba instrument, yang
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
kemudian dilakukan penelitian lanjutan.Populasi penelitian adalah para
pegawai madya sebanyak 60 orang meliputi asisten manager dan supervisor
di semua bagian dilingkungan perusahaan.
Pengumpulan data dalam penelitian yang mencakup kedua variabel
tersebut diperoleh dengan menggunakan instrumen berupa kuesioner yang
dikembangkan oleh peneliti. Instrumen tersebut diuji cobakan terlebih
dahulu kepada 30 responden dan telah dihitung validitas dan reliabilitas
sebelum digunakan dalam penelitian ini.
Deskripsi Data
Penelitian ini mengukur empat variabel effektifitas kerja (Y), dan
budaya organisasi (X), yang dilakukan terhadap 40 responden. Setiap
variabel di ukur secara terpisah melalui instrumen penelitian berupa
kuesioner. Deskripsi data setiap variabel dirangkum pada tabel 1.
Tabel 1. Deskripsi data variable X & Y
Skor Maks.
Skor Min.
Simp. Baku
X = Variabel Budaya Organisasi
Y = Variabel Effektifitas Kerja
Pengujian Persyaratan Analisisi
Uji Normalitas
Uji normalitas di dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Liliefor test.
Rangkuman perhitungan dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut :
Tabel 2. Hasil normalitas data variable X & Y
Galat Taksiran
Regresi Y atas
= 0,05 = 0,01
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Keterangan :
D-maks = Nilai D maks berdasarkan perhitungan
D-tabel = Nilai D taraf signifikan  = 0,05 &= 0,01
Dapat disimpulkan dari tabel 2. bahwa semua data dalam variabel
penelitian ini berasal dari populasi yang berdistribusi normal.
Uji Homogenitas
Uji Homogenitas varians populasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji
Bartlett. Rangkuman hasil perhitungan dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut.
Tabel 3. Hasil uji homogenitas varians populasibe
Varians Y atas X
 hitung
 tabel
 = 0,05
 = 0,01
Tabel 3. menunjukkan bahwa keseluruhan harga  hitung
lebih kecil
dibanding  2tabel . hal ini berarti bahwa varians populasi homogen.
Pengujian Hipotesis
Pengujian hipotesis bertujuan untuk menguji empat hipotesis
penelitian yaitu:
Terdapat pengaruh positif antara budaya organisasi dalam meningkatkan
efektivitas kerja
Berdasarkan perhitungan regresi sederhana terhadap data variabel
keefektifan organisasi (Y) atas gaya kepemimpinan (X) diperoleh model
regresi Ÿ = 78,869 + 0.662 X. Pada tabel berikut dapat dilihat pengujian
signifikan dan linearitas hubungan variabel X dan Y.
Berdasarkan hasil pengujian signifikansi dan linearitas seperti pada
tabel 4. disimpulkan bahwa regresi Ŷ = 78,869 + 0,662 X, sangat signifikan dan
linear. Regresi ini mengandung arti bahwa apabila Budaya Organisasi
meningkat satu unit, maka effektifitas kerja cenderung meningkat sebesar
0,662 pada konstanta 78,869.
Model pengaruh antara variabel Budaya Organisasi dengan Variabel
keefektifan kerja dapat ditampilkan dengan model persamaan Ÿ = 78,869 +
0,662 X, seperti pada grafik 1.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Tabel 4. Analisis varians untuk uji signifikan linearitas regresi linear
X dan Y dengan persamaan Ÿ = 78,869 + 0,662 X
Regresi (a)
 =0,05  = 0,01
1,486 ns
Keterangan :
** = sangat signifikan Fhitung (19,824) > Ftabel (7,08)
ns = tidak signifikan Fhitung (1,486) < Ftabel (2,24), artinya regresi berbentuk
dk = Derajat Kebebasan
JK = Jumlah kuadrat
RJK = Rerata Jumlah Kuadrat
Gambar 1. Grafik regresi linear sederhana pengarugh antara variable budaya
organisasi dengan Keefektifan kerja
Kekuatan pengaruh antara variabel X1 dengan variabel Y ditunjukkan
oleh koefisien korelasi product moment sebesar ry1 = 0,51. Uji keberartian
koefisien korelasi dengan uji t didapat harga thitung sebesar 4,45, sedangkan
pada  = 0,05 dan dk = 58 didapat ttabel = 1,68 Untuk lebih jelasnya mengenai
kekuatan hubungan X1 dengan Y dapat dilihat pada tabel 4.9 berikut:
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Tabel 5. Rangkuman Pengaruh antara budaya organisasi
dengan Keefektifan kerja
4,55 **
 = 0,05
 = 0,01
** = Korelasi sangat signifikan (th = 4,45> tt = 2,423)
ry1 = Koefisien korelasi antara X1 dengan
Berdasarkan hasil pengujian sig nifikan seperti pada tabel 5. ternyata
bahwa korelasi X1 dengan Y sangat signifikan. Dengan demikian Hipotesis
penelitian terbukti bahwa terdapat pengaruh positif antara variabel Budaya
Organisasi dengan Variabel Keefektifan Organisasi atau hipotesis penelitian
teruji kebenarannya. Dengan kata lain semakin baik Gaya Kepemimpinan
akan semakin meningkat Effektifitas Kerja.
Koefisien determinasi merupakan kuadrat dari koefisien korelasi
antara variabel X1 dengan variabel Y yaitu sebesar (ry1)2 atau (0,51)2 = 0,2601
yang berarti bahwa 26,01% variasi yang terjadi pada Effektifitas Kerja dapat
dijelaskan oleh Budaya Organisasi melalui Ÿ = 78,869 + 0,662 X.
Uji keberartian korelasi parsial dengan uji t didapat harga thitung
sebesar 7,76. Pada  = 0,01 diperoleh tabel sebesar 2,423dan pada  = 0,05
diperoleh ttabel sebesar = 1,684. Karena harga thitung (7,76) > ttabel (2,423),
dapat disimpulkan bahwa koefisien korelasi parsial sangat signifikan. Pada 
= 0,05 diperoleh sebesar 1,684. Karena harga thitung 7,76 > 1,684 dapat
disimpulkan bahwa koefisien korelasi parsial sangat signifikan.
Tabel 5. Rangkuman korelasi parsial antara budaya budaya organisasi
dengan Keefektifan kerja
 = 0,05
 = 0,01
Korelasi sangat signifikan
ry1.2= Koefisien korelasi parsial X dengan Y jika X dikontrol.
Berdasarkan uji keberartian tersebut tampak bahwa seluruh t
obervasi (thitung) > ttabel pada  = 0,01 sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan antara Budaya Organisasi (X) dengan
Efektifitas Kerja (Y) secara langsung.
Untuk meningkatkan Efektifitas Kerja meliputi; semangat kerja,
kualitas kerja, memiliki keunggulan, keberhasilan, dan akuntabilitas, perlu
dilakukan peningkatan Budaya melalui: norma kerja, kebersamaan,
komunikasi, persepsi, koordinasi, komunikasi dan komitmen.
Memperhatikan kesimpulan hasil penelitian tersebut, maka dalam
upaya meningkatkan efektifitas kerja dapat dilakukan melalui Peningkatan
Budaya Kerja dalam organisasi.
Upaya Meningkatkan Budaya Organisasi:
Pertama : Membangun norma dan kebiasaan yang mampu dilaksanakan
oleh semuda lapisan dalam organisasi , sehingga tujuan
organisasi dapat dilaksanakan dengan sebaik-baiknya.
: Memberikan kesempatan untuk melaksanakan adat dan
kebiasaan yang disesuaikan dengan agama dan keyakinan
memperoleh kesempatan melaksanakan kewajiban keagamaan
dengan baik guna mendorong keberhasilan kerja.
: Membangun komunikasi personal antara individu dan
kelompok dalam organisasi , sehingga terwujud sebuah
hubungan sosial yang mampu mempererat kerja sama ,
sehingga mampu menghasilkan kerja yang effektif untuk hasil
yang maksimal.
Keempat : Komitmen organisasi diperlukan untuk membangun persepsi
dan pemahaman yang sama dalam mencapai tujuan organisasi,
sehingga terjadi kesamaan langkah dan tindakan untuk
mewujudkan effektifitas kerja.
: Kebersamaan perlu diciptakan untuk memberikan kekauatan
dalam suatu organisasi yang solid, sehingga melalui kekuatan
akan memudahkan dalam menyelesaikan pekerjaan dengan
effektifitas kerja yang terus meningkat.
Keenam : Tata nilai adalah merupakan suatu proses pembentukan sikap
dan mental didalam organisasi, sehingga seluruh yang terlibat
dalam organisasi memiliki basis nilai yang disepakati dalam
meningkatkan effektifitas organisasi.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Saling menghargai adalah merupakan wujud dari sebuah
emphaty yang akan mampu mendorong kerjasama yang utuh
dan berkelanjutan dalam meningkatkan effetifitas kerja dalam
Kompensasi yang proporsional merupakan suatu konsekuensi
dari sebuah kompetensi kapasitas, sehingga mendorong
prestasi dan keinginginan untuk maju dalam meningkatkan
effektifitas kerja.
Berdasarkan kesimpulan dan implikasi yang telah diuraikan di atas
maka diajukan beberapa saran sebagai berikut:
Pertama : Agar Keefektifan Organisasi yang lebih baik, hendaknya struktur,
cultur dan system organisasi terus dikembangkan mengarah
kepada tuntutan perkembangan bisnis modern dan berwawasan
: Untuk dapat bersaing pada era pasar global, hendaknya
ditingkatkan sistem informasi yang mampu menunjang
percepatan dan keakuratan serta menjadik keunggulan daya
: Untuk meningkatkan kinerja organisasi yang memiliki nilai
korporasi , seharusnya terus dilakukan pemberdayaan
pentingnya budaya organisasi dan pentingnya komitmen dalam
mencapai tujuan organisasi secara konsisten dan konsekuen.
Keempat : Untuk membangun kebermaknaan organisasi ditengah-tengah
kehidupan masayarakat, hendaknya program kepedulian
lingkungan melalui Tanggung Jawab Sosial dari Perusahaan
(Corporate Sosial Responsibility) dapat dilaksanakan secara
: Perlu penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengungkap faktor-faktor
lain yang dapat mempengaruhi kinerja pengusaha.
Adam, Everett E. Jr James C. Hershauer, William A. Ruch. (1981). Productivity
Measurement as a Basis for Improvement.
Adam, Everett E. Jr. Ronald J.Ebert, (1986). Production and Operations
Management, Concepts, Models, and Behavior, Singapore : PrenticeHall, Simon & Schuster (Asia) Pte Ltd.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Bateman, Thomas S, Scott A. Snell. (2004). Management The New
Competitive Land-scape. New York: McGraw-Hill / Irwing.
Blake, randolph, Robert Sekuler. (2006). Perception; USA : McGraw – Hill.
Cushway, Barry, Derek Lotje. (1995). Organization Behavior and Design, alih
bahasa Sularno Tjiptowardoyo , Jakarta : PT Alexi Media Computindo.
David, Fred R, (2005). Management Strategy, Edisi 10, Jakarta: Salemba
Du Brin, Andrew J. (2003). Essentials of Management . USA : Thomson SouthWestern.
Gibson, James L., John M. Ivansevich., James H. Donnaly., Jr. , Robert Konopaske. (2006). Organazations Behavior, Structure, Process. USA:
Gordon, Yudith. R. (2006). Organizational Behavior, A Diagnostics Approach.
USA: McGraw–Hill.
Hall, Richard H. (2005) Organizational : Structur, Process and Outcomes, New
Jer-sey: Prentice–Hall Inc.
Hunger, J.David., Thomas L. Wheelen. (2000), Strategic Management. USA :
Kottler, Philip., Gary, Amstrong. (1997). Marketing An Introduction. New
Jersey : Pren-tice – Hall.
Newstrom, John. W. (2007). Organizational Behavior, Human Behavior at
Work, USA: Mc.Graw-Hill.
Robbin, Stephen.P., and David De Cenzo. (2003). Fundamentals of
Management Focusing on Quality, Competetiveness. New Jersey:
Prentice -Hall.
Russel, Ruberta S., and Bernard, Taylor W. (2008). Fundamental of
Management Focusing on Quality, Competitiveness, New Jersey :
Prentice - Hall.
Williams, Chuck, (2003). Management, USA: Thomson South – Western.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Hermawan Setiawan1, Tri Wahyudi2
STSN Bogor, Indonesia 1,2
[email protected], [email protected]
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of
infrastructure with the ability of educators and educational staff
services. Similarly, to determine the relationship between the ability
of educators and educational staff services with the desire to learn
in college boarding in Sekolah Tinggi Sandi Negara (STSN), both as
independent variables as well as intermediate variables. Each
variable is divided into several dimensions. The method used in this
study is explanative with quantitative approach. There are 110
students from 155 of the total students who obtained using
proportional stratified random sampling method. In order to
determine the relationship of independent variables on the
dependent variable, first, this hypothesis was tested using t test.
Then, to determine the level of the dependent variable is affected by
the relationship of independent variables and intermediate
variables using the coefficient of determination. The method of
analysis used is Line Analysis.Based on the calculation of Line
Analysis showed that the STSN Infrastructure associated with the
ability of educators and Personnel Services, and the ability of STSN
Educators positively associated with desire for Student Learning.
While the Service Personnel do not have a close influence on Student
Learning Desire STSN.
Keywords: infrastructure, ability education, personnel services,
learning desire
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Tujuan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia sebagai mana
diamanatkan dalam Pembukaan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik
Indonesia Tahun 1945 dan dicantumkan pada Pasal 31 tentang Pendidikan
dan Kebudayaan, mengamanatkan agarPemerintah mengupayakan dan
menyelenggarakan satu sistempendidikan nasional yang meningkatkan
keimanan dan ketakwaankepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa serta akhlak mulia
dalam rangkamencerdaskan bangsa yang diatur dalam undangundang.Melalui Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang
SistemPendidikan Nasional, negara telah memberikan kerangka yang jelas
Penyelenggaraan pendidikan tinggi harus menghasilkan lulusan yang needed
and trusted, untuk itu diperlukan penyesuaian/transformasi terhadap
peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku. Selain itu pendidikan tinggi
harus menghasilkan lulusan yang dapat beradaptasi dengan lingkungannya
dan mampu bekerja secara profesional sesuai dengan bidang tugasnya
masing-masing. Pendidikan Kedinasan sebagaimana diamanatkan oleh
Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 14 Tahun 2010 tentang Pendidikan Kedinasan
merupakan pendidikan profesi yang diselenggarakan oleh Departemen atau
LPND yang berfungsi meningkatkan kemampuan dan ketrampilan dalam
pelaksanaan tugas kedinasan bagi pegawai dan calon pegawai negerinya,
baik yang diselenggarakan melalui jalur pendidikan formal maupun
nonformal melalui pendidikan setelah program S-1 atau D-IV.
Sekolah Tinggi Sandi Negara (STSN) adalah Perguruan Tinggi
Kedinasan yang diselenggarakan oleh Lembaga Sandi Negara dan didirikan
berdasarkan surat Mendiknas Nomor 19/MPN/2002 tanggal 17 Januari 2002,
dan dengan Keputusan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 22 Tahun 2003
tanggal 17 April 2003 tentang Pendirian Sekolah Tinggi Sandi Negara. STSN
merupakan peningkatan status dari Akademi Sandi Negara (AKSARA) sejak
tahun 1974 yang menjalankan program Diploma III selanjutnya menjadi STSN
yang menjalankanprogram Diploma IV. STSN memiliki kampus dan asrama
sendiri sehingga proses belajar selalu diupayakan mendukung pada ketiga
faktor kompetensi: knowledge, skill, dan attitude (pengetahuan, keahlian,
sikap) yang bertujuan menekan kesenjangan antara kualifikasi yang
diperlukan dalam kompetensi lulusan.
Lulusan STSN diharapkan mampu menjawab tantangan
perkembangan teknologi informasi dan ancaman terhadap pengamanan
informasi rahasia serta tuntutan pengguna persandian di lingkungan instansi
pemerintah. Sebagai institusi pendidikan di bidang sandi dan aplikasinya,
STSN harus dapat memenuhi tuntutan pengguna dalam menyediakan SDM
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
yang terdidik dan berkualitas (dalam hal pengetahuan dan aplikasi teknis),
melalui pengelolaan pembelajaran yang komprehensif dan tepat guna.Untuk
itu STSN menyiapkan lingkungan belajar yang kondusif agar terbentuknya
kompetensi tersebut di samping melakukan exposure nasional, jaringan
kerjasama dengan universitas/institusi lainnya dan masyarakat terutama
masyarakat persandian.Belajar sebagai suatu proses perubahan di dalam
kepribadian manusia, dan perubahan itu ditampakkan dalam bentuk
peningkatan kualitas dan kuantitas tingkah laku seperti peningkatan
kecakapan, pengetahuan, sikap, kebiasaan, pemahaman, ketrampilan, daya
pikir dan kemampuan lain. Faktor hasrat belajar mahasiswa menjadi sangat
penting untuk menjamin intensitas sesuai target pembelajaran, sehingga
harus diperhatikan juga faktor hasrat intrinsik dan ekstrinsik. Keberhasilan
belajar dipengaruhi banyak faktor yang terbagi atas 2 bagian besar yaitu
faktor internal dan eksternal. Faktor internal meliputi biologis (jasmaniah)
dan psikologis. Faktor biologis terbagi lagi atas kondisi fisik yang normal, dan
kesehatan fisik. Sedangkan faktor psikologis meliputi intelegensi, kemauan,
bakat, daya ingat, dan daya konsentrasi. Demikian juga faktor eksternal
terbagi atas faktor lingkungan keluarga, lingkungan pendidikan, lingkungan
masyarakat faktor waktu.
Permasalahan utama yang terjadi di STSN yaitu penurunan hasrat
belajar yang dipengaruhi oleh kesulitan belajar yaitu suatu kondisi yang
menimbulkan hambatan dalam proses belajar seseorang.Nilai rata-rata IPK
menunjukkan tidak adanya kenaikan yang signifikan. Data tersebut berarti
terjadi distorsi tentang pentingnya pengelolaan hasrat belajar bagi
mahasiswa. STSN sebagai perguruan tinggi memiliki kampus dengan sistem
asrama berpedoman pada aturannya yaitu Peraturan Kehidupan Mahasiswa
(Perdupma). Berbagai usaha yang telah dilakukan untuk penyetaraan tidak
menunjukkan kemampuan yang setara. Berbagai kelengkapan tersedia untuk
menunjang baik suasana belajar maupun ukuran kamar tidur, namun belum
memadai, sehingga suasana belajar menjadi tidak memadai. Selain itu faktor
pendidik juga turut mempengaruhi proses belajar mengajar, dengan adanya
evaluasi terhadap pendidik dari angkatan yang lebih rendah ke angkatan
lebih tinggi menunjukkan penurunan. Hal itu dapat diartikan bahwa menurut
mahasiswa terjadi penurunan akan penguasaan materi pendidik, metode
mengajar pendidik, antusiasme pendidik, pengajaran pendidik, relasi
pendidik-mahasiswa, penugasan/bacaan, pengelolaan kelas, luas cakupan
materi, interaksi antar kelompok, dan kedisiplinan pendidik. Permasalahan
lainnya yaitu jumlah tenaga kependidikan yang belum sesuai dengan tingkat
perkembangan organisasi dan rasio pelayanan terhadap pendidik dan
mahasiswa. Diberlakukan jenjang kepangkatan dan karier di bidang
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
administratif untuk terus meningkatkan mutu pegawai dan pelayanan
administrasi akademik. Namun sampai saat ini belum bisa sepenuhnya
terpenuhi sesuai yang diharapkan.
Karena permasalahan diatas, maka peneliti mengangkat masalah
hasrat belajar mahasiswa sekolah kedinasan berasrama STSN ditinjau dari
faktor sarana prasarana, kemampuan pendidik dan pelayanan tenaga
Hasrat Belajar
Pengertian hasrat pada dasarnya adalah usaha keras atau kerajinan
antusiastik, yang menimbulkan suatu keinginan yang sangat kuat, dan
mewujudkan adanya cinta di dalam setiap tindakan yang dijalankan."cinta
dalam setiap tindakan" dari diri orang yang dikatakan memiliki
"hasrat"merupakan aspek yang pengaruhnya lebih menentukan
dibandingkan pengaruh yang ditimbulkan oleh aspek kemampuan terhadap
tercapainya suatu kesuksesan(Brmer, 1989). Dengan kata lain, hasrat adalah
kemampuan dengan adanya "hasrat" dapat "membuahkan" hasil yang lebih
baik dibandingkan kemampuan yang tanpa dilandasi "hasrat", dan
keberadaan "hasrat" dapat menutupi kelemahan dan/atau kekurangan dari
kemampuan (Winkel, 1996).
Sarana Prasarana
Dalam khazanah peristilahan pendidikan sering disebut-sebut istilah
sarana dan prasarana pendidikan. Kerap kali istilah itu digabung begitu saja
menjadi sarana-prasarana pendidikan. Dalam bahasa Inggris sarana dan
prasarana itu disebut dengan facility (facilities). Jadi, sarana dan prasarana
pendidikan akan disebut educational facilities. sarana pendidikan adalah
segala macam alat yang digunakan secara langsung dalam proses pendidikan.
Sementara prasarana pendidikan adalah segala macam alat yang tidak secara
langsung digunakan dalam proses pendidikan.Sarana dan prasarana
belajarmengajar yang bersifat fisik maupun material, yang dapat
memudahkan terselenggaranya dalam proses belajar mengajar, tersedianya
tempat belajar, perlengkapan belajar di kelas, alat-alat peraga pengajaran,
buku pelajaran, perpustakaan, berbagai perlengkapan praktikum
laboratorium dan segala sesuatu yang menunjang terlaksananya proses
belajar mengajar.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Kemampuan Pendidik
Kemampuan (kecakapan, ketangkasan, bakat, kesanggupan)
merupakan tenaga (daya kekuatan) untuk melakukan suatu perbuatan
(Chaplin, 1997). Kemampuan merupakan kesanggupan bawaan sejak lahir,
atau merupakan hasil latihan praktek.Kemampuan pendidik adalah
kecakapan, ketangkasan, bakat, kesanggupan pendidik untuk merancang
pembelajaran, melaksanakan proses pembelajaran, menguasai materi
pelajaran secara mendalam, memiliki sikap yang positif untuk memajukan,
memperbaiki dan mengembangkan secara berkelanjutan, melakukan
hubungan sosial dengan mahasiswa, teman sejawat, karyawan dan
masyarakat untuk menunjang pendidikan.
Pelayanan Tenaga Kependidikan
Service ataulayanan merupakan suatu proses. Proses ini terdiri
dari banyak kegiatan yang melibatkan interaksi antara pelanggan dan
penyedia jasa. Tujuan dari interaksi ini adalah untuk dapat memuaskan
keinginan dan kebutuhan pelanggan sehingga pelanggan merasa puas
(Gaspersz, 1994). Dalam buku Delivering Quality Services, yang membahas
tentang bagaimana tanggapan dan harapan masyarakat pelanggan terhadap
pelayanan yangmereka terima, baik berupa barang maupun jasa.
Tenaga kependidikan merupakan tenaga/pegawai yang bekerja pada
satuan pendidikan selain pendidik. Tenaga kependidikan bertugas
melaksanakan administrasi, pengelolaan, pengembangan, pengawasan, dan
pelayanan teknis untuk menunjang proses pendidikan pada satuan
pendidikan. Pelayanan tenaga kependidikan merupakan kompetensi
kepribadian, sosial, teknis dan manajerial untuk melakukan pelayanan dalam
penyelenggaraan pendidikan dengan memperhatikan kualitas, kemampuan
dan kehandalan, kesanggupan, keramahan dan sikap tegas tetapi penuh
Dari hasil pendataan populasi yang dilakukan pada Mahasiswa STSN
Oktober 2010 diperoleh bahwa jumlah mahasiswa 155 (seratus lima puluh
lima) orang. Karakteristik dari populasi tersebut adalah terdiri dari 40 (empat
puluh) mahasiswa tingkat I, 36 (tiga puluh enam) mahasiswa tingkat II, 40
(empat puluh) mahasiswa tingkat III, 39 (tiga puluh sembilan) mahasiswa
tingkat IV. Penentuan sampel pada masing-masing strata populasi dilakukan
secara proporsionaldengan mengambil masing-masing mahasiswa tiap
tingkat. Setelah dilakukan pembulatan maka jumlah sampel yang didapat
adalah tingkat I sebanyak 29 (dua puluh sembilan) orang, tingkat II sebanyak
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
25 (dua puluh lima) orang, tingkat III sebanyak 29 (dua puluh sembilan) dan
tingkat IV sebanyak 28 (dua puluh delapan) orang.
Uji Kesesuaian dan Uji Statistik
Umumnya terhadap berbagai jenis fit index yang digunakan untuk
mengukur derajat kesesuaian antara model yang dihipotesiskan dengan data
yang disajikan. Peneliti diharapkan untuk melakukan pengujian dengan
menggunakan beberapa fit index untuk mengukur kebenaran model yang
diajukannya. Berikut ini adalah hasil pengujian indeks kesesuaian dan cut-off
valuenya untuk digunakan dalam menguji apakah sebuah model dapat
diterima atau ditolak.
Tabel 1.Evaluasi Goodness-of-fit Indices
Goodness of
Fit Index
Hasil model
χ Chi- Square
χ Chi- Square = 2,781
P = 0,095
Cut-off Value *
P value lebih
besar dari 0,05
< 0,08
> 0,90
> 0,90
< 2,00
> 0,90
Tidak Fit
Cukup Fit
Nilai Chi-square yang diharapkan adalah dengan nilai Chi-square yang
kecil dan nilai p lebih besar dari 0,05. Pada penelitian ini, nilai Chi-square
yang didapat adalah 2,781 dengan p = 0,095. Berdasarkan nilai yang didapat
tersebut, maka kecocokan model yang didapat adalah fit.RMSEA adalah
sebuah indeks yang dapat digunakan untuk mengkompensasi chi-square
statistic dalam sampel yang besar (Baumgartner dan Homburg, 1996). Nilai
RMSEA menunjukkan goodness-of-fit yang dapat diharapkan bila model
diestimasi dalam populasi (Hair, (2006). Nilai RMSEA yang lebih kecil
atau sama dengan 0.08 merupakan indeks untuk dapat diterimanya
model yang menunjukkan sebuah close fit arti model itu berdasarkan
degrees of freedom (Browne dan Cudeck, 1993). Berdasarkan hasil
perhitungan diperoleh nilai RMSEA sebesar 0,128 > 0,08; sehingga model
tidak diterima jika diukur dengan menggunakan RMSEA.GFI adalah
sebuah ukuran non-statistikal yang mempunyai rentang nilai antara 0
(poor fit) sampai dengan 1.0 (perfect fit). Nilai yang tinggi dalam indeks
ini menunjukkan sebuah "better fit". Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan
diperoleh nilai GFI sebesar 0,987. Dengan nilai GFI sebesar
0,987menunjukkan bahwa model yang fit.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Tingkat penerimaan yang direkomendasikan adalah bila AGFI
mempunyai nilai sama dengan atau lebih besar dari 0,90. Perlu diketahui
bahwa baik GFI maupun AGFI adalah kriteria yang memperhitungkan
proporsi tertimbang dari varians dalam sebuah matriks kovarians sampel.
Nilai sebesar 0.95 dapat diinterpretasikan sebagai tingkatan yang baikgood overall model fit (baik) sedangkan besaran nilai antara 0.90 - 0.95
menunjukkan tingkatan cukup-adequate fit (Hulland et al., 1996 dalam
Ferdinand, 2005: 58). Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan diperoleh nilai AGFI
sebesar 0,874. Dengan nilai AGFI sebesar 0,874 menunjukkan bahwa model
cukup fit.CMIN/DF Adalah The minimum sample discrepancy function yang
dibagi dengan degree of freedom. CMIN/DF merupakan statistik chi square
dibagi df-nya sehingga disebut χ 2 − relatif. Nilai χ2 relatif kurang dari 2,0 atau
3,0 adalah indikasi dari acceptable fit antara model dan data (Arbuckle 1997
dalam Ferdinand, 2006). Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan diperoleh nilai
CMIN/DF sebesar 2,781. Dengan nilai CMIN/DF2,781yang menunjukkan
bahwa model dalam tingkatan fit.
Indeks CFI (Comparative Fit Index) memiliki keunggulan tidak bisa
dipengaruhi oleh ukuran sampel karena itu sangat baik untuk mengukur
tingkat penerimaan sebuah model (Hulland, 1996). Nilai CFI yang
direkomendasikan agar dapat diterima adalah > 0,95. Indeks CFI adalah
identik dengan Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI) dan MCDonald dan Marsh
(1990 dalam Ferdinand, 2002: 60). Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan diperoleh
indeks CFI sebesar 0,984, sehingga model dikategorikan fit.
Uji Hipotesis
Pada pengujian ini digunakan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara
masing-masing variabel. Berikut ini adalah hasil perhitungan kausalitas antara
masing-masing variabel penelitian:
Tabel 2. Hasil Pengujian
Hubungan Variabel
Tidak Signifikan
Berdasarkan Tabel 4 yang merupakan hasil pengujian hipotesis, maka dapat
di interpretasikan sebagai berikut:
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Hipotesis 1 antara X1 dan X2
Hipotesis 1 menduga bahwa X1 berpengaruh signifikan dan positif
terhadap X2 (H1). Adapun hubungan yang terjadi adalah signifikan dan positif
antara X1dengan X2 masing-masing sebesar 0,558 (thitung v) yang berarti
lebih besar dari angka standar signifikansi pada alfa 5% yakni sebesar 1,90.
Hasil pengujian ini menunjukkan bahwa jika X1 meningkat maka X2 juga akan
meningkat (asumsi faktor lainnya tetap).
Hipotesis 2 antara X1 dan X3
Hipotesis 2 menduga bahwa X1 berpengaruh signifikan dan positif
terhadap X3 (H2). Adapun hubungan yang terjadi adalah signifikan dan positif
antara X1 dengan X3, masing-masing sebesar 0,500 (thitung 5,650) yang
berarti lebih besar dari angka standar signifikansi pada alfa 5% yakni sebesar
1,90. Hasil pengujian ini menunjukkan bahwa jika X1 meningkat maka X3 juga
akan meningkat (asumsi faktor lainnya tetap).
Hipotesis 3 antara X2 dan Y
Hipotesis 3 menduga bahwa X2 berpengaruh signifikan dan positif
terhadap tingkat Y (H3). Adapun hubungan yang terjadi adalah tidak
signifikan dan positif antara X2 dengan Y, masing-masing sebesar 0,122
(terhitung 1,896) yang berarti lebih kecil dari angka standar signifikansi pada
alfa 5% yakni sebesar 1,90. Hasil pengujian ini menunjukkan bahwa jika X2
meningkat maka Y juga akan meningkat (asumsi faktor lainnya tetap).
Hipotesis 4 antara X3 dan Y
Hipotesis 4 menduga bahwa X3 berpengaruh signifikan dan positif
terhadap tingkat Y (H4). Adapun hubungan yang terjadi adalah signifikan dan
positif antara X3 dengan Y, masing-masing sebesar 0,197 (thitung 2,642) yang
berarti lebih besar dari angka standar signifikansi pada alfa 5% yakni sebesar
1,90. Hasil pengujian ini menunjukkan bahwa jika X3 meningkat maka Y juga
akan meningkat (asumsi faktor lainnya tetap).
Berdasarkan uraian dan hasil analisis yang telah dijelaskan pada babbab sebelumnya, maka hasil penelitian didapatkan simpulan sebagai berikut :
a. Terdapat
terhadapKemampuan Pendidik, terdapat pengaruh yang erat antara
Sarana Prasarana terhadapterhadap Pelayanan Tenaga Kependidikan,
terdapat pengaruh antara Kemampuan Pendidik terhadap Hasrat Belajar
Mahasiswa STSN, tidak terdapat pengaruh yang erat antara Pelayanan
Tenaga Kependidikan terhadap Hasrat Belajar Mahasiswa STSN.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
b. Terdapat pengaruh yang erat antara Sarana Prasarana dengan variabel
Kemampuan Pendidik, dan Pelayanan Tenaga Kependidikan sebagai
perantara terhadap Hasrat Belajar Mahasiswa STSN.
Berdasarkan simpulan di atas, maka saran yang dapat diberikan
dalam penelitian ini sebagai berikut :
a. Untuk meningkatkan Hasrat Belajar Mahasiswa STSN dapat meningkat,
maka Sarana Prasarana perlu ditingkatkan melalui penyusunan standar
minimal sarana dan prasarana pendidikan yang berpedoman pada
Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional
b. Kemampuan Pendidik STSN perlu diperbaiki dan ditingkatkan secara
terus-menerus dengan menetapkan beberapa standar.
c. Hasrat Belajar Mahasiswa STSN dapat meningkat dengan memperhatikan
pelayanan tenaga kependidikan melalui penerapan standar kualitas
pelayanan di STSN seperti :
1) Pelatihan simulasi untuk meningkatkan pelayanan prima kepada
seluruh civitas akademika STSN.
2) Menanamkan kedisiplinan dan tanggung jawab kepada seluruh
pegawai STSN.
3) Mengoptimalkan sarana dan prasarana STSN yang ada dengan
teknologi informasi.
4) Menyusun pedoman untuk peningkatan pelayanan STSN dan
melakukan sosialisasi kepada seluruh civitas akademica STSN tentang
kualitas pelayanan yaitu bertanggung jawab menyelesaikan
permasalahan dari awal sampai tuntas secara cepat dan tepat,
memiliki pengetahuan, kemampuan dan komunikasi yang baik.
d. Penggunaan variabel lainnya yang dapat menghubungkan positif Hasrat
Belajar Mahasiswa STSN, karena hasil penelitian menunjukkan masih
adanya variabel lain yang mempengaruhi Hasrat Belajar Mahasiswa STSN
seperti faktor intrinsik mahasiswa sendiri, kurikulum, proses belajar
mengajar dan lain-lain.
e. Menyusun kebijakan yang berupa standar penjaminan mutu pada bidang
akademik dan non akademik di STSN yang bertujuan untuk menjamin
peningkatan mutu STSN secara berkelanjutan (continuous improve-ment),
yang dijalankan secara internal untuk memenuhi Standar Nasional
Pendidikan, mewujudkan visi dan misinya, serta memenuhi kebutuhan
stakeholders melalui penyelenggaraan Tridharma Perguruan Tinggi.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Baumgartner dan Homburg. (1996). Application of Structural Equation
Modeling in Marketing and Customer Research: A Review,
International Journal of research Marketing. 139-61.
Bremer, Sidney Newton. (1989). Daily Guide to Greatness - 366 SelfMotivating Essay for Students and Adults. Selango: Thinker's Library
Sdn Bhd.
Browne dan Cudeck. (1993). Alternative way of Assesing Model Fit” In testing
Structural Equation Modeling. New Bury Park. CA: Sage
Chaplin J.P. (1997), Kamus Lengkap Psikologi, Penerjema, Kartini Kartono,
Cetakan satu, Jakarta, Raja Grafindo Persada.
Cipto, Bambang. (2010). Standar Kompetensi Dosen. Republika Online,
Gaspersz, V. (1994).Manajemen Kualitas. Jakarta: Gramedia.
Hair, Jr, Josep F., Wiliam C. Black, Barry. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis.
Upper Saddle River. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
Hulland et al. (1996). Use of Causal Models in Marketing research : A Review.
Internet. J. Res marketing 181-197.
Singgih-Salim, E.E. dan Sukadji, S (Eds.). (2001). Sukses Belajar di Perguruan
Tinggi. Yogyakarta: Panduan.
Sukawati, Tjokorda Gde Raka. (2007). Pengaruh Strategi Diferensiasi
Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan. Buletin Studi Ekonomi Volume 12
Nomor 1. P. 69-85.
M. Amirin. (2011). Pengertian sarana
Winkel, W.S. (1996). Psikiologi Pengajaran. Jakarta: Grasindo.
Zeithaml, Valarie A. dan Bitner. (2000). Service marketing 2nd edition:
Integrating Customer Focus. New York : Mc Graw Hill Inc.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
M. Hosnan
Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University, Banten, Indonesia
[email protected]
Education crucial issue faced by Indonesia is the low quality
(quality) education at all levels and units of education in the 21st
century, students face more risk and uncertainty situations. So the
students need more knowledge and master skills more than the
previous generation. If the school or education concept does not
adjust to the demands in this millennium, the graduate school is not
relevant to the lives of the students faced in today. The key to
success The key to successful use of ICT in improving the quality of
the school lies in strengthening governance, implementation of
curriculum and learning. One of the recommendations to improve
the quality of learning and the school effectively lead the future of
the school is to have ten standards, namely: clear vision, mission
and goals, the principal professional, professional teachers, the
learning environment is conducive, friendly student-based
education, strong management, the curriculum is broad but
balanced accompanied by active learning strategies, innovative,
creative, effective and fun (Paikem), assessment and reporting of
student achievement meaningful and positive engagement
maasyarakat-participatory and culture / school culture conducive.
(safe, comfortable and fun)
Keywords: ICT, school performance, management/governance,
curriculum, effective learning
Persoalan krusial pendidikan yang dihadapi oleh bangsa Indonesia
adalah rendahnya mutu (quality) pendidikan pada setiap jenjang dan satuan
pendidikan jika dibandingkan dengan mutu pendikan di negara maju.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Penerapan standar nasional pendidikan menjadi salah satu kebijakan untuk
meningkatkan mutu. Pemenuhan delapan standar nasional pendidikan
diperlukan untuk memeratakan mutu pendidikan di seluruh penjuru tanah
air, di samping untuk mendorong peningkatan mutu dalam konteks
persaingan global.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
menjadi salah satu acuan tingkat kemajuan pendidikan nasional. Upaya
peningkatan mutu pendidikan nasional yang mendorong lahirnya program
sekolah bertaraf internasional rnemang mengacu pada standar pendidikan
salah satu negara anggota OECD atau negara maju lainnya yang memiliki
keunggulan tertentu daam bidang pendidikan. Hal itu ditegaskan dalam
Pedoman Penjaminan Mutu Sekolah/ Madrasah Bertaraf Internasional
Jenjang Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah (2007).
Harus diakui, juga bahwa kualitas pendidikan dasar dan menengah di
Indonesia belum menggembirakan. Memang benar, di satu sisi sejumlah
siswa Indonesia mampu menjadi juara di sejumlah ajang kompetisi ilmiah
tingkat dunia, seperti olimpiade sains internasional. Bahkan Tim Oimpiade
Fisika Indonesia (TOFI) mampu menjadi juara dunia pada penyelenggaraan
Internasional Physics Olympiad (IPhO) tahun 2006 lalu. Namun di sisi lain,
cukup banyak siswa yang memiliki kemampuan dasar bidang matematika,
sains dan bahasa, masih rendah. Sejumlah survei yang dilakukan lembaga
internasional rnenempatkan siswa Indonesia di peringkat bawah.
Secara keseluruhan, gambaran memprihatinkannya peringkat
sumber daya manusia Indonesia bisa disimak dari hasil survei United Nations
Development Program (UNDP) tentang peringkat Indeks Pembangunan
Manusia (Human Development Index/HDI). HDI adalah komposisi dari
peringkat pencapaian pendidikan, kesehatan, dan penghasilan perkapita.
Peringkat HDI itu sering dipakai sebagai pertimbangan oleh negara-negara
lain dalam pengambilan keputusan, misalnya terkait penanaman investasi.
Gambaran senada juga tampak pada prestasi belajar siswa. Tengok
survei Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), yang
meneliti kemampuan anak-anak usia 13 tahun dalam bidang matematika dan
sains. TIMSS diselenggarakan oleh The International Association for the
Evaluation of Education Achievement (IEA). IEA adalah organisasi yang
bergerak di bidang penilaian dan pengukuran pendidikan yang berpusat di
Belanda. Puluhan negara didunia bergabung dalam organisasi ini.
Hasil studi TIMSS pada tahun 1999 menempatkan kemampuan siswa
Indonesia di bidang matematika dan IPA, masing-masing di peringkat 34 dan
32 dari 38 negara. Pada survei TIMSS tahun 2003 yang diikuti 46 negara,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
siswa-siswa Indonesia menempati urutan ke-34 untuk matematika, dan 36
untuk sains. Singapura menduduki peringkat pertama baik matematika
maupun IPA. Malaysia berada di peringkat 10 untuk matematika, dan 20
untuk IPA. Sejumlah negara-negara maju di kawasan Asia Timur seperti Korea
Selatan, Jepang, Taiwan, dan Hongkong, mendominasi peringkat teratas baik
bidang matematika maupun IPA. Negeri tetangga di Asia Tenggara, seperti
Singapura, menempati urutan pertama untuk dua-duanya. Sementara
Malaysia berada di urutan 10 untuk matematika, dan 20 untuk sains.
Hasil serupa bagi pelajar Indonesia juga terlihat pada studi yang
dilakukan oleh Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Objek
surveinya pelajar berusia 15 tahun. Aspek yang diteliti PISA adalah
kemampuan membaca, matematika, dan sains. Sebab baik buruknya mutu
guru di satu sekolah tak lepas dari kualitas kepala sekolah. Tanpa
mengesampingkan pengawas sekolah dan tenaga kependidikan lainnya,
peran kepala sekolah memang sangat sentral dalam melahirkan lulusan
top/berkualitas dan sekolah bermutu. Pada pertemuan kepala sekolah seASEAN, yang tergabung dalam South East Asia School Principals Forum (SEASPF) di Jakarta, 17-18 Juni 2009 lalu, disadari bahwa peran kepala sekolah
benar-benar menghadapi tantangan besar di masa mendatang.
Kepala sekolah tidak hanya bertanggung jawab untuk
menyelenggarakan manajemen dan praktik kependidikan terbaik, tetapi juga
mewujudkan lingkungan pendidikan yang baik dan memelihara setiap potensi
Bank Dunia tahun 2005 menyatakan bahwa faktor paling
menentukan keunggulan suatu Negara adalah kemampuan dalam berinovasi
yang memberikan kontribusi 45%. Faktor keunggulan lainnya adalah
networking (25%), kemampuan teknologi (20%), dan terakhir kekayaan
sumber daya alam (10%). "Kemampuan berinovasi itu menyangkut tataran
kualitas Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM).
Untuk menghadapi abad ke-21, guru harus professional dan dituntut
terus belajar lebih banyak. juga harus belajar dengan pendekatan atau cara
yang berbeda karena guru menghadapi zaman yang berbeda pula. Para siswa
di abad ke-21 menghadapi berbagai risiko dan ketidakpastian sejalan dengan
perkembangan lingkungan yang begitu pesat seperti teknologi, ilmu
pengetahuan, ekonomi dan sosial-budaya, sehingga siswa dituntut untuk
belajar lebih banyak dan proaktif agar mereka memiliki pengetahuan dan
keahlian yang lebih kaya. Para siswa saat ini hidup dalam dunia yang berbeda
dan jauh lebih kompleks dibanding zaman sebelumnya.
Bahwa suatu pendidikan tidak akan relevan jika tidak menjembatani
jurang antara realitas kehidupan yang akan dihadapi siswa di abad ke-21 dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
sistem pendidikan, dalam mempersiapkan pola pembelajaran yang sesuai
dengan perkembangan zaman yang akan dihadapi siswa sebagai produk
pendidikan tersebut. "Selain guru, kepala sekolah yang professional dan
pengawas sekolah adalah sosok kunci dalam proses pendidikan. Mereka ini
dituntut mampu memberikan pengetahuan, sikap perilaku dan keterampilan
melalui strategi dan pola pembelajaran yang sesuai dengan tuntutan dan
perkembangan di abad ke-21, pola dan cara pembelajaran di era silam pun
sudah tidak sesuai lagi dengan tuntutan di era abad ke-21 yang makin
Di abad ke-21 ini, siswa menghadapi risiko yang lebih banyak dan
situasi yang penuh ketidakpastian. Sehingga siswa memerlukan pengetahuan
yang lebih banyak dan menguasai keterampilan yang lebih dibandingkan
generasi sebelumnya. Jika sekolah atau konsep pendidikan tidak
menyesuaikan dengan tuntutan di abad milenium ini, maka lulusan sekolah
tidak relevan dengan kehidupan yang dihadapi siswa di zaman sekarang.
Konsekuensi dari bergulirnya paradigma pendidikan yang berfokus
pada siswa, sekolah memerlukan sumber belajar yang banyak. Harus diakui,
masih banyak sekolah yang sangat terbatas atau bahkan tak memiliki sumber
belajar seperti perpustakaan. Kalaulah ada koleksi buku dan compact disk
(CD) yang dimiliki sekolah, banyak yang sudah usang. Patut disyukuri
Depdiknas telah meluncurkan electronic book (e-book) atau buku elektronik
yang bisa dibaca dan diunduh dengan cuma-cuma.
Tenaga kependidikan yang makin profesional merupakan keharusan
bagi usaha mewujudkan lulusan pendidikan yang mampu menghadapi
realitas kehidupan di abad ke-21. Postur pengetahuan dan keahlian seperti
apa yang diharapkan terhadap siswa lulusan abad ke-21, antara lain:
 Communication Skills
 Critical and CreativeThinking
 Information/digital literacy
 inquiry/reasoning skill,
 Interpersonal skill,
 Multicultural/multilingual literacy,
 Problem solving, Technological skill
 Basic Skills (Bateman dan Snell: 2002.
Berbagai keahlian dan pengetahuan di atas merupakan ciri dari
tuntutan lulusan pendidikan di abad ke-21, sehingga perlu direspons oleh
suatu model pendidikan yang mampu menghasilkan lulusan yang memiliki
karakteristik tersebut. Oleh karena itu, para guru harus mampu memberikan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pola pembelajaran yang dapat menciptakan dan menumbuhkan kemampuan
siswa pada aspek pemecahan masalah, serta mendorong siswa untuk
melakukan eksperimen dan penyelidikan (inquiry) terhadap berbagai
fenomena pengetahuan yang dipelajari di sekolah.
Teknologi canggih seperti ICT merupakan keterampilan yang sudah
harus melekat di dalam kehidupan guru, sehingga dalam melaksanakan tugas
pembelajaran dapat membantu dan mendorong pola belajar yang
menumbuhkan kreativitas dan sikap kritis para siswa. Dengan demikian, pola
pembelajaran tradisional yang cenderung satu arah disertai sikap guru yang
sangat dominan dan otoriter di kelas, sudah sangat tidak cocok untuk
menghasilkan lulusan yang dicirikan oleh abad ke-21.
Hasil evuasi kinerja pada SD peningakatan kualitas standar nasional
maupun SD peningakatan kualitas bertaraf internasional pada tahun 2010
menunjukkan bahwa kinerja sekolah dalam memenuhi 8 standar nasional
masih rendah. Banyak faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan SD ini dalam
mencapai upaya peningkatan mutu pendidikan ditingkat sekolah dasar. Salah
satu faktor penting yang menentukan mutu (quality) manajemen Sekolah
adalah kinerja (performance) Kepala Sekolah; hal ini tidak hanya mendapat
pembenaran emperik, Riset yang dilakukan oleh Austin di Negara bagian
Maryland (sebagaimana dikutip oleh Sergiovanni, 1987) menemukan bahwa
perbedaan krusial antara sekolah yang berprestasi tinggi dengan sekolah
yang berprestasi rendah adalah karena manajemen dan iklim sekolahnya
yang berbeda. Setelah melakukan riset yang direplikasi berkali-kali, Ruth Love
(sebagaimana dikedepankan oleh De Roche,1985) sampai pada Simpulan
bahwa: I have never seen a good school without a good principle
performance and management.Riset serupa dilakukan oleh James B Conant
(De Roche 1985) di beberapa Negara, sehingga ia pada suatu konklusi :”The
difference between a good school and poor school is often the difference
between a good and poor principal performance and management, so the
climate of situation of schools”.
Kinerja kepala sekolah dalam pengelolaan, mendorong pelaksanaan
pembelajaran, serta evaluasi pembelajaran masih perlu mendapat
pembinaan lebih lanjut. Lebih jauh lagi yang sangat kepala sekolah perlukan
adalah membangun keunggulan sekolah melalui peningkatan pengetahuan
serta hubungan silaturahmi dengan orangtua murid atau masyarakat agar
lebih berperan aktif dalam peningkatan kualitas sekolah, baik peningkatan
sarana prasarana maupun aspek kebijakan sehingga memenuhi standar
nasional pendidikan yang didukung dengan meningkatnya kualitas iklim
sekolah yang kondusif serta Pemanfaatan/ penggunaan Teknologi Informasi
dan Komunikasi.(TIK/ICT)
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Selanjutnya dalam era globalisasi pemanfaatan tehnologi komunikasi
dan informasi (ICT) akan membawa dampak pula pada paradigma baru dalam
pendidikan. Perkembangan teknologi yang membawa suatu bentuk
kemudahan dalam akses informasi, yang tidak terbatas oleh waktu dan jarak
inilah yang membawa kecenderungan global dalam pemanfaatan teknologi
komunikasi dan informasi (ICT) dalam pendidikan.
Pemanfaatan Teknologi informasi dan komunikasi untuk pendidikan
seperti contoh di Amerika, menurut Kevin Maney (1999), dari Miami
University, pada tahun 1996, 98 % dari seluruh sekolah mempunyai
komputer sendiri, dan ratio siswa dengan komputer 10 banding 1. Sekitar 85
% sekolah memiliki komputer multimedia dengan ratio 24 banding 1. Di
daerah akses jaringan 38 % sekolah dilaporkan menggunakan jaringan lokal
area untuk pengajaran murid., sedangkan 64 % dari sekolah memiliki akses
internet. Namun hanya 14 % ruang kelas di negara itu yang memiliki akses
internet. Di negara bagian Ohio terdapat tiga gagasan teknologi yakni
SchoolNet, SchoolPlus, dan Telecommunity yang telah ditemukan. Ketiga
proyek tersebut mempunyai implikasi yang dramatis satu dengan yang
lainnya. Tujuan dari SchoolNet adalah untuk menyediakan kapasitas jaringan
untuk ruang kelas K-12. Tujuan dari SchoolPlus menyediakan satu stasiunkerja (workstation) untuk setiap lima murid pada tingkat K-4, sedangkan
tujuan dari Telecommunity Ohio untuk meningkatkan kolaborasi antar
sekolah-sekolah dan melayani penyediaan untuk memperkaya kurikulum
sekolah negeri. Kombinasi ketiga program membutuhkan dana $700 juta
yang merupakan suatu komitmen dari negara bagian itu untuk melayani
penyediaan untuk memasukkan teknologi dalam pengajaran K–12 dan
membentuk tranformasi budaya dari proses belajar menhajar di Ohio.
Seorang futuris, Bishop G Pada tahun 1989 meramalkan pendidikan
masa mendatang akan bersifat lebih luwes (flexible), terbuka (open), dan
dapat diakses oleh siapa saja yang memerlukan tanpa pandang faktor jenis,
usia, maupun pengalaman pendidikan sebelumnya.begitu juga. Mason R,
berpendapat bahwa pendidikan mendatang akan lebih ditentukan oleh
jaringan bukannya gedung sekolah. Mason mengemukakan lima alasan
pemanfaatan teknologi komunikasi yakni : (1) potensinya memperluas
kesempatan akses pendidikan dan latihan bagi siswa pedesaan yang terpencil
tanpa harus mengikuti pendidikan tatap muka yang konvensional,
(2) potensinya memperluas kesempatan pemerataan (equity) dengan cara
mempeluas manfaat pendidikan yang diraih daerah yang kaya ke daerah
yang kurang beruntung. Namun diingatkannya bahwa penggunaan teknologi
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
komunikasi tetap akan memperlebar jurang pemisah antara yang kaya dan
yang miskin, (3) teknologi komunikasi merupakan satu-satunya alternatif
penyelenggaraan pendidikan seumur hidup, (4) memungkinkan terjadinya
pertukaran sumber daya yang langka, (5; memperluas kemungkinan untuk
belajar secara intraktif dan kolaboratif antar siswa dari jarak jauh. (Mason R,
1994: 4)
Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi keberhasilan Sekolah efektif
antara lain faktor kepemimpinan kepala sekolah. Kepemimpinan yang
demokratis dapat memberikan motivasi bagi guru untuk menciptakan
bebagai aktifitas program sekolah yang inovatif dalam meningkatkan kualitas
/mutu pembelajaran efektif sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan tujuan yang telah
ditetapkan sekolah. Selain itu suasana yang kondusif yang dapat tercipta rasa
aman, nyaman, tertib dan damai dapat mendukung terlaksananya
keberhasilan proses belajar mengajar yang menyenangkan sebagaimana yang
telah direncanakan. Tersedianya sarana dan prasarana yang memadai dan
kelengkapan pedoman pada setiap SD juga dapat mendukung keberhasilan.
Sarana dan prasarana ini sangat diperlukan dalam penyelesaian tugas tugas
;karena data individu siswa dapat di simpan pada tempat yang layak untuk
pengolahan data. Pola komunikasi serta keeratan hubungan antar pegawai
dan guru serta para siswa.
Faktor lain yang dapat menjadi faktor penentu keberhasilan Sekolah
dalam pemebelajaran efektif antara lain kualifikasi Guru . Tingkat pendidikan
yang berlatar belakang dapat mendukung tercapainya tujuan yang
diharapkan . Selain itu kinerja dalam memberikan layanan kepada seluruh
warga sekolah juga menentukan keberhasilan. Faktor lainnya yang
menentukan keberhasilan adalah peningkatan kerjasama antara kepala
sekolah, dengan penanggung jawab mata pelajaran, wali kelas, komite dan
orang tua siswa serta masyarakat. Selain itu pengetahuan tentang
pemanfaatan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (ICT) sangat
mempengaruhi keberhasilan proses dan tujuan pembelajaran efektif untuk
meneingkatakan kualitas sekolah unggul dimasa depan.
Pemebelajaran berasal dari kata belajar yang berarti sebuah proses,
cara perbuatan sehingga orang atau siswa belajar dan memeperoleh ilmu
pengetahuan.jadi kata pembelajaran adalah sautu proses belajar
mengajar(PBM) yang merupakan keterpaduan antara kegiatan guru sebagai
pengajar dan kegiatan sisiwa sebagai pelajar, sehingga terjadi saling interaksi
keduanya dalam situasi intruksional yang bersifat pengajaran. Dilihat dari
makana dan konsep tersebut diatas maka pembelajaran Efektif merupakan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
sebuah strategi/model proses belajar mengajar yang meliputi pendekatan,
metode dan tehnik yang digunakan guru dalam kelas sehingga siswa manpu
memahami materi yang diajarkan secara baik dan efektif berikut ini
dipaparkan beberapa karakteristik pembelajaran efektif sebagai berikut :
1. Membuat siswa belajar menjadi lebih antusias.
2. Memperlakukan sisswa sebagaimana kodratnya
3. Mengetahui subjek pembelajaran yang akan diajarkan
4. Mencintai dan hangat dalam sistuasi belajar
5. Mengajar untuk pembelajaran
6. Empati terhadap siswa/peserta didik
7. Berhubungan dengan orang tua dan masyarakat umum
8. Bertindak tegas, fair dan fleksibel/luwes
9. Dapat menjadi penyususn (pengorganisasi)
10. Mempersiapkan siswa untuk hidup mandiri
11. Mengelola kelas dengan baik
12. Mempunyai harga diri yang tinggi
13. Mempunyai rasa humor dalam belajar
14. Menjadi diri sendiri dengan penuh kehidupan di luar sekolah
15. Berani Mengambil resiko.
Tidak asing lagi seandainya diantara dari karakter ini sama dengan
penemuan-penemuan yang telah diidentillkasi oleh beberapa peneliti
terhadap karakter guru efektif. Penemuan yang meneliti tentang pengajaran
efektif yang mempunyai prosedur khusus yang berhubungan dengan
pembelajaran siswa etektif yang menghasilkan outcome yang positif dan
tingkah laku pembelajaran di kelas. Pendapat penting yang harus
dipertimbangkan adalah mengingat prakteknya pembelajaran di dalam kelas
tadi karena siswa yang berbeda baik dalam kemampuannya, latar
belakang,pengetahuan yang dimiliki dan perhatianya, Konntmen dalam
pendidikan dan iklim sekolah sangat dibutuhkau seperti, kolaberasi antara
mengajar steman, persetujuan terhadap pendekatan lembaga, manajemen
kelas dan perkembangan kurikulum. Guru harus merencanakan prorgram
pengajaran yang mempunyai tujuan tertentu untuk meraih siswa belajar
yang specifik/efektif sehingga menghasilkan outcome yang baik. Berikut ini
adalah beberapa Kecakapan/Keterampilan Mengajar yang harus dimiilki Guru
dalam pemanfaatan ICT untuk pembelajaran efekif sebagai berikut :
 Guru harus merencanakan program pengajarannya sesuai dengan tujuan
 Guru harus mencantumkan tujuan yang jelas untuk program
pembelajaran sehingga menghasilkan otcome yang baik
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
 Guru harus memilih kegiatan belajar yang bagaimana sehingga
menghasilkan outcome yang gemilang
 Guru harus pandai memilah tujuan belajar siswa dan prioritas pelajaran
yang mana yang harus didahulukan
 Guru harus senantiasa mengkaitkan kebutuhan dan proses dengan
menggunakan strategi yang bagaimana urituk mencapai tujuan yang
telah ditentukan ditentukan.
Untuk mencapai tujuan yang direncanakan sebelumnya guru
memeilki beberapa keteranpilan efikasi diri guru dalam mengajar untuk
menjadi guru mengajar efektif dalam Pembelajaran sebagai berikut:
Efekasi Diri Guru
a. Guru harus mempunyaii perilaku positif dalam membantu siswa belajar
siswa belajar
b. Guru harus memilki sikap percaya diri (believer) dan kemampuan yang
tinggi. Hal ini akan mempengaruhi pembelajaian siswa sehingga
menghasiikan outcome yang diharapkan, Brophy dan Evertson (1970)
menggarnbarkan antara guru efektif dan guru yang lidak eiektif, Guru
yang tidak efektif memperhatikan pengajaran sebagai pekerjaan yang
bodoh karena itu mereka tidak menunjukkm tanggung jawabaya sebagai
guru dan membantu siswa untuk belajar mereka menunjukkan bahwa
kemampuan mereka sangat rendah, tidak bisa memecahkan masalah.
Sedangkan guru efektif memperlihatkan dengan mudah bahwa dirinya
dapat memecahkan permasalahan yang timbul, guru yang sukses
mempunyai harapan yang tinggi untuk siswanya dan pembelajaran selalu
membantu siswanya untuk belajar.
Pengalaman Merencanakan Pembelajaran
a. Memulai/membuka pembelajaran, dengan cara menarik perhatian dan
interes siswa. Karena perhatian dan interes siswa sangat dibutuhkan
untuk memulai. pembelajaran terutama dalam memperkenalkan materi
b. Mengelola kelas dan memberikan motivasi terhadap siswa untuk
merangsang sisiwa belajar lebih giat lagi.
Pengalaman Memperkenalkan Pembelajaran Efektif
a. Memfokuskan situasi belajar uutuk membentuk pengalaman dan sensori
yang berhubungan dengan keseluruhan materi, siswa dapat dilibatkan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
untuk mendengar", melihat, meraba, niencium bau atau, merasakan
b. Meletakan materi baru dalam konteks dimana siswa telah memilikinya.
Contoh: menggambarkan sistem sirkulasi badan nianusia.atau topic
bagaimana udara dipanaskan dalam mata pelajaran sains (Aussabel
1968,1978, Corkhill, 1992)
c. Mengulangi materi yang sudah lalu sebagai perkenalan dan hubungan
dengan materi baru, pengetahuan dibentuk secara komulatif, karena itu
siswa perlu keterkaitan materi satu dengan materi lainnya .
Pengalaman Mengembangkan Pembelajaran
a. Membuat siswa supaya tetap belajar aktif dengan membimbing mereka
untuk menemukan sesuatu yang baru dengan cara menyuruh siswa untuk
kerja kelompok, diskusi, tutor sebaya, pembelajaran secara individu
melalui komputer, dan kadang kadang dikembalikan kepada pembelajaran
yang telah ditentukan. Guru yang efektif akan menggunakan berbagai •'
metode dalam pengajarannya dan menjaga siswanya tetap aktif.
Melibatkan seluruh siswa dalam pembelajaran yang efektifakan
membentuk kognitif siswa dalam level yang lebih tiuggi, lebih menantang
kemampuan berfikir siswa dan memaksa siswa untuk mengaktifkannya,
menganalisa, membuat sintesa atau mengevaluasi apa yang telah mereka
b. Memberikan umpan balik (feedback) yang efektif (good & Brophy, 1991).
Feedback dibertkan sebagai korelcsi bagi siswa da meralat intbrmasi yang
salah. Feedback diberikan hams dikomunikasikan secara positif, tidak
merupakan hukuman. Kesempatan bagi siswa untuk mengevaluasi diri
sehiugga mereka bisa menentukan strategi mana yang cocok untuk
mempelari sesuatu.
Pengalaman Mengakhiri Pembelajaran
Untuk mengakhiri pembelajaran, bagi guru efektif akan memberikan
macam Kegiatan diantaranya sebagai berikut :
a. Mengulangi pelajaran yang telah dipelajari bersama sama siswa dengan
cara membuat sameri (ringkasan) isi materi pembelajaran sehingga
mendapatkan simpulan yang baik. Dalam pembuatan resume ini, guru
efektif akan melibatkan seluruh siswanya untuk menganalisa tentang
materi pembelajaran yang telah dipelajari itu, mulai dari untuk apa materi
itu, bagaimana penggunaanya, apakah bisa diaplikasikan sehingga siswa
akan aktif berpikir kembali.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
b. Mengingatkan dan menegaskan kembali isi materi pembelajaran pokok
dengan cara yang menarik seperti " Apa yang telah kita pelajari hari ini
adalah … dan Anda pasti telah menguasainya".
c. Memberi kesempatan kepada siswa untuk bertanya materi apa saja yang
belum dimengerti.
d. Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk merefleksikan materi
pembelajaran yang telah dipelajari dengan pengalamamiya sendin dan
menganjuikan siswa uniuk mencan inaien apa lagi yang dibuiiilikan uniuk
nienainbah, melengkapi dan mengembangkan materi yang sudah
Secara alami, agar guru menjadi efektif dalam mengajar, maka mereka
memerlukan keterampilan-keterampilan yang cocok yang harus dimilikinya.
Seperi keterampilan-keterampilan berikut ini:
Knowledge Skills (Keterampilan Berpengetahuan)
Guru efektif adalah guru yang memiliki pengetahuan, sekalipun tidak
ahli dalam materi yang dipelarinya. Lebih penting lagi, mereka harus terampil
mengkomunikasikan pengetahuan yang mereka miliki terhadap siswanya dan
mendemonstrasikan bagaimana ilmu (pengetahuan) itu bisa digunakan di
luar kelas. Pengetahuan ini tidak akan bisa diserap siswa, jika siswa tidak
mengetahui tujuan dari pembelajaran yang mereka lakukan untuk apa
mereka mempelajari pengetahuan itu. Guru yang baik akan selalu
memperlihatkan tentang belajar untuk hidup dan belajar untuk belajar. Guru
efektif adalah guru yang profesional yang selalu menjaga dan
mengembangkan model-model pembelajaran yang up to date dengan
penekanan pada proses pembelajaran.
Management Skills (Keterampilan Mangelola)
a. Guru efektif harus pandai menyusun, kurikulum secara umum. Program
Pengajaran (mingguan, atau program tahunan) yang harus disusun
disesuaikan dengan usia dan kemampuan siswa.
b. Merencanakan slrategi pembelajaran yang efektif da!am membantu siswa
dalam mendapatkan materi secara cepal dan tepat guna.
c. Mengelola kelas dengan baik dengan menciptakan lay out kelas yang baik,
menetapkan prosedur dau peraturan yang akan diterapkan terhadap
siswa dan sejak permulaan tahun pelajaran. Misalnya minggu pertama
siswa harus melakukan apa, pekerjaan rutin apa yang harus dilakukan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
siswa untuk mengembangkan kelas selalu berinteraksi secara lebih efektif
dan efisien, menjaga aktifitas kelas dengan menciptakan situasi dan
kegiatan yang bervariasi, seperti belajar dalam kelompok kelas, kelompok
kecil tutor sebaya, atau bekerja sendiri. Siswa mengetahui apa yang
mereka harus kerjakan dan bantuan apa yang mereka perlukan dari guru,
apakah mereka harus meniggalkan kelas, dan harus rnembentuk
kelompok, kerja kelompok, atau bahkan mereka lupa tidak mangerjakan
Pekerjaan rumah (PR) dan membawanya ke sekolah.
Questioning Skills (Keterampilan Bertanya)
Bertanya merupakan peran utama dalam proses pembelajaran dan
penggunaan pertanyaan jangan menjadi latihan yang "hit and miss"
(memukul dan teitinggal) aitinya memberi pertanyaan jangan yang mernbuat
siswa terpukul sehingga menjadikan siswa tertinggal pembelajaran bahkan
tidak membuat belajar lagi. Guru efektif harus merencanakan pertanyaan
yang efektif yang meliputi, berapa banyak pertanyaan Kognitif yang tingkat
tinggi, berapa kogmtif yang rendah. pendeknya guru efektif harus mendisain
pertanyaan dengan menggunakan tahapan dan kriteria (Good and
Brophy,1990) sebagai berikut,
Kualitas pertanyaan harus jelas dan relevan
Guru efektif lidak akan memberi pertanyaan yang sembrono atau
semaunya, dia akan bertanya secara logis sesuai dengan materi yang
diajarkan dan tidak membingungkan siswa..
Pertanyaan efektif harus mempunyai tujuan yang jelas.
Pertanyaan yang diajukan harus jelas sesuai dengan tujuan
mstruksronal yang telah disepakati bersama
Pertanyaan kognitif tingkat tinggi akan membenkan stimulus
terhadap ketertarikan siswa dan memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa
untuk mengklarifikasi pendapatnya. Guru efektif akan mengerti keperluan
siswanya daiam menjawab pertanyaan ang baik mesli bagaimana dan selalu
mendorong siswanya untuk mengembangkan kemampuan untuk menjawab.
Siswa diri kesempatan untuk waktu untuk menuliskan pendapatnya dalam
menjawab pertanyaan yang kemudian uiperbolehkan untuk mendiskusikan
dengan temannya sebelum menyebutkan jawabannya.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Untuk menjawab pertanyaan berilah waktu untuk berpikir sejenak tidak
langsung (Tobin, 1987)
Guru efektif akan memberikan waktu kepada siswanya dalam
menjawab pertanyaannya yang dilemparkan kepada seluruh siswa di kelas
yang kemudian boleh menunjuk salah seorang untuk menjawab. Pemberian
waktu untuk berpikir sebaiknya tidak kurang dari tiga detik bahkan boleh
memberikan waktu untuk mendiskusikan dulu jawabannya terutama utuk
menjawab pertanyaan kognitif yang berlevel tinggi. Biasanya guru tidak sabar
untuk menunggu jawaban atau bahkan menjawabnya sendiri. Padahal
pembelajaran efeklif bermula pertanyaan sulit baik pertanyaan untuk kognitif
yang rendah ataupu kognitif yang lebih tinggi terutama dalam memberikan
pertanyaan untuk feedback. Contoh, Do you have any ideas.... ?, Why did
you come up with that conclusion?
Membuat Tujuan Instruksional yang Cocok
Guru efektif merencanakan menyusun pembelajarannya sesuai
dengan tujuan Umum dan tujuan khusus sehingga penetapan tujuan lebih
jelas sesuai dengan isi materi dan aktivitas apa yang akan disajikan. Fokus
tujuan instruksional adalah untuk menarik perhatian dari keperluan guru
dalam kegiatan sebagai berikut:
 Menspesikasikan perilaku siswa dalam pembelajaran untuk menghasilkan,
outcome yang baik
 Menggambarkan kondisi perilaku yang terjadi dan menghantarkan guru
supaya dapat memberikan penilaian secara standar.
 Menentukan standar minimal yang bisa diterima.
Seperti dikemukakan oleh Armstrong & Savage(1983) dalam
menentukan Tujuan pembelajaran yang harus mengandung akronim ABCD
yaitu :
A = Audience(dalam hal ini adalah siswa) untuk siapa pembelajaran
B = Behaviour (Perilaku) perilaku/kemampuan yang diharapkan
berubah setelah mengikuti pembelajaran.
= Condition(Kondisi) Kondisi yang bagaimana yang diharapkan
setelah siswa mengikuti pembelajran.
D = Degree (Tingkatan) Tingkat kemanpuan yang bagaimana yang
diharapkan seperti dalam prosentasi atau dalam jumlah berapa.
Baru-baru ini, Norman Gronlund mengusulkan, untuk menentukan
tujuan yang efektif seharusnya dimulai dengan kata -kata "know",
"understand", "apply", dan "interpret". Dia juga menganjurkan dalam
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
menentukan tujuan pembelajaran ddiharapkan membedakan tujuan umum
dan tujuan khusus, seperti jika menentukan tujuan umum maka mulailah
dengan kata "know" atau "understand", sedang untuk tujuan khusus
mulailah dengan kata seperti " demonstrate".
Pengajaran Untuk Hasil Pembelajaran
 Guru efektif mengkomunikasikan tujuan instruksional yang jelas sebagai
antisipasi untuk rnenghasilakan outcome yaag baik dan siswa dapat
menacapi tujuan pembelajarannya.
 Guru memperkenalkan mated barunya deagan cara menghubungkannya
dengan konsep yang siswa miliki sehingga mereka dapat menghubungkan
antara materi yang sudah dipelajari dengan materi baru tersebut. Mereka
mengetahui tujuan siswa mempelajari materi tersebut begitu juga
keuntungan apa yang bisa mereka raih dari pembelajaran ini.
 Guru merencanakan pembelajaran apa yang dibutuhkan setelah mereka
mendiagosa dari kebutuhan individu siswanya disesuaikan dengan
program kurikulum yang pemerintah buat. Kebutuhan dan keinginan
kurikulum rnenjadi dasar untuk menentukan hasil pembelajaran anakanak dalam kelas yang akan ditunjukkan sebagai hasil pembelajran siswa
dengan melalui pembelajaran secara individu atau kelompok secara
aktif.Guru efektif menuliskan tujuannya untuk pembelajaran siswa.dan
bekerja keras untuk menentukan pendekatan yang cocok, menarik,
tersusun baik dan bervriasi sesuai dengan kebutulian.
Menggunakan Strategi - strategi yang Meningkatkan Motivasi
Guru efektif menggunakan strategi khusus untuk meningkatkan
motivasi individu atu motivasi kelasnya. Berikut ini adalah strategi-strategi
efektif yang esensial untuk meningkatkan motivasi (Ames, 1991)
Kurangi perbedaan sosial dengan cara :
 Menghindari perbedaan sosial, penilaian secara external dan penilaian
secara umuin.
 Menekankan ketercapaian seseorang dengan cara merefleksi-kan
dengan tingkatan atau nilai.
 Menggunakan skema pengukuran, penilaian dan laporan
 Menggunakan penilaian yang berhubungan dunia nyata siswa.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Memberikan stimulus kepada siswa untuk ikut serta dalam pembelajaran
dengan cara :
 Menggunakan metoda yang bervariasi, libatkan siswa dalam kerja
kelompok, tutor sebaya, permainan dan simulasi.
 Membiarkan siswa memilih dan kontrol terhadap pembelajaran
mereka dengan Menggunakan metoda, isi materi yang berhubungan.
 Mengkondisikan suasana belajar kepada konteks kehidupan yang
Memfokuskan terhadap Usaha dengan cara :
 Menegaskan bahwa usaha seseorang sebagai alat untuk kemajuan.
 Membantu siswa melihat kesalahan itu bagian dari pembelajaran.
 Meletakkan harapan yang realistik atas usaha yang rasional.
 Membantu siswa untuk meraih tujuan yang realistik.
Menanamkan kepercayaan terhadap kemampuan yang dimiliki dengan
cara :
 Membnatu siswa mengembangkan metakognitif dan pengatur-an
 Mengkonunikasikan harapan yang positif.
 Membuat rencana bersama -sama siswa untuk kemajuan.
Meningkatkan Perubahan-Perubahan untuk Kesuksesan dengan cara:
 Menciptakan pendekatan -pendekatan dan motivasi dalam kelas.
 Mengajarkan strategi-strategi dan keterampilan-keterampilan belajar.
 Memberikan pengajaran secara individu.
 Menggunakan situasi pengajarajan kooperatif dan tutor
sebaya.(Berdasarkan Ames& Ames, 1991)
Monitoring (Pemantauan) dan Penilaian Pembelajaran
a. Guru efektif memantau kemajuan siswanya melalui kegiatan pembelajaran
dan kesimpulannya. Mereka melakukan hal ini dengan cara memberi
pertanyaan, observasi contoh pekerjaanya, tes-tes dan quiz-quiz,tugastugas pekerjaan rumah. Yang penting lagi adalah bahwa evaluasi
dilaksanakan oleh siswa sendiri (student self evaluation) yang diperkirakan
merupakan keterampilan yang sangat vital dalam perubahan sosial yang
cepat ini dimana penekanannya terhadap kemandirian siswa secara
otomatis (Boud! 1985; Falchikov&Boud 1989; Hall 1992,Woodward
1993).Mungkin lebih lebih penting dari pada mempelajari seluruh file
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
fakta,yang cukup siap dalam bentuk multi bentuk misalnya database
komputer,kesempatan bagi siswa utuk mempeiajari bagamana
menentukan dimana letak kekuatan daiam pekerjaanya dan bagaimana
untuk mengobati kelemahan.
b. Mengajar siswanya bagaimana mereflesikan belajar mereka, mengevaluasi
pekerjaan sendiri dan orang alin yang sensitif.
c. Membantu perkembangan evaluasi diri merupakan bantuan terhadap
siswa dalam mempertahankan berkas tugas yang mereka buat dengan
cara duduk bersama siswa dan menanyakan tentang pekerjaanya seperti
"Is this your best work?", "What have you learnt?". Hal ini bisa melatih
siswa dalam inenggunakan strategi meta kognisinya monitoring dan
evalusi yang membantu mereka untuk menkontrol pembelajaran mereka
Berkomunikasi dengan penuh antusias, hangat dan penuh rasa humor
a. Guru efektif akan mengkomunikasikan apa yang mereka kerjakan di dalam
kelas dengan penuh antusias karena hal ini akan memotivasi siswanya.
b. Antusias dapat diekspresikan dengan cara, inenggunakan mtonasi suara
yang beragam dan enak didengar, mata yang hidup yang selalu tertuju
pada siswa secara bergilir, inenggunakan gerakan tangan, dan gerak yang
energik di depan kelas. Guru yang penuh dengan antusias akan selalu
memperlihatkan emosi yang mengejutkan, menggairahkan dan
mernperlihatkan wajah dan suara yang menggeinbirakan.Tak diragukan
lagi seandainya ada guru yang pemalas dalm menerangkan sesuatu tanpa
rasa humor atau pemberian contoh yang beraneka ragam,atau duduk di
suatu tempat dan hanya dengan kelompok kecil saja, maka situasi kelas
akan membosankan dan kita tidak ingin untuk duduk disana.Tidak heran,
banyak penelitian yang menunjukkan bahwa perilaku siswa yang baik
dipengaruhi oleh guru yang penuh antusias.sifat antusias, kehangatan dan
rasa humor adalah gaya seseorang yang sulit dipelajari (Larkin et al,1985,
Rosenshine,1971). Perilaku yang anda peragakan di depan siswa akan
memainkan peranan penting dalam penentuan tingkat interes
(ketertarikan dan antusias siswa terhadap materi yang anda ajarkan.
Peningkatan Kualitas Sekolah Unggul Masa Depan.
Untuk meningakatkan kualitas ssekolah unggul masa depan Salah
seorang pakar manajemen, MacBeath & Mortimer (2001) memiliki
resep/strategi dalam meningakatkan kualitas /membuat sekolah menjadi
efektif atau unggul.,menurut pakar tersebut terdapat 10 (sepuluh) hal yang
harus diperhatikan untuk mengelola sekolah secara efektif yaitu: (1) visi,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
misi,dan tujuan jelas, 2) kepala sekolah profesional, (3) guru profesional,
(4) lingkungan belajar kondusif, (5) pendidikan berbasis ramah siswa,
(6) manajemen yang kuat, (7) kurikulum luas tetapi seimbang diiringi strategi
pembelajaran yang efektif, (8) penilaian dan pelaporan prestasi siswa yang
bermakna, dan (9) pelibatan masyarakat secara positif-partisipatif (10)
Lingkungan budaya/kultur sekolah kondusif. Penyelenggaraan sekolah efektif
atau unggul hendaknya mengacu pada sembilan hal tersebut diatasa dengan
beberapa penyesuaian dalam hal perencanaan. Berikut ini diuraikan sepuluh
hal yang perlu dikembangkan dalam penyelenggaraan sekolah efektif dan
unggul dimasa depan .Pada setiap karakteristik tersebut di atas dijabarkan
lebih lanjut yang dapat dijadikan indikator sekolah efektif atau unggul
(arifin,I, 2007) sebagai berikut :
Visi dan Misi dan Tujuan Sekolah Jelas
Secara formal, sekolah rnenyatakan dengan jelas tentang
keseluruhan kebijakan, tujuan, dan sasaran sekolah yang berkaitan dengan
mutu. Kebijakan, tujuan, dan sasaran mutu tersebut dinyatakan oleh kepala
sekolah. Kebijakan, tujuan, dan sasaran mutu tersebut disosialisasikan
kepada semua warga sekolah, sehingga tertanara peraikiran, tindakan.
kebiasaan, hingga sampai pada kepemilikan karakter mutu oleh warga
sekolah.bentuk implementasi yang harus dilaksanakan :
 memberikan Dorongan kepada siswa untuk belajar, bekerja, berbuat, dan
mengeluarkan kemampuan terbaik.
 Mengarahkan pengembangan intelektual, sosial, emosional, dan harapan
tinggi dari siswa dan guru tercover serta terlaksana dengan baik
 Memberikan Pemahaman bahwa pendidikan adalah usaha & tanggungjawab bersama antara guru, siswa, dan orang tua
 Menekankan pentingnya pengembangan kecakapan hidup (lifeskill), nilainilai positif, dan keterampilan interpersonal.
 Pengakuan bahwa setiap siswa adalah individu berbeda, mempunyai latar
belakang, kebutuhan, dan keinginan yang berbeda.
 Penghargaan dan sambutan yang positif atas keragaman latar belakang
Guru yang Profesional
 Mendorong siswa untuk mencapai prestasi tinggi.
 Mengembangkan keterampilan berpikir kritis pemecahan masalah. dan
kreatifitas siswa.
 Kualifikasi memadai dan kompeten
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Mempunyai sikap positif dan moral yang tinggi.
Peka terhadap kebutuhan siswa.
Menegakkan disiplin.
Mengundang partisipasi orang tua.
Melakukan belajar kerkesinambungan dan pengembangan profesi.
Semua staf guru mempunyai keterampilan yang luas termasuk
keterampilan dalam mata pelajaran dan dapat bekerja sama dan bekerja
sebagai anggota tim yang baik.
Kepala Sekolah Profesional
 Berusaha dengan sungguh-sungguh untuk meningkatkan mutu sekolah.
Mengelola sumber & bahan dengan bijaksana. Mampu bekerja sama
dengan guru dan siswa.
 Memiliki kualifikasi memadai, kompeten, berpengalaman.
 Mampu bekerja sama dengan orang tua, komite, masyarakat dan badan
terkait lainnya.
 Memimpin secara efektif dan menjalankan visi misi untuk membina &
memajukan masyarakat sekolah
 Meningkatkan moral staf sekolah
 Meningkatkan belajar berkesinambungan dan melakukan pengembangan
Lingkungan Belajar yang Kondusif
 Bersih, aman, nyaman, dan hangat/ramah serta menyenangkan.
 Tempat bagi semua orang untuk saling memperhatikan dan saling
mendukung, menghargai, toleransi melalui hubungan yang positif.
 Mempromosikan kemajuan sekolah dan rasa saling memiliki dan
kebanggaan terhadap sekolah.
 Memberikan kesempatan bagi siswa untuk berpartisipasi dalam orgamsasi
intra sekolah.
 Mempunyai aturan-aturan yang sensible, yang jelas dan dapat
diterapkan'atau dilaksanakan
 Lingkungan belajar yang terdisain baik sehingga siswa terundang untuk
belajar Lingkungan yang dapat menstimulasi siswa untuk betah belajar dan
beraktivitas.(invitation learning environment)
 Mendukung kebijakan pengelolaan perilaku yang efektif yang ditopang
oleh sistem pelayanan siswa yang efektif.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Pendidikan Berbasis Ramah Siswa
 Peka terhadap kebutuhan dan latar belakang individual siswa.
 Mendukung pengembangan potensi dan kemampuan siswa secara
 Berhubungan dengan community support service and resources yang
tersedia di luar sekolah.
Kurikulum Luas tetapi Seimbang
 Luwes dalam mengorganisasi pembelajaran siswa dengan cara yang Diiringi
Strategi Pembelajaran yang Efektif
 Kurikulum tersusun baik, tidak syarat dan memberatkan siswa, tetapi
sesuai dengan kebutuhan siswa.
 Memberikan berbagai pembelajaran yang aktif, efektif dan menyenangkan
untuk semua mata pelajaran.
 Memonitor aspek prestasi akademik, sosial, kepribadian, dan
perkembangan fisik siswa.
 Memastikan bahwa siswa mengembangkan sikap yang positif terhadap
 Membantu siswa mengembangkan kecakapan hidup seperti percaya diri,
memotivasi diri dan mengembangkan disiplin diri.
Manajemen /tatakelola sekolah yang Kuat
 Memberdayakan potensi dan sumber sekolah secara efektif
 Mengembangkan program dan refleksi dengan warga sekolah secara
 Penguatan tatakelola didukung oleh stakeholder sekolah.
 Mendasarkan pada perencanaan, pengembangan program, refleksi diri dan
pengambilan keputusan secara kolaboratif.
 Mendukung supervisi staf dan pengembangan profesi.
Pelibatan Masyarakat secara Positif-Partisipatif.
 Mendorong orang tua untuk berkunjung dan berpartisipasi aktif dalam
kegiatan sekolah dengan prinsip ”sekolah kami terbuka untuk anda”.
 Menekankan pentingnya kemitraan antara orang tua dan guru untuk
memperoleh hasil pembelajaran yang lebih baik.
 Sekolah dan guru tanggap terhadap pertanyaan, sudut pandang,
kekhawatiran orang tua.
 Sekolah membentuk jaringan kerja yang luas dengan mayarakat, termasuk
dengan sekolah lain, dunia usaha dan industry (DUDI), Tokoh agana (TOGA)
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
tokoh masyarakat (TOMAS), atau organisasi pemerintahan yang lainnya
guna mendukung program kemajuan sekolah.
Penilaian dan Pelaporan Prestasi Siswa yang Bermakna
 Mengarahkan guru untuk menggunakan berbagai pendekatan mengajar
yang paling sesuai.
 Memberi informasi akurat dan jelas tentang prestasi belajar siswa dalam
berbagai mata pelajaran dan perkembangan kemampuan sosial siswa.
 Mengidentiftkasi masalah belajar siswa dan cara menyelesaikannya
bersama-sama dengan orang tua.
 Melakukan berbagai cara untuk mendukung pembelajaran efektif dan
upaya meningkatkan rasa percaya diri siswa.
 Mengijinkan orang tua untuk mengobservasi dan memahami kemajuan
belajar siswa.
Kultur/Budaya Sekolah yang kondusif
Kultur/budaya sekolah adalah penanaman nilai nilai budaya dan
karakter/budi pekertiluhur atau pandangan hidup (a way of life) sekolah yang
merefleksikan keyakinan, nilai, norma, simbol, dan tradisi/kebiasaan yang
telah dibentuk dan disepakati bersama oleh warga sekolah.hal merupakan
wahana/kunci Indonesia bangkit dan budaya sekolah merupakan poleburan
unsur-unsur aset kualitas batiniyah (akal, emosi, rasa, spirit) yang kemudian
diekspresikan dalam bentuk sikap dan perbuatan lahiriyah. Hasil-hasil
penelitian menyimp'ilkan bahwa budaya sekolah sangat berpengaruh
terhadap efektivitas sekolah. Artinya, makin kondusif budaya sekolah, makin
efektif sekolahnya.
Kultur sekolah yang perlu ditumbuhkan dan dikembangkan untuk
meningkatkan efektivitas sekolah unggul masa depan antara lain: berpusat
pada pengembangan peserta didik, lingkungan belajar dan budaya sekolah
yang kondusif (Hosnan, 2010),yang dicirikan sebagai berikut :
 bebas dari rasa khawatir akan kehilangan sesuatu benda atau barang yang
dibawa ke sekolah,
 bebas dari intimidasi baik yang berasal dari dalam maupun luar
lingkungan sekolah,
 hubungan dan komunikasi antarpeserta didik hangat dan akrab,
 hubungan dan komunikasi antara kepala sekolah, wakil kepala sek dengan
pendidik dan staf administrasi serta pegawai lainnya al dan lancar,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
 hubungan dan komunikasi antara peserta didik dengan kepala sekc wakil
kepala sekolah, para pendidik, dan staf administrasi, s pegawai lainnya
berlangsung hangat, mesra, dan lancar,
 saling mencintai, menghargai, menghormati dan toleran antara anggota
komunitas sekolah
 saling mempercayai antara anggota komunitas sekolah,
 saling peduli antara anggota komunitas sekolah,
 saling bantu membantu antara anggota komunitas sekolah,
 saling tegur sapa dengan sopan antara anggota komunitas sekolah
 saling memaafkan antara anggota komunitas sekolah, apabila terjadi
kesalahan dan kesalahfahaman,
 saling merasa memiliki semua barang atau benda yang ada di sek
 saling menjaga nama baik antar anggota komunitas sekolah.
Jika terdapat permasalahan di sekolah maka kepala sekolah tanggap
dan cepat untuk mencari solusinya.Untuk dapat memecahkan masalah
penyelengaraan perlu dilakukan upaya identifikasi masalah Selanjutnya,
mencari model sekolah yang efektif dan unggul serta melakukan
perencanaan yang jelas. Perencanaan akan menjadi pedoman pelaksanaan
kegiatan sehingga tujuan sekolah akan dapat tercapai. Dengan menetapkan
program sekolah akan mengurangi resiko ketidakberhasilan karena dalam
penentuan program melalui analisis yang memperhatikan berbagai aspek
yang terkait dengan sekolah. Tujuan sekolah yang memeilki tolok ukur
dengan parameter yang jelas akan memudahkan untuk mengambil
keputusan perbaikan atau penguatan pada program-program yang sedang
dan telah berlangsung. Alur perencanaan -pelaksanaan-monitoring dan
evaluasi akan mengantar sekolah menuju sekolah masa depan.
Sekolah Unggul masa depan bukan hanya sekedar menjamin kontrol
mutu (quality control) karena hanya melihat produk, hasil belajar nasional
atau ujian nasional (UN) yang menguji keterampilan dasar kognitif dalam
bidang matematika dan bahasa dengan mangabaikan aspek-aspek perolehan
belajar lain. Parameter keunggulan juga harus menjamin mutu (quality
assurance) yakni melihat perencanaan, proses, sampai hasil belajar
berdasarkan standar mutu. Bahkan sekolah masa depan yang unggul sudah
menyatu dan memiliki budaya unggul (excellence culture) yang melakukan
perbaikan secara terus-menerus (continous improvement spirit) yang disebut
sebagai Total Quality Management in Education. (Arifin,Imron 2007).
Sekolah unggul dapat terwujud dengan mempertimbangkan
demokratisasi, partisipasi /pelibatan masyarakat, dengan azas tranparansi
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
dan akuntabilitas dalam penyelenggaraan sekolah. Selain itu proses
pengembangan program sekolah harus melibatkan stake holder /warga
sekolah yang terdiri dari kepala sekolah, guru, staf sekolah,siswa dan orang
tua siswa, tokoh masyarakat, tokoh agama dan melibatkan dunia usaha dan
industri (Dudi) disamping lembaga dinas Pendidikan dan instansi terkait guna
mendukung program untuk kemajuan sekolah.
Untuk mendukung keberhasilan peningakatan kualitas sekolah
unggul masa depan diperlukan perubahan yang mendasar antara lain sebagai
1. Melalui pendekatan holistik yaitu dengan memberdayakan semua
komponen pendidikan agar dapat berfungsi optimal, sehingga
menghasilkan sinergi kerja yang maksimal.
2. Mengubah sikap dan perilaku ke arah yang lebih baik bagi semua
komunitas sekolah, sehingga masing-masing anggota komunitas sekolah
senantiasa dapat melaksanakan tugas dengan sebaik-baiknya, sesuai
dengan beban dan tanggung jawabnya
3. Mengubah cara berpikir agar tidak selalu linier atau bersifat rutinitas,
karena segalanya cepat mengalami perkembangan dan perubahan.
4. Pengelolaan sekolah secara terus menerus perlu dibenahi dan diperbalki,
sesuai dengan perkembangan ilmu pengetahunan dan teknologi serta
tuntutan zaman, sehingga pengelolaaan pendidikan semakin profesional.
5. Perlu komitmen bersama bagi semua anggota komunitas sekolah untuk
melaksanakan program peningkatan kualitas Sekolah unggul masa depan
6. Perlu kerja keras dan sungguh-sungguh dalam melaksanakan program
peningakatan kualitas ini
Dalam melaksanakan peningakatan kualitas sekolah unggul masa
depan yaitu sekolah yang lebih menitikberatkan pada upaya pemberdayaan
semua komponen pendidikan baik yang ada di lingkungan sekolah maupun di
luar sekolah agar terjadi kerja sama yang sinergis untuk mencapai tujuan
yang telah ditetapkan. Selain itu, seluruh komunitas sekolah perlu bekerja
lebih sungguh sungguh dan profesional. Secara khusus, bagi para peserta
didik perlu didorong dan dirangsang untuk dapat mengembangkan masingmasing individu sesuai dengan potensinya agar dapat berkembang seoptimal
mungkin. Sejalan dengan itu, para peserta didik secara bersama-sama
sebagai kelompok sosial juga mampu mengembangkan nilai-nilai antara lain
nilai-nilai moral dan agama, nilai-nilai budaya, dan norma-norma hukum,
serta azas demokratis. Misalnya: disiplin, memanfaatkan waktu seefisien
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
mungkin, tidak melanggar aturan dan hukum, saling hormat-menghormati,
saling menghargai dan bersikap demokratis.
Upaya peningkatan kualitas pendidikan di sekolah guru memegang
peranan yang sangat penting dalam meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran di
kelas sehingga guru harus berusaha untuk mewujudkan tercapainya
pembelajaran yang efektif.kompetensi yang ada pada diri guru harus
diterapkan karena diantaranya tuntutan masyarakat yang semakin
menginginkan adanya peningkatan kualitas pembelajaran dalam rangka
menghasilkan lulusan yang mampu bersaing, tidak hanya di tingkat lokal dan
nasional, melainkan juga di tingkat internasional. Masyarakat menginginkan
peningkatan kualitas pembelajaran tidak hanya dalam rangka menyiapkan
putera-puterinya mengikuti ujian nasional, melainkan juga membuat puteraputerinya memiliki kecakapan hidup, seperti kecakapan berpikir kritis,
inovatif, dan kreatif. Selain itu adanya kebijakan Menteri Pendidikan
Nasional, bahwa ke depan pengembangan pembelajaran difokuskan pada
pengembangan pembelajaran yang diharapkan mampu menghasilkan lulusan
yang kreatif, inovatif, terampil memecahkan masalah, mampu berpikir kritis,
dan bernaluri kewirausahaan serta memjadi sekolah efektif dan unggul
dimasa depan agar manpu bersaing dengan bangsa lain. Dalam
meningakatkan kualitas pendidikan agar sekolah menjadi efektif atau unggul
di masa depan, terdapat 10 (sepuluh) hal yang harus diperhatikan untuk
mengelola sekolah secara efektif/unggul yaitu: (1) visin, misi,dan tujuan jelas,
2) kepala sekolah profesional, (3) guru profesional, (4) lingkungan belajar
kondusif, (5) pendidikan berbasis ramah siswa, (6) manajemen yang kuat,
(7) kurikulum luas tetapi seimbang diiringi strategi pembelajaran yang efektif,
(8) penilaian dan pelaporan prestasi siswa yang bermakna, dan (9) pelibatan
masyarakat secara positif-partisipatif (10) Lingkungan budaya/kultur sekolah
kondusif.Sehingga suatu keharusan dan merupakan hal yang mutlak bahwa
pemanfaatan ICT dalam pembelajaran didalam kelas tidak bisa ditunda-tunda
lagi.Karena anak didik adalah generasi yang akan bersaing pada era
supermodern atau supercanggih dalam kehidupannya.
Berdasarkan beberapa pemikiran diatas maka tulisan ini, mengangkat
pentingnya pemanfaatan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi (ICT) dalam
pendidikan sebagai upaya dalam mendukung peningkatan mutu layanan
pendidikan di sekolah agar menjadi sekolah yang efektif dan unggul di masa
depan. disamping itu juga sebagai suatu kecenderungan global dalam
Pendidikan yakni: (1) pendidikan mengarah pada pendidikan terbuka,
fleksibel, dan jarak jauh, (2) perkembangan telematika mengarah pada
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
belajar sepanjang hayat, (3) lembaga-lembaga pendidikan yang mempunyai
satu kepentingan untuk memanfaatkan sumber-sumber secara bersama akan
berkolaborasi dalam suatu jaringan pendidikan jarak jauh, (4) penggunaan
teknologi dalam pendidikan, (5) pendidikan dapat diakses dan terjadi
pemerataan, (6) mendapatkan variasi belajar dengan belajar dari berbagai
sumber. Maka sudah selayaknya Penggunaan ICT dalam kegiatan belajar
mengajar disekolah merupakan suatu keharusan dan sebagai suatu bekal
kelak bagi lulusan mereka dimasa depan untuk dapat bersaing dengan
bangsa bangsa lain di era globalisasi .
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Depan. Makalah Pelatihan Guru SMA Negeri 1 Malang, 12
Nopember. Malang: SMAN 1 Malang.
Ayan, Jordan E. (2003). Bengkel Kreativitas. Bandung: Mizab Pustaka.
Bloom, B.S. (1976). Human Characteristics and School Learning. New York:
Me. Graw Hill.
Birch, Paul, Brian Clegg. (2001). Instans Creativity. London: Kogan Page Ltd.
Brophy, J.E, Good T.L. (1986). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement.
New York: Me. Millan.
Conny S R, T. Raka Joni. (1993). Pendekatan Pembelajaran: Acuan Konseptual
Pengelolaan Kegiatan Belajar-Mengajar di Kelas. Jakarta: Direktorat
Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi.
De Cecco, John P. (1968). The Psychology of Learning and Instruction:
Educational Psychology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2006). Peraturan Pemerintah Tentang
Standar Nasional Pendidikan. Jakarta.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2003). Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun
2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional. Jakarta.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2005). Undang-Undang Nomor 14 tahun
2005 tentang Guru dan Dosen. Jakarta.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2005). Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19
Tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan. Jakarta.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2007). Jurnal Tenaga kependidikan.
Direktorat Tenaga kependidikan Ditjen PMPTK, Depdiknas Jakarta.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. “Manajemen Peningkatan Mutu Berbasis
Sekolah (MPMBS)”. Edisi 3.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Penciptaan Suasana Sekolah yang
Kondusif bagi Peningkatan Keimanan dan Ketaqwaan Siswa.
Fullan Michael G. With StiegelbauerSuzanne. (1998). The New Meaning of
Educational Change. Second edition. Techers College Press J. Drost,
SJ (1999).
Hosnan, M. (2010). “Pemanfaatan ICT dalam Pembelajaran Efektif”. Materi
Training of Trainers (TOT) Tingkat Nasional bagi pengawas. Kepala
Sekolah dan Guru. Direktorat Pembinaan TK dan SD. Ditjen
Mandikdasmen, kemdiknas Jakarta .
Joyce, Bruce and Marsha Well. (1986). Models of Teaching, New Jersey:
Prentice Hall International Inc.
Johnson, Keith. Learning About Language: An Introdtion to Foreign Language
Karhami, S. Karim A. (1997). “Profll Guru Profesional dan Implikasinya Pada
Kurikulum”. Institusi Pembina Guru: Suatu Kajian dari Kurikulum SD
dan SMP, Jakarta: Kajian Balitbang Dikbud.
Kemp, Jerrold E. (1985). The instructional Design Process. New York: Happer
and Row Publisher.
Mastenbroek, Willen. (1987). Conflict Management and Organization
Development. Chichester :, John Wiley & Sons.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Macbeath & Mortimer. (2001). Improving school effectiveness. Buckingham:
Open University Press.
Munby, John. (1978). Communicative Syllabus Design: A Socilinguistik model
for defining the content of purpose-specific language programs.
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for Elemaentary and Middle School Leaders. Alexandria: NAESP.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (1998). Bagian Proyek peningkatan
Wawasan Keagamaan Guru, Jakarta Direktorat Pembinaan
Direktorat Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah Depdiknas. (2001). Petunjuk
Wawasan Wiyata Mandala.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Nor Hasniza Ibrahim1, Johari Surif2,
Mohammad Yusof Arshad3, Noor Azlan Ahmad Zanzali4
Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia 1,2,3,4
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected]
Kertas kerja ini melaporkan dapatan kajian terhadap strategi
penerapan amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi yang berfokuskan kepada
pengetahuan pedagogi kandungan sains dalam kalangan pensyarah,
guru pembimbing dan guru pelatih sains. Usaha ini dilaksanakan
dengan tujuan untuk membantu guru pelatih sains menghasilkan
proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang berkesan serta
meningkatkan kualiti dan keprofesionalan guru sains yang dihasilkan.
Kajian dilaksanakan secara kualitatif dengan mengaplikasikan
rekabentuk deskriptif. Data kajian diperolehi menerusi rakaman
perbincangan di antara pensyarah dan guru pembimbing dengan guru
pelatih sains semasa proses penilaian dilaksanakan dan laporan
penilaian yang disediakan oleh pensyarah dan guru pembimbing.
Kajian melibatkan tiga kelompok responden iaitu 1) 15 orang guru
pelatih sains, 2) 7 orang pensyarah pembimbing dan 3) 14 orang guru
pembimbing yang dipilih secara bertujuan. Data dianalisis dengan
menggunakan teknik analisis dokumen dan ditriangulasikan bagi
memperoleh kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan kajian yang tinggi.
Dapatan yang diperolehi menunjukkan bahawa amalan refleksi secara
kolaborasi menerusi perbincangan yang berfokuskan pengetahuan
pedadogi kandungan sains dapat membantu guru pelatih sains
menerapkan kepentingan pengetahuan pedagogi kandungan ke dalam
proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang dilaksanakan. Seterusnya
berupaya menggalakkan guru pelatih sainsuntuk sentiasa
menghasilkanproses pengajaransains yang bermakna serta berkualiti.
Kata Kunci: refleksi, kolaborasi, guru pelatih sains
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Amalan refleksi dianggap sebagai satu aktiviti minda yang aktifdalam
menyelesaikan permasalahan dan menambahbaikkan proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran yang dilaksanakan, satu proses mengimbas kembali
pengalaman yang telah dilalui dengan penuh ketelitian, pertimbangan dan
pemikiran yang waras bagi mengenal pasti maksud yang tersirat dan
sebarang kemungkinan yang akan terjadi bagi membentuk asas kepada
keputusan atau tindakan yang akan dilakukan. Selain itu ia juga
diterjemahkan sebagai satu analisis yang kritikal terhadap diri sendiri bagi
menyelongkar dan menyiasat amalan diri serta memberikan kesedaran yang
tinggi untuk berubah menjadi individu yang lebih profesional.
Pelbagai manfaat yang diperolehi daripada perlaksanaan amalan
refleksi ini telah menjadikan ianya sebagai intipati utama dalam proses
pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Antaranya ialah membantu dalam mengenal
pasti permasalahan, menentukan matlamat, menganalisis sebarang
kemungkinan dan berusaha mendalami pengalaman pengajaran bagi
memudahkan pelajar memahami isi pembelajaran dengan berkesan.
Perlaksanaan amalan refleksi ini boleh dibahagikan kepadabeberapa
kategori. Pertama, amalan refleksi yang berkisar kepada aspek teknikal;
masalah dalam aspek proses pengajaran seperti kawalan kelas, tingkah laku
pelajar dan sebagainya. Kedua, perlaksanaan amalan refleksi yang kritikal
iaitu guru yang berupaya membuat pertimbangan yang rasional serta sangat
menekankan kesan tindakan yang dilakukan kepada orang lain dan
Akan tetapi kajian yang dijalankan menunjukkan kebanyakan guru
khususnya guru pelatih hanya berupaya mempamerkan amalan refleksi yang
diklasifikasikan sebagai refleksi teknikal. Ketidakupayaan mereka dalam
melaksanakan amalan refleksi yang kritikal ini mungkin disebabkan
pendedahan tentang amalan refleksi yang diberikan kepada mereka terlalu
umum dan secara syarahan sahaja. Bahkan situasi persekitaran sekolah yang
baru diduduki juga antara faktor yang turut mempengaruhi guru pelatih
untuk merefleks. Hal ini menyukarkan kepada guru pelatih untuk
menentukan kritikal episod yang perlu direfleks. Tanpa bantuan, bimbingan
dan panduan yang sewajarnya guru pelatih akan cenderung untuk merefleks
kepada perkara-perkara yang sering mengganggu proses pengajaran dan
pembelajarannya seperti kawalan kelas (pelajar bising, berbual, datang lewat
dan sebagainya), pengurusan masa dan pencapaian objektif pengajarannya.
Oleh itu, perlunya perlaksanaan amalan refleksi ini dilaksanakan secara
berkolaborasi bersama individu-individu pakar dalam proses pengajaran dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pembelajaran agar kritikal episod dapat dikenalpasti oleh guru pelatih dan
direfleks bagi mengatasi kelemahannya.
Kolaborasi adalah perkongsian tanggungjawab antara guru,
pentadbir, rakan setugas, dan ahli komuniti untuk mencapai matlamat yang
sama. Dalam sesi latihan mengajar pula, guru pelatih perlu berkolaborasi
dengan pensyarah dan guru pembimbing dalam usaha membantu guru
pelatih menghasilkan proses pengajaran yang terbaik seterusnya mampu
meningkatkan kefahaman pelajar. Perlaksanaan kolaborasi yang berkesan
secara tidak langsung turut menggalakkan amalan refleksi yang kritikal
(Garfield dan Ben-Zvi, D, 2008). Hal ini disebabkan menerusi kolaborasi,
maklumbalas, cadangan, komen, kritikan serta cadangan membina daripada
ahli dalam kumpulan kolaborasi sentiasa dialu-alukan dan diterima secara
positif bagi menambahbaik proses pengajaran yang dihasilkan. Kolaborasi
juga dilihat berupaya meningkatkan motivasiuntuk guru terutama guru
pelatih untuk melakukan perubahan dalam proses pengajaran dan sebagai
satu medan sokongan dan bimbingan kepada guru pelatih dalam menangani
pelbagai cabaran semasa menjalani sesi latihan mengajar di sekolah.
Kolaborasi yang sering diaplikasikan dalam membantu guru pelatih
memperbaiki kemahiran perlaksanaan proses pengajaran adalah menerusi
perbincangan selepas proses penilaian yang dilakukan oleh pensyarah dan
guru pembimbing. Dengan perbincangan yang teliti dapat membantu guru
pelatih mengenal pasti kelemahan serta kekuatan yang ada pada proses
pengajaran dan pembelajarannya. Malangnya, kajian menunjukkan
kolaborasi menerusi perbincangan antara pensyarah, guru pembimbing
bersama dengan guru pelatih sering kali tidak menjurus kepada bimbingan
yang khusus bagi pengajaran dan pembelajaran sains. Panduan dan
bimbingan yang diberikan adalah berdasarkan kepada pedagogi umum yang
sesuai digunapakai dalam semua mata pelajaran. Keadaan ini adalah
bertentangan dengan gagasan idea konstruktivisme yang mengkritik
pengajaran sains secara tradisional. Teori konstruktivisme beranggapan
bahawa pelajar merupakan individu yang telah mempunyai idea yang
tersendiri dan proses pengajaran yang sesuai adalah dengan menyediakan
pengalaman pembelajaran secara hands on yang berupaya menghasilkan
konflik kognitif dalam minda pelajar. Oleh yang demikian, perlunya
perlaksanaan kolaborasi difokuskan kepada pedagogi yang mengkhusus
kepada pengajaran sains. Gagasan akademik yang dikenali sebagai
pengetahuan pedagogi kandungan sains telah dikemukakan oleh pengkaji
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pendidikan sebagai satu kerangka yang merangkumi beberapa komponen
penting dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran sains.
PPK didefinisikan sebagai:
‘the most useful forms of content representation, the most
powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations and
demonstration-in a word, the ways of representing and
formulating the subject that makes it comprehensible for others’.
Pengetahuan pedagogi kandunganjugamerupakan satu perancangan
pengajaran yang berdasarkan kepada teori konstruktivis. Teori ini
menekankan bahawa pendidik bukan lagi hanya berperanan sebagai
penyampai ilmu pengetahuan akan tetapi bertanggungjawab untuk
mencabar pengetahuan sedia ada pelajar bagi memperolehi tahap
pemahaman yang terbaik dan berupaya diadaptasikan dalam pelbagai situasi.
PPK juga dianggap sebagai satu proses pemindahan dua domain utama
pengetahuan iaitu pengetahuan pedagogi dan pengetahuan terhadap mata
pelajaran ke dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran.
Terdapat empat komponen utama dalam pengetahuan pedagogi
kandungansebagaimana yang dikemukakan oleh Gess-Newsome, pertama;
pengetahuan terhadap isi kandungan mata pelajaran, kedua; pengetahuan
terhadap kelemahan dan idea awal pelajar, ketiga; pengetahuan terhadap
kurikulum dan keempat; pengetahuan terhadap strategi pengajaran.
Magnusson et al pula menyarankanterdapat lima komponen penting dalam
PPK terhadap pengajaran sains iaitu:
Orientasi terhadap pengajaran sains.
Bahagian ini bertindak sebagai peta konsep yang memberi panduan
pengajaran sains berasaskan objektif harian, isi kandungan, penggunaan
buku teks, bahan bantu mengajar dan proses penilaian.
Pengetahuan terhadap kurikulum sains
Terdapat dua kategori dalam pengetahuan terhadap kurikulum sains
iaitu; pertama; pengetahuan terhadap matlamat dan objektif sains dan
kedua; pengetahuan terhadap kurikulum khusus sains.
a. Pengetahuan terhadap matlamat dan objektif sains merupakan
pengetahuan terhadap garis panduan yang digunakan dalam pengajaran
sesuatu topik atau apa yang perlu dicapai pelajar bagi sesuatu
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pengajaran. Selain itu, pengetahuan ini juga melibatkan pengetahuan
terhadap pengetahuan sedia ada pelajar mengenai topik yang perlu
b. Pengetahuan terhadap program khusus kurikulum pula melibatkan
pengetahuan guru terhadap kurikulum sains tersebut merangkumi
pengetahuannya terhadap program dan bahan-bahan pengajaran yang
sesuai dengan sesuatu topik khusus.
Pengetahuan terhadap pemahaman pelajar terhadap topik sains
Ianya meliputi dua kategori iaitu pengetahuan yang diperlukan
untuk pembelajaran danpengetahuan terhadap topik yang seringkali
dianggap sukar oleh pelajar.
a. Pengetahuan yang diperlukan untuk pembelajaran merangkumi
pengetahuan guru tentang pengetahuan sedia ada dan strategi
pembelajaran pelajar dalam memahami perkonsepan sains.
b. Pengetahuan terhadap kesukaran yang dihadapi oleh pelajar dalam
sesuatu konsep merujuk kepada pengetahuan guru terhadap konsep
sains yang abstraks, pengajaran yang membantukan daya inkuiri dan
miskonsepsi pelajar.
Pengetahuan terhadap pentaksiran dalam sains.
Terdapat dua kategori dalam bahagian ini iaitu pengetahuan
terhadap dimensi pembelajaran sains yang perlu ditaksir dan pengetahuan
terhadap kaedah-kaedah pentaksiran;
a. Pengetahuan terhadap dimensi pembelajaran sains yang perlu ditaksir
adalah merupakan pengetahuan guru terhadap aspek penting dalam
pembelajaran pelajar yang perlu ditaksir bagi sesuatu topik sains.
b. Pengetahuan terhadap kaedah-kaedah pentaksiran terdiri daripada
pengetahuan guru terhadap kaedah yang terbaik untuk mentafsir aspek
pembelajaran pelajar bagi sesuatu topik khusus dalam sains.
Pengetahuan strategi pengajaran sains.
pengetahuan terhadap strategi pengajaran khusus untuk mata
pelajaran sains dan pengetahuan terhadap strategi pengajaran khusus bagi
topik tertentu dalam sains.
a. Pengetahuan terhadap strategi pengajaran khusus untuk mata pelajaran
sains adalah melibatkan pengetahuan guru terhadap pendekatan
pengajaran yang dibina khusus bagi menyampaikan pengajaran sains
secara keseluruhan.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
b. pengetahuan terhadap strategi pengajaran khusus bagi topik tertentu
dalam sains melibatkan pengetahuan guru terhadap strategi pengajaran
khusus untuk memahami sesebuah perkonsepan sains.Terdapat dua
strategi iaitu persembahan dan aktiviti.
Merujuk kepada komponen-komponen yang terdapat dalam PPK
dalam sains, jelaslah ianya mengintegrasikan kesemua intipati terpenting
dalam proses pelaksanaan pengajaran dan pembelajaran sains yang amat
penting untuk dipertekankan semasa perlaksanaan amalan refleksi secara
kolaborasi antara pensyarah dan guru pembimbing dengan guru pelatih
sains. Perbincangan yang menjurus kepada komponen penting dalam PPK
sains ini berupaya membantu guru pelatih mengesan kritikal episod dan
merefleksnya bagi menambahbaik keberkesanan proses pengajaran dan
pembelajarannya sepanjang sesi latihan mengajar. Sehubungan itu, kajian ini
dijalankan bagi mengenalpasti bagaimanakah pensyarah dan guru
pembimbing menerapkan amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi yang berfokuskan
kepada PPK sainsmenerusi perbincangan sebaik sahaja guru pelatih sains
selesai melaksanakan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran di dalam kelas.
Bagi melaksanakan kajian ini, pendekatan secara kualitatif dengan
rekabentuk deskriptif telah digunakan. Data dikumpulkan menerusi rakaman
pemerhatian terhadap sesi perbincangan yang dilakukan oleh pensyarah atau
guru pembimbing bersama guru pelatih sains sebaik sahaja sesi penyeliaan
dilaksanakan dan laporan penilaian yang disediakan oleh pensyarah dan guru
pembimbing semasa proses penyeliaan dijalankan. Persampelan bagi kajian
ini melibatkan seramai 15 orang guru pelatih sains yang sedang menjalani
sesi latihan mengajar selama 12 minggu di sekolah-sekolah menengah. Selain
itu, kajian juga turut melibatkan 7 orang pensyarah dari Fakulti Pendidikan
dan 14 orang guru pembimbing dari sekolah menengah. Kesemua responden
dipilih menerusi kaedah persampelan bertujuan yang bersesuaian dengan
pendekatan kualitatif sebagai reka bentuk kajian.
Bagi memperoleh data yang diperlukan, pengkaji telah merakamkan
sesi perbincanganyang dilakukan oleh pensyarah dan guru pembimbing
terhadap guru pelatih sains. Seterusnya, rakaman yang diperolehi diproses
dan kemudian ditranskrip bagi membolehkan perlaksanaan teknik analisis
dokumen. Transkrip perbincangan yang dihasilkan dan laporan penilaian
daripada pensyarah dan guru pembimbing yang diperolehi dianalisis dengan
menggunakan teknik analisis kandungan. Melalui teknik ini, data yang
diperolehi dibaca, diteliti berulang kali dan dikategorikan kepada beberapa
pola yang menunjukkan penerapan amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
berfokuskan kepada PPK sains. Seterusnya, pola-pola yang mempunyai ciriciri sama akan disatukan dalam kategori yang sesuai. Ia dilaksanakan bagi
memudahkan proses perbandingan untuk mengenalpasti persamaan yang
wujud. Dapatan yang diperolehi dibandingkan dengan literatur yang
berkaitan dengan perlaksanaan amalan refleksi yang berkesan.
Dapatanyang diperolehi menerusi laporan penilaian dan rakaman
perbincangan antara guru pelatih sains, pensyarah dan guru pembimbing
menunjukkan kolaborasi yang diberikan oleh pensyarah dan guru
pembimbing berfokus terhadap elemen-elemen penting dalam pengetahuan
pedagogi kandungan iaitu (1) isi kandungan kimia, (2) kepentingan topik
kimia, (3) kesukaran pelajar, (4) strategi pengajaran yang digunakan dan (5)
teknik penilaian yang diaplikasikan. Berikut adalah penerangan penerapan
amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi terhadap PPK sains;
Amalan Refleksi Secara Kolaborasi Melalui Perbincangan Terhadap Isi
Kandungan Kimia
Kolaborasi antara pensyarah dan guru pembimbing dengan guru
pelatih sains terhadap isi kandungan kimia dapat dilihat menerusi laporan
penilaian yang diberikan;
Concept developmentwas done superficially.
Teacher explanation too moderate
You need to be more relaxed
Master your content teaching for a better teaching delivery.
(Laporan Penilaian 2, Uddin)
Berdasarkan kepada laporan penilaian di atas, menunjukkan
kolaborasi yang terjalin di antara pensyarah pembimbing dan guru pelatih
sains. Daripada komen yang diberikan menjelaskan pensyarah pembimbing
berusaha membantu mengenalpasti kelemahan guru pelatih sains semasa
menyampaikan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran mengenai isi
kandungan kimia. Selain itu, perbincangan terhadap isi kandungan kimia juga
dapat dilihat menerusi transkrip perbincangan antara pensyarah dan guru
pembimbing yang telah dirakamkan;
:Saya perasaan tadi ..awak agak gugup sikit
mengajar? Kenapa ya?
:Memang saya nervous Dr. ...lebih-lebih lagi ada
masalah teknikal masa saya nak mulakan
pengajaran..jadi semua serba tak kena...
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
:Takpe ni saya observe baru kali yang pertama
jadinya memang saya datang tujuannya untuk
membantu awak. Jangan tertekan sangat ya .
Baiklah dari pemerhatian saya, awak sepertinya
masih kelam kabut dalam pengajaran kali ini.
Saya lihat isi kandungan yang nak disampaikan
agak kurang jelas dan tidak berkembang hingga
ke akhir pengajaran. Apa sebenarnya masalah
awak ye.. .
:Maaf Dr. saya memang kurang bersedia untuk
mengajar topik ini. Saya sendiri tidak
memahaminya dengan mendalam tentang topik
ni. Apa yang saya lakukan hanya berpandukan
kepada buku teks.
:Oo awak tak kuasai contentla...Tapi ini kan
subjek kimia tingkatan 4 bukannya kimia organik
yang susah tu...
:Aah tapi bila kena ajar sendiri, jadi serba tak
:Jadi saya harap lain kali sebelum mengajar awak
kena buat pembacaan dulu, kaji dulu topik yang
nak disampaikan apa yang sering pelajar silap
dalam topik ni, kemudian barulah cari strategi
pengajaran yang bersesuaian...
(Transkrip Perbincangan 1, Uddin)
Daripada perbincangan yang dilakukan, amalan kolaborasi dapat
dikenalpasti menerusi pandangan pensyarah pembimbing kepada guru
pelatih sains. Pensyarah pembimbing menyatakan guru pelatih sains
terhadap penguasaan isi kandungan pengajaran yang disampaikan. Menerusi
refleksi secara kolaborasi yang berteraskan PPK sains, pensyarah pembimbing
meminta guru pelatih sains memperbaiki kelemahannya dengan sentiasa
menguasai topik kimia yang hendak disampaikan.
Menerusi amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi sebegini guru pelatih
sains berupaya menumpukan refleksi mereka terhadap aspek PPK yang amat
dikehendaki dalam membangunkan keprofesionalan guru. Walau
bagaimanapun dapatan ini bertentangan dengan kajian Zakaria secara
tinjauan ke atas 112 guru pelatih di Universiti Perguruan Sultan Idris yang
mendapati bimbingan guru pembimbing hanya menumpukan terhadap
penguasaan kaedah pengajaran tanpa menekankan aspek kandungan.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Perbezaan yang wujud mungkin disebabkan oleh latarbelakang pensyarah
pembimbing daripada bidang yang berbeza. Mohd Zolkifli et al., pula
mendapati pensyarah pendidikan yang mempunyai kepakaran yang berlainan
dengan mata pelajaran pengkhususan guru pelatih kurang berupaya
memberikan justifikasi dan kritikan terhadap kandungan kimia semasa sesi
Topik Kimia dalam Kehidupan Seharian
Berikut adalah antara laporan penilaian yang diberikan oleh guru
pembimbing yang merujuk kepada kolaborasi terhadap kepentingan topik
kimia dalam kehidupan seharian;
Guru perlu bersoal jawab supaya pelajar berfikir kaitan
pembelajaran dengan kehidupan seharian..
(Laporan Penilaian, Pensyarah Pembimbing)
Perlu berikan contoh-contoh yang sesuai supaya pelajar dapat
kaitkan konsep dalam kehidupan seharian dan memudahkan
mereka terlibat dalam aktiviti.
(Laporan Penilaian, Guru Pembimbing)
Melalui laporan penilaian di atas dapat membuktikan bahawa guru
pembimbing menekankan amalan refleksi tentang kepentingan konsep kimia
yang disampaikan dalam kehidupan seharian sekaligus menunjukkan
wujudnya kolaborasiantara guru pembimbing dan guru pelatih sains melalui
hasil perbincangan terhadap salah satu elemen penting ppk ini. Selain itu,
dapatan yang sama turut ditunjukkan dalam perbincangan yang dilakukan
antara guru pembimbing dan guru pelatih sains. Berikut merupakan
sebahagian daripada transkrip perbincangan tersebut;
:ok kita tengok cara induction set tadi? Dalam
dua botol tadi awak isikan dengan asid sulfurik ye
:Tak satu asid sulfurik satu asid hidroklorik.
:ok awak dah bagi dua asid, kita jangan terus
pergi pada tajuk, tanya dengan diorang antara
dua asid tu mana yang biasa guna, kalau diorang
dah baca tentu di orang dah tahu jawapan, kalau
tak mesti 50/50. Bila diorang dah bagi idea
barulah kita tarik idea mereka kepada tajuk,
sebenarnya tadi sepatutnya tajuk tak boleh
keluar dulu
: aah tadi saya dah terkeluarkan tajuk dulu
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
: Bila dah tahu asid sulfurik paling banyak
digunakan, baru cakap kat mana bahan yang
sering guna asid sulfurik, setelah pelajar bagi
responsdan barulah kita bagi tajuk kita?
: aah
(Transkrip Perbincangan 3 As)
Jalinan kolaborasi yang wujud antara guru pembimbing dan guru
pelatih sains yang diperolehi menerusi laporan penilaian dan transkrip
perbincangan jelas menunjukkan guru pembimbing membimbing guru
pelatih sains dengan memberikan cadangan penerapan contoh aplikasi
kepentingan topik kimia dalam konsep yang disampaikan. Dapatan ini sejajar
dengan kajian yang dilakukan oleh Crassborn et al [25]. Mereka telah
mengkaji model 2 dimensi bagi guru pembimbing iaitu MERID yang memberi
panduan kepada guru pelatih untuk merefleks terhadap masalah tertentu
yang dihadapi dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran.mendapati guru
pelatih dapat menumpukan proses refleksi terhadap PPK. Goodnough dalam
kajiannya juga melaporkan dapatan yang sama bahawa dengan penyediaan
panduan kepada guru pembimbing dapat menggalakkan refleksi terhadap
ppk dapat dibangunkan dalam kalangan guru pelatih ke arah melaksanakan
proses pengajaran yang bermakna [26].
Amalan Refleksi Secara Kolaborasi Melalui Perbincangan Berteraskan PPK
Terhadap Kesukaran Pelajar
Kolaborasi antara pensyarah dan guru pembimbingdengan guru
pelatih sains dapat dilihat menerusi sebahagian daripada laporan penilaian
yang membincangkan kesukaran pelajar sebagaimana berikut:
Pelajar masih lemah dalam mengira kemolaran asid. Guru perlu
bimbing mereka semasa menjawab soalan tersebut supaya
pelajar nampak cara penyelesaiannya
(Laporan Penilaian, Guru Pembimbing Aya)
Guru perlu cari miskonsepsi pelajar semasa mengajar topik ini
(Laporan Penilaian, Pensyarah Pembimbing Rin)
Berdasarkan kepada laporan penilaian yang diberikan kepada guru
pelatih sains menjelaskan bahawa pensyarah dan guru pembimbing telah
mula berkolaborasi tentang kesukaran pelajar dalam mempelajari konsep
yang disampaikan semasa perbincangan dijalankan. Mereka juga turut
membincangkan cara bagi mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Selain itu,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi ini juga dapat dilihat menerusi sebahagian
daripada transkrip perbincangan antara guru pelatih sains dengan guru
pembimbing berikut;
:Baiklah daripada proses p&p yang dilaksanakan,
ada tak rasa sesuatu yang tak kena? Atau ada tak
masalah yang dihadapi?
:Em....rasanya memang ada?
:Apa agaknya masalah tersebut?
:tadi masa sesi soal jawab saya ada perasan
beberapa pelajar masih tak faham tentang
konsep asid kuat dan asid lemah dengan darjah
penceraian ion H+
:bagaimana awak dapat tahu?
:Saya guna teknik ‘interview-about-instance’.
Saya bertanya soalan terus kepada setiap kump
:Macammana pula cara yang awak guna untuk
atasi masalah tu?
:Saya cuba kaedah “restructuring of ideas”. Saya
ingat dengan adakan soal jawab bersama pelajar
dapat selesaikan masalah tu tapi rupanya
denganteknik tu saya hanya dapat kesan dan
betulkan salah faham beberapa orang pelajar
sahaja. Ada pelajar yang saya tanya namun dia
diam aje kawan sebelah dia yang jawabkan. Tu
yang buat saya rasa terkilan sikit....
(Transkrip Perbincangan 2, Ayu)
Amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi yang berlaku antara guru
pembimbing dan guru pelatih sains semasa perbincangan ditunjukkan
melalui usaha menyelesaikan permasalahan yang dihadapi semasa
melaksanakan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Pensyarah pembimbing
didapati terus melontarkan pertanyaan yang mendorong guru pelatih sains
meluahkan peristiwa yang mengganggu kelancaran proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran yang telah dilaksanakan. Tindakan yang dilakukan oleh
pensyarah pembimbing ini sejajar dengan dapatan kajianterhadap kesan
penyeliaan berdasarkan kepada Model Bawang (Onion Model) ke atas
seorang guru pelatih. Hasil kajian mereka, didapati enam langkah penyeliaan
yang menjurus kepada teras refleksi efektif dalam membangunkan guru
pelatih sebagai guru yang berjaya dan langkah pertama yang dilakukan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
semasa sesi penyeliaan adalah mengalakkan guru pelatih untuk menyedari
kelemahan yang ada pada pengajaran yang dilakukan.Dapatan ini juga
konsisten dengan kajian Van Djik yang mengemukakan Model ERTE. Beliau
mendapati pengaplikasian model tersebut mampu membentuk sikap guru
untuk peka kepada miskonsepsi pelajar dan merefleks bagi mengatasinya.
Amalan Refleksi Secara Kolaborasi Yang Terhasil Melalui Perbincangan
Terhadap Kaedah pengajaran
Kolaborasi yang dilaksanakan terhadap kaedah pengajaran bertujuan
membantu guru pelatih sains dalam memperbaiki dan menambahbaik
kemahiran pengajaran mereka. Kolaborasi yang dijalankan dapat dikesan
menerusi laporan penilaian yang diberikan oleh pensyarah pembimbing;
Teknik demonstrasi mesti diperbaiki. Semua pelajar perlu nampak
demo yang dilakukan. Avoid chorus answer.
(Laporan Penilaian, Pensyarah Pembimbing)
Menerusi laporan penilaian di atas menjelaskan kolaborasi antara
pensyarah dan guru pelatih sains dalam teknik demonstrasi yang merupakan
salah satu kaedah pengajaran. Pensyarah pembimbing menyatakan
kelemahan terhadap teknik demonstrasi yang dipamerkan. Selain itu,
kolaborasi yang dijalankan juga dapat dilihat menerusi transkrip
perbincangan antara pensyarah pembimbing dan guru pelatih sains;
:Terangkan bagaimana you demonstrate kepada
:Mula-mula saya setup apparatus di depan
kelas....pelajar kemudian saya letakkan bahan
larutan yang saya gunakan
:Daripada pengalaman yang awak pelajari di
UTM, apakah fungsidemonstrasi?
: em... untuk membuat pelajar faham apa yang
akan dipelajari.
: please focus on what you did? I want to ask you
how about your students? Adakah mereka dapat
perhatikan proses demonstrasi yang awak
lakukan dengan jelas?
: Pelajar yang duduk di hadapan dapat lihat
dengan jelas, tapi pelajar yang dibelakang tidak
dapat memerhatikan sepenuhnya demo yang
dilakukan. Jadi saya ada minta mereka untuk
pergi ke depan bagi melihat dengan lebih jelas.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
: ok….how to improve it?
:Ya saya tahu, kita kena bahagikan pelajar
kepada beberapa kumpulan yang kecil, dan
panggil pelajar mengikut kumpulan tersebut bagi
melihat demo yang dilakukan tapi masa
pengajaran saya tidak mengizinkan…
:ok bagaimana nak atasi …bagaimana nak
tingkatkan pengurusan masa awak…mungkin
awak boleh lukiskan satu diagram pada kad pada papan hitam ke…gunakan power
point ke dan senaraikan prosedur demostrasi
(Transkrip Perbincangan 1, Azni)
Berdasarkan kepada petikan transkrip perbincangan di atas, jelas
menunjukkan pensyarah pembimbing melaksanakan amalan refleksi secara
kolaborasi bersama guru pelatih sains dalam usaha untuk memperbaiki
prestasi pengajaran yang dilaksanakan. Melalui kolaborasi yang dijalankan,
mempamerkan bahawa pensyarah pembimbing berusaha membantu guru
pelatih sains untuk mengenalpasti kelemahan pengajaran dan membimbing
guru pelatih sains untuk meningkatkan keberkesanan proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran berasaskan kepada strategi pengajaran yang bertepatan bagi
konsep kimia. Hal ini berbeza dengan kajian yang mendapati kebanyakan
bimbingan ynag diberikan kepada guru pelatih sains tidak berfokuskan
kepada pengejaran sains. Percanggahan ini besar kemungkinan disebabkan
pendedahan pensyarah dan guru pembimbing kepada cara bimbingan yang
berfokuskan kepada pengetahuan pedagogi kandungan sains. Sebagaimana
penemuan Henissen yang melaporkan pensyarah dan guru pembimbing yang
diberikan latihan dan model bagi melaksanakan bimbingan kepada guru
pelatih berupaya melaksanakan tugas dengan baik dan seterusnya
membantu guru pelatih mengajar dengan lebih berkesan.
Amalan Refleksi Secara Kolaborasi Yang Terhasil Melalui Perbincangan
Terhadap Tenik Penilaian
Amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi yang berlaku antara pensyarah dan
gurupembimbing dengan guru pelatih sains dapat dilihat menerusi
sebahagian daripada laporan penilaian yang melibatkan perbincangan
terhadap teknik penilaian sebagaimana berikut:
Baiki teknik penyoalan.
(Laporan Penilaian, Pensyarah Pembimbing)
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guru perlu berikan soalan dengan lebih jelas
(Laporan Penilaian, Guru Pembimbing)
Banyakkan pertanyaan kenapa? bagaimana? mengapa? kepada
(Laporan Penilaian, Guru Pembimbing)
Berdasarkan kepada laporan penilaian di atas, jelas menunjukkan
pensyarah dan guru pembimbing berkolaborasi dengan guru pelatih sains
yang berteraskan ppk menerusi pemberian cadangan bagi menambahbaik
proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran terutama bagi menilai tahap
kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep kimia yang diajarkan. Kolaborasi
terhadap teknik penilaian juga turut diperolehi menerusi transkrip
perbincangan antara guru pelatih sains dengan guru pembimbing. Berikut
adalah sebahagian daripada petikan transkrip tersebut;
:Pasal concentration tadikan...ha yang kuprum
sulfat..terdetik dalam hati sayalah..dalam
gambar pada skrin power tadi awak letak 50-50
tapi kat botol reagent tu saya tengok satu botol ni
sikit lepas tu satu botol lagi banyak?Ha tu yang
tak berapa clear sangat...
: aah la saya tersilap la tu
:Tak kisahlah mungkin pelajar tak perasan
sangat. Lepas tu bila pelajar jawab more intensity
tadi, awak sepatutnya tanya kenapa?why?
:ooo kenapa ye...untuk apa ye cikgu
:Why the color more darker?kan pelajar dah
belajar kan bahagian mol dan zarah jadi saya
rasa mereka dah boleh jawab....nanti awak
bagitau la because the number of particle is more
higher than the other solution...haa sebab tu
warnanya makin pekat....
: Kena tanya macam tu ye cikgu?
: Memang sepatutnya dari semasa ke semasa kita
kena tanya why?why? contohnya perbezaan
antara kopi pekat dengan kopi cairkan warnanya
berbeza kan disebabkan oleh concentration jadi
kena tanya pada pelajar kenapa?
: em....
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
:Soalan kenapa ni kita boleh guna kat banyak
tempat....sebab bila tanya kenapa ni kita bukan
nak uji tahap kefahaman pelajar je tapi kena nak
tengok bagaimana dia dapat aplikasikan apa
yang kita dah ajar....ok
(Transkrip Perbincangan 3, Nora)
Transkrip perbincangan di atas, jelas menunjukkan berlakunya
amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi antara guru pelatih sains dan guru
pembimbing terhadap teknik penilaian dalam proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran. Guru pembimbing didapati menekankan perlunya guru pelatih
sains mengemukakan soalan bersifat terbuka seperti kenapa dan bagaimana
bagi membantu pelajar berfikir dan mengaplikasikan kefahaman yang telah
dipelajari. Dapatan kajian ini selari dengan kajian Ruiz-Primo dan Furtak[30]
yang mendapati guru yang dibimbing oleh pensyarah merefleks berpandukan
kitaran ERSU (Elicits a question; the Student responds; Recognizes the
student’s response; Uses the information) berupaya mengesan tahap
kefahaman pelajar dalam serta meningkatkan keberkesanan terhadap ppk.
Keseluruhannya didapati berlakunya amalan refleksi secara
kolaborasi antara guru pelatih sains dengan pensyarah dan guru pembimbing
melalui perbincangan terhadap pengetahuan pedagogi kandungan sains.Hasil
amalan refleksi secara kolaborasi sedemikian didapati berupaya membantu
menerapkan kepentingan pengetahuan pedagogi kandungan sains ke atas
proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang dijalankan oleh guru pelatih sains.
Daudelin, M. W. (1996). “Learning from experience through reflection”.
Organizational Dynamics 24(3): 36-48.
King. S. E. (2008). “Inspiring critical reflection in preservice teachers”. Physical
Educator. 65(1): 21-30.
Hatton, N. dan Smith, D. (1995). “Reflection in teacher education: Towards
definition and implementation”. Teacher and Teacher Education.
11(1): 33-49.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Sparks-Langer, G., & Colton, A. (1991). “Synthesis of research on teachers’
reflective thinking”. Educational Leadership, 48(6), 37-44
Nor Hasniza Ibrahim, Johari Surif, Mohamad Yusof Arshad dan Mahani
Mokhtar. (2012). “Self Reflection Focussing on Pedagogical Content
Knowledge”. Paper presented at International Conference on
Teaching & Learning in Higher Education
Hanipah Hussin. (2004). Learning to be Reflective: From Theory To Practice
Malaysia Experiences. Tanjung Malim: Universiti Pendidikan Sultan
Nor Hasniza Ibrahim dan Mohammad Yusof Arshad. (2006). “Pemikiran dan
amalan Refleksi Di Kalangan Guru Pelatih Sains Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia”. Sarjana, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Russel, T. (2005). “Can reflective practice be taught?” Reflective Practice.
6(2): 199-204.
Garfield, J., dan Ben-Zvi, D. (2008).Developing Students' Statistical Reasoning:
Connecting Research and Teaching Practice. Springer.
Bradbury, L. U. dan Koballa, T. R. (2008). “Mentor advice giving in an
alternative certification program for secondary science teaching:
Opportunities and roadblocks in developing a knowledge base for
teaching”. Journal of Science Teacher Education. 18(2): 817–840.
Loughran, J., Berry, A. dan Mulhall, P. (2006). Understanding and Developing
Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Rotterdam :
Thousand Oaks.
Magnusson, S. Krajcik, J. dan Borko, H. (1999). “Nature, sources and
development of pedagogical content knowledge for science
teaching”. Dalam J. Gess-Newsome, J. danN. G. Lederman, (Eds.).
Examining pedagogical content knowledge: The construct and its
implication for science education. London : Kluwer Academic
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Derry, S. J. 2007. “Video research in classroom and teacher learning
(standardize that!)”. Dalam R. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Barron dan S.J.
Denny. (Eds). Video Research In The Learning Sciences. New Jersey :
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Zakaria,N.(2010). “Keberkesanan Bimbingan Guru Pembimbing terhadap
Latihan Mengajar Guru Pelatih UPSI”. Proceedings of The 4th
International Conference on Teacher Education; Join Conference
UPI & UPSI Bandung, Indonesia, 8-10 November
Mohd Zolkifli Abd. Hamid, Muhammad Rashid Rajuddin dan Megat Aman
Zahiri Megat Zakaria. (2007). “Harapan dan keresahan bakal guru
pelatih dalam praktikum latihan mengajar”. Kertas kerja yang
dibentang di Seminar Penyelidikan Pendidikan Institut Perguruan
Batu Lintang .
Crassborn, F., Hennissen, P., Brouwer, N., Korthagen, F. dan Bergen, T.
(2011). “Exploring a two-dimensional model of mentor teacher
roles in mentoring dialogues”. Teaching and Teacher Education. 27:
Goodnough, K., Osmond, P., Dibbon, D., Glassman, M. dan Stevens. (2009).
“Exploring a triad model of student teaching: Pre-service teacher
and cooperating teacher perceptions”. Teaching and Teacher
Education. 25: 285–296.
Meijer, P. C., Korthagen, F. A. dan Vasalos, A. (2009). “Supporting presence in
teacher education: The connection between the personal and
professional aspects of teaching”. Teaching and Teacher Education.
Van Djik, E. M. (2009). “Teachers’ views on understanding evolutionary
theory: A PCK-study in the framework of the ERTE-model”.
Teaching and Teacher Education. 25:259–267.
Hennissen, P., Crasborn, F. dan Brouwer, N. (2008). “Mapping mentor
teachers’ roles in mentoring dialogues”. Educational Research
Review. 3:168–186.
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Ruiz-Primo, M. A. dan Furtak, E. M. (2006). “Exploring teachers’ informal
formative assessment practices and students’understanding in the
context of scientific inquiry”. Journal of Research in Science
Technology. 45(4): 497-523.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Ninin Herlina
State University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
herlynasa[email protected]
Separation of political and Education showed the lack of deep
interpretation of human science. However, the good policy will be
obtained by provided militant constituents of education. Here, the
need of education quality improvement not only taken by teacher or
management of an institution, but also in decision-making of
education. The apathetic of educator and administrator of education
became real problem in supporting education be better. Scope of
education should not limited in understanding the material of
education only, the committee of education must also contributed in
managing many social problem of political and education. Both of the
concrete strategic in improving education policy toward qualified
education are deep attention in managing all of committee of
education and political interesting of education committee. Education
quality is not a choice, but the education committee must think to
create an education which has high quality and expected in realizing
life quality of people toward great nation. The government not only
focused in implementing affordable education, but how to improve
the education quality. It will be answered by involvement of
education committee in political issue. Surely it is high time to stop
being frightened by the word. Politics includes the making of
governmental decision, and the effort of struggle to gain or keep the
power to make those decisions. Public schools are part of
government. They are political entities. They are a fit subject for study
by political scientists. So, the complex effort to create high quality of
education is which transmit the exact education character of political
member decision-making related to education.
Keywords: political, education, committee, policy
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Political is the way to control or manage our life. How can be the
political has been separated in the way of life. Political also can be defined as
science which it talked about government policies or policy of state; or as the
discipline which discuss about life, the government existence and everything
related to government or state. One dimension is to know or learn about the
forces or influences or well actors who are behind on the course of state or
government (Syarbini, 2004)
Education is a fundamental human right and essential for the
exercise of all other human rights. We also find the political criteria at the
education institution which does not support positive effects of educational
quality. The primary source of the problems that beset boards of education is
the dominance of interest-group politics in the election or appointment of
school boards and in the daily operation of board members after they have
been elected or appointed. However, the main purposes of education
become less attention. Parents of students with handicaps demand that the
schools provide appropriate services to their children, regardless of cost; at
the same time, the taxpayers’ coalition insists that the costs of education be
contained, if not decreased. In every such case, special-interest groups see
acquiring control of seats on the school boards as the key to gaining the
influence needed to safeguard their particular interests.
Then, the policy makers of education do not provide exact rules in
managing and controlling the development of education well. All the
components of education loss their deep defined of education. In fact, the
implementation of education lost way. The educational methods of yesterday
are already hopelessly out of place and out of date. Small traditional minds,
unable to understand new problems, new needs, new urges and new
aspirations of youth, are responsible for all the problem and adjustments
that plague the student world. A principal or an education officer or a
director of public instruction, must essentially be an educational adviser and
leader of new thought. But the hang-over of the slavery days still stays. Some
principals pride themselves on being too busy with administration and office
work to be left with any time to teach classes, which work they feel to be of
secondary importance. Stephen Leacock makes fun of educational bosses
who sit in officers turning over files and dictating notes to stenographers on
cases, work which any office superintendent could do as well (Sirozi, 2004).
A successful administrator in other departments has to be a strong man,
whose job is to secure conformity to rules and regulations. On the other
hand, an educator has to think new thoughts and float new ideas. It showed
that the educational committee involves the educationist need understand
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
the rules in creating all about educational policies. He is by nature a nonconformist. An educational administrator has to be tolerant of nonconformism, if educational advance is not to dry up in the sands of routines,
his feet may be firm on the ground, but his head may be even in the clouds.
Eccentricity, deviationist, not following the letter of the law may be
qualifications in ant, though they would condemn an officer in any other
department. Great thinkers and geniuses plough a lonely furrow and their
great work is off the beaten track. The administrator has to accord special
consideration and status to the teacher, not treat him like a clerk or an other
limb of administration. The teacher as a builder or a creator has to be
permitted a lot of freedom of action and unorthodoxy of approach, if novelty
and spectacular progress are to be ensured.
Based on the mentioned fact, the involvement of committee of
education must be improved toward high quality of education. The
involvement of educational committee were expected to pay attention of
mechanism of making policy, so not only to support the education
institutions in small scope, as like in managing establishing infrastructure
only, but also in more areas.
The use of good methodology will affect the result of research. In this
case, the use of methodology involve of the use of any library research
related to the educational policy also about the involvement of education
committee in managing policy. Deep analyzes were obtained on many
sources which stated about the education. However, read the history of
education policy will not be separated from the political role of government.
The aim of this discussion urgently to support all committee of education to
understand their function in managing the quality of education. The
involvement of education committee is the important way in managing exact
policy of education.
Education is organized as a civilizing process and the empowerment
learners who last a lifetime. Hosted by providing exemplary education, will
build and develop the creativity of learners in the learning process.
Supervisory position and the very strategies will influence the quality of
education as a whole. Supervisors are responsible for the functional and the
process of learning, education and guidance in the schooling environment at
various levels and types of education.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Education held by empowering all components of the community
through participation in the administration and quality control of education
services. Society plays a role in improving the quality of educational services
which include planning, monitoring and evaluation program, the board of
education and education through the school committee. School committees,
as autonomous institutions, set up and play a role in improving quality of
care by giving consideration, guidance, and support personnel, facilities, and
infrastructure, education and supervision at the level of the education.
Educational systems include entire communities, not simply the
children and families who are most directly affected by a particular school at
a particular time. Education is about the future as well as the present, the
universal as well as the particular. Arguing for charter school districts rather
than charter schools acknowledges this and at the same time recognizes the
merit of operating schools under the direction of a clear charter to which
those who are responsible for the schools are clearly and publicly committed.
Emphasizing the community need not denigrate the family and the values it
brings to the educational enterprise. Indeed, properly drawn, a charter
system could give the needs and values of families and children a much more
central place in the decision making processes of our schools than is now
customary. There is no reason, for example; that a community could not
insist that a charter include provisions for ensuring that the needs of
children, youths, and families be central to the operation of the schools.
Today when boards of education try to use child and family benefit as a
measure of worth, they often run head-on into interest group politics that
militate against this goal (Schlecthty, 1997).
Political education will take place policy as the important domain in
organizing the education system. There are two groups that need attention in
the educational decision-making mechanisms. The first group of policy
makers and policy implementers both education groups. The political way of
education is mentioned as the link to both groups. Drafting education policy
can be done by the Ministry of National Education with the involvement of
various elements such as universities, professional groups and also
educational. Then the concept was submitted to the DPR/DPRD as decision
National educations system as stipulated in law No. 20 of 2003,
should be the touchstone of political ethics education in Indonesia either for
education policy makers, policy implementers and connecting education.
(Philip C, 1997) means that the politicians and officials of the state must have
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
same understanding and perception related to implementation of the
national education system consistently. Poorly understood and has not
implemented the system of national education Indonesia is the duty and
responsibility of educational policy makers and executors, namely the
politicians, the president and his ministers and the national education
department including the legislative, executive and public.
These relatively fragmented approaches often fail to provide a
cogent account of the policy process within a clearly articulated framework
for analysis. It is often difficult, therefore, for those studying policy and for
those working in schools that are subject to educational policies to make
sense of the policy context within which they have to operate. Nevertheless,
it is important to recognize that those working in schools are not merely
passive receivers and implementers of policy decisions made elsewhere. In
many cases, they are able to shape the policy process, especially at
institutional level (Meranto, 1967).
All those working in schools and colleges must make sense of their
policy context. Policy agendas require a response as those in the institution
are faced with the task of implementing policy directives. Those in senior
leadership positions face a particular challenge as they often represent the
interface between the organization and the external policy environment. Key
decisions must be made relating to the interpretation and implementation of
external policy agendas-those decisions will in turn reflect a complex mix of
factors including personal values, available resources and stakeholder power
and perceptions. Understanding and anticipating policy therefore becomes a
key feature of ‘leadership’ (Day et al. 2000)- understanding where policies
come from, what they seek to achieve, how they impact on the learning
experience and the consequences of implementation are all essential
features of educational leadership.
Key practitioners in schools and colleges, rather than being passive
implementers of policies determined and decided elsewhere, are able to
shape national policy at an early stage, perhaps through their involvement in
interests group, professional associations or their favoured position in
government policy forums and think-tanks. Policy making as process is
therefore not something that happens exclusively ‘up there’, but is
something that happens ‘down here’ too.
The discussions stated that the community has great functions in
conducting education policy as well. The committee of education must really
understand their functions and their responsibility in developing the quality
of education. It can be stated that:
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
1. Political education is not only discusses about the way to create education
at all, but how to make the people understand the main purpose of
education. It means the politicians also have deep understanding in
managing educational policy toward good educational system.
2. The education is needed by all people and all people must control the
process of education system, it means that the parents, professional also
needed in supporting of education development
3. The education policy is not only the responsibility of educationist or
parliament, but the committee of education has more responsibility in
managing the education policy that suitable in improving the quality of
Asnawi Syarbini. (2004). Politik Pendidikan Indonesia, Serang: Untirta Press.
Les Bell and Howard Stevenson. (2006). Education Policy; Process, Themes
and Impact. London: Routledge.
Muhammad Sirozi. (2004). Politik Kebijakan Pendidikan di Indonesia; Peran
Tokoh-Tokoh Islam dalam Penyusunan UU No. 2/1989, Jakarta: INIS.
Philip C. Schlecthty. (1997).Inventing Better Schools; An Action Plan for
Educational Reform, USA: Jossey-Bass.
Warsito Utomo. (2001).Pendidikan yang Mendidik: Butir-butir Pemikiran
Strategies-Reflektif di Seputar Pendidikan, Jakarta: Yudhistira.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
(A Survey at PT. KAL STAR AVIATION, 2011)
Francis Tantri
State University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
This study aims to investigate the relationship between
organization culture and interpersonal communication with work
achievement. A survey has been conducted at PT. KALSTAR
AVIATION with a total sample of 25 which has been selected
randomly. This study proved that there is positive and significant
relationship between: (1) the relationship of organizational culture
with work achievement (ry1=0.625), (2) the relationship of
interpersonal communication and work achievement (ry2=0.619),
and (3) the relationship of organizational culture and interpersonal
communication with work achievement (ry12=0.706). Based on the
findings it can be concluded that, work achievement can be
improved through organizational culture and interpersonal
Keywords :organizational culture, interpersonal communication,
work achievement
The degrading of employe work achievement influence the company
revenue, and the condition will force the company to face difficulty in
covering the operational cost. When such condition is not handled
thoroughly, the company will suffer lost and eventually end up in bankruptcy.
At this point the company management needs to optimise the employee
ability and skill. By upgrading the employee work achievement, eventually
the company productivity will be able to be boosted. However it is not as
easy as it seemed to be, but based on the result of problem identification,
the researcher found two dominant variables which corelate with the
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
employee work achievement aspecially at PT. KAL STAR AVIATION are,
organization culture factor and employee interpersonal communication.
Therefore, the writer wish to do research with the title “The relationship
between organization culture and Interpersonal communication with the
employee work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION”. The intention of
the research is to; get the picture, whether there is a relationship or not
between both variabel with the employee work achievement of PT. KAL STAR
Based on the above thought, basically every company, in whatever
field they are involved in, the main target is to get profit through the
employee contribution. The main result the company demand from its
employee is their work achievement is in line with standard determined by
the company. Employee work achievement will bring alog impact to the
employee or the company. Employee work achievement is the supporting
indicator and the measurement whether the conpany grows or not.
Bernardin (2009:379) define work achievement as: “achievement is defined
as the record of outcome produced on a specified job function or activity
during a specified time period”. Dharma (1991:4) defined work achievement
as “something is being made or the service product manufactured or given by
someone or a group of people. Prabowo as quoted by Umam (2010:199)
define work achievement as more of success level earned by somebody. A
typically similar statement coined by Armstrong (2006:7) saying that work
achievement is defined simply in the context of measurement result.
Colquitt, LePine and Wesson, (2009:37) define work achievement as
“the value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute, either positively
or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment” While Lawler as
quoted by As,ad (1991) said that work achievement is a result achieved by
employee in doing their job or work efficiencly and effectively. And this is the
work success obtained by someone from his / her own action or work.
Work achievement is influenced by two main things, which are
organization factor (company) and personal factor. Organization Factor
(perusahaan) covers; merit reward system, supervision quality, work load,
value, and interest as well as physical condition of work environment. While
personal factor covers; character personality, seniority, length of service,
ability, or skills related to work area and life satisfaction (Umam,2010:199200). High work achievement will up-grade the company productivity and
down-grade employee turnover rate, as well as strengthening the company
management. But on the other hand, low level of employee achievement can
reduce the work quality and productivity level, the uprising of employee turn
over will eventually influence the company revenue. (Umam,2010: 200).
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
From the above description, it can be concluded that employee work
achievement is actually the job implementation level by someone, by using
the ability and skill in accordance with the predetermined limitations.
In relation to the employee work achievement, organization culture
is also the focus variabel which act as a cause factor of low employee
achievement, because each organization has certain customs, norm and
values or regulation which must be agreed upon. According to Kreitner
(2007:81-82) organization culture consist of four functions; (1) providing
member identity of an organization, (2)facilitating collective commitment, (3)
empowering social system stability, and (4) forming member behaviour helps
understanding their environment. While Luthans (1995: 497) declare that
organization culture is very complex, and there should be norms and values
shared together which guide member behaviour and possess behavioural
regulated characteristics which is acclaimed and appreciated, the existance
of norms, dominant values, philosophy, rules and organization situation. The
construction of organization culture are behavioural regulation, norms,
dominant values, philosophy, rules and organization situation.
Colquitt interprete organization culture as ”organizational culture as
the shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules, and
values that shape the attitudes and behaviors of its employee” means
organization culture as social knowledge in an organization including rules,
norms, and the value which form workers’ attitude and behaviour.
Organization culture is a deployment pattern which covers norms, values,
faith, tradition, and myth formed in the long process of an organization.
Robbins (2009: 586) explain that a strong organization culture
possesses 7 characteristics; (1) Inovative and ready to take risk. An
organization with strong culture have high level of inovatition andthe
organization members were given a chance of experimenting in accordance
with organization vision without worrying about the risk they face when they
fail; (2) Highly attentive on details each time an activity is carried out; (3)
Purpose oriented (outcome), not process so that many alternatives can be
explored and developed by organization memeber; (4) People oriented,
potrayed from the frequency and intensity of human resources development;
(5) Team oriented. A strong organization culture always design the work
activity of its member based on groups within the organization; (6) Agressive,
creating competitive working environment which enable its member become
more agressive in finding new tings; and (7) Future development stability.
From the study it can be concluded that, organization culture is the
norms, faith value, ritual and tradition which is expressed in the form of
unwritten rules on how to think, feel, and act within an organization. A side
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
from organization culture, interpersonal communication is also important
and influencial to work perormance especially for company that deals with
service. Because without the existance of communication, no interaction
would take place among others which needs accurate information.
Newstrom and Davis in Rigolosi (2005:172) announce that communication is
the sending of information and understanding from a person to the other.
Communication always involves sender and receiver.
In Kreitner’s (2007:444) opinion the quality of interpersonal
communication in an organizationis very important. A person with a good
communication ability will help his/her group in making a more innovative
decision and fre quently promoted, rather than individual with less
developed communication ability. Howeverthe definitionis accepted
universally based on communication competence, this is a achievement index
based on individual ability to effectively use communication behaviour in
certain context.
Interpersonal communication can be classified into a one-way or
two-ways type. A one-way is when the message sender sends informationin
the form of instruction, without expecting any discussion or feed back. On
the other hand, a two-way communication takes place when there is
information exchange. (Encyclopedia of Small Business, 2009:1-2). It is
explained further, that interpersonal communicationcan be devided in a
variation of styles, or a set of behaviour which comprises of controlling style
which is a one-way communication form intended to direct other people and
obtain their willingness. Egalitarian style is a tow-way communication form
which involves information exchange. In certain situation especially when
cooperation is needed this style is more effective than controlling style.
Relinquishing style is much more appreciative rather than directing. Leader
will accept other people ideas, with the intention of diverting communication
responsibility to the receiver. This style is effective whenthe receiver have
the knowledge, experience, and the willingness to accept responsibility.
Withdrawal style is much more like less communication. Manager using such
style tries to avoid the usage of his/her influence and would probably show
less interestor unwilling to participate in a discussion. While Luthans
(2005:383-391) stated that, communication flow could take three-ways,
which are: downward communication, upward communication, and
horizontal communication.
Accroding to Devito (2005:259), effective interpersonal
communication can be viewed from three point of views, which are :
(1) humanistic, with openness, emphaty, supporting attitude, positive
attitude, equality and other qualities which create meaningful interaction,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
honest and satisfying; (2) pragmatic, stressing more on self confidence,
unity, interaction management, self-observation, exspression, orientation
towards other people; (3) social association and equality.
From the above descriptionit can be concluded that interpersonal
communicationis the intensity of face to face interaction between two or
more people , delivering wishes of building cooperation, solution finding, and
asking other people to determine the purpose and together and deciding
ways of achieving aims.
This research is conducted at PT. KAL STAR AVIATION for
approximately 2 (two) months, carried out in July - August 2011. Prior to data
gathering activity several preparation activity related to the research, which
are ; theoritical framework outlining, and research instrument outlining. This
research use survey as the methode, through correlationnal approach. The
research will study or analize the relationship between research variabel, and
measure the contributionof both free variables X1 and X2 with bound variabel
With the population of the whole PT. KAL STAR AVIATION
employee,while the amount of sample taken randomly as much as 25 people.
And to obtain the data of the three variables using primary data through
questionnaires, and the amount of statement of each variabel is equal of 30
items, so there are totally 90 items. And uses the analysis technique of ;
(1) data description which covers the average, range, deviation standard,
median, modus and equiped with frequency and histogram, (2) analysis
requirement test which covers normality test andvarian homogenity test, and
(3) hypotesis testis done by using regression anaysis andsimple correlationn
for each free variable against bound variable, and double regression ganda
for the whole free variables with the bound variables, as well as double
correlation and partial.
The Description of Work Achievement
The employee work achievement data consisting of30 items of
statement so that theoritically the score ranging between 30 - 150. Based on
the data obtained, it is known that the empirical score ranging between 117 133. The calculation of the score distribution reaches the score of 3114,
standard deviation = 4,538, variant = 20,590, modus =1206, median = 125
andthe average empirical score of 124,56.
Then the following frequency distributionis made as follows:
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Table 1. Frequency Distribution of employee work achievement score
117 - 119
120 -122
123 - 125
126 - 128
129 - 131
132 - 134
Frequency (%)
Frequency (%)
The table 1 above shows that40% respondents (KAL STAR AVIATION
employee) which picture employee work achievement falls into high
category, meaning that employee work achievement reach very good level of
score range between 126-134. And as much as 24% respondents have
medium level of work achievement, meaning employee work achievement is
good at the score range of 123-125.While 36% employee work achievement
of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION fall into medium category. However the employee
work achievement can be categorized as good, because the amount of score
of the average employee work achievement is higher than its theoritic
score.The distribution of employee work achievement score can visually be
displayed in the form of histogram on the following Graph 1:
Graph 1. Employee Work Achievement Histogram (Y)
Descriptionof Organization Culture Data
Organization culture data consistof 30items of statements so that
theoritically the score is between the range of 30 - 150. Based on the data
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
obtained, it is known that the empirical is well within range of 118 - 139. The
score distribution calculation result the score amount of 3229, standard
deviation = 6,562, varian = 43,057, modus =135, median = 130 and the mean
of 129,16.
Then the following frequency distribution is made :
Table 2. Frequency Distribution of Organization Culture Score
Class Interval
118 - 121
122 -125
126- 129
130 - 133
134 - 137
138 - 141
Frequency (%)
Frequency (%)
The above Table 2 shows that 52% respondents describe the
organization culture falls into a very good category, as much as 8%
respondents have organization culture in good category. while 40%
respondents view organization culture not very good. But in general it
describes the organization culture of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION company as
good, due to a bigger average of empirical score than the theoritical score.
The distribution of organization culture score can visually be projected in
histrogram on the following Graph 2 :
Graph 2. Organization Culture Histogram
Description of Interpersonal Communication Data
Interpersonal communication data consist of 30 statement items so
that the theoretical score is well within the range of 30 - 150. Based on the
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
data gained, it is known that the empirical score is well between the ranges
of 117 - 138. The calculation of the score distribution end up in the total
score of 3192 with the standard deviation of = 6,530, variance = 42,643,
modus = 117, median = 127 and the mean 127,6. Then the frequency
distribution is made as follows :
From the above Table 3 shows that 44% respondents represent
interpersonal communication f alls into very huge category , as much
as 20% respondents interpersonal communication fall into high category,
While about 36% respondentswhichviewinterpersonal communication falls
intomedium category, meaning that the whole employee interpersonal
communication falls into high intensity category, due to the average score of
interpersonal communication empirically higher than the theoretical score.
Table 3. TheFrequency Distribution of Interpersonal Communication Score
117 – 120
121 -124
125 – 128
129 – 132
133 – 136
137 – 140
Frequency (%)
Frequency (%)
The distribution of interpersonal communication score can visually be
displayed as shown in the form of histrogram asin the following graph 3:
Graph 3. Histogram Score of Interpersonal communication
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Hypothesis Testing
The Relationship between Organization Culture (X1) with Work Per
achievement (Y)
The first hy pothesis testing proved that there is a positive
relationship between Organization culture (X1) with employee work
achievement (Y), which resulted in regression equality Ŷ = 68,719+0,432X1,
based on the price of Fcount a value of 14,759 is obtained, while the price of
Fcount linearity result of 2,421 is obtained on the significance level of 0,05 as
large as 3,02. Due to the smaller price of Ftc(count) from the price of Ftable, so the
regressionis linear. To find out the level of significance and the linearity of
regression equality can be seen at the following Table:.
Table 4. ANAVA for Significance Test and Linearityof Regression Model Y over
X1 (Ŷ = 68,719+0,432X1)
Total reduced
=0,05 =0,01
Notes :
= very significant Fcount (14,759) >Ftable (7,88)
= non-significant Fcount (2,421) <Ftable (3,02), linear regression
= degree of freedom
= Quadrate Amount
RJK = Average quadrate Amount
Then the relationship between organization cultures with work
achievement can visually be described as follows:
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Graph 4. The Relationship Graph of Organization Culture
with Employee Work Achievement
The above graph describe the regression equality can be used to
predictthe escalation or the degradation of the work achievement of
employee of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION, in other words, each escalation of
organization culture (X1) as much as 0,432 will also be followed by the
escalation of work achievement at parameterof 68,719.
The power of relationship between organization culture with the
employee work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATIONcan be pointed out by
correlation coefficient of ry1 as much as 0,625 and determination coefficient
as much as 0,391, shows a variant of 39,1% at employee work achievement
of KAL STAR AVIATION company. The calculation result of bivariate
correlation coefficientis summarized on table 5:
Table 5. Summarization of Relationship of Organization Culture (X1) with
Employee Work Achievement (Y)
3,842** 2,060 2,787
** Significant at α = 0,01
The realtionship between Organization Culture with the employee
work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION remains positive and
significant although the interpersonal communication variabel is controled
through partial correlationan test. For better understanding observe the
following table:
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Table 6. Summarization of Calculation Result of Partial Correlationbetween Y
over X1 when controled by variabel X2
Coefficient of
= significant
= Correlation of Coefficient Y and X1 when X2 is controled
The control over interpersonal communication variabel (X2) has
impact on decreasing organization culture with correlationn of employee
work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION from 0,625 to 0,431.
Significant test of partial coefficient shows that tcount = 2,238> ttable(0,05;25) =
2,060 which means the correlationn coefficient of organization culture with
the employee work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION when the
interpersonal communication quality is controled reamins significant.
The Relationship between Interpersonal Communications (X2)with Work
Achievement (Y)
The test result of the seco nd hypothesis proved that there is a
positive correlation between interpersonal communication (X2) with
 =
employee work achievement (Y), which result in regression equality of 
69.608 + 0.430 X2, with the price of Fcount gained as much as 14,316, while the
price of Ftabel at a significant level of 0,01 as much as 7,88. Because the price
of Fcount is bigger than the price of Ftabel, therefore the equal regression is
highly significant. While the price of Ftc(count) linearity is smaller 0,619 F table
3,21 To find out the level of significance and the linearity of equal regression
can be seen at the following Table :
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Table 7. ANAVA for Significance Test and Linearityof Regression Model Y
over X2(Ŷ = 69.608 + 0.430 X2)
=0,05 =0,01
Total reduced 24
Notes :
highly significant Fcount (14,316) >Ftable (7,88)
non-significant Fcount (0,619) <Ftable (3,21), linear regression
degree of freedom
Quadrate Amount
Average Quadrate Amount
Then the relationship between organization culture and work
achievement can be viewed visually as follows:
Graph 5. The Graphic of the Relationship of Interpersonal Communication
with Employee Work Achievement
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
The above graph reflects regression equality which can be used to
predict the escalation or the degradation of employee work achievement of
PT. KAL STAR AVIATION, in other wordseach escalation of interpersonal
communication (X2) as much as 0, 430 will be followed by the escalation of
employee work achievement at a parameter of 69,608.
The power of relationship between interpersonal communication
with employee work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION can be pointed
out by correlation coefficient of ry2 as much as 0,619 anddetermination
coefficient of 0,384, shows that 38,4% varians which took place on the work
achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION employee. The calculation result of
bivariate correlation coefficient is summarized on table 8;
Table 8. Summarization of Correlation Coefficient between
Interpersonal Communication (X2) with Employee Work Achievement (Y)
** Highly Significant at α = 0,01
The relationship between interpersonal communicationwith the
employee work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION remains positive and
significant although it is controled by organization culture through partial
correlationn test. To get clearer understanding the result of partial
correlation test can be seen at the following table:
Table 9. Summarization of Calculation Result Partial Correlation
between Y over X2 when controled by Variabel X1
= signifikan (tcount 2,166 > ttabel 2,060)
= Correlation Coefficient Y and X2 if X1 is controled
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
The control over organization culture variable gives impact on the
decrease of interpersonal communication with the correlationn of employee
work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION from 0,619 to 0,419. Partial
coefficient test shows that tcount = 2,166> ttable (0,05;25) = 2,060 which means the
correlation coefficient of interpersonal communication with the employee
work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION if the organization culture
quality is controled it remains significant.
The Relationship between The Organization Culture and Interpersonal
Communication Jointly with Work Achievement
The test result of the third hy pothesishas verify that there is a
positive relationship between organization culture (X1) and interpersonal
communication (X2) with employee work achievement (Y), which results in
regression equality of Ŷ = 53,331+0,281X1+0,273X2. The Significance test of
double regression equality can be viewed on the following table 10.
Table 10. Summarization of ANAVA Calculation Result
for Significance Test and Regression Double Linearity from
 = 53,331 + 0,281X1 + 0,273X2
Regression Equality 
24 494,160 α =0,05 α =0,01
246,061 123,031 10,910** 3,44
22 248,099 11,277
** = Highly significant (Fcount = 10,910> Ftable = 5,72); Dk = degree of
freedom; JK = Quadrate Amount; RJK = Average quadrate amount
Based on the above double regression significance test, the price of
Fcount obtained is 10,910while Ftable with 2 numerator and dk 22 at the actual
significance level α = 0,01 as much as 5,72. Therefore Fcount> Ftable it can be
concluded that the Y over X1 and X2 regression is highly significant (means) at
the rate of significance 0,01.
The power of relationship between organization culture (X1) and
interpersonal communication(X2) together with employee work achievement
(Y) shown by Ry.12 = 0,706. Significance test of double correlation coefficient
included on the following table 11 .
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Table 11. Summarization of Significance Test Result
of Double Correlation Coefficient between X1, and X2, with Y
0,05 0,01
X1, and X2
0,706 0,498 10,910 ** 3,44 5,72
with Y
** Correlation Coefficient highly significant Fcount= 10,910> Ftable = 5,72
Based on significance test of double correlation coefficient it is found
that Fcount (10,910) > Ftable (5,72). It can be concluded that regression Y over
X1 and X2 is highly significant. Then with the determination coefficient of R2y.12
=0,498 means 49,8% the variation of employee work achievement (Y) can be
described by organization culture (X1), and interpersonal communication (X2)
Based on the study result and the above discussion it can be
concluded that :
Firstly, the analysis result shows that there is a relationship between
organization culture with work achievement, so it can be concluded that to
escalate the employee work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION, it is
considered necessary to upgrade organization culture by focusing on
upgrading the indicators.
Secondly, the analysis result shows that there is relationship between
interpersonal communications with employee work achievement, it can be
concluded that in order to upgrade the work achievement of PT. KAL STAR
AVIATION employee, it is considered necessary to escalate the interpersonal
communication by focusing on the upgrade of its indicators.
Thirdly, the analysis result shows that there is a relationship between
organization culture and interpersonal communication along with employee
work achievement, it can be concluded that in order to upgrade the
employee work achievement of PT. KAL STAR AVIATION, it is considered
necessary to upgrade organization culture and
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Based on research result, conclusion, and research implication,
there several suggestions that can be stated related to employee work
achievement over the escalation of organization culture and
interpersonal communication, as follows:
Firstly, the organization or company should, (1) in placing an
employee on certain position, be in accordance with the employee
qualification; (2) create a secure and comfort environment for the
employee so that they could deliver the most result in their job;
(3) provide financial support to the employee fairly so that they could
fulfill their basic need; and (4) Provide a standout employee with
reward in the form of variuous training for the sake of qualification up grade
Secondly, employee should, (1) acknowledge the mission or goals
of the organization or company and fully support them; (2) establish a
sound relationship with others do the best effort of fulfilling the needs.
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As’ad, M. (1991). Psikologi Industri. Yogyakarta : Liberty.
Bernardin, H. John. (2009). Human Resources Management, an
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Colquitt, Jason.A., Jeffery. A. Lapine., and Michael, J. Wesson.
(2009).Organizational Behavior: Improving Achievement and
Commitment in the Workplace. New York: The McGraw Hill
Dharma, Agus, (1991). Manajemen Prestasi Kerja (Pedoman Praktis bagi
Penyelia untuk Meningkatkan Prestasi Kerja). Jakarta: Rajawali
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
DeVito, Joseph A. (2005). The Interpersonal Communication Book.New
York: Harper Collins College Publication.
Edgar, Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2009.Retrieved
Encyclopedia of Small Business, Interpersonal Communication, 2009
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Behavior.New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
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Yuwono, dkk, Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi.
Luthans, Fred. (1995). Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill
James L. Gibson., Jhon, M. Ivancevich., James H. Donnelly., dan Robert
Konopaske. (2006). Organizations: Behavior, Structure,
Processse. New Yor: McCraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Rigolosi, Elaine La Monica (ed). (2005). Management and Leadership in
Nursing and Health Care: An Experiential Approach, New York:
Robbins , Setphen. P., & Judge, Timothy, A, (2009). Organization
Behavior 13th, New Jersey : Pearson Prentice Hall.
Robbins, Stephen. P., dan Mary. Coulter. (2005). Management. New
Jersey: Upper Saddle River.
Stephen, Stolp., and Stuard. C. Smith. (1995). Transforming School
Culture Eugene: University of Oregon.
Sudjana. (1992). Metode Statistik. Bandung: Tarsito.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Sugiyono. (2005). Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Bandung: CV. Alfabeta.
Umam, Khaerul. (2010). Perilaku Organisasi. Bandung : Pustaka Setia.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Intan Irawati1, Kun Sri Wardhani2
Madrasah Aliayah Negeri 15 Jakarta, Indonesia1,2
[email protected], [email protected]
The skill program is important to student social life. The insertion of
skill program in State Islamic Senior High School (MAN) has
objective to create students behaviour to be skilled, trained, quick
and precise in performing craft activity and engineering technology
as well as processing technology that are really needed by human
beings. There are three state islamic high schools in Jakarta have
inserted the skill program to lesson, MAN 8, MAN 13 and MAN 15.
The skill programs are automotive, dressmaking, carpentry,
computer technique, graphic design, electronic technique and
cookery. The research has aimed to describe the student’s
perception on skill program implementation. The subjects of
research are 342 participants, 101 participants from MAN 8, 148
from MAN 13 and 93 from MAN 15. Research type was qualitative
equipped as well with quantitative data. Instrument of research has
reliability 0.819.
The data was collected by questionnaire
distribution technique and analyzed by descriptive statistic.The
results of study described that 51.5% students join skill program
encourage by their selves, 73.4% like the skill program, 46.5% said
that the skill program is useful, 70.8% thought that there are
relevance between skill and the lesson, 52.9% answered that the
skill equipment is complete, and most of them (76%) hope the
developing skill program at their school. Based the objective, the
outcomes from study will be recommended to improve and develop
the skill program in MAN Jakarta.
Keywords: implementation, skill program, perception, student,
islamic senior high school.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
At the end of 1980s, world of islamic education has entered period of
integration by emergence of the Law Number 2/1989 on System Of National
Education. Under the rules of integration, madrasah was defined as common
school which characterized by Islam. What madrasah differ from common
schools is its’ contain of curriculum, and it was that number of lessons
relating to religion in madrasah was more that those in common schools. In
the Decision of Minister Number 52, mentioned that madrasah consists of
MIN (State Islamic Elementary School), MTsN (State Islamic Junior School),
and MAN (State Islamic High School).
Madrasah that has excellence in developing religious sciences and
religious moral is easier to create conducive environment, whether physical
environment or non physical. It’s caused Islam has clearly taught about
fairness, ethos of work, discipline, and responsibility. It makes madrasah can
contribute to responsive toward demands of future. In turn the students of
madrasah are expected to human resources of Indonesia who are able to
response their future exactly and correctly.
The Ministry Of Religious Affairs since 1980s has launched skills
education at regular MA in extracurricular programs in various structured
skills fields (Sumarsih,, 2010). Most students MA who come from middle
and low level economy are one of potentials that must be paid attention in
education. The Ministry built MAK, Madrasah Aliyah Keterampilan
(Vocational Islamic High School) in Garut, Kendal and Jember in 1989
(Nanang, 2012). The insertion of skill program in MAN has objective to create
students behaviour to be expert, trained, quick and precise in performing
craft activity and engineering technology as well as processing technology
that are really needed by human beings. The curriculum gives the students
skills in preparation become persons who have the technical excellence and
skills for working after graduating. One of the reasons is caused some
students do not continue to pursue higher education. Moreover, if the
student can afford to pursue advanced education, the skills they got from MA
will also be very useful.
There are three high schools in Jakarta have inserted the skills
program to lessons they are MAN 8, MAN 13 and MAN 15. The skill programs
are automotive, dressmaking, carpentry, computer technique, graphic
design, electronic technique (AC and refrigerator) and cookery. The research
of problems identification in implementation program is needed for
improving and developing program.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
The research problem is how are students’ skill programs perception
about their motivation in joining skill program and teaching-learning process,
facilities, relevance between skills and lessons, and also the continuing of
their program in MAN Jakarta? This research has some advantages for
stakeholders as follows: a) Problems identification of skills program
implementation in MANs Jakarta, b) Recommendation that can be reference
for principles MAN and Ministry of Religious Affairs in improving and
developing skills program implementation.
Madrasah Aliyah
Madrasah Aliyah (MA) is common high school which characterized by
Islam and implemented by Ministry Of Religious Affairs (Nur, 2009).As an
education institution, MA could be agent of changes which transfers the
value, the knowledge and the skill (Nunu Ahmad, et al, 2010). Skill education
as in Sumarsih (2010) in general education has some objectives likes:
a. Develop students’ knowledge through learning form, characteristics,
the use and utility, tool, material, process and technique of making
various products useful for human life.
b. Develop creativity of students through various creation and
technology. The students can be professional, cooperative, tolerance,
leadership and entrepreneurship attitudes.
c. Implant appreciation on various works and life order including art
work and the culture.
MA skills education vision has been set to prepare skilled,
independent, religious and future–insight human resources. It’ll be possible
that future, madrasah will be a place for developing arts and be centre for
skill in order to face future challenge.
Perception is defined as way a person to pay attention to something
or how does somebody see something (Alex, 2003). The perception is a
process when we interpret stimulus’ paths in environment. Perception has
correlation with cognition. If perception is the way to recode stimulus instead
cognition gives the stimulus meaning. The same object can be interpreted
differently by the others because the different attention, need, the value,
character, etc.
This research collects perception data of students to skill programs in their
schools. The data include student motivation, subject task/lesson and
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
facilities, instructor competence, continuing and developing program. The
data will analyze and will be recommended for stake holders to improve skills
programme implementation.
Research type was qualitative equipped as well with quantitative
data. This research will describe data with statistic descriptive. The locations
of research were three State Islamic High Schools in Jakarta. They were MAN
8 and MAN 15 in East Jakarta, and MAN 13 in South Jakarta.
The research data were collected by instrument which designed base
the construct:
Table 1. Instrument’s Construct
Instrument Construct
No Item
Student motivation
Subject Task/lesson and
Instructor Competence
Continuing and developing
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 16,
13, 14, 15
The questionnaire had good reliability. It could be seen from
Cronbachs’ Alpha value 0.830 which computed by SPSS 18.0. The data was
collected by questionnaire distribution technique and analyzed by descriptive
Data was taken from students’ questionnaire responses which
change in data ordinal 1 – 4. The favourable answered has score 4 and
unfavourable has score 1.The students as participants from different school
and different skills program have asked theirs’ perception about skill
program. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic in distribution frequency,
sum, average and others. The results of analyzes explained below.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
1. The participant’s profile is described in the tables 2 - 4:
Table 2. Number of Participant in Each School
High school
MAN 13
MAN 15
Number of participant
Table 3. Number of Participant of Each Skill Program
Skill program
Number of participant
Electronic Technique
Computer Technique
Graphic Design (GD)
The students who join the dressmaking program in this research were more
than else. It’s caused each school had this program. The skill programs in
MAN Jakarta are described in this table:
Table 4. Distribution Skill Programs in Each School
Program/ DressSchool
MAN 13
MAN 15
GD Cookery
2. The total scores of questionnaire had showed that automotive participants
get the average total scores higher than else and computer technique
program get the minimum scores. It meant more automotive participant
had best perception on their program than else participants program.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Instead, the computer participants program had worse perception on
their skill program than else.
Table 5. Average of Total Scores Questionnaire
Average of total
3. The instrument was designed to observed the students’ perception of the
skill program in theirs school. The items questionnaire were about the
(1) Student motivation (2) Subject Task/lesson and facilities (3) Instructor
Competence and, (4) Continuing and developing program. The students’
response as follows:
a. The people who motivate them to join the skill program, 51.5%
participants said that their selves who choose the program, 43.3%
obligated by school, 2.6% by their parents and 2.3% joined the program
because their friend advice.
b. About their parents’ response on skill program, 70.5% supported, 21.1
% very supported, 1.5% less supported and 0.3% not supported.
c. About the advantage of the skill program, 46.5% answered useful,
41.5% very useful, 10.5% neutral and 1.5% said not useful
d. About participants felt on their skill programs, 73.4% like their skill
programs, 13.5% felt very like, 6.4% neutral and 6.4% unlike.
e. About participants’ attendance, 67% always attends, 29.8% often, 8%
sometimes/frequents, and 0.9% never attends.
f. About their attitude at skill class, 41.5% depend on their mood, 29.2%
serious, 19.6% very serious at their class, and 9.4% neutral.
g. About the time sufficiency they learn, 59.6% answered sufficient,
23.4% less sufficient, 13.5% very sufficient and 3.5% not sufficient.
h. About the relevance between skill and the task, most of them 70.8%
said relevant, 14.3% very relevant, 12.3% neutral and 1.8% irrelevant.
i. About the task which they learned, 57.3% interesting, 18.1% very
interesting, 22.5% neutral and 1.8% not interesting.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
j. About their knowledge improvement in joining skill programs, 50%
answered more improving, 28.9% improved, 14.6% average and 5.6%
k. About the skill equipment completeness, 52.9% answered complete,
36.3% less complete, 7% said very complete, and 3.5% not complete.
l. About the using of the equipment in learning, 39.2% said often, 33%
sometimes, 26.6% always using the equipment and 0.9% said never
m. About the instructor’s attendance, 45.3% always present, 37.1% often,
16.4% sometimes, and only 0.9% said never.
n. About the instructors’ competence, 59.9% answered competence,
29.2% said very competence, 9.1% less competence, and 0.6% said
o. About the number of skill instructor, 52.9% answered sufficient, 9.1%
said more instructor, 32.5% less instructor, and 5.3% said very less.
p. About the importance of industries apprenticeship, 41.2% answered
important, 37.7% very important, 10.5% said neutral, and 10.2% said
not important.
q. About the partnership with industries, 41.5% answered not
implemented yet, 35.1% implemented, 21.3% had already good
implementation and 1.5% unnecessary.
r. About the continuing program, 76% to be developed, 19.9% to be
improved, 1.5% should be reduced, and 2% should be cut.
4. The highest students’ motivation was found in graphic design
participants, then automotive participants, electro participant,
carpentry, dressmaking and the lowest was found in computer
technique participants.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Graph 1. Participants Motivation Scores in Each Skill Programs
5. The motivation of students’ automotive program in MAN 8 was lower than
MAN 15. It could be concluded from theirs’ responses at questionnaire.
Graph 2. The Compare of Motivation Scores in Automotive Programs
6. The motivation of students’ dressmaking program in MAN 15 was highest
than in MAN 8 and MAN 13. It could be concluded from theirs’ responses
at questionnaire.
Graph 3. The Compare Motivation Scores in Dressmaking Programs
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
7. The automotive program had higher scores in teaching-learning process,
facilities and relevance between skills and lessons than graphic design,
electro, carpentry, dressmaking and computer technique program.
8. Based students’ perception, the teaching and learning process, facilities
and equipments automotive program in MAN 8 were better than in MAN
Graph 4. The Compare Scores in Teaching-Learning Process
and Facilities Automotive Programs
9. Teaching and learning process, facilities and equipments dressmaking
program in MAN 15 was the best than in MAN 8 and MAN 13.
Graph 5. The Compare Scores in Teaching-Learning Process
and Facilities Dressmaking Programs
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
10. Based students’ perception, the instructors’ competence of automotive
program was higher than electro, dressmaking, cookery, computer
technique, carpentry and the lowest was graphic design instructor
Graph 6. The Compare Scores in Instructor Competence
11. The most of participants’ expect that the skill program will be continued,
improved and developed. It showed from the participants responses
which higher than score 3 as we see in the graphic below.
Graph 7. The Participant Responses in Each Programs
There were some points could be concluded from this research:
1. The study describes the students’ skill program perception, the results
showed that 46.5% participants thought the skill program was useful and
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
41.5% said very useful; 73.4% participants felt like to their skill programs
and 13.5% very like; 70.8% said that the skill and the tasks were relevant
and 14.3% said very relevant; after join the skill program 50% felt their
knowledge more improve; 59.9% thought that the instructors’ were
competence and 29.2% very competence; and most of them, 76% expect
the program to be developed, 19.9% to be improved.
2. The condition in teaching-learning process, facilities and relevance
between skills and lessons were good, the best was automotive program,
then graphic design, electro, carpentry, dressmaking and the worse was
computer technique program.
3. The most of participants expect the skill program will be continued,
improved and developed.
Ahid, Nur. (2009). Problematika madrasah aliyah di Indonesia. Kediri: STAIN
Kediri Press.
An-Nahidl, Nunu Ahmad. et. al. (2010). Spektrum Baru Pendidikan Madrasah.
Jakarta: Puslitbang Pendidikan Agama dan Keagamaan.
Anwar, Sumarsih. et. al. (2010). The effectiveness of learning system in the
madrasah aliyah. Jakarta: Board for Religious Research and
development of Jakarta.
Fathurochman, Nanang. (2012). Madrasah sekolah islam terpadu, plus dan
unggulan. Depok: Lendean Hati Pustaka.
Sobur, Alex. (2003). Psikologi Umum. Bandung: Pustaka Setia.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Zubaidi, et. al. (2005). Profil madrasah aliyah. Jakarta: Bagian Data dan
Informasi Pendidikan, Dirjen Kelembagaan Agama Islam,
Departemen Agama RI.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
(An idea of Conducting Revitalization of Role and Function of
Institutional Supervision in the Educational Decentralization)
Hamzah B. Uno1, Rasuna Talib2
State University of Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia1,2
[email protected], [email protected]
Now days Education in Indonesia has been at the level of a
paradigm shift that was from centralized to decentralized one. This
policy changes demand the policy of function and role, as well the
change of supervision institutions in education. The main tasks of
the school supervisor in education unit is to conduct assessments
and guidance to carry out the functions of supervision, both
academic and managerial supervision. Therefore, there are at least
three regulatory activities should be carried out, for instance:
(1) Conducting training school quality development, the
performance of principals, teacher performance, and performance
of the entire school staff, (2) Evaluating and monitoring the
implementation of school programs and their development,
(3) Conducting an assessment of the processes and outcomes of
school development program with the school stakeholders
collaboratively. The problem is whether the supervisor is able to
perform independently supervision or not? It is the fact that
supervisors can not do much when they find a particular policy
undertaken by National Education, notabaly dealing with the
policy of the regional leader. It is pointd out that the duties of
supervisors is only to change the former duty as the school
principal. Even, it is also an extreme that the teachers or principals
who has problems in conducting their duties are recommended as
the supervisor. There has been no recruitment of regulatory models
such as the recruitment of teachers, while the supervisor duty are
regarded as complicated one than the teacher duty. What kind of
the best model of recruitment supervisor? How is the designs of
supervision institutions in order to maintain the quality of
educational outcomes? The description of this paper will provide
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
direction and input in conducting the recruitment of education
supervisors. This spectrum needs revitalization of institutions of
education supervision to become an independent supervisor and it
also builds an agency or institution in the country, named
recruitment model of the regulatory and supervisory institutions of
education as offered in this article can be a solution to improve the
quality of education in Indonesia.
Keywords: revitalization, institutional supervision, supervisor
Education is a universal aspect that has always been and should have
in human life. Without education, human life will certainly lead to a static life,
with no progress, even it will to regression and extinction. Therefore, it
become an indisputable fact that education is necessary in people's lives.
An expected education system in Indonesia is an education system
that can create qualified citizens, have expertise skills can be used to manage
available natural resources. Education in Indonesia should be able to produce
human resources that are "ready to live" whenever and wherever they are.
Their capability, expertise and skills they possess to manage natural
resources, Indonesian people should be are able to compete globally, which
in turn makes Indonesia has a competitive attraction.
To create quality human resources, education sector must be
managed properly. Many have been done by the government through
various policies to improve the quality of education. One is to increase the
quality of educational supervision in order: (a) what has been formulated in
the implementation of education can go as intended purpose, (b) there will
be control of education, (c) education implementation at schools either the
principal and teachers work according to established rules.
Government policy changes in the implementation of education
which lead the centralization leading to a policy of decentralization have
promoted the need for supervisory changes in education. These changes are
based on the demands of (a) transparency and accountability in the
management of education, (b) the birth of the law that requires teachers and
lecturers should be professional, (c) quality assurance of education, (d) the
principal is an additional task, (e) the assignment of the principal has not
been selected, but likely at the point by the head of education,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
(f) supervisors’ work were impressed that they have the task of replacing
teachers who are almost retire and take full responsibility of school principal
who almost finishes the duty, and (g) they have no special education to
become supervisors of education.
Another thing which also colors a decentralized supervisory job right
now is, supervisors and teachers are difficult to perform duties in a
professional manner, because most teachers are involved in politics, the
teacher must act in order to win the election of certain candicates especially
the incumbant. If incumbant will not be elected then punishment are various,
such as mutation on the position and rotation of duties. It is weaking
teachers’ work and affect the quality of teaching.
Problem Statement
Referring to the background described above, the problem
statements in this study are formulated as follows:
1. How is the mechanism of supervisor’s recruitment in order to obtain
a professional supervisor?
2. How should the institutional superintendent of education supervisors
act in order to be an independent agency for improving the quality of
Main Tasks and Functions of the Supervisors
In general, the main tasks of supervisors (principals and supervisors)
in the education unit is to conduct assessments and guidance to carry out the
functions of supervision, supervision of both academic and managerial
supervisions. Based on the duties and functions of the above, according to
Sujana (2006), there are at least three regulatory activities should be carried
out, they are: (1) Conducting training school quality development, the
performance of principals, teacher performance, and performance of the
entire school staff, (2) Evaluating and monitoring the implementation of the
school program and its development, and (3) Conducting an assessment of
the processes and outcomes in a collaborative school development program
with the school stakeholders.
In a functional regulatory guidelines (2008) stated about the main
duties and responsibilities of the supervisors which include: (1) Implementing
supervision of education at the school in accordance with the assignment in
kindergarten, primary, special schools, junior and senior high school, (2)
Improving the quality of the process of teaching and learning, and the
student learning achievement in order to achieve educational goals.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
The first principal tasks refers to the managerial supervision while the
second refers to the academics supervision. Managerial supervision basically
provide guidance, assessment and assistance/guidance from the program
plan, process, until the outcome. Guidance and assistance are provided to
school principals and all school staff in managing the school or the education
in schools to improve school performance. Related to fostering academic
supervision and assist teachers to improve the quality of the learning
process/guidance and the quality of student learning outcomes.
While the authority granted to the school supervisors include:
(1) selecting and determining work methods to achieve optimal results in
performing the tasks as well as possible in accordance with professional code
of ethics, (2) provides the performance levels of teachers and other
personnel who supervise its factor- determining factors, (3) determine or
propose to provide guidance and coach program. Authority implies the
existence of regulatory autonomy to determine the steps and strategies to
select the procedure for supervisory work. However, supervisors need to
collaborate with principals and teachers to carry out their duties in line with
the development of school principals who have been determined.
Based on the two main tasks, so the activities carried out by
supervisors are: (1) Developing supervisory work program for each semester
and each year at school, (2) Assessing, processing and analysing student’s
learning outcomes and the teachers’ ability, (3) Collecting and processing
data from educational resources, the learning process/guidance, the school
environment that influence the development of student's learning outcomes,
(4) Implementing a comprehensive analysis of the analysis results of various
factors of educational resources as materials for school innovation , (5)
Provide guidance, assistance and guidance to teachers about the learning
process/quality guidance to improve the quality of learning processes and
outcomes, (6) Assessing and monitoring the delivery of education at school
proxies from new students, the learning implementation, test execution until
the release of graduates/diploma grant, (7) Preparing reports of supervision
at school proxies and report to the Office of Education, the School
Committee and other stakeholders, (8) Carrying out assessment of the
supervision of the entire school to the study to establish the supervisory
program the next term, (9) Providing assessment materials to schools in
order to school accreditation, and (10) Providing advice and judgment to the
school in problem-solving faced by schools related to education.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Recruitment Mechanisms of Supervisor
Principal recruitment as a supervisor
During the recruitment of supervisor (principal and school
supervisor) performed by (1) for recruitment of principals drawn from subject
teachers), while (2) for educational supervision is done by (a) recruiting
former principal who approach retirement with full consideration of the
experience as a principal is sufficient to perform supervisory education,
(b) recruiting school principals who usually make trouble, so the recruitment
is likely to secure the problem, (c) recruiting excellent teachers.
Recruitment mechanism as mentioned above is not impossible, but
in the task demands professionalism, a former school principal tends to work
below the standard. Similarly, principals who are in trouble and is appointed
as a school supervisor tends to have difficulty to solve education problems.
Therefore, some considerations in hiring an education supervisor are: (1) for
principals need to consider: (a) the principal Special Education, (b) Principals
education level, (c) Class and rank, (d) working experience, (e) Leadership and
administrators, (f) social sensitivity, (g) Innovation and understanding of
science and technology, (h) scientific personnel Insights, and (i) Moral and
understanding about KKN (Corruption, Collution, and Nepotism).
Regarding the above matters, the recruitment of principals as
supervisors can be done through: (1) Conducting an early observation of
teachers in order coach them in two models of education, (2) line of
academic model and leader candicates model education lines, (3) the duty of
all teachers under 15 years, provided with education or academic training,
(4) Teachers who have reached 15 or above 15 years of teaching are
provided with leadership training as principal candidates, (5) Set the teachers
mutation could be at least 4 years of duty at a school, (6) Teachers who have
served for 5 years in a specific school should be mutated in order to obtain
experience in school management, (7) The movements are directed to
increase school qualification, (8) principals are recruited if they already have
experience in three different schools as a teacher, (9) the recruitment is
selected by teachers from the schools and submitted to the local educational
agency to submit two candidates selected for consideration as the principal,
(10) Selection is done through a test (TPA), Leadership Ability test, the test
of knowledge, science and technology reinforcement test, (11) The
recommended selection to participate in 1 year education, (12) Education
can be cooperated with PTN LPTK, (13) The curriculum developed jointly by
the Department of Education and PTN LPTK.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Recruitment of school supervisor
Recruitment of school supervisors has to be done as the same as
recruiting teachers. It means that instead of averting school supervisors or
principals to teacher supervisor, but supervisors are selected from the CPNS
(civil cervant candidates) as the functional supervisor. Recruitment refers to
the four components of the regulatory standards of the school competence,
they are: (1) component of school supervision, (2) component of professional
development, (3) the technical component of the profession, and
(4) components of the mastery of educational insight.
The first component is the school supervisory competence which
requires ability to be possessed by supervisors, they are: (a) the ability to put
together a program of supervision, (b) the ability to guide teachers and
students, (c) assess the ability of teachers and students, (d) ability to collect
educational resources, (e) the ability to analyze and interpret, (f) the
fostering of teachers and education personnel, and (g) the ability evaluation
monitoring results.
The second component is the development of professional
competencies include: (a) Researching Educational Issues, (b) Providing
Educational Issues Review, (c) Making popular science writing about
education, (d) Write and present scientific paper (e) Writing a book, learning
module, (f) Making guidelines for supervision, (g) Making tips & technical
supervision, and (h) Making appropriate technology.
The third component is the technical field of professional
competence which includes: (a) Creating a learning design, (b) Making
outline of learning, (c) creating a learning unit, (d) mastering teacher taught
lesson material, (e) Planning, developing test, and implementing formative
and summative evaluation and analazingtests, (g) Deciding Score, and
Standards The learning achievement, and (h) Reporting the result of
The fourth component is the competence of the field of educational
insight into areas that include: (a) Mastering of educational Philosophy, (b)
Policy and direction of primary and secondary education, (c) Normative
education rules (act, regulation, presidential and other up in regional rules),
(d) Understanding the strategic program of education, (e) Science and
technology knowledge, (f) using information and communications
technology, and (g) know the natural resources and local culture.
All supervisor competence as described above, should be part of the
instrument to be used to recruit supervisors. In practice for the application of
four tests of competence expected of the prospective supervisors.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Supervisors are expected to recruit people who have appropriate
qualifications in order to improve the quality of our education.
Revitalization of Educational Institutions Supervisory
Basic assumptions of conducting institutional revitalization of supervisor
1) Institutional supervisor of education needs to be revitalized.
2) Supervisor must be independent right now
3) Supervisors become an autonomous agency within the area
4) LPMP function to do education and learning standard
5) Executive operations of education office
6) Supervisors function to monitor the implementation of education
refers to educational standard developed by LPMP
7) There is a need to put a special system for institutional development,
function and role of supervisors.
8) Provision of special education for supervisors.
Institutional structure of supervisors
Institutional structure of the supervisor of education can be made at the
provincial and district/city level. Institutions at the provincial level is called
Supervisory Board of Education Level 1, and institution in the Regency/City is
called Supervisory Board of Education Level II. Provincial board watch over
non-academic nature, while at the Regency/City level oversee academic
matters. This position is similar to the Provincial Education Department for
the regulatory agency level I, and Education Office of the Regency/City level
II. Institutional structures as drawn below.
LPMP (Institute for Education Quality Assurance) is an institution that
distributes standard implementation from education office. Thus the Board
of Supervisors work under the established-standards in addition to the
National Education Standards Agency, and set by LPMP.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Figure 1. Institutional Structure of Education Supervisory Board
Establishment of alternative policy determinants of supervisory board of
1) APSI (Association of Indonesian Supervisory) perform periodic review of
2) Discussion of the concept of autonomization of the supervisory center and
regional Dikbud
3) Support from the legislative
4) Executive policy (regional regulation)
5) Commitment to improve the quality
6) Input the program into the National budget / regional budget
7) Establishment of expert groups and consultants
8) Transparency and accountability of performance
a. Recruitment mechanism of education supervisor in order to obtain a
professional supervisor should be performed in conjunction with the
recruitment of new teachers. They are given a competency test which
inturn the results may recommend three supervisor groups namely (1)
supervisors are recruited directly to work, (2) supervisors who are
recruited to study for 3 months before working, and (3) supervisors who
are recruited to study for 1 months before working.
b. Recruiting supervisor from principals or teachers at school are less
c. Institutional supervisor of education is considered to be an independent
institution or agency in performing their duties so as to improve the
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
quality of education. It can be done through the establishment of
regulatory agencies of provincial education supervisor and education
supervisor at the district/city, which this position is equal to head of
education department at the provincial and city/district levels.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Nasution. (2006). Metode Penelitian
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Gita Mutiara Hati
University of Bengkulu, Bengkulu, Indonesia
[email protected]
Children tend to be more interested and engaged in the learning
processes if they are shown and given attractive materials and
teaching media. However, it is often found that early childhood
education schools do not have many choices of materials or
teaching aids. It is mostly because of the lack of fund. The schools
tend to think to buy the materials instead of developing them,
while it is no doubt that good and attractive materials are mostly
expensive. This paper attempts to discuss the ways in developing
less-costly teaching materials for pre-school children by utilizing the
use of technology. It starts with the discussion about materials
needed by pre-school children based on early childhood education
standard. It then goes to the discussion about the ways of
developing materials from the use of computer technology. The last
part of the paper will present examples of materials generated from
the internet.
Keywords:teaching materials, early childhood
development, technology, internet
Early childhood education is one of government’s ways in developing
the quality of education in Indonesia. It is an education given to children of 0
up to 6 years old, well known in Indonesia as PAUD. The national education
system law 2003 states that early childhood education serves as a starting
point in giving education to children in order to prepare them to be ready to
go to the elementary schools. Early childhood education is believed to be
very important not only in building children’s capacity in learning, but also in
developing their social and emotional intelligence. Hence, it is a need to
conduct the teaching and learning process in such a way that stimulates the
children’s physical and psychological development.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
One aspect that supports a good teaching and learning process is the
availability of materials. Children are more excited and easier to be engaged
in the teaching and learning process if the teachers make full use of
interesting things and objects (Scott & Ytreberg, 1990). Materials here refer
to the tools which can help teachers to explain concepts to students in order
to convey meaning. Materials can be in any forms, starting from the very
simple one such as black/white boards to the very sophisticated one like
educational software.
Based on the standard of early childhood curriculum development,
the content of teaching and learning for children are divided into two big
groups based on children’s age. For children of 0 up to 3 years old, the
content of teaching and leaning gives attention to the development of: selfconcept, emotion, society, physic, language and cognitive. While for children
of 3 up to 6 years old, the teaching and learning content gives emphasis to
the development of literacy, mathematical concept, natural and social
science, art, technology, and process skill.
To optimize the quality of teaching and learning process in early
childhood education, materials should better be based on the content of
learning in order to achieve the expected competence of the learners.
Therefore, the schools should provide the teaching aids which support all
activities related to children development as stated in the standard of early
childhood curriculum. However, most early childhood education teachers
rely heavily on materials from the commercial books and teaching aids
provided by schools. Since teaching aids are relatively expensive, schools and
teachers just only have very limited types of teaching aids (Khotimah, 2011).
This condition may cause the teaching and learning processes are not
optimally run.
Among all types of materials needed by early childhood education,
some of them can be created or made using the technology, especially
computers. Teachers can create a lot of various materials with this tool using
particular software, especially when it is connected to the internet. The
knowledge of how to optimize the use of computers and internet may greatly
help teachers as well as schools to provide various types of teaching aids with
low cost.
Picture cards, or often called flashcards, are perhaps the most
frequently used teaching aid in the classrooms. The cards are very helpful in
introducing and developing students’ language competence. They can be
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
created by using Paint in Windows program. Teachers who are skillful drawer
can utilize this program in creating various pictures under particular themes.
Besides Paint, there are several other software that can be used in creating
drawings, such as Adobe Photoshop and Correl Draw. The drawings can be
made into very big ones for class work, medium size enough to be clearly
seen for small group of children, or smaller ones for pair/individual work. The
self made drawings then can be printed using regular home or office printer.
By doing this, teachers can produce as many drawings or pictures as they like
with spending relatively low cost. The materials can be used over and over
again and teachers can always add the variety of materials.
A board game is a game that requires the players to move or place
pieces on a marked board according to a set of rules. The board can be made
of carton, and it is suitable for almost every subject. Teachers can create
board games using the same program as in making picture cards. Teachers
can create board games under one topics or combination of some topics.
Some instructions or questions to stimulate children can be added in each
step on the board. For example, under a picture of three bananas, an
instruction can be written like this: Count the bananas. Go 5 steps if you are
correct or move back 1 step if you are wrong.Instruction like that can be used
to introduce or to practice the knowledge of vocabulary about fruits as well
as to enhance students’ ability to count.
Using Microsoft Office teachers can create some word cards and
even sentence cards. Word cards can be used by children to learn to form
sentences. The students are asked to arrange set of words to form a correct
sentence and then display it to the class. To display the work, teachers can
prepare a board with stapled papers to hold the cards. Fig. 1 is the example
taken from Scott and Ytreberg (1990).
Figure 1. Word Cards Display
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
It is very common that teachers asked the students to buy some
commercially published students’ workbook, while actually they can create
these kinds of materials by themselves. All they have to do is to identify the
competencies the students should accomplished then decide the right
activities to be created using their computers. For example, the students are
expected to be able to color things according to the teacher’s instruction, and
then the teachers can create or draw some uncolored pictures using
computers and then print them out. The materials can be saved and reprinted to be re-used for the future.
Children like to hear stories. Teachers can create small books
containing their own stories accompanied by some pictures using Microsoft
Office. The books can be in any topics like numbers, fruits, color, food, even
in the form of children stories. These materials are then printed out and can
be copied for each student to have. They can also be re-produced for the
future use.
Materials mentioned above are not only able to be created by using
computer software but are also able to be generated from the internet. For
teachers who are not very skillful in creating their own drawings, they can
simply download those kinds of materials from the internet. Internet is
undoubtedly a great source for everything and by utilizing it optimally
teachers’ job may become much easier. Pictures cards, board games, word
cards, various students’ worksheet, and even small books are all able to be
found and downloaded from the internet. However, it is actually not easy to
find the right sites for teachers to be able to download suitable materials for
their students. This paper tries to help giving useful information about sites
the teachers can visit to enrich their materials for teaching children.
This site has hundreds of downloadable flashcards or picture cards.
These flashcards are very helpful in introducing and practicing new
vocabulary. The flashcards are in PDF printer-friendly format and available in
two varieties of size: small size, 4 pictures in a single page, or big size, one
picture in a page. The flash cards are arranged under particular topics such as
alphabet, fruits, body parts, shapes, greetings dialogue, animal, family, and
many others.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Figure 2. Example of Flash Cards
This site gives the visitors free printable children's books which are
very helpful as a teaching aid in the classroom and even at home. Teachers
can simply print the small books and read them to the students and even
teach them how to read with these attractive and simple books. Each book
has a matching audio narration mp3. Teachers can also read the books online
with the online reader.
Figure 3. Example of Picture Book
Besides interactive games, film clips, PBS Kids Go also provides
various downloadable materials especially for students’ work sheet such as
coloring page, cut and paste sheet, connecting the dots sheet and many
more. Fig.4 gives an example of the activity of identifying animals’ footprint
as well as recognizing their homes.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Figure 4. Example of Students’ Worksheet
These types of materials as well as the sites suggested here are
hoped to be able to give some insight for teacher of young learners. They are
actually based on personal experience of teaching English to children. That is
why the materials presented here are mostly related to the development of
children’s language capacity. However, teachers of young learners should be
very creative and thoughtful to make full use of the information from this
paper in order to improve their quality in teaching young learner not only for
language competence but also for other competencies expected from young
learners at low costs. Adaptation and development are strongly suggested to
create various and numerous teaching materials. Further exploration and
experiment are needed to get the more real and appropriate result.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2007). Kerangka Dasar Kurikulum
Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan
Khotimah, Khusnul. (2011). Hakikat dan Prinsip-prinsip Pendidikan Anak Usia
retrieved on May, 4th 2012.
Scott, Wendy A. & Ytreberg, Lisbeth H. (1990). Teaching English to Children
(Neville Grant, Ed.). New York: Longman.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Moh. Syahrun Ibrahim
State University of Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia
[email protected]
School performance is better among students whose parents know
where they are, who they are with, and when they plan to come
home. Such parents also exercise reasonable control over nonschool activities. There have been a number of researches revealing
that family’s involvement, particularly parental, in their children’s
education highly correlates with children’s success at school.
Considering the above facts, it is important to make the school wellmanaged in terms of enabling and encouraging much more
participation from all educational stakeholders, particularly parents,
in improving the educational process to enhance students’
academic performance. However, this atmosphere does not always
happen since parents often make only a little contribution towards
school decision policy dealing with their children’s studying and
achievement. In my professional experience as a teacher, parents
are involved in the decision making process only if it is in
conjunction with financial matters. It is, therefore, reasonable to
suggest that school leadership could better accommodate parents
in many decisions relating to the improvement of their children’s
learning and its outcomes. To gain this objective parents should be
considered as partners and regularly informed about their
children’s performance both inside and outside the classroom, such
as their class activity, attendance, strengths, weaknesses, and be
asked to play a key role in rectifying them. In addition, to promote
and sustain parental participation in their children’s activities and
achievement in school, it is suggested that they be involved in
managing the school in relation to decision- making processes to
improve their children’s academic achievement.
Keywords:parents, involvement, students, academic performance
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Educational quality will be questioned if there remain discrepancies
between the result and the expectation of the teaching and learning process.
A good result will be reached through a good teaching and learning process
and vice versa. To attain a better result in the educational process, parental
involvement is important without a doubt (Jacobs & Harvey, 2005). Hence, it
is imperative that teachers and parents collaborate with each other in
maintaining good interaction to deal with students’ learning process and
Children gain education at first from their family, in this case parents.
However, as children enter school, teachers join in the process of shaping
children’s minds, attitudes and behaviors by forming a partnership with
parents and administrators (Brannon, 2008). Students can get a better
learning result if they are supported by the quality of teaching being done by
the teachers and their parents’ contribution by giving full attention towards
what their children are learning. Christopher (1996) reckons that education
consists of one-third teacher, one-third parent and one-third student. He
further explains that when these sides work together, the result is a stronger
educational system and a successful child.
In line with this statement, Brannon (2008) suggests that if the school
and the families are supporting each other, then children are going to learn
and internalize those values as important to their parents and at school, so
they will see them as important in the world. Furthermore, Christopher
(1996) argues that children who succeed have parents who take an interest
in their children and schools. If children know that their parents believe
school is important in order to succeed, they will also consider the
importance of schooling. In addition, DeBarshee (1995) claims that families
play an important role in socialization of children into the values of the
What is more, good communication which builds among these
elements could empower parents to be partners to help prevent bad
academic behavior appearing (Purdie, Caroll & Roche, 2004). Therefore,
maintaining a good relationship with parents will make them feel wellinformed and understand the purpose for the class rules and consequences.
Having said that, parents can also cooperate much more with teachers when
academic problems arise.
Parental involvement, through encouragement and monitoring of
educational and behavioral activities conducive to successful educational
outcomes, are considered to be critical factors in academic success (Flouri,
2006; Markose, 2008). For this reason, school and educators need to be
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
aware of possible parental influences and should promote and recommend
the involvement of parental attention in education. Eventually, parents and
teachers should work collaboratively to optimize positive attitudes towards
school and learning and the academic intrinsic motivation in students.
However, working with parents can be tough and sometimes
exhausting. It can be nerve-wracking, and there are some parents whom can
never reach or make happy no matter what teachers do (Christopher, 1996).
Despite the problem, there are many beneficial outcomes from working
together with parents. Furthermore, Beckman (as cited in Ehli, 1995)
comments that there are a number of key points for teachers to remember
when they communicate with parents: (a) give accurate information to
parents, (b) recognize parents for the work they have accomplished with
their children, (c) provide clear, ongoing evaluations of the child’s progress,
(d) use as little jargon as possible, (e) sometimes call a conference to share
good news, (g) ask parents what they have tried and be open about
incorporating some of their suggestions into a plan, (h) schedule conferences
flexibly so that both parents can attend.
From the above point of view, it is clear that parents should be
informed about what the expectations are and what materials are needed.
This in turn helps everyone adjust to a new learning situation. Axford (2007)
advised that parents should also take some initiatives to give extra time to
making a positive rapport with school, particularly teachers dealing with their
children’s schooling.
Schools are ordinarily thought of as institutions including pupils, staff,
administrators and possibly board of education members. At this time,
however, it is useful to think of a school as being part of a system which
includes other individuals and groups such as parents, social agencies,
governmental agencies (district, province and national), profit and non-profit
enterprise, mass media and indeed all citizens.
Parents, teachers and community, as well as government, are
partners (Beare & Lowe Boyd, 1993) sharing responsibility for the
educational process. Parents are in a position to support the school and
through the observation of their own children, provide and inform comment
on children’s school performance. Meanwhile, teachers or schools are those
performing the teaching and learning process. Therefore, they know about
students’ learning ability and should inform parents what happened in the
classroom or at the school in relation to students’ academic performance for
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
the improvement of their achievement. Partnership in the teaching and
learning process may be seen to have additional educational importance.
The involvement of parents in school is part of a wider concern.
Parents are only one of a number of possible participating groups. Their
involvement may be in one or more of a number of different areas of
decision which may be taken at a number of possible levels. In considering
the involvement of parents in school, some teachers (Interviewed, May,
2009) suggested that there are several types of involvement of parent in
school, for instances: (1) meeting with teachers for information, (2)
contributing through finance or work to facilities, (3) using facilities and
resources for their own purposes, (4) providing resources for extra curricular
activities, (5) providing resources for curricular activities, (6) conducting a
joint enterprise with the school, (7) participating in the development and the
implementation of the policy.
Parental involvement in school can be done through a school
committee or individually. The school committee provides a number of tools
and resources to assist parents, the Principal, and teachers initiating
conversations about family-school relationships, and to support them so that
they can grow into real, sustainable partnerships (UU Sisdiknas, 2003).
Parents have been considered crucial members on the team because of the
unique understanding of their child's needs, medical history, likes and
dislikes, and daily routine. Parents are expected to act as advocates in
asserting their child's interests and making decisions about what is best for
Apart from its useful things, there are organizational and structural
weaknesses in the school committee which may contribute to an ability to
attain a parity of power with administrators and school boards. Myers and
MacBeath (2001) stated that the persistence of these problems and the lack
of remedial action by school committees are blamed on the inability of the
poor and disfranchised, which are supposedly represented on the committee,
to organize, to participate and to deliberate.
All schools have a school committee whose members are mostly
students’ parents, females; indeed, being a parent is often a prerequisite for
membership. The poor and ethnic minorities are relatively few in number.
Therefore, their interests are rarely represented and voiced in the school
decision-making process (personal communication, May, 2009). Other
members are most often representatives of home school organizations and
government or other civic improvement groups. Nonetheless, some parents
perceive the school committee as only a complement to the organization
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
because it is only active, or conduct a meeting if there is something to be
discussed, mostly in terms of getting money collected from parents.
Besides, parents are rarely involved in the school decision-making
process to deal with students’ achievement. Thus, their membership on a
school committee is half-hearted. Moreover, family socio-economic
conditions make most parents busy fulfilling their family’s basic needs rather
than going to school meetings or taking part in school programs to cope with
students’ learning achievement.
In addition, parents are often distraught by the system. This leads to
feelings of fear and frustration that increase as the system becomes more
complex. Teachers (personal communication, May, 2009) stated that many
parents are able to neither understand nor identify themselves with the
system. Furthermore, they argued that most of parents need to spend most
of their time earning a living and have little available leisure or energy to
devote to either learning about the task or doing the tasks required.
Yet, one of the main concerns of schools, parents and committee
should be to understand and become familiar with the system. Therefore,
changes in the attitudes, skills and knowledge of the members of a school
committee and school council are significant (Langer, 2004). It is also
important to pay attention to the change of school structure enabling more
parents’ effective involvement in managing the school. What is more, parents
will be effectively involved if there is well maintained communication
between school and them and vice versa.
Direct and well-managed flows of information will enable parents’
and the committee to provide meaningful advice to administrators and
boards. Consultation, thus, becomes the focal point of all parents’ and
committee activities and the culminating point of their co-operation towards
the improvement rests on constant and efficient communication between
parents and school or educational authorities. Having strength of information
provided by management and boards, parents will be in a better position to
state their thoughts and desires in relation to school decision making in
managing the school to enhance students’ academic achievement. School
and parents should co-operate and maintain good communication in relation
to students’ academic performance.
Parents should be given opportunities to discuss children’s
performances and get information about the school’s programs. By and large,
parents seek more information than the school provides. Moreover, the
school should also use its best endeavors to stimulate and encourage
parental response and initiative in order to establish a genuine working
partnership. This will not only involve the deliberate encouragement of
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
parental assessment, particularly of their own children’s work and progress
but also more widely, of the school’s successes and failures. Furthermore, it
is important to keep parents involved in every decision-making process and
school activities to promote students’ achievement.
Axford, B. (2007). Parents and their children working together; a scaffolding
literacy case study. AustralianJournal of Language and literacy,
30(1). Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Global Online ProQuest.January
18, 2009.
Brannon, D. (2008). Character education: It’s a joint responsibility. Journals of
Education.Winter 2008, 44(2). Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Global
Online ProQuest.January 18, 2009.
Flouri, E. (2006). Parental interest in children’s education, children’s selfesteem and locus of control and later educational attainment.
Educational Psychology 75(5). Retrievedfrom ABI/INFORM Global
Online ProQuest.January 18, 2009
Jacobs, N. & Harvey, D. (2005). Do parents make a difference to children’s
academic achievement? Differences between parents of higher and
lower achieving students. Educational Studies, 31(4).Retrieved from
ABI/INFORM Global Online ProQuest.February 22, 2009.
Langer, A. Judith. (2004). Getting to excellent; How to create a better school.
New York: Columbia University Press.
Markose, S. (2008).Home literacy practices of immigrant families and cultural
discontinuity: Two case studies. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Global
Online ProQuest.February 27, 2009.
Myers, K., & MacBeath, J. Eds. (2001).Leadership; What’s in it for school?.
London: RoutledgeFalmer
Purdie, N., Carroll, A., & Roche, L. (2004).Parenting and adolescent selfregulation. Journal of Adolescent, 27(1). Retrieved from
ABI/INFORM Global Online ProQuest.February 22, 200
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Moch. Asmawi
State University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
Growth and professionalization of sport has driven changes in
consumption, production and management of sports events and
organizations at every level. One unique feature of the sport that
the sport has a symbolic meaning related to performance outcomes
(performance) and a celebration of the achievements, which this
does not occur in economic and social activities. Sports
Management has three operating sectors interact with each other
within an organization doing business, namely: the public sector,
the nonprofit sector and the sector of professional/ commercial. To
be able to set up organizations in the third sector needed a strategic
management. Strategic management involves analyzing the
organization's position in a competitive environment, determination
of direction and purpose, the selection of appropriate strategies and
asset utilization characteristics. The process of strategic
management through several stages: stage strategy analysis,
strategy briefing stage, the stage of strategy development, strategy
implementation phase and the evaluation phase strategy. This
management strategy process never stops. Process management
strategy is best taken as a management strategy is not linear but
rather circular and activities conducted continuously. Process
management strategy is based on the principle that an opportunity
was found by analysis and not by luck. Strategic management is the
core of the success of an organization olarhaga that requires
preparation, research and analysis, imagination, critical thinking
and decision-making.
Keywords: sports, sports organizations, strategic management
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Olahraga bagi setiap orang memiliki arti yang berbeda-beda. Ada
yang menganggap olahraga itu sebagai sesuatu hal yang menyenangkan,
tetapi ada juga yang mengatakan bahwa olahraga itu adalah bekerja atau
profesi (atlet professional), selain itu ada yang mengatakan olahraga itu
merupakan pekerjaan (direktur olahraga tourism) atau olahraga juga dapat
menjadi bisnis (agen pemasaran olahraga). Olahraga memiliki banyak bentuk.
Ada olahraga yang diikuti banyak peserta seperti dalam olahraga team
seperti bola voli, baola basket; ada juga yang meliputi dua peserta seperti
tennis dan bulutangkis; tapi ada juga satu orang seperti golf dan selancar.
Olahraga kini menjadi suatu indutri yang dapat menjadi salah satu
aspek yang penting dalam pembangunan politik, ekonomi, sosial dan budaya
bagi suatu Negara. Hal ini terlihat pada negar-negara industri maju dan
modern seperti Amerka, Inggris, Jerman dan china, olahraga kini mnjadi
industri unggulan sebagai pemasok devisa Negara. Karena olahraga selain
dapat membangun karakter bangsa, olahraga juga menjadi identitas industri
yang memiliki nilai tambah. Dalam industri olahraga, tidak hanya melibatkan
atlet, tetapi juga pelaku-pelaku lain seperti manajer organisasi, manajer
pertandingan, pelatih, wasit, ahli gizi, medis, ahli pemasaran dan sebagainya.
Faktor yang menjadi kekuatan utama dalam mendorong terjadinya
perubahan industri olahraga ini yang meliputi bagaimana olahraga tersebut
diproduksi dan konsumsi adalah globalisasi. Dengan adanya globalisasi,
integrasi ekonomi dunia telah ditingkatkan sehingga memungkinkan
munculnya komunikasi antara produsen dan konsumen pada kecepatan yang
lebih besar dan lebih beragam dan olahraga merupakan salah satu sektor
yang dapat meraup keuntungan. Oleh karena itu sebagian besar pemerintah
dalam suatu Negara melihat olahraga sebagai wadah nasionalisme,
pengembangan ekonomi atau sosial. Hal ini dikarenakan olahraga dapat
mempekerjakan jutaan orang di seluruh dunia. Olahraga juga dimainkan atau
ditonton oleh mayoritas penduduk dunia, dan di tingkat elit, olahraga
berubah dari menjadi hobi ke industri yang signifikan.
Pertumbuhan dan profesionalisasi olahraga telah mendorong
perubahan dalam hal konsumsi, produksi dan manajemen event olahraga
dan organisasi pada setiap tingkatan. Peningkatan jumlah pendapatan
tambahan, peningkatan kesadaran dari suatu hubungan antara gaya hidup
yang aktif dengan hidup sehat, dan lebih banyaknya kesempatan untuk
berpartisipasi dalam olahraga memiliki kontribusi terhadap pertumbuhan
olahraga untuk menjadi suatu industri yang meningkat dan berkembang
pesat. Sejumlah besar berbagai jenis organisasi yang beragam organisasinya
mulai dari public, swasta dan sukrarela yang terlibat dalam penyediaan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
produk olahraga dan jasa mulai membentuk industry olahraga. Dan untuk
mengatur organisasi olahraga di awal abad ke-21 ini diperlukan untuk
melibatkan aplikasi dari teknik-teknik dan strategi-strategi yang nyata dalam
mayoritas bisnis modern, pemerintah dan organisasi non profit.
Stewart dan Smith (1999) memberikan daftar sepuluh fitur unik dari
olahraga yang dapat membantu kita untuk memahami mengapa pengelolaan
organisasi olahraga memerlukan penerapan teknik manajemen yang spesifik.
Salah satu fitur unik olahraga adalah fenomena orang-orang yang
mengembangkan gairah irasional untuk tim olahraga, kompetisi, atau atlet.
Selain itu olahraga memiliki makna simbolis dalam kaitannya dengan hasil
kinerja (performance), keberhasilan dan merayakan prestasi yang dicapai
yang tidak terjadi di daerah kegiatan ekonomi dan sosial lainnya. Fitur unik
yang lain adalah adanya keseimbangan kompetitif yaitu sifat saling
keberhubungan antara olahraga yang bersaing di lapangan tetapi bekerja
sama di luar lapangan untuk memastikan kelangsungan hidup jangka panjang
dari kedua klub dan pertandingan/perlombaan mereka.
Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari kita dikelilingi oleh organisasi. Begitu
juga dalam olahraga, organisasi ada disekeliling kita. Anak-anak sering
terlibat dalam olahraga melalui kegiatan intramural dan persaingan antar
sekolah dalam sistem pendidikan. Mereka juga dapat mengambil keuntungan
dari komunitas organisasi olahraga yang didirikan oleh pemerintah local dan
klub olahraga non profit. Jenis organisasi olahraga yang lain juga
menyediakan kita dengan kesempatan untuk keikutsertaan secara pasif
dalam olahraga. Misalkan, organisasi media akan memberitahukan kita
tentang olahraga dalam berbagai cara (seperti internet, televisi, radio,
majalah dan Koran).
Mengingat pentingnya sektor olahraga dalam masyarakat, pemimpin
olahraga dan manager harus memahami konsep manajemen dan struktur
organisasi dan proses-proses sehingga mereka dapat mengadopsi dan
mengimplementasi managerial yang terbaik dan praktek-praktek organisasi.
Definisi organisasi menurut Daft (2010.11) adalah: “entitas sosial yang
diarahkan pada tujuan (goal-directed), dirancang dengan sengaja sistem
aktivitas yang terstruktur dan terkoordinasi, dan terhubungkan dengan
lingkungan luar” (social entities that are goal-directed, are designed as
deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems, and are linked to the
external environments).
Oleh karena itu, untuk memahami berbagai organisasi yang terlibat
dalam manajemen olahraga, dan bagaimana organisasi dapat membentuk
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
kemitraan, mempengaruhi operasi satu sama lain dalam melakukan bisnis,
maka diperlukan untuk melihat olahraga dari tiga sektor yang berbeda.Tiga
sektor tersebut yaitu:
a. Sektor Publik. Sektor ini meliputi nasional, provinsi, regional dan
pemerintah lokal, dan agensi-agensi spesialis yang mengembangkan
kebijakan olahraga, menyediakan dana untuk sektor lain, dan dukungan
peran para ahli seperti pengembangan elit atlet atau pengawasan obat
(drug control).
b. Sektor Nirlaba. Sektor ini terdiri dari klub berbasis masyarakat, asosiasi
pemerintah dan organisasi olahraga international yang menyediakan
kesempatan untuk berpartisipasi dan berkompetisi, membuat peraturan
dan mengelola kode olahraga, dan mengatur event kejuaraan utama.
c. Sektor Profesional atau Komersial. Meliputi liga professional dan anggota
tim mereka, organisasi yang sejenis seperti pakaian olahraga dan
peralatan manufaktur, perusahaan media.
Ketiga sektor tersebut tidak beroperasi secara sendiri-sendiri atau
terpisah, bahkan dalam banayk kasus ketiga sektor itu bekerja salam
tumpang tindih. Sebagai contoh: Negara sangat erat terlibat dalam
penyediaan dana untuk organisasi olahraga nirlaba dalam hal pengembangan
olahraga dan program elit atlet. Dan sebagai imbalannya organisasi olahraga
non profit menyediakan masyarakat umum dengan kesempatan berolahraga
sebagaimana mengembangkan atlet, pelatih, official dan administrator untuk
mempertahankan partisipasi dalam olahraga. Sektor non profit mendukung
olahraga profesional dengan menyediakan pemain berbakat untuk bermain
di liga, serta membangun para pelatih, ofisial, dan administrator untuk
memfasilitasi kompetisi elit.
Oleh karena itu, diperlukan suatu strategi manajemen olahraga
dalam mengatur organisasi-organisasi olahraga yang termasuk dalam tiga
sektor yang telah disebutkan di atas. Manajemen strategis melibatkan analisa
posisi organisasi dalam lingkungan yang kompetitif, penentuan arah dan
tujuan, pemilihan strategi yang tepat dan pemanfaatan aset yang khas.
Keberhasilan setiap organisasi olahraga sebagian besar tergantung pada
kualitas keputusan strategis yang mereka lakukan. Dapat dikatakan bahwa
organisasi olahraga non profit lambat dalam merangkul konsep yang terkait
dengan manajemen strategis karena olahraga secara inheren bergolak,
dengan bidang kinerja (performance) dan taktik yang cenderung
mendominasi dan mengalihkan perhatian para manajer olahraga dari pilihan
yang mereka butuhkan untuk membuat keputusan di kantor dan ruang rapat.
Menurut Viljoen & Dann, (2003), strategi adalah: “the match or
interface between an organization and its external environment”.
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(pertandingan atau pertemuan antara sebuah organisasi dengan lingkungan
diluar organisasi tersebut). Berdasarkan definisi di atas, dapat dikatakan
bahwa strategi suatu awal yang sangat membantu karena dapat menekankan
pentingnya baik organisasi itu sendiri dan lingkungan dimana organisasi itu
beroperasi. Inti dari strategi adalah anggapan bahwa kedua elemen
(organisasi dan lingkungannya) sama pentingnya.
Selain kedua elemen di atas, ada satu hal lagi yang tidak boleh
ditinggalkan yaitu menjadi berbeda untuk berkompetisi. Hal ini sesuai dengan
yang diutarakan oleh Porter (1996) yaitu: “the central purpose of strategy is
to become different to the competition”. (Tujuan utama dari strategi adalah
menjadi berbeda untuk berkompetisi). Pandangan di atas memberikan
gambaran kepada kita bagaimana klub sepakbola atau klub bulutangkis yang
satu bisa berbeda dengan klub sepakbola atau bulutangkis lainnya, atau
mengapa seorang konsumen harus memilih untuk menggunakan satu fasilitas
rekreasi dibandingkan fasilitas rekreasi di area yang sama.
Salah satu masalah terbesar dalam strategi olahraga datang dalam
bagaimana menemukan keseimbangan antara dua atau lebih kewajiban yang
berbeda. Sebagai contoh, suatu hal yang biasa dalam organisasi olahraga
untuk mencari baik atlet elit yang sukses serta peningkatan tingkat partisipasi
atlet yang baru. Biasanya diasumsikan bahwa keberhasilan di tingkat
internasional untuk olahraga tertentu berfungsi sebagai motivator bagi
masyarakat untuk berpartisipasi. Misalkan kesuksesan Taufik Hidayat, Markis
Kido/Hendra Setiawan, para juara olimpiade cabang olahraga bulutangkis,
akan menjadi pemicu bagi rakyat Indonesia untuk berpartisipasi dalam
cabang olahraga bulutangkis. Namun usaha untuk mempertahankan
partisipasi yang baru ini masih sangat buruk dalam jangka menengah dan
diabaikan alam jangka panjang.
Manajemen strategis adalah proses pencapaian tumpang tindih
antara persiapan dan kesempatan. Cara pemikiran ini telah muncul dari
pertama penggunaan konsep strategi, dimana pemikiran konsep strategi ini
datang dari militer. Adapun proses dari manajemen strategis melalui
beberapa tahap, yaitu:
Tahap Analisis Strategi.
Analisis SWOT
Salah satu alat dasar dalam analisis lingkungan disebut analisis
SWOT. Bentuk analisis ini digunakan untuk memeriksa posisi strategi
organisasi, dari sisi luar dan sisi dalam organisasi. Teknik SWOT
mempertimbangkan kekuatan, kelemahan, kesempatan dan ancaman yang
akan dihadapi oleh organisasi. Tujuan dari teknik SWOT adalah untuk mencari
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factor utama yang mungkin memainkan peran yang mempengaruhi arah
organisasi dan kesuksesan dari strategi tersebut.
Di dalam SWOT analisis terdapat dua bagian, yaitu internal dan
eksternal analisis. Internal analisis melihat pada kekuatan dan kelemahan
yang dimiliki oleh organisasi. Sedangkan eksternal analisis melihat pada
kesempatan dan ancaman yang dapat dieksploitasi atau yang dapat
Analisis Kebutuhan Konsumen dan Stakeholder
Sebelum analisis lingkungan selesai, penilaian dari stakeholder dan
konsumen adalah sangat penting. Stakeholder adalah semua orang dan
kelompok-kelompok yang memiliki kepentingan dalam sebuah organisasi,
termasuk pekerjanya, pemainnya, komunitas, pemilik sarana, sponsor, media
dan fans.
Analisis Pesaing
Peluang dan ancaman dapat mencakup apa pun di lingkungan
eksternal, termasuk keberadaan dan kegiatan pesaing. Karena tindakan
pesaing sangat mempengaruhi keberhasilan suatu pendekatan strategis. Oleh
karena itu dipelukan analisis pesaing untuk memastikan bahwa penyelidikan
dilakukan secara sistematis.
Analisis Lima Kekuatan
Analisis lima kekuatan adalah alat yang sering digunakan untuk
menggambarkan lingkungan yang kompetitif.
Tahap Pengarahan Strategi
Berdasarkan informasi yang diperoleh dari tahap pertama,
diperlukan suatu pengambilan keputusan tentang masa depan. Hal ini
biasanya mengacu pada pernyataaan misi yang merekam tujuan organisasi
olahraga, pernyataan visi yang merupakan ambisi jangka panjang organisasi,
dan serangkaian tujuan dengan langkah-langkah untuk mengidentifikasi
pencapaian prestasi yang penting sepanjang jalan untuk mencapai visi
Tahap Pengembangan Strategi
Pada tahap ini, harus dipertimbangkan bagaimana pernyataan misi
dan visi pada tahap sebelumnya dapat direalisasikan. Tahap ini merupakan
proses strategis manajemen yang paling kreatif. Disinilah diperlukan
kerjasama seluruh anggota organisasi untuk menggambarkan metode yang
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terbaik atau strategi manajemen untuk organisasinya. Tantangan yang paling
utama adalah bagaimana mencocokkan kondisi organisasi yang unik dengan
kondisi lingkungan yang juga unik.
Tahap Implementasi Strategi
Setelah menemukan arah yang jelas dan ide yang tajam tentang
bagaimana arahan organisasi dapat dicapai, maka perlu suatu
pengimplementasian secara langsung. Hal ini dilakukan pada organisasi
dengan melibatkan produk-produk, jasa-jasa dan kegiatan-kegiatan dari
organisasi tersebut, serta sistem yang mendukungnya, dan disesuaikan
dengan strategi secara menyeluruh yang dikembangkan dari proses
Tahap Evaluasi Strategi
Tahap yang terakhir adalah evaluasi. Pada tahap ini, organisasi
mereview apakah tujuan yang telah mereka tetapkan tercapai. Sehingga
pada tahap ini, diperlukan beberapa tindakan korektif
Proses strategi manajemen tidak pernah berhenti. Bahkan pada
kenyataannya, suatu hal yang normal apabila terjadi suatu proses yang
bergerak maju dan mundur di antara tahap-tahap tersebut dalam rangka
untuk mengembangkan dan menggapai hasil yang terbaik. Proses strategi
manajemen terbaik adalah saat strategi manajemen di ambil tidak linear
tetapi agak melingkar dan aktivitas yang dilakukan terus menerus. Berikut ini
adalah tabel proses strategi manajemen.
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Analisis (analisis
Internal Analysis (Analisis
(capabilities, deficiencies &
(kemampuan, kekurangan
& stakeholder)
External Analysis (Analisis
(environment, competitors
& customers) (lingkungan,
pesaing & konsumen)
Strengths (Kekuatan)
Weaknesses (Kelemahan)
Directions (arah
Performance Measures
(Pengukuran Kinerja)
Strategic options
Generic strategies
Cost Leadership
Deployment of Strategy
Performance Measurement
(pengukuran kinerja)
Corrective Action
(tindakan korektif)
Threats (Ancaman)
Gambar 1. Proses Manajemen Strategis
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Untuk memberikan gambaran yang jelas terhadap tahap analisis
strategi dan strategi arah (strategic direction), berikut ini akan diberikan
suatu ilustrasi pada organisasi olahraga Wushu.
Pada tahap ini akan dikemukakan SWOT (Strenght, Weaknes,
Opportunity, Threat) pada organisasi olahraga Wushu.
Strength (Kekuatan)
 Olahraga ini menekankan baik aspek fisik maupun mental
 Wushu dapat dilakukan dan dilatih oleh semua umur, baik pria maupun
 Penyebaran medali pada olahraga Wushu tersebar luas
Weaknesses (Kelemahan)
 Ada kesulitan dalam memahami peraturan Wushu untuk sebagian
penonton dan pemenang dapat sulit ditentukan
 Kelemahan keuangan di dalam organisasi dikarenakan kurangnya dukungan
Opportunities (Peluang)
 Peluang untuk promosi dan pengembangan Wushu karena status sebagai
salah satu cabang olahraga yang dipertandingkan di Olympiade
 Peluang promosi bagi atlet papan atas untuk mencari sponsor
Threats (Ancaman)
 Liputan media yang terbatas
 Untuk penonton awam, mereka sulit membedakan antara Wushu dengan
olahraga bela diri yang lain karena kesamaan cabang olahraga tersebut.
TAHAP II. STRATEGI ARAHAN (Strategic Direction)
Untuk mensejahterakan kehidupan atlet melalui olahraga Wushu
Untuk terus diakui sebagai olahraga yang dapat mengembangkan kinerja dan
komunitas olahraga.
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 Pemerintah Pusat
 Pemerintah daerah.
 Klub-klub olahraga
 Pelatih, administrasi dan sukarelawan (volunteer)
 Industri olahraga
 Media
Untuk lebih memperkenalkan olahraga Wushu dan meningkatkan
jumlah partisipasi masyarakat pada olahraga Wushu serta memberikan
prestasi yang terbaik bagi Negara.
1. Mengadakan road show ke sekolah-sekolah baik sekolah dasar, menengah
pertama maupun atas, dan ke kampus-kampus.
2. Mengadakan suatu event pertandingan dan sekaligus mengadakan
coaching clinic.
3. Membuat suatu brosur atau agenda tentang apa, bagaimana, kapan,
dimana dan mengapa memilih olahraga Wushu.
Berdasarkan penjelasan di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa proses
strategi manajemen didasarkan pada prinsip bahwa kesempatan ditemukan
oleh analisis bukan keberuntungan. Strategi manajemen ini merupakan inti
dari keberhasilan sebuah organisasi olahraga. Strategi manajemen dalam
organisasi olahraga membutuhkan persiapan, penelitian dan analisis,
imaginasi, pemikiran yang kritis dan pengambilan keputusan. Oleh karena itu
strategi manajemen membutukan keseimbangan yang sama dari sebuah
sistematisasi dan inovasi.
Pertumbuhan dan profesionalisasi olahraga telah mendorong
perubahan dalam hal konsumsi, produksi dan manajemen event olahraga
dan organisasi pada setiap tingkatan. Salah satu fitur unik dari olahraga
bahwa olahraga memiliki makna simbolis yang berkaitan dengan hasil kinerja
(performance) dan perayaan prestasi yang dicapai, dimana hal ini tidak
terjadi pada kegiatan ekonomi dan sosial.
Manajemen olahraga memiliki tiga sektor yang saling mempengaruhi
operasi organisasi satu dengan lainnya dalam melakukan bisnis, yaitu: sektor
publik, sektor nirlaba dan sektor professional/komersial. Untuk dapat
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
mengatur organisasi yang masuk dalam ketiga sektor tersebut diperlukan
suatu manajemen strategis. Manajemen strategis melibatkan analisa posisi
organisasi dalam lingkungan yang kompetitif, penentuan arah dan tujuan,
pemilihan strategi yang tepat dan pemanfaatan aset yang khas.
Adapun proses dari manajemen strategis melalui beberapa tahap,
yaitu: tahap analisis strategi, tahap pengarahan strategi, tahap
pengembangan strategi, tahap implementasi strategi dan tahap evaluasi
strategi. Proses strategi manajemen ini tidak pernah berhenti. Proses strategi
manajemen terbaik adalah saat strategi manajemen di ambil tidak linear
tetapi agak melingkar dan aktivitas yang dilakukan terus menerus.
Proses strategi manajemen didasarkan pada prinsip bahwa
kesempatan ditemukan oleh analisis dan bukan oleh keberuntungan. Strategi
manajemen merupakan inti dari keberhasilan sebuah organisasi olarhaga
yang membutuhkan persiapan, penelitian dan analisis, imajinasi, pemikiran
yang kritis dan pengambilan keputusan.
Chappelet, J.L. (2005). Strategic and Performance Management of Olympic
Sport Organizations. Human Kinetics PublishersInc., Champaign,
Illinois, US
Daft.l, R.L. (2010). Organization theory and design (10th ed.), Mason, OH:
South-Western, Cengage Learning
Kaplan, R.S., & D.P. Norton. (2001). The Strategy-focused Organization.
Harvard Business School Press
Pedersen, Paul M.,Parks, Janet B., Quarterman, Jerome., Thibault Lucie,
(2011). Contemporary Sport Management (4th ed)., USA: Human
Porter, M. (1985). Competitive Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Superior
Performance. Simon & Schuster, New York
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Whittington, R. (2001). What is Strategy and Does it Matter? London:
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Bambang Sumintono1, Nora Mislan2, Hamdan Said3
Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia1,2,3
[email protected]
In the post New Order Indonesia (from 1998) ideas about school
based management in the education sector have become
increasingly popular. One of the characteristics of this is devolving
authority to the school level at least in three areas: staff, curriculum
and budget. Using qualitative inquiry, the researchers collected
data from schools and district level stakeholders in Mataram
through questionnaire, interview, observation and document
analysis to reveal their perception about devolving authority issues.
It is found that the school started exercising some authorities that
were previously in their superior officer’s control, however some
previous practices still conducted in conjunction with the school
Keywords :school based management, Indonesian education
development, public secondary school, school
School based management policy is a popular form of educational
reform that practiced in many parts of the world that has it challenges and
confronts to school stakeholders. Basically, in order for the policy to succeed,
it should take into account the real situations of schools, in particular the
views and practices of educators, including school committee members. The
researcher has published regard analysis of SBM policy in Indonesia
(Sumintono, 2009) and thus this paper will discuss the practices and views of
school stakeholders about school based management in state secondary
schools in Mataram, Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat. It will consider the views
of principals, teachers, and school committee members. The paper will firstly
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
explore school based management issues as appeared in international
scholarly publication, followed by research methodology and background
information about respondents presented to give a context for the analysis of
the data. This study intended to reveal stakeholders’ understandings,
perceptions and practices regarding the SBM policy and devolution of
authority to schools at public general secondary schools context. This will
illustrate the complexity of policy reform and its implementation at the
school level.
Ainley and MacKenzie (2002, p. 1) stated that in the last thirty years
“decentralization of decision making, increasing local authority and enhanced
autonomy of schools have been common features of the reorganization of
public education”. This movement in North America, and by UNESCO, was
labelled as school based management (see for example Brown, 1990;
Leithwood and Menzies, 1998; Abu-Duhou, 1999; Payne, 2008; Hargreaves &
Shirley, 2009). Meanwhile in the UK, it is more commonly known as the Local
Management of Schools (LMS) (Bullock and Thomas, 1997). The terminology
describing the policy varies. Murphy and Beck (1995) have identified other
terms, including school-site autonomy, school-site management, schoolcentered management, decentralized management, school-based budgeting,
and shared governance.
Like decentralisation, the characteristics of school based
management (hereafter called with SBM) and issues related to it can also
vary depending on different perspective. Beck and Murphy (1998, p 359) for
instance, claim that SBM is “a complex phenomenon that may be
implemented in a variety of ways”. Several other writers have already
categorised SBM (Murphy and Beck, 1995; Leithwood and Menzies, 1998)
and have identified key central elements, which are discussed in the sections
which follow. They include definition and models, and emerging formal
Definitions and Resources Transferred
From their extensive research on school based management in North
America, Murphy and Beck (1995, p.13) conclude that many definitions
emphasise “a major shift in the locus of decision-making responsibilities and
alterations in the members of the decision making cast”. Similarly, in
perspective from an Asian country, Cheng (1996, p. 44) defines school based
management as follows:
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
that the school management tasks are set according to the
characteristics and needs of the school itself and therefore school
members (including board of directors, supervisor, principal,
teachers, parents and students, etc.) have a much greater autonomy
and responsibility for the use of resources to solve problems and
carry out effective education activities, for the long-term
development of the school.
Another definition comes from Cadwell and Spinks (1988, p. 5) who
see SBM as:
a school in a system of education to which there has been
decentralised a significant amount of authority and responsibility
to make decisions related to the allocation of resources within
centrally-determined framework of goals, policies, standards and
The definitions above show that in schools which practice SBM
policy, transfer of authority takes place, giving school’s some degree of
decision making. In other words, autonomy is based on stipulated
regulations. This is different from independent, private or non-state schools
which are not supported regularly by public funds (Payne, 2008). The latter
schools operate as self-governing schools.
The range of resources that devolved to SBM can also vary.
Wohlstettter and Odden (1992) list at least three areas that schools
minimally have authority over: budget, curriculum and personnel. More
broadly, Caldwell and Spinks (1988, p. 5) explain that SBM authority can
knowledge (decentralisation of decisions related to curriculum,
including decisions related to the goals or ends of schooling);
technology (decentralisation of decisions related to the means of
teaching and learning); power (decentralisation of authority to
make decisions); material (decentralisation of decisions related to
the use of facilities, supplies and equipment); people
(decentralisation of decisions related to the allocation of people
in matters related to teaching and learning); time
(decentralisation of decisions related to the allocation of time);
and finance (decentralisation of decisions related to the
allocation of money).
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In addition, Bulock and Thomas (1997, p. 7) suggest there are four
further powers that a public school can exercise:
1) admissions: decentralisation of decisions over which pupils are to be
admitted to the school;
2) assessment: decentralisation of decisions over how pupils are to be
3) information: decentralisation of decisions over the selection of data to be
published about the school's performance;
4) funding: decentralisation of decisions over the setting of fees for the
admission of pupils.
It appears that prior to the SBM movement, public schools in most
countries were rigidly controlled, without much scope for those in leadership
in governance roles to exercise full responsibility.
However, many empirical studies about SBM have shown that the
authority transferred to schools is often restricted. To illustrate, Wohlstetter
and Odden (1992, p. 532) conclude, following reviews of several research
projects, that “in sum, even where decision-making authority appears to
have been delegated, the degree of real authority given to the site is often
remarkably limited”. In addition, a study by Meuret and Scheerens (in
Leithwood and Menzies, 1998, p. 325) based on decisions at school level in
public school systems in 14 countries, show that percentage of decision
making approximate proportions to illustrate: “Ireland and New Zealand,
greater than 70%; Sweden, 48%; Austria, Denmark, Finland, and Portugal,
38% to 41%; Belgium, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, and United States,
25% to 33%; and Switzerland, 10%.” One of the explanations for this situation
comes from Wohlstetter and Odden (1992), who suggest that where a
district sees the school as its subordinate then that makes any authority
relationship difficult to change. The implementation of decentralization in
the form of SBM “appeared to be strongly influenced by districts politics”.
This is in fact not surprising, because the nature of the public school system is
one of resistance to even minimal change, even with a decentralised policy.
Site council and SBM models
Murphy and Beck (1998, p. 14) noted that a “central feature of SBM
is the site council”. While site councils vary in composition and
responsibilities, most writers agree that it is within a site council that school
stakeholders such as principals, teachers, parents, community members and
students do participate in decision making.
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The site council is a form of community involvement in school
governance, based on regulation, with elected but voluntary membership.
Certainly the intention behind site councils is to implement democratic
participatory decision making. Rose (2003) differentiates community
participation in schools as ranging from genuine participation to pseudoparticipation. Rose (2003, p. 47) writes that:
genuine participation, implying the ability to take part in real
decision making and governance, where all members have equal
power to determine the outcome of decision and share in a joint
activity…’pseudo participation’ is, at best a consultative process
whereby citizens are merely kept informed of developments at
the school level, and are expected to accept decisions that have
already been made.
McGinn and Welsh (1999) illustrate participation as a series of steps.
The lower steps refer to exercising authority about building maintenance,
after which authority relating to budgets, then transferred authority to make
budgets (which involves hiring and firing personnel). The final step relates to
authority over curriculum decision making.
A study by Rentoul and Rosanowski (2000) offers a useful map of the
site council continuum from advisory role to governing role (from informing,
to influencing, co-determining and finally determining). One example, in the
beginning of SBM implementation in Alberta, Canada, there were no site
councils (Caldwell, 1994), but then in the 1990s site councils were
established, although they generally played an advisory role to the principal.
A number of models have also emerged from empirical studies on
school based management. Wohlstetter and Odden (1992), and Murphy and
Beck (1995) propose three models, based on who has control over decision
making: administrative control (the principal is dominant in terms of power
and control), professional control (teachers are dominant), community
control (parents/community members are dominant). Leithwood and
Menzies (1998) propose a model they call balanced control, where parents
and teachers are equally dominant.
School based management modelled on administrative control
strengthens the principal’s role to be more accountable. In particular, the
principal has to serve the students well with efficient use of school resources
as these relate to the budget, personnel and curriculum. Edmonton district in
Alberta, Canada is a good example of this model, which, according to its
proponents, increases school responsiveness, accountability and
effectiveness (Brown, 1990).
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In the professional control model of SBM, the basic assumption is
that teachers as professionals know better and they are the ones with the
most relevant knowledge of students. In addition, it is argued that this model
increases participation. Because teachers make their own decisions about
school business, this model increases employee involvement, thereby
improving efficiency, effectiveness and better results (Leithwood and
Menzies, 1998). Wohlstetter and Odden (1992) noted that in Los Angeles,
California, this model of SBM emerged because half of the composition of
site councils was reserved for teachers and the council had discretion to
make decisions.
A community controlled model of SBM exists when parents and
community members are the majority on a site council. This model works
well as governing body when its roles are clearly defined by regulations. This
can lead to increased accountability to the community and greater customer
satisfaction. As its name implies, in this model it is community people not
professional in schools who are in control. The model promotes the
preferences and values of parents in terms of what they think are best for
their children. McGinn and Welsh (1999, p. 32) argue that this model “signals
a loss of public confidence in professional expertise”. Since 1989, New
Zealand’s education reform has adopted this model of SBM. For secondary
schools, SBM extended the existing roles of its governing body, but for
primary schools SBM was a really significant change (Wylie, 1995). Boards of
trustees in New Zealand, the name given to the site council, have five elected
parent representatives, one teacher representative (elected), the principal
and one student for high schools, as stipulated by the Education Act (Wylie,
1995). Some what similarly, in Chicago, USA, the majority of the local school
council should be six parents and two community representatives, out of
total 11 to 12 members (Leithwood and Menzies, 1998).
The balance control model is intended “to make better use of
teachers’ knowledge for key decision making in the school, as well as to be
more accountable to parents and the local community” (Leithwood and
Menzies, 1998, p. 331). Both parents and teachers have equal numbers on
the site council, with decision making powers regarding the budget,
personnel and curriculum. This model requires that parents and the local
community act as partners with the school. The model also calls teachers to
be responsive to the values of the communities in which schools reside.
One negative aspect of site councils as suggested by Bray (2003, p.
37), is that they “in many cases lack expertise and understanding of their
responsibilities”. Bray argues that this is because members are volunteers.
Furthermore, in developing countries, site councils are generally made up of
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people who mainly come from elite sections of the community, do not
always have concerns for disadvantaged groups, and sometimes take school
resources for their own purposes (Bray, 2003).
When researcher uses particular approach theoretically and
methodologically to certain research problems in the topic under study, it is
called research orientation (Cumming, 1994). Merriam (1998) wrote that in
social sciences research orientation can be divided into three perspectives:
positivist, interpretive and critical research. Interpretive orientation is used in
this research. This means the researcher doing inductive reasoning to explain
educational activities comprehended by stakeholders. Interpretive research
tries to uncover “the rules of the game” which deal with multiple realities
that are constructed by respondents; whereas the ‘game’ in this study is
school based management, the ‘rules’ is the regulation, and respondents’
opinions and experiences related to the issue. In short, as Merriam (2002, p.
6) stated “the researcher is interested in understanding how participants
make meaning of a situation or phenomenon, this meaning is mediated
through the researcher as instrument, the strategy is inductive, and the
outcome is descriptive”.
School based management practices at public general state
secondary schools in Mataram, Lombok, is the phenomenon and the unit of
analysis in this study. Mataram is the capital city of West Nusa Tenggara
province chosen as one of the vibrant city in East Indonesia. There were five
state secondary schools participated out of seven when data collection were
conducted. Although a study might take place on several sites, it can be
counted as a single phenomenon. This fits with Stake’s (2000, p. 437)
classification on the nature of the case which can be identified as a ‘collective
case study’. A case study approach is also useful in terms of gathering data
for qualitative analysis (Yin, 1994; Stake, 2000).
The participants of this study involve people from district level and
school level. The researchers collect data using four different techniques:
questionnaires, interviews, observations and document analysis. The
different instruments are adopted to ensure that rich data and information
can be obtained in this research (Punch, 2009). The questionnaires were
only given to respondents at school level, there were 5 principals, 57
teachers and 21 school committee members who participated. All the
participants were individually interviewed at the time and place convenient
to both the researchers and participants (which were 4 principals, 6 teachers
and 5 school committee members at the school level). The questions asked
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to the participants are meant to find the answers of the questions that are
posed in this study. All the interviews were recorded using a digital voice
recorder. A number of observations were conducted in schools and
classrooms to obtain a deep understanding as to the process that relate to
school based management issues (two out of five secondary schools
participated in site studies during two months). These observations were
used as a means to validate the information provided by the participants in
the interviews. Documents such as school committee reports, school
strategic plan and school budget were collected and analyzed. Analyzing
these documents enrich the information obtained in this research.
The data analysis involves the process of data reduction and
simplification (Miles & Huberman, 2005). The data of this research uploaded
into NVivo software. With this tool, themes emerging from the data were
identified and coded. These themes supported with important narratives
from the interviews were included in the reporting the findings of this
Authority devolved to school
Table 1 shows the views of three respondent groups regarding the
authority they think that schools can exercise trough questionnaire. Although
the three groups responded slightly differently, they agreed that a school
development plan, managing school facilities and budget allocation and
management are the three key roles that should be transferred to schools.
However, it was found that, Indonesian state secondary schools had already
exercised these kinds of de facto authority for years. In this sense, it was not
a new thing for school stakeholders. However SBM policy made this authority
more salient, requiring all schools to use strategic management tools (such as
SWOT analysis to make their own vision and mission statements), plan for
the school’s future, and identify resources.
Table 1. Authority Devolved to School
What kinds of authorities do you think that can be given to school?1
school development plan
managing school facilities
staff management
generating other resources
budget allocation and management
student management
teachers training
curriculum management
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managing school facilities
budget allocation and management
school development plan
student management
curriculum management
staff management
teachers training
generating other resources
school development plan
managing school facilities
budget allocation & management
student management
generating other resources
N= 21
teachers training
curriculum management
staff management
Notes: 1 respondent can answer more than one choice
As a group, the principals were in favour of authority transfer to
schools; generally they wanted all authority to be devolved to site levels.
With regard to teacher training, only three of the principals thought it could
be organised in schools and only two out of 5 principals felt that curriculum
management should be authorised by the school. In the previous and present
systems government regulation stated that only the central office had the
responsibility for curriculum issues. The following comment from two
principals reflected this concern:
In managing the school, with SBM policy, it was given much flexibility
to develop itself and that included curriculum management, based on
regulation of course, but it was not unlimited freedom. We also have
flexibility in instruction and its management and source of fund (I-8)
(I-8, is “I” was the code for data from interview, and “8” was the
number of the participants in my list).
The basic foundation of SBM in the decentralisation era is school
autonomy and participatory decision making which involves all school
stakeholders (I-16).
These statements from principals show their knowledge and
awareness about the issue, but this awareness did not emerge from teachers
or school committee members. For principals, SBM can be used to legitimate
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extra school activities such as an English day programme (compulsory English
speaking in school for a whole day), building refurbishment and improving
student discipline. Those efforts regarded as innovation that make the school
look better, and will make their school impress by the public.
Teachers on the whole felt that the authority for making decisions
regarding maintenance, budget, school plan, student and curriculum ought to
be devolved to schools. Less than half the teachers felt that schools should
have authority for staff management and teacher training. It appears that
many teachers did not think that schools would give them better service than
the present district-centralised system.
About one half of the school committee members felt that managing
students, generating other resources and teacher training should be
devolved to schools. In contrast, committee members did not see schools
managing curriculum and staff. These views were similar to the views of
other stakeholders; and were indicative of their belief in a limited school
Several comments from the questionnaire and interview data
revealed some of these issues. Two school supervisors, for instance,
explained what they saw happening in the schools:
One of the real obstacles in schools and for school principals
particularly, is that they don’t fully understand the changing system.
As a result, in many schools we could find many principals who are
not used to school autonomy as an opportunity. This is because
under the previous system the practice was to wait for technical
instruction from our superior officers. Furthermore, there was little
training and preparations for this to occur (I-1).
In terms of substantive change, I don’t see any significant things
happening at school… This is because the changes involve a way of
thinking and attitude, which are not simple (I-2).
One teacher had also had similar view about what occurred at the
school level:
Institutionally I think our school is not ready to take its’ own action as
mandated on the SBM system. In addition we also have what I call
‘centralisation syndrome’ which means we don’t have courage to
take any action without the superior officer at district level knowing
about the content of decision. As far as I know, there is no principal
who takes such actions which is his legitimate authority without
obtaining agreement from education district office (I-13).
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These three explanations above indicate who the participants believe
is the real authority on education in the autonomy era. It is not surprising
that the principals were the individuals who most fully understood this
situation because they were selected by the bureaucratic process. If they
made unfavourable decisions without consultation with their superior, these
could jeopardise their careers. So it was prudent to simply follow the
traditional means of decision-making.
On the other hand, there was an explanation from the teacher union
representative about this situation:
principals and teachers felt that in fact in this autonomy, what really
is happening now was half-hearted autonomy….school superior
officers indeed were not ready to see the school as being
independent (I-6).
However, when an official from an education district office was asked
about authority that could be executed by schools, his response was as
Devolved authority is a good thing, but it can become a really big
problem when directed by an incompetent principal. It can destroy
the school. However, if the principal is good, the school can make
great achievements (I-7).
This officer seemed to think that the important component for SBM
was a good school principal. Schools would not be ready to manage
themselves unless they had a good principal. This respondent’s perspective
also suggested that devolving power did not necessarily result in a
competent principal.
Another issue related to the perception by principals and superior
officers about what constituted a good school. A school supervisor describes
it as follows:
I really understand that most principals perceived the success of their
leadership was not based on intangible things, something ideal, such
as managing the school to become more independent. But they
perceived physical appearance such as refurbishment of school
buildings, new painting of fence and fine-looking school yard as the
indicator of school achievement (I-1).
A different view was expressed by a teacher, who saw that one
impact of the implementation of SBM policy was reducing the uniformity that
had usually been practiced during the previous regime:
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If there is no uniformity about regulations, this would result in
the community complaining, especially in terms of new student
entrance requirements (Q-65). (“Q” was the code for data from
questionnaire, and “65” was the number of the participants in
my list)
The above comments are undoubtedly indicative of the extent of
influence of the previously centralised system. The comment indicates that
some teachers regard change as likely to pose risks to their careers. It cannot
be denied that devolved authority to manage dissimilar problems and
priorities is likely to pose different challenges for different schools. In the
Indonesian situation, student admission to certain public school has the
potential to become big news. This is because of the way good quality
schools are perceived and competition for places in schools is high. Further,
in state secondary schools nowadays, entrance is not only based on academic
performance but also on the willingness of parents to pay funds to the
Interviews with groups of respondents revealed that student
admission was most critical because strategic manoeuvres by each party
ensured maximum influence to achieve their intentions. This is because state
secondary schools were perceived as directly responsible for achieving a
better future for students. As a result, a school’s authority, particularly the
principals’, in terms of student admission is marginalised. One state
secondary school has to follow community pressure to accept students from
a nearby school as one principal illustrated:
We plan to accept four parallel classes; each class consisting of
40 students. But, people who live close by school, the sub-district
government official forces us to accept more, and so in the end
we have six classes which contain of 48 students per class, which
is certainly too many (I-8).
For other schools, the party who usually persuades the school to
increase the number of student admissions is superior officers (the mayor
and education district office):
Our school has to add one class (40 students), because they
demanded that. We can do nothing about that even when we
explain we don’t have enough class rooms for that (I-20).
As a principal who originally was a science teacher, I feel ashamed.
This is because we use the science laboratory as a regular class room.
We just follow orders to increase new student numbers (I-16).
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Moreover beside this there are also personal requests to the
principal, usually from officials in the education district office, to enrol certain
students. Undoubtedly this results in conflicts of interest. One principal
Student admission is a sensitive practice and at times
intervention occurs from outside.. It is because students who do
not pass the test can actually be accepted because they are the
child of an important government official. This is unfair to others,
and makes me have sleeping problems…. Sometimes I can refuse
one or two but as a result my superior officer gets really angry
with me (I-20).
Another principal, however, welcomed the request:
Because we have specific instruction from the mayor which states
‘children who live close to school shouldn’t be rejected as
students.….There was also a new student enrolled in our school,
the father was an important bureaucrat and had recently
transferred to this city.... the district education office gave me an
unofficial request to admit the student, so I just put him into our
school. It seems everybody was happy (I-12).
What this all implies is that student admissions are an indicator of
authority and one way in which the degree of school autonomy can be
Financial Management Authority
With regard to devolved authority relating to finances, the view of
the three groups of school stakeholders appeared to be the same (Table 2). It
seems the groups consistently held similar views regarding priority and the
nature of financial authority.
For a long time, all stakeholders knew that one of a school’s main
tasks was planning the school budget. For stakeholders, this was a priority
task. As public institutions, state schools were regularly provided with funds
from the central government through a block grant to the district
government for salaries and operational costs (recurrent budget). Yet,
stakeholders’ ranked the management of government funds second,
compared to managing funds from parents, which was ranked first. This
ranking supports the view that money from parents was seen as more
significant for schools. Further, unlike funds from the government which is
often outside their influence in terms of the amount and timing of receipt,
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the money from parents comes on a regular basis (monthly), and is more
flexible in terms of spending. Parental funds are decided by schools and
remain in the hands of the schools. Schools use these funds to meet their
needs, because funds for operational costs from the government are very
limited even for the school’s basic expenses such as electricity, water,
telephone bill and paper. For the school staff the funds are a source of
additional income for them as well, depending upon their hours of teaching
and position.
When respondents were asked about changing budget allocations,
there appeared to be little support for this. Participants felt that schools were
restricted by government regulation, particularly for funds from the
government. The idea of managing teachers’ salaries, giving the school the
right to decide their salaries and to deliver these regularly, was not
considered favourably. Few respondents supported this kind of devolved
financial authority. Participants felt that managing teachers’ salaries is a
difficult task and school administrations do not has the capacity to
satisfactory handle it.
Table 2. Schools Authority in Terms of Financial Management
What kinds of authorities in terms of financial management do you
think that can be given to the schools?1
planning for school’s budget
managing fund from parents
managing fund from government
N= 5
changing budget allocation
managing teachers salary
planning for school’s budget
managing fund from parents
managing fund from government
changing budget allocation
managing teachers salary
I don’t know
planning for school’s budget
managing fund from parents
Committee: managing fund from government
changing budget allocation
managing teachers salary
Notes: 1 respondent can answer more than one choice
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When respondents were asked about changing budget allocations,
there appeared to be little support for this. Participants felt that schools were
restricted by government regulation, particularly for funds from the
government. The idea of managing teachers’ salaries, giving the school the
right to decide their salaries and to deliver these regularly, was not
considered favourably. Few respondents supported this kind of devolved
financial authority. Participants felt that managing teachers’ salaries is a
difficult task and school administrations do not has the capacity to
satisfactory handle it.
Data from interviews were consistent with the questionnaire. Two
significant issues emerged in terms of financial management in school: the
funds from the government and from the parents. But these two funds had
different sources and were treated differently.
Dealing with the routine fund that incorporated the yearly school
budget was mainly the authority and responsibility of the principal.
Deliberations regarding it were conducted mostly in secret, from it’s planning
to reporting stages, even after the introduction of the SBM policy. The
following comment from a teacher typifies the common practice that
happened in many schools:
The routine fund comes from the government; we do not know how
much it is. According to the principal, the school committee members
and the teachers are not allowed to know about it. In short, most
principals have an attitude that they do not want to share such
information. Only two people have access to it [the principal and
school treasurer]. As a result we do not know about the routine fund
contribution to the school budget, it could be that some bills are paid
twice from two sources [routine fund and parent’s money] (I-13).
A school committee member who had been experienced as a
member of BP3 in two consecutive periods (about 6 years) expressed a
similar view:
Regarding the routine fund, we are not involved at all. The routine
fund is managed by the principal. But the school committee may be
invited to talk about it and make the decision (I-11).
The above comments indicate who is significantly in control of the
school budget, particularly the routine fund from the district government.
In the autonomy era, contrary to the previous system where funding
was directly given to the school from central office, state secondary schools
had to deal with considerable bureaucratic red tape at the mayor’s office in
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order to obtain non-salary funds (to meet school operational costs). It often
did not come in the full amount and was delayed. That is one reason why
schools relied on money from parents.
With regards to the fund that came from parents, the budgeting
process was somewhat different. This is because at the beginning many
parties were involved and shared information. Usually the budget planning
process was started at the end of academic year (June). The draft was mainly
developed by the principal and then given to a delegated teacher.
Undoubtedly, the budget proposal had more than one draft. The following
comment from a teacher (I-21) illustrates this:
Researcher (R):
How is the school budget proposed to the
Participant (P):
The school proposes the budget to the committee
and I make the budget plan for this academic year.
Actually I made ten budget plans over one week.
Researcher (R):
Why do you have to make that many plans?
Participant (P):
The ten budget plans were shown to the principal,
and then he with the committee choose and decide
which one is appropriate.
Researcher (R):
What are the differences between those ten budget
Participant (P):
Basically it is the amount of monthly school fee that
has to be paid by parents. The principal and the
committee select which one is the best, and then
the committee will release this to the parents in the
committee general meeting. Certainly the meeting
is the most risky one, because it could be the
parents don’t agree.… After the budget officially is
accepted, we disseminate the details to teachers
and administration staff. This ensures they know
about the amount of money they will receive and
are aware of the kind of school programmes that
are funded from the parents’ money.
The principal (I-16) from another state secondary school explains the
process slightly differently as follows:
The budget plan was developed only by the principal. I made a
draft then we discussed it in a meeting with teachers and
administration staff, collected comments and made revisions.
After that we asked the school committee members to
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brainstorm about the programmes that were to be funded by the
budget.. The committee were always curious about the program
that we planned, and asked, why is there urgency for this? This
then led to another revision of the budget plan and agreement
reached. Early in the academic year we print the budget plan and
distribute it to parents at the annual school meeting.
Subsequently, there was bargaining with parents [about amount
of school fee].
Those two quotations indicate that the budget planning process with
the parents’ money was more transparent and democratic than the
government fund, certainly as far as these respondents were concerned.
In contrast, some parents considered the method of developing the
school budget manipulative. Only parents of new students were invited, the
meeting agenda had already been drawn up by the school, it followed its
interests, and there little time was provided for understanding or questioning
it. Many believed that parents were driven by the school to accept the plan
without listening to their concerns. This practice is similar to what happened
with the POMG and the BP3 in the previous era. In addition, inflation
accumulation since the Asian financial crisis of 1997 and the perception that
state schools are of superior quality, resulted in ‘stipulated’ school fees which
became a burden to the average parents’ financial situation.
Two state secondary schools which volunteered details of their
school budget documents, and these revealed interesting information.
Firstly, in terms of total amount, parents’ money collected by the school in a
year was much greater than the operational fund from the government.
According to Supriadi’s (2003) study, state secondary schools are regularly
given around 30 million rupiahs (equivalent to US$ 3,000) for operational
costs from the government annually. However the two site study schools
could collect 10 to 15 times that amount. Secondly, 40% of the fund was
allocated to school staffs (which already had regular salary as civil servants)
based on their position (principal, vice-principals, administration staff,
teachers); an additional amount of money also based on teachers’ teaching
time and extra responsibility (such as home-room teachers, teachers
responsible for extracurricular activities, and teachers who were assistant to
vice-principals). Thirty percent of the fund was allocated for non-permanent
staff (non-civil servants) and an additional fund to cover school over-head
costs; around 20% of the fund is used to support teaching and learning
processes. Thirdly, what the school indicated about their innovative
programmes was under-funded and unsustainable. This is because many
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programmes that were listed in the budget plan were in the main not
supported with enough funding or had inadequate capacity to fulfil the
programme, its intention was more to show that the school had a wonderful
From a legal perspective, public secondary schools that collect funds
from parents don’t have enough legislation and regulation to back up their
actions. Although in the budget plan stated by the education district office a
‘school levy’ regulation existed, and a circular from the mayor commented on
its use this did not make it legitimate. Moreover, the school committee also
stipulated that an additional amount of money had to be contributed by
parents regularly, which was 55% higher than the ‘school levy’ stipulated by
the head of district education office. However, nobody questioned this kind
of activity - school stakeholders such as principals, teachers, parents, and the
community regarded it as something ordinary and were accustomed to it.
Undoubtedly, this kind of fund is very flexible for the school in terms
of spending, which is not a characteristic of the routine fund. A principal
explained it as follows:
As long as we talk about our request and give clear and rational
argument for that to the parents’ representative, they will provide
authorization. Changing allocation of the budget should be informed
and accountable. So, changing school budget allocations is permitted
as long as they know about it (I-16).
On one hand, funds from parents are becoming a significant
contribution towards school operational costs (non-salary budget). On the
other hand, this did not result in a bigger bargaining position for parents or
their representatives on the school committee. A school supervisor explained
this issue as follows:
Some principals don’t want to be controlled at all by the school
committee. However, it depends on each individual. Although the
principal in some schools may have that attitude, in terms of
financial accountability he must make it very clear. It was not only
implementing what the principal wants… least before the
money is spent there was an agreement from the committee (I-2).
One school tried to involve as many parties as possible in the school
budgeting process for all funds. The principal, who has a postgraduate degree
from an overseas university, used different practices to empower teachers in
relation to the school budget. The following comment illustrates this:
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For transparency in our school, the practice at the beginning of the
academic year was to appoint a teacher responsible for a certain
program.. There was a teacher responsible for religious instruction,
increasing academic performance program, vocational activity,
information technology, sport activity, (etc.) ... outside the viceprincipals who have their own program. Then other teachers were
grouped to each program, to make their own budget plan together.
After that, all plans were gathered, related to the available funds for
that year, and then a spreadsheet was developed. One example … for
the sport activity the teacher he will know where the money to
finance sporting activity will come from; it could be from the
management operational assistance fund … some million rupiahs
[routine fund], and from BP3 [parents] another million rupiahs
etc…Each teacher who had such responsibility knew the amount of
his/her budget in a year including its source. As the principal I
monitor what is happening (I-8).
One teacher who came from the same school was interviewed and
confirmed the principal’s explanation (I-22). Interviews and observations in
other schools revealed, however, that such practice was not common.
Authority in staff management
Unlike the results discussed in previous sub-sections, participants’
responded differently regarding the matter of authority in staff management.
It seemed that each group had a different priority regarding this issue. Data
from questionnaires and interviews indicated a number of complex issues
surrounding devolved authority on staff management.
Table 3. Schools Authority in Terms of Staff Management
What kinds of authorities in terms of staff management do you
that can be given to the schools?1
administrative staff recruitment
teacher performance evaluation
teacher professional development
teacher recruitment
principal recruitment
teacher professional development
teacher performance evaluation
administrative staff recruitment
principal recruitment
teacher recruitment
I don’t know
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teacher performance evaluation
Committee: eacher professional development
administrative staff recruitment
teacher recruitment
principal recruitment
I don’t know
Notes: 1 respondent can answer more than one choice
As a group, the principals felt that schools should be responsible for
selecting and recruiting administrative staff (Table 3). Their attitude shows
that the principal’s job as school administrator depends on the
administration staff who were often seen as inadequately trained. Unlike
teachers who have a university education, nearly all administrative staff were
secondary school graduates. Principals found their close supervision of the
day-to-day activities of administrators was not beneficial. They felt that the
administrative staff did not provide the kind of adequate performance
required, which is generally consistent with how others think about the
public sectors (see for example Rohdewohld, 2003; Filmer and Lindauer,
2001). The teachers’ response revealed a similar perspective. Only school
committee members who were not involved in daily school activities had a
different view. A total of eight out of 21 school committee members agreed
with such devolved authority.
Respondent groups felt that the evaluation of teachers’ performance
should be a devolved authority. Principals already exercised annual
performance assessment for the teacher as a government employee. But this
evaluation was administrative and too general. The teachers’ performance
evaluation in teaching and learning was still conducted by the district office,
but this exercise was basically a paper exercise, and did not measure the
effectiveness of teachers’ work (see Nielsen, 2003). So the idea that schools
appraise teachers was not only supported by principals, but also by teachers
and school committee members. It seemed that principals were confident
about their own abilities to undertake performance evaluation of teachers.
However for the teachers, their professional development was their
priority (42 out of 57 were in favour). This was not a coincidence since most
in-service training was organised and conducted by their superior officers
who were education district officers, provincial officers or officers from
central office. From the teachers’ point of view, professional development
sessions generally made them feel disempowered (see for instance Thair and
Treagust, 2003). To them, the professional development activities use oneway communication, with the main purpose being to socialise them into new
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government policy or educational innovation. A representative from the
teachers union argues that this is why it does not empower teachers:
The administrative purpose is the essential purpose. .... it is just
to spend the money. They don’t think some kind of need analysis
is required, which would demonstrate different needs for
different teachers. Experienced biology teachers, for example,
their need for professional development is different from novice
teachers. They don’t care about it, that’s why the results are far
from optimal (I-3).
On the other hand, teachers who attend professional development
training had free time from their teaching. Furthermore, they got additional
money just by attended the training and sometimes an opportunity to see
other places. Unsurprisingly, for training in other provinces or in the capital
city, teachers were competing to get the chance.
One promise that came with the implementation of the SBM policy
was that professional development for teachers could be conducted as they
wanted. However, there appeared to be no changing practice regarding this
issue. As indicated in this comment from a school supervisor, change at the
school level was not happening:
Any kind of previous professional development efforts for
teachers at district level like PKG [pemantapan kerja guru, the
strengthening of teachers’ work] or MGMP [musyawarah guru
mata pelajaran, the consultation of subject teachers] organised
by bureaucrats didn’t work very well. Then we came to the idea,
why don’t we give money directly to the teachers and let them
make their own program for professional development at school
level. Unfortunately, this idea was not supported by a group of
principals, they were afraid. They even influenced the education
district office to ensure this did not happen, and suggested it
would be best to implement another year… a buying time
strategy (I-2).
However, the ideas of recruiting principals and teachers at the school
level were not supported by all groups of respondents. Only one out of five
principals, one school committee members from 21 participants, and 18 out
of 57 teachers agreed that schools should select their own principals. These
small numbers demonstrate that delegating this kind of authority may be far
too ambitious at this time. These views also parallel responses about schools
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
recruiting their own teaching staff. Teachers, in particular, considered this to
be a low priority. A comment from a teacher reflected this view:
At this time only half-policy about SBM is really implemented,
which means only some particular and trivial things get done. Far
too difficult for it to include exercising authority about principal
selection, I think that’s very hard (I-15).
Becoming a principal in Indonesia’s state secondary schools is
regarded as a privilege by many. The principal is selected through a very
routines bureaucratic selection process between senior teachers. Once a
person is selected, it is unlikely s/he will return to work as a teacher in the
future. This means that the system will maintain s/he to continue as a
member of this exclusive group with ‘powers’ in the education sector.
Principals also have an opportunity to obtain more prestigious positions later.
So it is not surprising to see the principal’s perspective appearing to support
their own interest.
A teacher who opposes principal recruitment by schools explains his
concerns as follows:
I am afraid, that if we choose our own principal, then the person,
who emerges, based on popular vote, may be a dictator or may
be obsessed with the need for respect. This will result in very bad
impacts on the school (Q-65).
A school committee member also believes that the real implication of
selecting principal by school committee will create a worse situation:
I think that will be more risky to the school. How do the
committee members know which principal candidate is better?
Nowadays it should be acknowledged that we are faced with
nepotism, when the committee has a right to principal selection
the level of nepotism will be higher (I-11).
These two perspectives implied that a ‘democratic election’ to recruit
principals by school stakeholder was not advisable either. A teacher and a
school committee member thought the worse case scenario involved a lack
of capacity to judge possible principal candidate which can result in
favouritism based on nepotism. In another response, it was suggested that
teachers generally were inadequate to become principals. An official at
district level supported this view:
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
At this time, we can choose someone to become principal from
eligible teachers but most of them are unqualified. There are few
who are qualified, they may be too young and his/her rank
position is not sufficient. Also we are not ready for a young
person to become principal. In short, still lots of obstacles (I-7).
However, by contrast, another teacher supported the idea of
principal selection by the school. But he believed that teachers should have
this authority:
I think school committee members do not know much about the
performance of each teacher. Only teachers at the school who are
acknowledgeable about a particular teacher if s/he is suitable,
capable or smart enough to become a principal. The teachers
should be given rights to choose their own principal (I-21).
He believed that teachers know more than school committee members, and
that this should be a leverage to use in gaining what teachers want.
Others responded differently – some believed that the best way was
by a clear and transparent mechanism. Comments from two education
council members illustrate this as follows:
In the previous system, the appointment of principal was merely
based on like and dislike. A new principal can be completely
unaccustomed to our school situation. At this time we want at
least school stakeholders to be asked about who they want… if
they have a candidate, or the authority can be given some
alternatives before appointment (I-4).
Principal selection at school level obviously will draw conflict
between school, school committee, district education office and
of course the mayor. The first thing that has to be established is a
mechanism for that, it should be open and fair for every party (I23).
With regards to teachers’ recruitment at school level several issues were
also identified. All secondary schools which participated in this study
reported that currently some teachers were needed to teach particular
subjects, although it would probably be a long wait before appointments
were made. A principal explains this situation as follow:
From the school side, we have a responsibility to ask the district
education district for some teachers. A couple of days ago I asked
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for a qualified teacher….just move him to our school. But, the
office answer was that we will consider that later, just use who is
already eligible (I-20).
Because it was difficult to attract teachers via the district government, the
school itself selected non-permanent teaching staff. This response from a
teacher illustrates an experience which others have had:
Usually the vice-principal for curriculum affairs tells the principals
that there is no teacher for specific subject matter or that a
particular teacher has a heavy teaching job. Then they look for a
non-permanent teacher, they select from available candidates
who meet requirements. The principal and one teacher decided
which one passed the selection (I-15).
In contrast, for the appointment of a permanent teacher (civil
servant teacher) the schools did not have any choice except to receive who
was appointed. So the notion that schools could select their own permanent
teachers was an appealing idea for principals and teachers. One principal
who was excited with this possibility noted that the:
Principal should be given authority to appoint and fire permanent
teachers and administration staff (Q-22).
Teachers also supported the idea because they found that the
performance of permanent teachers was not always satisfactory. Three
permanent teachers from three different secondary schools shared their
experience regarding their counterparts:
Regarding teacher’s recruitment, schools can only take it for
granted and cannot select and refuse who is coming to our
school. This is our weakness, we do nothing about it. There are
some teachers who have big problem here, we cannot reject or
fire them because they are government employees who hold an
official appointment letter from the government (I-19).
We have difficulty in dealing with teachers who sometimes come
late to the class or their teaching work is inadequate. They were
permanent teachers and it was difficult to fix (I-15).
I always find it frustrating when I have to manage students in
relation to teacher absence. That is our classic problem. I only can
give suggestions to the principal regarding that teacher’s
performance, but mostly there was no good solution (I-13).
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As a result, permanent teacher selection was viewed a key task that
many wanted devolved to the school level. This was because the school could
have greater flexibility to manage permanent teachers and minimise bad
Another sensitive issue that emerged more openly in Indonesia
during the autonomy era related to diversity. For example, one educator
Enhancing nationalism, abolish preference which is based on race,
culture, religion, ethnicity/local identity (Q-64).
This view has become more accepted and was practiced at the district
level across Indonesia, in terms of new government employee recruitment or
appointments to strategic positions (see for example Sagala, 2003;
Soewartoyo, 2002). The respondents undoubtedly perceived that if the
school was given the power to recruit principals and teachers, then some
preferences were likely to be shown. Like other areas in Indonesia, Lombok
has people from diverse community backgrounds within its education sector
and one group (usually the local ethnicity) dominant in its bureaucracy. Other
groups who are minorities in the local population (but usually the majority in
their place of origin, such as Javanese in Java) often do not really enjoy such
A school supervisor who came from another island also indicated the
possibility of this becoming an issue:
I have a concern that the employee recruitment mode in the
future may be based not on the quality of candidates, but on their
identity, using the authority opportunity that is given by
autonomy. My worry is that there is something sad in this
regional autonomy policy that a person who governs education,
because of the autonomy spirit, has to be governed by local
people. I think this one is not a possibility anymore. It is a reality
A teacher who was born in Lombok also had a similar perspective:
I hate to see preferences such as ones based on locality or religion
for a reason, they hide themselves from incapability. It is not fair
and also it will jeopardize the future of this island (I-15).
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However, two respondents who had years of experience in
government positions acknowledged the practice could happen and
suggested solutions for that. An official from the education district office
argued as follows:
Let’s see what happened in Java. Central Javanese civil servants
cannot get a position if they worked in East Java, and vice versa.
Even in Bali, for a long time that was the common practice. I think
in Lombok the situation is different, we welcome the others. Of
course with the autonomy, there were people who use this
opportunity. It is something that cannot be avoided, so we have
to establish a regulation about that (I-7).
Authority in Curriculum Management
Table 4 shows participants’ responses about the ‘core business’ of
schools - curriculum management. Only teachers, amongst the respondent
groups favoured devolved authority to schools for curriculum management.
It seems that teachers are ready to implement it without hesitation.
Table 4. Schools Authority in Terms of Curriculum Management
In terms of curriculum management, what kind of authority do you think
that schools can be exercised?1
teaching methods
curriculum development
textbook choice
teaching materials
graduation examination
teaching methods
teaching materials
graduation examination
curriculum development
textbook choice
teaching materials
curriculum development
Committee: teaching methods
textbook choice
graduation examination
Notes: respondent can answer more than one choice
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From the principals’ point of view, teaching methods, and curriculum
development along with textbook choice are favoured areas for devolved
authority. There seemed to be less support for other teaching materials and
the graduation examination. These choices certainly reflect the position of
principals more than education officials who tend to stick to current
regulations. For instance, on the one hand, principals favour being able to
decide which textbooks showed be used in school, but on the other hand
other they do not support control new other teaching materials. This is
because any textbook that is used in school has to be short-listed through a
central government selection process, but other teaching materials mainly
come from teachers’ efforts to enrich students’ learning.
Unlike principals, school committee members chose other teaching
materials as their first choice for devolved authority. However their
perceptions tended to be different to those of teachers and principals. A
comment from a school committee member is indicative of the difference:
Choices of curriculum, book and other teaching materials should
be based on national standards, not devolved authority (Q-17).
For principals and school committee members, the idea that schools
should create their own graduation examinations received the lowest
priority. But for each group it was based on different reasons. The principals
considered that the MoNE should continue to conduct the final examination.
This process involved the central government having veto over planning,
implementation and establishing passing standards to be achieved by
students. For committee members, quality and state certification tended to
be their main motives as most of them were higher educated parents who
wanted their children to pursue higher education.
Other issues raised by a teacher reflected some of the wider
There needs to be a streamlining of teaching subjects and
curriculum loads. School infrastructure needs upgrading to
support teaching and learning in terms of school based
management (Q-64).
The points above are classic complaints by teachers about
Indonesia’s school curriculum. Teachers have, for some time, felt that there
are too many subjects to teach to students and an over-whelming syllabus in
each subject. In addition, teachers regard, there was having been no
changing practice regarding this, especially with regard to the curriculum
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target which has to be completely delivered to students in an academic year.
One teacher complained as follows:
The principal said we had come to the end of the curriculum
target. There were no such things like mastery learning, he never
thought about it. The curriculum targets were to be 100%
delivered, if there was a teacher who wrote 75% or 80%, this
became a big question (I-13).
Another teacher sharing his experience and noted that:
The principal and school supervisor always had concerns about
the curriculum target and its level of absorbability. Curriculum
target had to be 100% delivered, and its level of absorbability
reaches the same point. I had a heated discussion with a
supervisor regarding this, but the answer is very clear, we have to
follow the establishment (I-17).
Those views reflect the facts that for teachers, having authority in
curriculum management is positive for them. They hoped that one of the
outcomes of the transfer of this authority would be to resolve such concerns.
It is a hope based on the perception that school based management is the
catalyst for innovation in education for all Indonesian schools.
This paper has unfolded the perspectives and practices about the
SBM policy as perceived by school stakeholders regards to devolving
authority to school level. Principals, teachers and school committee members
gave the same response in one aspect (financial management), and
responded differently (general, staff and curriculum issues). Regarding
financial management, it shows that school stakeholders are still practicing
what were usually done in the previous era, the emergence of school
committee do not change much. On the other aspects reveal that the
principal power is salient, and this also acknowledged by the teachers and
school committee members. This means that principals highly influenced the
kinds of implementation of the SBM policy in the public state secondary
schools. At the same time the district government power still has the final say
regarding the authority that can be exercised at school level.
The findings provide suggestions for reform of the existing SBM
policy in Indonesia. The centralisation of power that had been practiced in
the previous era at every level of the education system is still prevalent
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
where in the autonomy era it is devolved to district government, but not to
the school level. It is suggested that the policy-makers who wanted to
transform the system, can construct a policy that actually became an
instrument to strengthen if it is clearly stated rights and authority for each
stakeholder could lead to different and more positive outcomes. Also the
whole process has to be transparent and accessible to every party involved,
which would lead to practicing more genuine power sharing.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Irene Maria Juli Astuti
The State Polytechnic of Creative Media, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected], [email protected]
Vocational learning is designed to produce graduation that are
ready to enter the workforce requirements. One thing that should
be taken into consideration is the curriculum implementation where
the class theory covers 40% and industrial practice covers 60 % of
the framework remaining. The practical activities from various
subjects needs to be integrated to achieve a continuous and
meaningful learning result. Integrated learning is a learning
methodology where some competencies are integrated and has to
be achieved from various subjects approach through one
interconnected and continuous assignment. The purpose of this
research is to describe the integration process from Writing, Editing
and Publishing Marketing in one learning continuum. Methodology
used in this research is a case study using the students of “Politeknik
Negeri Media Kreatif ‘publishing class semester four as the source of
data. The result of this research is the complete description of the
integrated learning equipped with the syllabus and the lesson plan
for Writing, editing and Publishing Marketing subject. The
conclusion of this research is integrated learning overcome the
overlaps topics and resulted on a holistic, continuous and
meaningful learning outcomes.
Keywords:integrated learning, vocational,
publishing marketing
writing, editing,
Dunia industri membutuhkan karyawan yang bisa diandalkan untuk
mengemban tugas dan kewajiban dalam pekerjaan. Kebutuhan itu salah
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
satunya dapat dipenuhi melalui lulusan dari berbagai jalur pendidikan, baik
pendidikan keilmuan ataupun vokasional. Apabila yang diharapkan adalah
lulusan yang sudah siap dengan keterampilan khusus di bidang pekerjaannya
maka lulusan dari pendidikan vokasional merupakan pilihan yang tepat. Hal
itu disebabkan pendidikan vokasional diarahkan pada penguasaan keahlian
dan ilmu terapan. Salah satu yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pendidikan
vokasional agar dapat memenuhi kebutuhan dunia industri adalah
perancangan kurikulum. Komposisi antara teori dan praktik menentukan
keberhasilan pembelajaran vokasional. Komposisi yang digunakan adalah
persentase praktik lebih tinggi dari persentase teori (70% praktik dan 30%
teori atau 60% praktik dan 40% teori).
Politeknik Negeri Media Kreatif Jakarta, khususnya Program Studi
Penerbitan dirancang khusus agar lulusannya memiliki kompetensi dalam
menghasilkan berbagai bentuk naskah seperti buku, majalah, dan surat
kabar. Tidak hanya menghasilkan naskah berupa produk, tetapi lulusannya
juga dibekali dengan kemampuan berwirausaha. Oleh karena itu, berbagai
mata kuliah yang diajarkan diarahkan untuk mendukung tercapainya
kompetensi tersebut. Beberapa mata kuliah yang diajarkan agar mempunyai
keahlian menghasilkan naskah adalah Bahasa Indonesia, Bahasa Inggris,
Editing, dan Penulisan. Beberapa mata kuliah yang diajarkan untuk
membekali mahasiswa agar mampu berwirausaha adalah pemasaran,
kalkulasi penerbitan, dan kewirausahaan. Kurikulum dirancang agar
mahasiswa mencapai kompetensi keahlian tertentu sesuai jenjang.
Beberapa mata kuliah serumpun, seperti Bahasa Indonesia, Editing,
dan Penulisan mempunyai materi yang saling bersinggungan. Pada mata
kuliah Editing diharapkan mahasiswa dapat memperbaiki struktur bahasa
sehingga naskah layak terbit. Pada mata kuliah Penulisan diharapkan
mahasiswa dapat menulis sebuah naskah dengan bahasa yang baik dan benar
sehingga mudah dipahami oleh pembacanya. Dengan demikian, pada mata
kuliah penulisan juga dilakukan proses editing. Oleh karena itu, perlu
kecermatan dalam merancang pembelajaran agar tidak terjadi tumpang
tindih materi. Selain menghindari tumpang tindih materi, pembelajaran juga
perlu dirancang agar mempunyai keutuhan. Hal itu akan menghasilkan
sebuah pembelajaran yang bermakna. Salah satu usaha yang perludilakukan
adalah dengan memerhatikan kesinambungan antara mata kuliah yang satu
dengan mata kuliah yang lain. Pembelajaran terpadu merupakan salah satu
Permasalahan yang akan dibahas pada penelitan ini adalah
bagaimana mengatasi materi yang saling bersinggungan pada beberapa mata
kuliah? Selain itu, juga bagaimana menciptakan sebuah kesinambungan
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beberapa mata kuliah agar diperoleh pembelajaran bermakna? Beberapa
mata kuliah yang menjadi pembahasan adalah Editing, Penulisan, dan
Pemasaran Penerbitan. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan
proses keterpaduan mata kuliah Penulisan, Editing, dan Pemasaran
Penerbitan dalam sebuah pembelajaran yang saling terkait dan
berkesinambungan. Metode yang digunakan adalah studi kasus dengan
subjek penelitian mahasiswa semester IV di Program Studi Penerbitan
Politeknik Negeri Media Kreatif, Jakarta. Waktu penelitan adalah awal bulan
Februari sampai pertengahan bulan Maret 2012.
Keberhasilan sebuah pembelajaran salah satunya ditentukan oleh
kurikulum yang digunakan sebagai acuan. Strategi penerapannya pun perlu
dipahami oleh pendidik, dalam hal ini adalah dosen yang mengampu mata
kuliah. Oleh karena itu, kurikulum perlu dirancang dan disusun secara cermat
dan jelas agar tetap sasaran dan tepat guna.
Kurikulum Terpadu
Kurikulum terpadu menurut Shoemaker seperti dikutip oleh Trianto
(2010:79) didefinisikan sebagai “... pendidikan yang diorganisasi sedemikian
rupa sehingga melintasi batas-batas mata pelajaran, menggabungkan
berbagai aspek kurikulum menjadi asosiasi yang bermakna untuk
memfokuskan diri pada wilayah studi yang lebih luas. Kurikulum ini
memandang pembelajaran dan pengajaran dalam cara yang menyeluruh
(holistik) dan merefleksikan dunia nyata, yang bersifat interaktif.”
Pengertian kurikulum terpadu tersebut akan menjadi lebih jelas bila
dibagi dalam berbagai model, seperti yang dikemukakan oleh Fogarty (1991:
xv), yaitu
1. the fragmented model;
2. the connected model;
3. the nested model;
4. the sequenced model;
5. the shared model;
6. the webbed model;
7. the threaded model;
8. the integrated model;
9. the immersed model;
10. the networked model.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Setiap model tersebut memiliki deskripsi sesuai dengan ciri khasnya.
Model yang digunakan sebagai acuan dalam penelitian ini adalah integrated
Integrated model dideskripsikan sebagai model yang memadukan
berbagai disiplin ilmu (mata kuliah) yang memiliki materi tumpang tindih.
Keterampilan, konsep, dan sikap-sikap yang sama dari berbagai mata kuliah
tersebut dikaitkan menjadi sebuah kegiatan terpadu. (Fogarty, 1991:76).
Model ini digambarkan sebagai berikut.
Gambar 1. Integrated Model
Beberapa Mata Kuliah yang Dipadukan
Pada penelitian ini mata kuliah yang dipadukan adalah Editing,
Penulisan, dan Pemasaran Penerbitan. Editing dan Penulisan memiliki
konsep yang bersinggungan, sedangkan Pemasaran Penerbitan terdapat
keterampilan yang terkait dengan produk yang dihasilkan dalam mata kuliah
Editing dan Penulisan.
Editing berkaitan erat dengan kegiatan menyunting naskah, yang
bermakna (1) menyiapkan naskah siap cetak dengan memperhatikan segi
sistematika penyajian, isi, dan bahasa (menyangkut ejaan, diksi, dan struktur
kalimat); (2) merencanakan dan mengarahkan penerbitan (surat kabar,
majalah); (3) menyusun dan merakit (film, pita rekaman) dengan cara
memotong-motong dan memasang kembali (KBBI, 2001: 1106).
Orang yang melakukan pekerjaan menyunting naskah disebut
penyunting naskah atau editor (Eneste, 2005:8). Dalam dunia penerbitan
buku dikenal juga istilah editor yang bermakna orang yang mengedit naskah
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tulisan atau karangan yang akan diterbitkan di majalah, surat kabar, dan
sebagainya, penyunting (Eneste, 2005: 10). Peran editor adalah sebagai
jembatan antara penulis dan pembaca agar hasil tulisan dapat dipahami oleh
pembaca. Stovall dan Mullins (2006: 3) mengemukakan bahwa editor harus
memahami konteks. Hal itu berarti bahwa editor tidak hanya mengedit
naskah tulisan atau karangan dari segi bahasa, tetapi juga harus mengerti isi
dari naskah tersebut. Lebih jauh Eneste (2005:10) mengemukakan bahwa
tugas pokok seorang editor penerbit buku dapat diperinci sebagai berikut:
1. merencanakan naskah yang akan diterbitkan oleh penerbit;
2. mencara naskah yang akan diterbitkan;
3. mempertimbangkan naskah yang masuk ke penerbit (ikut
mempertimbangkan layak-tidaknya sebuah naskah diterbitkan);
4. menyunting naskah dari segi isi/materi;
5. memberi petunjuk atau arahan kepada kopieditor (penyunting
bahasa/editor bahasa) yang membantunya mengenai cara penyuntingan
Proses editing sebenarnya merupakan bagian dari proses penulisan.
Berbicara masalah penulisan, tidak akan lepas dari ragam naskah.
Perkembangan industri kreatif dan industri media menuntut seorang penulis
mempunyai pengetahuan mengenai ragam tulisan atau naskah. Menurut
Eneste (2005: 30-31) ragam naskah terdiri atas (1) fiksi >< nonfiksi; (2)
popular >< ilmiah; (3) anak-anak >< dewasa; (4) sekolah >< nonsekolah; (5)
jenjang pendidikan (TK, SD, SMP, SMA, dan Perguruan Tinggi). Selanjutnya
Putra (2010: 11) mengemukakan bahwa terdapat dua besar genre creative
writing yang membedakannya dengan tulisan umum lain. Creative writing
dapat dibagi menjadi dua bagian besar, yaitu creative fiction dan creative
Selanjutnya, Putra (2010: 16 mengemukakan proses kreatif dalam
menulis dilalui melalui berbagai tahapan, yaitu (1) invention
(mencari/menemukan); (2) collection (mengumpulkan); (3) organization
(mengorganisasikan); (4) drafting (menulis/membuat draf); (5) proofreading
(memeriksa cetak coba/pruf). Proses penulisan dan editing menghasilkan
sebuah produk. Bila produk itu dihasilkan di dunia penerbitan buku maka
wujudnya adalah buku. Pemasaran terkait erat dengan promosi, penjualan,
dan distribusi.
Hal-hal itulah yang dipelajari pada mata kuliah Pemasaran
Kegiatan pembelajaran perlu dirancang dalam sebuah rencana
pembelajaran yang didesain dalam sebuah pengembangan instruksional.
Prinsip-prinsip pengembangan instruksional dikelompokkan menjadi dua
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
belas macam seperti yang dikemukan oleh Filbeck dalam Suparman
(2005:15). Prinsip-prinsip itu menjelaskan bahwa pengembangan
instruksional merupakan sebuah proses yang sistematis dalam sebuah
Pada semester IV Program Studi Penerbitan Politeknik Negeri Media
Kreatif diajarkan mata kuliah Penulisan, Editing, dan Pemasaran Penerbitan.
Penelitiaan bermula dari mata kuliah Penulisan yang salah satu tujuan
pembelajarannya adalah menghasilkan produk berupa tulisan. Mengingat
salah satu tahapan proses penulisan adalah editing, maka materi ini perlu
dikaitkan dengan mata kuliah Editing. Dosen penulisan berkolaborasi dengan
dosen editing untuk mewujudkan kegiatan itu. Langkah pertama adalah
membuat silabus terpadu berdasarkan satu topik yang sudah ditentukan,
yaitu Naskah Siap Cetak: Cerita Pendek. Silabus yang dihasilkan terdapat
pada tabel 1.
Setelah membuat silabus terpadu maka dibuat sebuah rencana
pelaksanaan pembelajaran. Pembuatan rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran
tersebut melibatkan dosen Penulisan, dosen Editing, dan dosen Pemasaran
Penerbitan. Keterpaduan mata kuliah Penulisan, Editing, dan Pemasaran
Penerbitan dapat dicermati pada kompetensi dasar yang mengharapkan
mahasiswa dapat menghasilkan produk berupa buku kumpulan cerita pendek
dan mensosialisasikannya. Mata kuliah Penulisan dan Editing berperan pada
saat pembuatan buku, sedangkan mata kuliah Pemasaran berperan pada saat
mensosialisasikan buku tersebut. Sosialisasi buku memiliki arti promosi
sehingga buku dapat dibeli oleh peminat buku.
Berdasarkan silabus dan RPP yang sudah dibuat, dosen mata kuliah
Penulisan, Editing, dan Pemasaran berkolaborasi melaksanakan
pembelajaran. Mahasiswa diarahkan untuk melaksanakan sebuah tugas
projek, yaitu menerbitkan buku dalam bentuk print on demand sekaligus
membuat rencana pemasarannnya. Pembelajaran dilaksanakan di dua kelas,
yaitu penerbitan A dan penerbitan B. Mahasiswa penerbitan A berjumlah 22
orang, mahasiswa penerbitan B berjumlah 19 orang. Setiap kelas dibagi
dalam lima kelompok sesuai dengan tugas dan tanggung jawabnya.
Kelompok I adalah Kelompok Redaksi/Editor, Kelompok II adalah Kelompok
Desainer, Kelompok III adalah Kelompok Pemasaran, Kelompok IV adalah
Kelompok Produksi, Kelompok V adalah Kelompok Administrasi.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Tabel 1. Silabus Terpadu Mata Kuliah Penulisan, Editing, dan Pemasaran
materi ini,
i materi ini
menerbitkan buku
bentuk print
on demand
kelompokkelompok yang
terdiri atas
dan pemasaran
bekerja sesuai
tugas setiap
proses editing
proses lay out
naskah siap
cetak dalam
bentuk print
on demand.
promosi dan
Alat tulis,
lunak dan
Mahasiswa bekerja sesuai tugasnya dengan mengikuti alur kerja yang
sudah dijelaskan oleh Dosen Penulisan. Alur kerja tersebut terdapat pada
bagan berikut.
Gambar 2. Alur Kerja Pembuatan Buku dan Pemasaran
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Cerita pendek yang telah ditulis oleh mahasiswa merupakan naskah
mentah. Naskah tersebut didata oleh kelompok administrasi. Pada saat
proses ini dapat diketahui bahwa tema yang ditulis oleh para mahasiswa
sangat beragam. Tema-tema tulisan mereka antara lain percintaan,
pengalaman, persahabatan, dan keluarga. Paling banyak yang ditulis oleh
mereka adalah tema percintaan. Yang dihasilkan oleh Penerbitan A adalah
22 naskah cerita pendek, sedangkan di Penerbitan B adalah 19 naskah cerita
Naskah mentah yang sudah didata akan mengalami proses editing.
Proses editing merupakan proses yang membutuhkan waktu paling lama.
Pada proses ini, terjadi keterpaduan materi antara Penulisan dan Editing.
Semua naskah yang sudah ditulis masih banyak terdapat kesalahan bahasa
sehingga alur cerita tidak bisa dipahami oleh pembaca. Dalam hal ini, editor
berperan sebagai jembatan antara penulis dan pembaca. Editor harus
memperbaiki naskah tersebut agar nantinya pembaca dapat memahami isi
tulisan. Proses editing melibatkan semua mahasiswa, meskipun mereka
bukan Kelompok Editor. Hal itu terjadi karena naskah mentah adalah hasil
tulisan mereka. Pada proses editing harus terjadi komunikasi antara editor
dan penulis. Hasil koreksi dari editor harus dikonsultasikan kepada penulis
agar didapat kesepahaman mengenai perbaikan naskah.
Tahapan awal yang dilakukan adalah pembagian naskah kepada para
editor. Kelompok editor terdiri atas sepuluh orang, sehingga mereka ratarata harus mengedit dua naskah. Dibutuhkan kerelaan dari beberapa
mahasiswa yang harus mengedit tiga naskah karena masih ada naskah yang
tersisa. Masalah timbul ketika beberapa editor tidak rela memperbaiki
naskah tulisan temannya yang terlalu berantakan bahasanya. Timbulnya
masalah tersebut justru menjadi peluang bagi dosen untuk bisa menjelaskan
dan mengingatkan kepada mahasiswa akan fungsi, peran, dan sikap yang
harus dimiliki seorang editor. Penanaman sikap dapat diterapkan pada saat
proses ini sehingga mahasiswa menyadari kesiapan mereka bila kelak terjun
di dunia kerja.
Pada proses editing, mahasiswa mendapat pengalaman editing
naskah dari segi bahasa dan isi. Mereka menjalani tahapan-tahapan dan
aturan-aturan yang harus diikuti pada proses editing. Ada satu naskah yang
diduga merupakan naskah jiplakan. Temuan itu dijadikan contoh oleh dosen
untuk menjelaskan kepada para mahasiswa mengenai etika menulis dan
sanksi bila terjadi pelanggaran berupa penjiplakan. Hal yang patut dihargai
adalah penulisnya pun dengan jujur mengakui bahwa naskah itu memang
jiplakan. Akhirnya mereka dapat belajar bahwa seorang editor harus teliti dan
mempunyai wawasan yang luas. Selain itu, seorang penulis harus jujur dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
selalu berhati-hati agar tidak terjadi kasus penjiplakan. Penanaman nilai
kejujuran dan ketelitian dapat dilakukan pada proses pembelajaran ini.
Keterpaduan mata kuliah Penulisan dan Editing dapat diterapkan
pada tahapan editing naskah mentah. Materi editing berupa koreksi tanda
baca, pilihan kata, dan kalimat terpadu dengan materi penulisan yang berupa
penulisan dengan bahasa yang mudah dipahami oleh pembaca. Dosen editing
dapat memberikan materi pembelajaran editing berdasarkan naskah yang
ditulis oleh mahasiswa dari hasil mata kuliah Penulisan.
Pelaksanaan pembelajaran terpadu memungkinkan dosen editing
dan penulisan berada dalam waktu yang bersamaan. Kedua dosen
berkolaborasi dalam sebuah tim pembelajaran sehingga tumpang tindih
materi mengenai kebahasaan dapat diatasi. Selain untuk mengatasi tumpang
tindih materi, pembelajaran terpadu juga membuat mahasiswa dapat
memahami materi secara utuh. Materi-materi editing dapat langsung
diterapkan pada penyempurnaan hasil tulisan. Dengan demikian, kompetensi
yang diharapkan pada mata kuliah editing dan penulisan dapat dicapai pada
satu kegiatan pembelajaran yang sama.
Selama proses editing, kelompok desainer sudah menyiapkan desain
untuk isi buku. Dibutuhkan komunikasi dan kerja sama yang baik antara
kelompok editor dan kelompok desain karena mereka harus menentukan
pilihan desain. Diskusi terjadi pada saat proses pemilihan desain. Proses itu
juga membelajarkan mahasiswa untuk saling menghargai pendapat teman.
Naskah yang sudah diedit diserahkan kepada kelompok desainer secara
bertahap untuk di-lay out. Kelompok desainer terdiri atas 3 – 4 orang,
sehingga mereka rata-rata mengerjakan 5 – 6 naskah. Kelompok editor dan
desainer bekerja dengan menjaga kesinambungannya agar target dapat
ditepati. Pada saat proses lay out terjadi masalah peletakan urutan judul
cerita pendek. Ada yang berpendapat sesuai abjad, ada yang berpendapat
sesuai tema. Akhirnya terjadi diskusi di kelas untuk menentukan urutan
cerpen. Keputusan yang diambil adalah meletakkan urutan cerita pendek
berdasarkan kelompok tema. Naskah yang sudah di-lay out dikembalikan
kepada editor untuk dikoreksi kembali. Proses itu disebut koreksi pruf. Editor
mengoreksi pruf kemudian menyerahkannya kembali kepada desainer untuk
dikoreksi. Proses itu disebut koreksi setting. Hal itu terjadi dua sampai tiga
kali untuk meminimalisir kesalahan. Dibutuhkan kesabaran dan ketelitian
pada proses ini. Ada kalanya desainer tidak berkenan karena koreksi terjadi
berkali-kali untuk hal yang sama. Sebaliknya, editor pun merasa keberatan
ketika hasil koreksinya tidak ditindaklanjuti oleh desainer. Terjadilah proses
pembelajaran untuk saling menghargai pekerjaan orang lain dengan tetap
berpegang prinsip pada aturan editing dan lay out naskah.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Selama proses koreksi pruf dan koreksi setting, kelompok pemasaran
membuat strategi promosi dan penjualan. Kelompok pemasaran merasa
kesulitan membuat strategi ketika desain cover belum ada, bahkan kejelasan
mengenai judul buku pun belum ada. Melihat hal itu, dosen segera
mengarahkan kepada mahasiswa untuk menentukan judul buku yang akan
mereka buat. Penentuan judul dilakukan dengan cara memerhatikan usulan
dari mahasiswa. Semua mahasiswa bebas mengusulkan judul untuk buku
mereka. Dari judul-judul yang sudah terkumpul tersebut dilakukan voting.
Proses voting dilakukan dua tahap, yaitu tahap pertama untuk menentukan
dua pilhan terbaik dan tahap kedua untuk menentukan judul final.
Judul buku kumpulan cerita pendek yang dipilih oleh Penerbitan A adalah
Cemas. Judul itu berasal dari kata Cerita Mahasiswa. Cemas juga dipilih
berdasarkan fenomena yang terjadi di kalangan mereka dengan adanya
istilah “galau” yang sedang populer.
Judul buku kumpulan cerita pendek yang dipilih Penerbitan B adalah
Aku harus diam atau apa? Judul itu diambil dari salah satu judul cerita
pendek yang ditulis oleh mahasiswa. Menurut mereka, judul tersebut dapat
mewakili semua pesan yang terungkap pada semua judul cerita pendek yang
ditulis. Proses pemilihan judul merupakan kejadian menarik yang dapat
dicermati oleh dosen. Pada saat itu dosen dapat mengamati peranserta
semua mahasiswa dalam menentukan sebuah keputusan penting. Judul buku
ibarat nama yang disandang oleh seseorang. Keseluruhan isi buku dapat
ditunjukkan melalui judul buku. Fenomena tersebut disadari oleh mahasiswa,
terlihat dari cara mereka dalam berdiskusi dan akhirnya memutuskannya
dengan cara voting. Setelah judul buku diperoleh, mulailah kelompok
pemasaran membuat strategi penjualan. Mereka merencanakan membuat
alat promosi, baik secara tercetak maupun digital. Alat promosi tercetak
berupa flier, sedangkan secara digital mereka mempromosikannya melalui
Kelompok pemasaran harus mempresentasikan strategi pemasaran
di depan kelas. Semua mahasiswa diharapkan memberikan masukan agar
buku mereka dapat tersosialisasi secara maksimal. Promosi bertujuan
mencari calon pembeli buku sebanyak-banyaknya. Calon pembeli tersebut
akan didata sehingga mereka dapat memperkirakan oplah buku.
Keterpaduan materi kuliah Penulisan dengan mata kuliah Pemasaran
Penerbitan dapat diterapkan pada saat proses penentuan strategi penjualan.
Dosen Pemasaran Penerbitan memberikan tugas praktik penjualan dengan
menggunakan produk yang sudah mereka hasilkan, yaitu buku kumpulan
cerita pendek.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Penugasan pemasaran dimulai pada saat Kelompok Pemasaran
membuat rencana penjualan. Tugas itu dilakukan pada saat jam mata kuliah
Penulisan, sehingga dosen Pemasaran Penerbitan dapat ikut terlibat di dalam
pembelajaran. Kerja sama antardosen sangat dibutuhkan pada pelaksanaan
pembelajaran terpadu. Dengan demikian, satu tugas dapat dapat digunakan
untuk mencapai kompetensi yang diharapkan dari tiga mata kuliah, yaitu
Penulisan, Editing, dan Pemasaran Penerbitan. Selanjutnya, kelompok
produksi sudah mulai bekerja ketika format buku yang menggambarkan
tampilan fisik buku sudah diperoleh. Format buku berupa ukuran buku
lengkap dengan jumlah halaman dan kertas digunakan sebagai bahan
perhitungan untuk menentukan biaya produksi. Kelompok produksi bertugas
mencari percetakan yang paling murah dan berkualitas untuk membuat print
on demand.
Pembelajaran ini juga memberikan pengalaman kepada mahasiswa
dalam perhitungan bisnis. Mereka dapat mengetahui biaya produksi buku,
sehingga dapat menentukan harga jual buku. Secara sederhana, mahasiswa
sudah dapat menentukan harga jual buku berdasarkan biaya produksi.
Mereka menentukan harga buku berdasarkan biaya produksi dan nominal
keuntungan yang ingin diperoleh. Penentuan harga jual buku memang belum
mengikuti rumusan perhitungan kalkulasi penerbitan buku sesuai teori yang
ada. Namun, mereka sudah mendapatkan pengalaman menghitung
keuntungan sebuah bisnis. Bagi mereka, penugasan ini tidak sekadar mencari
keuntungan tetapi lebih diutamakan pada sosialisasi karya mereka. Oleh
karena itu, pada edisi perdana ini mereka menentukan harga yang sesuai
dengan kemampuan daya beli mahasiswa sebagai pengganti ongkos cetak
saja. Print on demand dapat dibuat setelah naskah isi disetujui oleh editor
sebagai penanggung jawab isi. Persetujuan dari penulis sudah diperloeh
ketika proses editing. Selain kesiapan naskah isi, kesiapan cover juga harus
Desain cover dibuat oleh desainer, namun tetap harus mendapat
persetujuan dari penulis dan editor. Desainer membuat beberapa konsep
beberapa desain dan dipresentasikan di hadapan penulis dan editor. Para
desainer itu harus mengemukakakan filosofi dari rancangannya. Berdasarkan
penjelasan itu, mereka bersepakat untuk menentukan pilihan desain yang
paling sesuai. Berikut adalah gambar desain cover hasil karya mahasiswa.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Gambar 3. Desain Cover Hasil Karya Mahasiswa
Buku kumpulan cerita pendek berjudul Cemas ditampilkan dengan
cover yang menggambarkan karya kumpulan cerita yang dibuat oleh
mahasiswa. Gambar kumpulan mahasiswa terlihat pada cover. Hal itu ingin
menegaskan bahwa buku itu merupakan karya kebanggaan dari para
mahasiswa yang dikumpulkan dari setiap karya mahasiswa.
Buku kumpulan cerita pendek berjudul Aku harus diam atau apa
ditampilkan dengan cover yang menggambarkan keinginan setiap mahasiswa
dalam mengungkapkan cerita mereka. Cuplikan beberapa cerita pendek yang
ditampilkan pada cover menegaskan gambaran ungkapan hati para penulis.
Keberagaman tema yang ada tidak menghalangi penyatuan gagasan dalam
buku kumpulan cerita pendek yang dihasilkan. Setelah isi dan cover
mendapat persetujuan editor dan penulis maka naskah tersebut disebut
sebagai naskah siap cetak. Dalam penerbitan buku, naskah itu sudah siap
dicetak. Pada tugas projek ini, mahasiswa diminta untuk membuat hasil cetak
dalam bentuk print on demand. Artinya, dicetak sesuai dengan kebutuhan,
bukan cetak massal yang biasanya oleh penerbit dilakukan di percetakan.
Print on demand yang dihasilkan oleh mahasiswa dapat dijadikan
sebagai sarana promosi kepada calon peminat buku mereka. Dengan
dihasilkannya print on demand tersebut mahasiswa telah menyelesaikan
seluruh proses tahapan dalam pembuatan buku. Setelah itu mereka dapat
memasarkan buku tersebut yang merupakan tugas berkesinambungan pada
mata kuliah Pemasaran Penerbitan. Kompetensi dasar yang merupakan
perpaduan dari tiga mata kuliah dapat dicapai melalui satu tugas projek.
Pencapaiannya dapat dilihat dari indikator-indikator yang mencerminkan ciri
khas masing-masing mata kuliah. Kompetensi dasar dan indikator-indikator
dapat dilihat pada rencana pelakasanaan pembelajaran pada Tabel 2. Hal itu
sesuai dengan Integrated Model menurut Fogarty (1991), yaitu keterpaduan
beberapa mata kuliah dapat diterapkan melalui satu kegiatan dengan
memilih keterampilan, pengetahuan, dan sikap yang sama.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Salah satu tujuan pembelajaran terpadu adalah agar mahasiswa
memperoleh makna dari keutuhan materi yang berkesinambungan. Pokok
bahasan cerita pendek dimulai dari penugasan penulisan cerita pendek.
Setiap mahasiswa harus menulis cerita pendek dengan tahapan-tahapan
yang telah dijelaskan pada teori penulisan. Hasilnya, setiap mahasiswa
mempunyai tulisan berupa cerita pendek. Mahasiswa dimotivasi untuk
memiliki kebanggaan dan rasa percaya diri dari karya yang sudah dibuatnya.
Berbagai cara perlu dicari oleh dosen untuk memfasilitasinya, antara lain
dengan mengarahkan mahasiswa agar mengirimkan hasil tulisannya ke media
massa. Perlu ditanamkan kepada mahasiswa bahwa bila ingin menjadi
penulis terkenal, harus berani menampilkan karyanya di media massa.
Mereka tidak perlu kecewa bila karyanya tidak dimuat, karena yang mereka
lakukan itu barulah awal dari jalan sebuah kesuksesan. Penanaman motivasi
itu perlu dilakukan oleh dosen agar mahasiswa mempunyai semangat untuk
tetap berkarya.
Selain mengirimkan ke media massa, hasil tulisan itu perlu dibukukan
dan dipromosikan agar banyak peminat yang ingin membaca karya mereka.
Penugasan itu membuat kesinambungan dengan penugasan sebelumnya.
Jadi, cerita pendek yang telah mereka hasilkan tidak hanya sekadar karya
tanpa manfaat. Mereka dapat memanfaatkan karya itu untuk mencapai
kompetensi lebih lanjut, yaitu membukukan karya dan mensosialisasikannya.
Dengan demikian, mereka memperoleh makna dari penugasan itu. Mereka
dapat memperoleh pengalaman menjadi insan penerbitan dengan cara
praktik. Sebuah manajemen penerbitan telah dilakukan melalui proses
pembelajaran terpadu.
Penilaian dalam pembelajaran terpadu ini dilakukan dalam bentuk
penilaian perbuatan. Untuk itu diperlukan form penilaian perbuatan/praktik.
Form tersebut mencantumkan aspek-aspek yang akan dinilai disertai dengan
kriteria penilaiannya. Karena tugas projek ini menghasilkan sebuah produk
maka aspek penilaian juga harus mencantumkan kriteria penilaian
Aspek-aspek yang dinilai dan dicantumkan dalam form penilaian
adalah sebagai berikut: (1) Perencanaan Kerja; (2) Pelaksanaan Kerja; (3)
Hasil Kerja. Setiap aspek dibagi lagi menjadi beberapa sub-aspek agar lebih
terinci. Aspek Perencanaan Kerja; Sub-aspek yang dinilai adalah ketepatan
tujuan, ketepatan sasaran, dan ketetapan alur kerja. Aspek Pelaksanaan
Kerja; Sub-aspek yang dinilai adalah ketepatan melaksanakan alur kerja dan
ketetapan melaksanakan aturan kerja. Aspek Hasil Kerja; Subaspek yang
dinilai adalah hasil editing, hasil desain, hasil promosi, hasil produksi, dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
hasil administrasi. Secara garis besar, form aspek penilaian dapat dilihat pada
tabel berikut.
Tabel 2. Form Penilaian Perbuatan/Praktik
No Nama
Aspek Penilaian
Perencanaan Pelaksanaan Hasil Kerja
Hasil Kerja
Nilai Akhir
Tabel 3. Kriteria Penilaian
Sangat baik
Sangat kurang
Penelitian ini menghasilkan sebuah rancangan pembelajaran terpadu
yang diajarkan pada semester 4 di Program Studi Penerbitan Politeknik
Negeri Media Kreatif Jakarta. Mata kuliah tersebut adalah mata kuliah
Penulisan, Editing, dan Pemasaran Penerbitan. Keterpaduan ketiga mata
kuliah dapat diwujudkan melalui satu tugas projek yang dianalisis melalui
kompetensi yang akan dicapai dari ketiga mata kuliah tersebut. Penentuan
kompetensi dasar dianalisis dari keterampilan, pengetahuan, dan sikap yang
sama dari ketiga mata kuliah. Indikator harus ditentukan berdasarkan
kompetensi yang sudah dirumuskan secara terpadu. Kompetensi yang akan
dicapai dari pembelajaran terpadu pada penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa
diharapkan dapat menerbitkan buku kumpulan cerita pendek dalam bentuk
print on demand sebagai bahan sosialisasi. Buku kumpulan cerita pendek
dihasilkan dengan mengolah cerita pendek yang sudah ditulis mahasiswa
pada perkuliahan terdahulu.
Proses pembuatan buku kumpulan cerita pendek mengikuti alur kerja
yang sudah ditentukan. Alur kerja tersebut merupakan representasi dari
proses penerbitan buku yang sesungguhnya. Mahasiswa memiliki
pengalaman dari mengolah naskah mentah sampai menjadi naskah siap
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
cetak. Setelah itu mahasiswa diharapkan dapat membuat perencanaan
strategi pemasaran. Keterpaduan mata kuliah Penulisan dan Editing terwujud
pada tahapan proses editing naskah. Mahasiswa mengedit naskah mentah
yang sudah ditulis oleh mahasiswa. Kemampuan editing dan kemampuan
menulis dikuasai oleh mahasiswa melalui satu kegiatan. Naskah yang
bahasanya masih belum baik akan diperbaiki oleh editor. Membuat kalimat
yang baik merupakan kemampuan yang harus dimiliki ketika menghasilkan
sebuah tulisan. Dengan demikian, teori-teori editing dapat diterapkan pada
saat penulisan.
Keterpaduan mata kuliah Pemasaran Penerbitan pada pembelajaran
ini diwujudkan pada saat Kelompok Pemasaran harus membuat strategi
promosi dan penjualan. Kompetensi dalam membuat strategi promosi dan
penjualan dipelajari pada mata kuliah Pemasaran Penerbitan. Pada
pembelajaran terpadu ini kemampuan itu dipraktikkan oleh mahasiswa pada
tugas projek. Selama proses pembelajaran terpadu ini dosen juga dapat
menanamkan nilai-nilai sehingga mahasiswa termotivasi untuk menghasilkan
karya lebih baik. Nilai kerja sama, kejujuran, ketelitian, dan saling menghargai
dapat ditanamkan melalui tugas projek dalam pembelajaran terpadu ini.
Salah satu penentu keberhasilan sebuah pembelajaran adalah
perencanaan yang dibuat sebelum pembelajaran dimulai. Pada penelitian ini
konsep tim teaching diterapkan untuk mendukung pembelajaran. Komunikasi
antardosen perlu dijaga agar pembelajaran dapat terlaksana sesuai rencana.
Silabus dan Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran merupakan pedoman dalam
pelaksanan pembelajaran. Dokumen itu membantu para dosen dalam
mengarahkan mahasiswa agar mencapai kompetensi sesuai yang diharapkan
dalam rencana pembelajaran tersebut. Pembelajaran terpadu pada
penelitian ini menghasilkan sebuah pembelajaran berkesinambungan yang
didapat melalui tiga mata kuliah, yaitu Penulisan, Editing, dan Pemasaran
Penerbitan. Kebermaknaan dari hasil pembelajaran dapat diperoleh oleh
mahasiswa. Mereka mengalami proses pembelajaran dalam suatu tugas yang
utuh dan berkesinambungan. Mengingat politeknik adalah pendidikan
vokasional maka kegiatan pembelajaran diarahkan pada keahlian dan
penerapan teori. Oleh karena itu, penugasan yang diberikan pada
pembelajaran terpadu ini mengakomodir proporsi kurikulum dengan 60%
praktik dan 40 % teori. Mahasiswa lebih diarahkan untuk menjalan praktik
agar memperoleh keahlian yang dibutuhkan di dunia kerja. Pada penelitian
ini, mahasiswa dilatih menjadi editor, desainer, dan tenaga pemasaran dalam
dunia industri penerbitan.
Penilaian dapat dilakukan oleh dosen dengan berpedoman pada form
penilaian yang telah disepakati sebelumnya. Setiap dosen memberikan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
penilaian berdasarkan aspek-aspek yang sudah ditentukan. Nilai yang
diperoleh mahasiswa merupakan rata-rata penilaian dari semua dosen.
Pembelajaran terpadu ini dapat dikembangkan pada materi-materi yang lain.
Oleh karena itu, masih perlu dilakukan analisis terhadap keterampilan,
pengetahuan, dan sikap yang harus dicapai dari beberapa mata kuliah. Tidak
hanya ketiga mata kuliah yang sudah dipadukan pada penelitian ini, mata
kuliah yang lain juga dapat dipadukan dengan menganilisis kompetensi yang
harus dicapai. Dari hasil analisis tersebut akan diketahui kesamaan
keterampilan, pengetahuan,dan sikap yang akan dicapai dari beberapa mata
kuliah tersebut.
Pembelajaran terpadu dapat lebih diperluas pada kuliah yang lain,
seperti kalkulasi penerbitan, bahasa Indonesia, dan kewirausahaan. Oleh
karena itu, dibutuhkan kerja sama antardosen pengampu mata kuliah untuk
berada dalam sebuah tim teaching agar dapat merencanakan sebuah
pembelajaran terpadu.
Eneste, Pamusuk. (2005). Buku Pintar Penyuntingan Naskah, edisi kedua.
Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Fogarty, Robin. (1991). The Minfull School: How to Integrate The
Curricula.Illinois: IRI/Skylight Publishing,Inc.
Putra, R. Masri Sareb. (2010). Principles of Creative Writing. Jakarta: Penerbit
PT Index.
Stovall, James Glen., dan Mullins, Edward. (1994). The Complete Editor,
second edition. Pearson Education, Inc.
Suparman, Atwi M. (2005). Desain Instruksional. Jakarta: Pusat Antar
Universitas untuk Peningkatan dan Pengembangan Ativitas
Instrusksional Universitas Terbuka.
Trianto. (2010). Mengembangkan Model Pembelajaran Tematik. Jakarta:
Penerbit PT Prestasi Pustakaraya.
Zaenul, Asmawi., dan Nasution, Noehi. (2005). Penilaian Hasil Belajar.
Jakarta: Pusat Antar Universitas untuk Peningkatan dan
Pengembangan Ativitas Instrusksional Universitas Terbuka.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Dwi Deswary
State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
This Study to be description about strategy how human resource
(SDM) that is main infrastructure can support good governance an
institute. Pass by quality management, service quality that can be given
as one of performance indicator SDM, expected an institute can reach
good governance. Implementation in good governance attainment will
related to managerial ability that must owned by SDM that exist in
education institutes. Managerial ability will relate from participation
problem, efficiency, effective, responsive, transparency, job/activity
equity and accountability. That is assessment at good governance
aspect will never released with all existing activities in a management
system. According to study that has been discussed can concluded
there is three strategies in giving certifiable service in realizing good
governance. First; ability development comprehends consumer needs
and wants, second; more accurate database development, and third;
information utilization obtained. Hereinafter, to realize and maintain
customer satisfaction, SDM in an organization must conducts four
matters. First, indentify its customer whom. Second, comprehend level
of customer expectation to the quality. Third, comprehend strategy of
customer service quality, and fourth, comprehend measurement cycle
and feed back from customer satisfaction. Conceptual framework
applicable to improve performance SDM go to good governance is
must oriented at quality. For expected attainment of service quality
need communication, member involvement, and strategic planning
that orientation at customer. That is quality management is integral
and inseparable component from education management as a whole.
For that involved SDM in giving certifiable service must conduct quality
planning, quality control, and quality improvement.
Keywords: strategy, human resource, quality management, good
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Education is a system braid that each other related in the effort
improvement of human resource quality (SDM) expected. SDM is most
valuable asset in business at all, even more worth before capital and
machines. Unhappily, human can also cause biggest extravagance, if
mismanage. Human can become biggest asset or on the contrary become
biggest burden for organization.
Human resource (SDM) that form a part of instrumental input in
education system is one of main infrastructure that can support institute up
at good governance materialization. In system of education management is
recognized two terms stakeholders, that is as the internal customer and as
the external customer. SDM as organizer in area of education undertake for
of service to stakeholders in this case participant is educated as the external
customer and humanity of job/activity partner as the internal customer. Pass
by service quality that given as one of indicator of human resource
performance (SDM) can be known what an organization/education
institution will be able to reaches efficiency and attainment goal effective.
Though often happen different concept perception of in described service
quality given, nevertheless basically have one way that is how SDM can
anticipate all kind of change that exist in in an education organization that
express performance.
For participant to educate, performance that produced by realized in
the form of academic achievement and behavior change. Whereas to all
organizer, performance that produced by reflected from its work behavior
that can reach standard even can exceed standard.
Dynamic Change of education environment claims SDM that exist in
depth to continue develop ability adapt toes environment is intended. SDM
must can exploit strength and opportunity valiantly risk. Despitefully, existing
SDM must have sensitivity, attention and commitment strong along with
technology growth that will give support in realizing vision of education
successfully. Performance insufficient SDM is only seen from ability that
directly can be measured pass by service given, but also in the form of ability
emerges an idea/more innovative idea, creative, continual, and high
In the field of service education with quality will never only have the
character of static. Customer perception as stakeholders will continue
expand along with continuity connection that given between SDM service
services provider and customer as stakeholders that require service. That is
interaction referred as is process moments of truth in management of
education quality and quality perception will expand in dynamic. For the sake
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
of that's, then SDM an education institution that provide service services
must make a change that continuously (continuous improvement) and
organization study (learning process). Ready to make a change that
continuously in so many aspect of organization life and organization study
will improve performance SDM and finally will realize good governance
education management.
Good governance according to World Bank of in article Mardiasmo
(2002) that cited return Ambar Teguh (2011:22) is a management of
development management that solid and hold responsible that in line with
democracy principle and market efficient, evasion to wrong possibility
allocation and invest, and corruption prevention either through politics or
administrative, run budget discipline and creation legal and politic framework
for growing of effort activity. Good governance will not be got out of
bureaucracy problem. In education management, good governance concept
implementation of will related to managerial ability that must owned by SDM
that exist in education institutes either on level elementary education or in
level higher education. Managerial Ability will related to participation
problem, efficiency, effective, responsive, transparency, job/activity justice
and accountability. That is assessment at good governance aspect will never
released with all existing activities in a management system.
Hoy Miskel (2001:25) explain, ”management is the process of
planning, organizing, leading, and controlling that encompasses human,
significant, financial and information resources is an organizational
environment”. Human resource Development (SDM) as one of management
effort must planned, managed, and controlled professionally with correct
strategy. Griffin (2004:7) explain management is activity network is entered
planning and decision making; organization; leadership; and operation that
aimed at organization resources (human, physical, and information) with a
view to reach organization target effectively and efficient. An
organization/institute requires management and leadership in order to
effective. Leadership is needed to create change, while management is
needed to create regularity. Management and leadership can create change
that order, and leadership with management will care of organization in
order to fixed in harmony with its environment. In management, organization
activity will be aimed at planning and decision making, organization and
arrangement, operation and trouble-shooting and to produce a certainty and
regularity that have potency to give important pickings expected
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
stakeholders. In course of management, planning and decision making will
entangle activity of target stipulating and how best to reach it.
Organizational and arrangement will determine how best to group
human resource activity. Whereas at operation aspect, will be conducted
monitor activity and repair all activities to ascertain target attainment. In
leadership, activity will be aimed at direction determination, member
federating, motivation delivery and inspiration until produce worthwhile
change desired stakeholders. Correct Leadership will be able to moves staff
with effective.
Some leadership values that can implementation, that is:
a. Correct Leadership will be able to moves staff with effective
b. Leadership that model will push staff like its leader;
c. Effective Leadership will move staff quickly/precise; and
d. Leader that close to staff will make staff works with fun.
Leader Stipulating is critical point, because of mistake consequence
and inaccurate of someone lifting in service, will bring negative impact/fatal
at organization. With system approach have meaning that
position/occupation stipulating are must seen and considered with all
organization elementary bodies that interaction and each other determine in
order not to detrimental organization. Education Leadership in Indonesia will
more have a meaning (of) if apply what told education figure National Ki
Hajar Dewantara:
a. Ing ngarso sung tulodho,that is leader come ups in front of to
exemplify, model, instruct, construct, show;
b. Ing madyo mangun karso, that is leader works together staff, by
breathe life into to staff/subordinate; and
c. Tut wuri handayani, that is leader gives support to staff to responsible
to its duty.
Effective management Implementation needs various of strategies
that will to describe between knowledge and art, that is mixture from
rational objectivity and intuitive view. According to some experts explained
that effective leader of orientation at duty and orientation at people, namely
what are called with high-high leader. Managerial grid (managerial network
theory) that said by Blake and Mouton in Griffin (2004:76) depict effective
leader is that concern at duty and at people (9.9). At effective leadership
map, team management (9.9) explained that job/activity attainment is got
from SDM that have commitment, interdependence that emerge
relation/link each other trusts and each other respect. A commander in
education management must have ability invites and brings its job/activity
partner up at change that mean. Change described as, “from past situation is
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
going to present situation”, and the future. For that needed positive attitude,
enthusiasm, become perpetrator and role model in change. Supple Attitude,
is successfully determinant in change. Education A commander must haves
value ability capability organization: situation now about style and staff
membership, system, and its structure. A commander is also must having
ability is in specifying what is being owned now suited for activity direction
that will be reached by, can identification ‘incompatibility’ as the internal
change agenda organization, and can specify maximum lever that must
pulled in order to change happens: Strategy? Its people? Its system?
Concept of strategy according to Drucker in article Nisjar (1997:16)
it's do something right (doing the right things). Skinner in Wahyudi (1996:16)
explain strategy is related to philosophy tool to reach target. In etymological,
strategy can be interpreted as strategic, way and tactics main that designed
systematically in executing the functions of management, that instructed at
target of organization strategy. Without strategy, organization will lose
direction. Can formulate a strategy for organization, then SDM in
organization is referred [as] can develop competitive excellence that will
bring organization up at performance change that mean.
Concept of strategy according to Bryson (2004:46) described ”a
strategy can be defined ace a pattern of purposes, policies, programs,
actions, decisions, or resource allocations that define what an organization is,
what is does, and why it does it”. Strategy is a target pattern, policy,
programs, action, decision, or resources management that will determine
organization meaning, what the of, and why organization is referred as do it.
In the field of education management, strategy is viewed as pattern of
planning activity, adjustment and feed back to realize performance expected
Performance according to Jones (1995) is work result of an
organization in order to realize strategy target, customer satisfaction, and its
contribution to environment. Other Opinion tells, performance is behavior,
or masterpiece result, outcome hard work result organization in realizing
strategy target, its customer satisfaction and contribution to society
economic development. Quick and Nelson (2009:195) state, “performance is
most often thought of ace task accomplishment”. Performance usually
interpreted as [the] duty solution. Here in after Ivancevich dkk., (2008:371)
say, “job performance is the outcomes of jobs that relate to the purposes of
the organization such ace quality, efficiency, and other criteria of
effectiveness”. Performance is related to [job/activity] pickings organization
target like quality, efficiency and effective criterion other. Aguinis (2009:78)
state, “the definition of performance doesn’t include the results of an
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
employees behavior, but only the behaviors themselves. Performance is
about behavior or what employees do, note about what employees produce
or the outcomes of their work”. Performance not covers the result of
employees behavior, but only behaviors it self. Performance relates to
behavior or what employees conducts.
Robbins (2009:231) state that performance or performance from the
word ”to form” that translated become performance. Performance is
successfully measuring rod in conducting a job. In growth here in after
Robbins (2011:599) explain existed three types in work behavior, that is:
”task performance, citizenship, and counter productive”. As well as Colquitt
(2011:36-47) explain in detail about ”job performance” that is: ”two
categories are task performance and citizenship behavior, both of which
contributes positively to the organization. The three category is counter
productive behavior, which contributes negatively to the organization”.
Soedarmayanti (2001:50) rewrite performance understanding according to
August W. Smith that explain that performance or performance is:” ...... drive
output from processes, human or otherwise”. Performance is result or is
output from a product (outcomes), performance can be shown at someone,
can also at certain job/activity unit or organization. At this understanding
performance more instructs at activity process, although in this case Smith
has joined two understandings between process and work result. That is that
performance or performance as a result of [job/activity] can be reached by
one with authority and responsibility each in the effort reach pertinent
organization target.
Ivancevich (2003:33) explain 5 matters to measure someone
performance, that is indigenous to pertinent worker person, organization,
planning, execution strategy, membership improvement and opportunity
given. Scoth A Sneel and Kenneth N. Wexley in Timpe (1993:329) explain
performance is culmination from three elements that each other
interconnected that is skill, effort level, and external situation. To construct
and improve performance Robbins also expresses that: “any predictions
about a group’s performance must begin by recognizing that work groups are
part of a larger, organization and the factors such ace the organizations
strategy. authority structure, selection procedures and reward system can
provide a pavorable climate for the group of operate within. There are some
related to job group performance that must by the start of knowledge to the
team-work a great deal of an organization and strategy factor, selection
structure and appreciation system and present gift/giving for organization
group member that reach for attainment.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Here in after explained by Robbins, there is three popular peripherals
in performance evaluation is: (1) result of individual duty, (2) behavior
(action), and (3) feature. Such as those which explained Payaman J.
Simanjuntak (2005:17) performance construction form a part of activity of
performance management. Explained that in performance of management all
activities is process going concern in form of cycle that consist of planning,
construction, and evaluation. Whereas Payaman J. Simanjuntak explains
performance construction that conducted by slated for head improve
performance of every individual, group or job/activity unit.
In conduct performance construction there must be clear
performance standard. Performance Standard is expected size of
performance level is reached and that expressed in a quantitative statement.
Kotler (1994) in article Fandi Tjiptono (1996:102) explained, that
customer satisfaction is level of someone feeling after compare to
performance or result that he/she feel compared to its expectation. That is,
customer satisfaction covers difference between expectation and
performance or result felt. In Kaizen, satisfaction in article Masaaki Imai
(2001:196) customer is measured in quality term, expense, and scheduling.
Management task is gave priority was among this target and overspread this
target downwards pass by an organization. In principle, there is three keys in
giving preeminent customer service, that is: first; ability comprehends
consumer needs and wants, second; more accurate database development
than competitor, and third; existing information utilization. Hereinafter, to
realize and maintain customer satisfaction, organization must conducts four
matters. First, identification its customer whom. Second, comprehend level
of customer expectation to the quality. Third, comprehend strategy of
customer service quality. And fourth, comprehend measurement cycle and
feed back from customer satisfaction.
Schnaars in article Fandy Tjiptono (2003:134) explain customer
satisfaction is long-range strategy that require commitment, either
concerning fund or human resource. To reach this customer satisfaction is
needed clear performance indicator until organization goal achievement
growing clearly head for good governance.
Performance measurement in system of performance management
according to Vincent (2006:212) is management tool to assess successfully
and also failure of strategy execution to reach target and goals of
organization. Performance measurement must articulated with
vision/organization mission, organization target, and goals of organization.
Performance measurement covers performance stipulating of performance
indicator and determination of indicator performance result. Performance
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
measurement Way, that is: compare to reality performance with
performance planned, compare to reality performance with expected result,
compare to this year performance with yrs. previously, compare to
performance with other institution performance, and compare to reality
performance with standard.
According to Dale (2002:13), effective performance measure consist
of quantitative size, easy to understand, well-balanced, easy monitored, and
publicized. Focus of performance evaluation consist of: input evaluation
(input), process (process), output (output), result (outcome), and impact
(impact). Advantage from evaluation for example can be in the form of
planning repair, strategy, policy, decision making, input repair, process, and
output, and platform repair/procedure system. Service System that
developed together/along with partner in its implementation must can have
competitive excellence like in short procedure, speed response, transaction
amenity and amenity for innovated either its procedure or presentation
model. This brief Procedure will make customer is not bothered by too the
duration await a service, is not circumlocution, nevertheless remain to be
guaranteed its information security.
Involved human resource Performance at system of education
management must shown with speed response that depict quick its power
listen carefully SDM an organization to what expected by customer. When
service conducted by human, then friendly attitude, decent language, and
performance that depict [job/activity] seriousness must can be realized and
felt manifestly. Hunger (1996:4) express lama determine the term
performance of corporation, It includes strategy formulation, strategy
implementation and evaluation”. That is, if existed a/an change in
management implementation, SDM must can ensure that change that
happened exactly will improve service speed and security in service referred
as. To create excellence of institute performance, then rely on skillful staff
and with quality very needed.
Conceptual Framework was applicable to improve performance SDM
is pass by management process that always orientation at quality. Certifiable
education Management in its implementation need communication, member
involvement, and strategic planning that orientation at customer (SWOT).
Management or education management certifiable is integral and
inseparable component from process of education management as a whole.
For that must comprehended the functions of fundamental of quality
management that is: quality planning, quality control, and quality
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Performance Improvement SDM pass by quality management must
concerned about certifiable performance indicator. Ahdon (2006:167) explain
that performance indicator is quantitative size and also qualitative to depict
target level of achievement and organization target, good at planning phase,
execution and also operation phase after activity finishes. Whereas
conditions of performance indicator covers: specific and clear, can be
measured in objective, handle relevant aspects, must important and good for
show input successfully, output, result/outcome, benefit and also impact and
process, flexible and sensitive to execution change, effective, in its data
meaning easy go, to process, analyses with available expense.
Quality Management according to Juran in article Edi Nugroho
(1995:22-24) conducted through the use of three management processes,
that is quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. The three
of this process are recognized with Trilogy Juran (quality management). Juran
(1995:92) explain quality management is entire way to reach quality. Quality
Planning is activity that conducted SDM organization in the effort fulfills its
customer satisfaction. Steps that conducted for quality planning is: (1)
determine its customer whom; (2) determine customer need; (3) answer to
customer need; (4) develop process; and (5) transfer plan into operation
energy (transfer responsibility to involved SDM).
Quality control according to Juran (1995:165) is ”status quo
ownership” care of process are planned in the situation that planned until
fixed can fulfill target. Quality control as [the] management process in it
consist of activity of reality performance evaluation, compare to reality
performance with a purpose to, and action against to difference (feed back).
For every quality control fundamental, needed stipulating of quality target
(quality target) that instructed and conscripted its attainment effort.
Quality Improvement in Juran (1995:31) mean creation [of] a
worthwhile change in organization, and attainment [of] a performance level
(breakthrough). Quality Improvement can be conducted by: (1) develop
something new, technology usage, and (3) conduct revise process to lessen
mistake (free from deficiency). Quality Improvement needs initiative and
management leadership high level. Leader Role in quality management is
specify quality target, provide all resources required, progress evaluation,
give confession, revise working team, join in working team and look full in the
face related to problem performance improvement SDM.
Process of performance improvement SDM in education organization
is create and maintain healthy organization behavior, dynamic, continual,
high commitment and bravery to risk. To reach expected performance
improvement, an education institution must conduct performance evaluation
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
SDM that measured in clearly, continuously, transparent, and accountable.
SDM in running its function and duty are must constructed will become
organization activator that will have a long view and far forwards. Active
proactive Behavior digs and improves something new will instruct
performance SDM can challenge to go forward and succeed.
Paul J.Jerome (2001:5) explain that construction is absolute
prerequisite for management successfulness. Construction process and selfdevelopment can implementation with Personal balanced scorecard (PBSC).
According to Hubert (2006:23-37) PBSC is journey into own self, where
values, expectation, dream and aspiration are kept await for found. PBSC is
effective tool for manager to construct (coach) employee in order to reach
integrity and harmony between job/activity life and life outside job/activity.
PBSC covers mission, vision, key role, successfully determinant, target,
performance measure, goals and repair action private. All of that grouped
into four in perspective that is internal (need stakeholders), customer, study
and growth, and finance. Fourth in perspective elementary this form of
mission integral part, vision, and private key role. In perspective and
successfully determinant together bridge form between private ambition
(long-range) with private target, performance measure, goals and repair
action (short-range). Fourth in perspective referred [as] connect private
ambition with action. Hubert explains to continue improve ability, cycle PlanDo-Act-Challenge (PDAC) that walk continually must implementation by going
concern and stage study process for SDM that will improve bliss, awareness,
enjoyment, easiness and creativity at work and also outside workplace.
Base description concept that has been elaborated, can be affirmed
that to improve performance SDM an education institution, then needed
comprehensive applying from various of management functions. The
functions of management was that orientation at quality pass by quality
planning, quality control and quality improvement is inseparable braid of
management system functions between one and other. All behaviors SDM in
organization/education institution is aimed at managerial activities that
always orientation at quality attainment to fulfill customer satisfaction to go
in the direction of good governance organization/education institution.
1. In education management, good governance concept implementation of
will related to managerial ability that must owned by SDM that exist in
education institutes. Managerial Ability will related to participation
problem, efficiency, effective, responsive, transparency, job/activity
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
justice and accountable. That is assessment at good governance aspect
will never released with all existing activities in a management system.
Management and leadership can create change that order, and
leadership with management will care of organization in order to fixed in
harmony with its environment.
Practical effective management needs various of strategies that will
concluded between knowledge and art, that is mixture from rational
objectivity and intuitive view.
Strategy in the field of education management can be viewed as pattern
of planning activity, adjustment and feed back to realize expected
Involved human resource Performance at system of education
management must shown with speed response that depict quick its
power listen careful by SDM an organization to what expected by
To improve performance SDM as part of management process must
orientation at quality. Quality Management in its implementation need
communication, member involvement, and strategic planning that
orientation at customer. Management or quality management is integral
and inseparable component from education process as a whole. For that
must comprehended the functions of fundamental of quality
management that is: quality planning, quality control, and quality
Leader Role in quality management is specify quality target, provide all
resources required, progress evaluation, give confession, revise working
team, join in working team and look full in the face related to problem
performance improvement SDM.
SDM in running its function and duty are must constructed will become
organization activator that will have a long view and far forwards. Active
proactive Behavior digs and improves something new will instruct
performance SDM can challenge to go forward and succeed.
Construction process and self-development to improve performance
SDM can implementation with Personal balanced scorecard (PBSC), that
is grouped into four in perspective internal (need stakeholders), in
perspective customer, in perspective study and organization growth, and
in perspective finance. Fourth in perspective elementary this form of
mission integral part, vision, and connective private key role private
ambition each SDM with action.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
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Kristiaji. Jakarta: Erlangga.
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Theory, Research, and Practice. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Hunger, David J. and Wheelen , Thomas L. (1996). Strategic Management.
New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Ivanceivich, John M., James H. Deadly, Jr. James L. Gibson. (2003).
Management. India: ALTBS Publisher.
Ivancevich, John M., Robert Konopaske and Michael T. Matteson. (2008).
Organizational Behavior and Management 8th Ed. New York:
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USA: McMillan,Inc.
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Quick, James Campbell and Debra L. Nelson. (2009). Principles of
Organizational Behavior: Realities and Challenges 6th Ed.
Singapore: South-Western Cengage Learning.
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Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia.
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Bandung: Mandar Maju.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Vincent Gaspersz. (2006). Sistem Manajemen Kinerja Terintegrasi Balanced
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Yahdi Siradj
Telkom Polytechnic, Bandung, Indonesia
[email protected]
Currently, the process of teaching and learning not only have a
conventional style where the teacher explained to the class, and
students listened at his desk each. Through the development of
educational technology introduced new methods to optimize the
absorption rate of science in the classroom and outside the
classroom, as well as interactive and fun. One is Student Centered
Learning (SCL). In Computer Networking courses at the Polytechnic
Telkom, SCL method is implemented by combining e-quizzes, cloudbased sharing files, game tokens, and share classroom teaching
sessions to 1 hour and 1-hour discussion by a faculty discussion. The
combination of these methods to make learning more effective
computer network, interactive, and fun.
Keywords: student centered learning, computer networking, e-quiz,
cloud, game
Model pengajaran di perguruan tinggi cenderung menggunakan pola
ceramah (lecturing) dimana dalam satu sesi kelas Dosen menjelaskan materi
kuliah secara terus menerus. Posisi mahasiswa hanya sebagai pendengar
yang sesekali bertanya di tengah-tengah perkuliahan. Metode ini bersifat
satu arah dan terasa menjemukan, karena dosen cenderung mendominasi
dan mahasiswa cenderung pasif. Tingkat pencapaian mahasiswa biasanya
sebagian besar bergantung dari seberapa baik dosen dalam menyampaikan
materi pembelajaran. Teknologi yang digunakan dalam mengajar biasanya
berupa slide presentasi yang sudah dipersiapkan sebelumnya dan
ditampilkan menggunakan proyektor. Metode ini disebut dengan Teacher
Centered Content Learning (TCCL). Sistem ini juga yang terjadi pada proses
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pembelajaran kuliah Jaringan Komputer pada awal 2011 di Politeknik Telkom.
Padahal, Jaringan Komputer bukanlah mata kuliah teori yang cukup difahami
teori-teorinya tetapi juga harus diimplementasikan meski dalam tataran
praktikum di lab sampai mahasiswa terampil menguasai kompetensi
Kondisi pengajaran mata kuliah Jaringan Komputer sebelum
implementasi SCL adalah pertemuan dilaksanakan sebanyak dua kali
seminggu dengan total 16 minggu. Pertemuan pertama diisi oleh dosen
dengan teori – teori pendukung yang terbagi atas 10 Bab. Pertemuan kedua
diisi dengan praktikum (dibantu asistem praktikum) yang dilaksanakan di
laboratorium jaringan. Bentuk penilaian dilakukan dengan ujian tulis di
tengah semester yang disebut UTS dan di akhir semester yang disebut UAS.
Nilai akhir didapat dengan menggabungkan 40% nilai UTS ditambah 60% nilai
Sistem ini memiliki banyak kekurangan jika dilihat dari pencapaian
tujuan. Pertama, untuk tataran lembaga pendidikan vokasional pemahaman
teori bukanlah tolak ukur dari parameter wisudawan yang ingin dihasilkan.
Sesuai dengan Undang Undang No. 20 tahun 2003 pasal 15 dijelaskan bahwa
pendidikan vokasi merupakan pendidikan tinggi yang mempersiapkan
peserta didik untuk memiliki pekerjaan dengan keahlian terapan tertentu
maksimal setara dengan program sarjana. Penilaian secara ujian tertulis tidak
memperlihatkan kompetensi praktek/keahlia terapan yang seharusnya
dicapai mahasiswa. Kedua, beban pengajaran terlalu dititikberatkan ke pihak
dosen dengan menyampaikan materi secara detail, melaksanakan ujian
tertulis dan memeriksanya secara manual kemudian mengumumkan nilai
kepada mahasiswa. Padahal, jika merujuk ke kurikulum KBK, mahasiswa
harus ditrigger agar terbiasa belajar mandiri, mencari informasi seluasluasnya dan ditantang dengan permsalahan untuk menumbuhkan kebiasan
ingintahunya. Artinya, sistem pendidikan vokasional harus menitikberatkan
pada kemauan mahasiswa mencari solusi, mempraktekkan dan implementasi
solusi tertentu. Ketiga, mahasiswa tidak terbiasa dengan insting
troubleshooting karena terlalu dicekoki dengan teori. Akibatnya mahasiswa
tidak terampil jika menghadapi masalah baru di lapangan. Yang ada adalah
mahasiswa mudah menyerah dan tidak gigih mencari solusi.
Paper ini mencoba mengimplementasikan dan mengevaluasi metode
baru yang membalik kondisi tersebut sehingga keaktifan mahasiswalah yang
berperan dalam tercapainya kesuksesan penyerapan ilmu lewat sering
bertanya, diskusi, mengerjakan soal mandiri, praktek dan lainnya. Dosen
sendiri perannya bergeser menjadi fasilitator dan motivator yang
memberikan pengarahan agar mahasiswa senantiasa giat mencari informasi
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
dan pengetahuan Di sampingtetap memberikan materi kuliah. Untuk
mencapai kondisi tersebut diperkenalkanlah metode Student Centered
Learning(SCL) dan alat-alat pendukungnya agar lebih efektif mencapai tujuan
yang diinginkan. Paper ini adalah hasil pengamatan penerapan SCL yang
sudah diterapkan sejak pertengahan 2011 pada perkuliahan Jaringan
Komputer di Politeknik Telkom.
Student Centered Learning
Politeknik Telkom sebagai institusi vokasional yang mengejar
pencapaian kompetensi bagi mahasiswanya membutuhkan sistem
pengajaran yang lebih menggali potensi mahasiswa dan mewujudkannya
dalam bentuk kompetensi dibandingkan dengan metode lecturing atau TCCL
(Teacher Centered Content Learning). Artinya, potensi mahasiswa harus
benar-benar dilatih dan dipancing keaktifannya melalui berbagai bentuk
pengajaran yang mendorong mahasiswa berperan aktif dan proaktif hingga
potensinya berubah menjadi kompetensi.
Student Centered Learning (SCL) ditawarkan sebagai alternatif
dikarenakan metode TCCL dirasa tidak efektif dalam pengajaran. Unsur –
unsur pembentuk partisipasi aktif dalam belajar seperti (i) dorongan untuk
memperoleh harapan (effort), (ii) kemampuan mengikuti proses
pembelajaran, dan (iii) peluang untuk mengungkapkan materi pembelajaran
yang diperolehnya di dunia nyata/masyarakat tidak benar-benar terwujud
atau sangat terbatas (Tresna dkk, 2008).
Ciri khas yang dibawa SCL adalah bahwa pusat pembelajaran berada
di mahasiswa, artinya lingkungan pendidikan membentuk sistem sedemikian
rupa agar mahasiswa mau berperan aktif dalam mendalami ilmu
pengetahuan seiring dengan kesadarannya yang semakin meningkat akan
kebutuhan terhadap ilmu pengetahuan tersebut. Dengan menyediakan daya
dukung yang mencukupi seperti internet, video interaktif, tutorial digital, dan
lain sebagainya dan sistem yang tepat diharapkan dapat meningkatkan
pencapaian pemahaman yang diraih mahasiswa.
Secara lebih rinci, perbedaan SCL dibandingkan TCCL diringkas
dalam Tabel 1 di bawah.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Tabel 1. Perbedaan TCCL dan SCL
Content Learning
pengetahuan ke
Student Centered Learning
Mahasiswa secara aktif
pengetahuan dan
keterampilan yang
Aktif belajar
secara pasif
Mahasiswa secara aktif
terlibat di dalam mengelola
Aktif belajar
pada penguasaan
Tidak hanya menekankan
pada penguasaan materi
tetapi juga dalam
mengembangkan karakter
mahasiswa (life-long
media tunggal
Memanfaatkan banyak
media (multimedia)
Fungsi dosen
atau pengajar
informasi utama
dan evaluator
Fungsi dosen sebagai
fasilitator dan evaluasi
dilakukan bersama dengan
Dosen dan
dan penilaian
dilakukan secara
Proses pembelajaran dan
penilaian dilakukan saling
berkesinambungan dan
Berkesinambungan dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Content Learning
pada jawaban
yang benar
Student Centered Learning
Penekanan pada proses
pengetahuan. Kesalahan
dinilai dapat menjadi salah
satu sumber belajar.
Dosen dan
Iklim belajar
lebih individualis
mahasiswa yang
Iklim yang dikembangkan
lebih bersifat kolaboratif,
suportif dan kooperatif
suportif dan
Mahasiswa dan dosen
belajar bersama di dalam
pengetahuan, konsep dan
Dosen dan
terbesar dalam
Mahasiswa dapat belajar
tidak hanya dari perkuliahan
saja tetapi dapat
menggunakan berbagai cara
dan kegiatan
Penekanan pada
tuntasnya materi
Penekanan pada pencapaian
kompetensi peserta didik
dan bukan tuntasnya materi.
Penekanan pada
bagaimana cara
Penekanan pada bagaimana
cara mahasiswa dapat
belajar dengan
menggunakan berbagai
bahan pelajaran, metode
penekanan pada problem
based learning dan skill
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Menurut UU Sisdiknas No.2 tahun 2003 disebutkan bahwa yang
dimaksud dengan pembelajaran adalah interaksi antara pendidik, peserta
didik, dan sumber belajar di dalam lingkungan belajar tertentu. Jika kita
asosiasikan pengertian tersebut dengan ciri-ciri metode SCL maka dihasilkan
skema seperti gambar di bawah ini:
Gambar 1. Hubungan interaksi antara Dosen, Mahasiswa
dan Sumber Belajar
Berdasarkan permasalahan yang ada pada kondisi pengajaran mata
kuliah Jarkom Politeknik Telkom, maka dirumuskan dan diajukan
penyelesaian permasalahan sebagai berikut :
1) Bagaimana mengimplementasikan SCL ke dalam perkuliahan Jaringan
2) Perangkat apa saja yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun sistem
pendukung SCL pada perkuliahan Jaringan Komputer?
3) Seberapa handal SCL yang diterapkan jika dibandingkan dengan
pembelajaran konvensional pada perkuliahan Jaringan Komputer?
Metode – Metode Pembelajaran SCL
Terdapat beragam metode pembelajaran untuk SCL, di antaranya
adalah: (1) Small Group Discussion; (2) Role-Play & Simulation; (3) Case Study;
(4) Discovery Learning (DL); (5) Self-Directed Learning (SDL); (6) Cooperative
Learning (CL); (7) Collaborative Learning (CbL); Selain ketujuh model tersebut,
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
masih banyak model pembelajaran lain yang belum dapat disebutkan satu
persatu, bahkan setiap pendidik/dosen dapat pula mengembangkan model
pembelajarannya sendiri (Tresna. dkk, 2008).
Small Group Learning (SGL)
Diskusi adalah salah satu elemen belajar secara aktif dan merupakan
bagian dari banyak model pembelajaran SCL yang lain, seperti CL, CbL, PBL,
dan lain-lain. Mahasiswa peserta kuliah diminta membuat kelompok kecil (5
sampai 10 orang) untuk mendiskusikan bahan yang diberikan oleh dosen atau
bahan yang diperoleh sendiri oleh anggota kelompok tersebut. Dengan
aktivitas kelompok kecil, mahasiswa akan belajar: (a) Menjadi pendengar
yang baik; (b) Bekerjasama untuk tugas bersama; (c) Memberikan dan
menerima umpan balik yang konstruktif; (d) Menghormati perbedaan
pendapat; (e) Mendukung pendapat dengan bukti; dan (f) Menghargai sudut
pandang yang bervariasi (gender, budaya, dan lain-lain). Adapun aktivitas
diskusi kelompok kecil dapat berupa: (a) Membangkitkan ide;
(b) Menyimpulkan poin penting; (c) Mengases tingkat skill dan pengetahuan;
(d) Mengkaji kembali topik di kelas sebelumnya;(e) Menelaah latihan,quiz,
tugas menulis; (f)Memproses outcome pembelajaran pada akhir kelas; (g)
Memberi komentar tentang jalannya kelas; (h) Membandingkan teori, isu,
dan interpretasi; (i) Menyelesaikan masalah; dan (j) Brainstroming.
Bentuk pelaksanaan SGL dapat dimodifikasi dengan membagi
beberapa peran dalam kelompok diskusi. Peran – peran yang dapat
diterapkan adalah Presenter, Moderator dan Penguji. Tugas Presenter adalah
menyiapkan presentasi dan bahan diskusi. Tugas Penguji adalah menanyakan
hal-hal yang bisa dikembangkan dari materi presentasi. Presenter tidak selalu
harus menjawab pertanyaan dari Penguji. Jika ada pertanyaan yang tidak
dimengerti, Presenter dapat mengaku belum mengetahui jawaban dari
pertanyaan yang ditanyakan dan akan menjawabnya dalam laporan diskusi.
Tugas moderator adalah menengahi diskusi dan menghidupkan diskusi. Jika
diskusi sudah selesai, presenter berkewajiban membuat laporan diskusi.
Cooperative Learning (CL)
CL adalah metode belajar berkelompok yang dirancang oleh dosen
untuk memecahkan suatu masalah/kasus atau mengerjakan suatu tugas.
Kelompok ini terdiri atas beberapa orang mahasiswa, yang memiliki
kemampuan akademik yang beragam.
Metode ini sangat terstruktur, karena pembentukan kelompok,
materi yang dibahas, langkah-langkah diskusi serta produk akhir yang harus
dihasilkan, semuanya ditentukan dan dikontrol oleh dosen. Mahasiswa dalam
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
hal ini hanya mengikuti prosedur diskusi yang dirancang oleh dosen. Pada
dasarnya CL seperti ini merupakan perpaduan antara teacher-centered dan
student-centered learning. CL bermanfaat untuk membantu menumbuhkan
dan mengasah: (a) kebiasaan belajar aktif pada diri mahasiswa; (b) rasa
tanggungjawab individu dan kelompok mahasiswa; (c) kemampuan dan
keterampilan bekerjasama antar mahasiswa; dan (d) keterampilan sosial
Collaborative Learning (CbL)
CbL adalah metode belajar yang menitikberatkan pada kerjasama
antar mahasiswa yang didasarkan pada konsensus yang dibangun sendiri oleh
anggota kelompok. Masalah/tugas/kasus memang berasal dari dosen dan
bersifat open ended, tetapi pembentukan kelompok yang didasarkan pada
minat, prosedur kerja kelompok, penentuan waktu dan tempat diskusi/kerja
kelompok, sampai dengan bagaimana hasil diskusi/kerja kelompok ingin
dinilai oleh dosen, semuanya ditentukan melalui konsensus bersama antar
anggota kelompok.
E-quiz adalah bagian dari e-learning yang berupa metode quis yang
dilakukan secara online melaui antarmuka web. Melalui E-quiz dosen dapat
membuat quiz secara online, memperoleh hasil quiz secara real time, dan
juga paperless. Beberapa fitur E-quiz yang sangat membantu kerja dosen
adalah : Soal digenerate secara random, mendukung Multiple Choice One
Answer, Multiple Choice Multi Answer, soal benar/salah, soal Isian, soal
menjodohkan, dan soal Essay. Dosen dapat memperoleh laporan ujian secara
detail, dosen dapat mengatur batas waktu mengerjakan ujian dan
mengagendakan waktu pelaksanaan ujian. Ujian dapat dilaksanakan di rumah
(Sebagai sarana latihan soal) atau di kelas (untuk assessment). Beberapa
aplikasi E-quiz yang populer adalah,,, dll. Yang perlu dosen siapkan adalah bank soal
yang cukup banyak beserta kunci jawabannya.
Cloud Based Sharing Files
Seiring dengan populernya teknologi Cloud, bermunuculan pula
aplikasi-aplikasi inovatif yang belum pernah ada sebelum dikembangkannya
teknologi Cloud. Salah satu penerapannya adalah untuk penggunaan berbagi
file atau yang disebut Cloud Based Sharing Files (CBSF). Perbedaannya
dengan berbagi file versi client-server (FTP server) adalah, dengan
diletakkannya file di cloud, maka file dapat diedit dan di-update secara
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
realtime kepada klien-klien yang sama-sama berbagi folder yang serupa.
Disini muncul peluang untuk bekerja kolaboratif dan kooperatif. Mahasiswa
dapat mengerjakan tugas bersama tanpa harus berada di tempat yang sama
(remote). Dengan begitu pembelajaran tidak harus di satu tempat, melainkan
placeless di dunia maya. Dengan adanya fitur notifikasi, maka CBSF sangat
mendukung kerja kolaboratif, mendukung fitur chat lewat file .txt, dan
berbagi file-file yang dibutuhkan dalam perkuliahan. Tidak hanya itu,
assessment juga dapat dilakukan secara online dengan cara meletakkan soal
yang dienkripsi (boleh tipe .ZIP atau .RAR yang diamankan dengan password)
ke CBSF. Password baru akan diberitahu ketika mahasiswa sudah berada di
kelas, dengan begitu assessment bisa dilakukan secara digital dan paperless.
Aplikasi yang cukup populer adalah Dropbox, Windows Live Mesh, SpiderOak,
SugarSync, dan Wuala.
Kompetisi dan Rewarding
1. Dalam kamus merriam webster, kompetisi berarti ”the effort of two or
more parties acting independently to secure the business of a third party
by offering the most favorable terms” (Sebuah usaha dari 2 pihak atau
lebih yang melakukan sesuatu secara independen untuk mendapat
sesuatu dari pihak ketiga dengan menyediakan aksi yang diinginkan).
Dalam kamus besar bahasa Indonesia: penghargaan artinya perbuatan
menghargai; penghormatan. Penghargaan merupakan sesuatu hal yang
memang diharapkan oleh sebagian manusia sebagai makhluk sosial.
Sebuah penghargaan akan didapat oleh seseorang dikarenakan jasa-jasa
atau sesuatu hal yang dilakukan atau diberikan. Akibat dari perbuatan
yang dilakukan seseorang tersebut ia mendapat pujian atau benda
tertentu secara khusus sebagai bentuk penghargaan. Biasanya
penghargaan merupakan sesuatu yang dibanggakan oleh banyak orang,
karena pemberiannya diberikan kepada orang-orang tertentu secara
2. Dengan memberlakukan suasana kompetisi dalam kelas, secara tidak
langsung dosen mendorong masing-masing mahasiswa untuk bekerja
sekeras mungkin untuk lebih baik dibanding mahasiswa lain. Langkah ini
dinilai lebih efektif dibanding sekedar menyuruh mahasiswa untuk belajar.
Agar efektif, kompetisi harus dilengkapi antara penghargaan (reward),
hukuman (punishment), atau keduanya.
Sukarni (2010) menyebutkan ada beberapa tujuan dalam pemberian
penghargaan ini, di antaranya adalah:
1) Meningkatkan perhatian peserta didik.
2) Memudahkan peserta didik selama proses pembelajaran.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
3) Membangkitkan dan memelihara motivasi.
4) Mengendalikan dan mengubah tingkah laku belajar yang negatif ke arah
tingkah laku belajar yang produktif.
5) Mengatur dan mengembangkan diri sendiri dalam mengajar.
6) Mengarahkan cara berpikir tingkat tinggi.
Tatacara dan Bentuk Pemberian Penghargaan
Caradalammemberikanpenghargaan/penguatan bermacam-macam
diantaranya adalah:
1) Cara verbal, contohnyaadalah “bagus”, “benar’, “tepat”, “pekerjaan anda
baik sekali”, “saya gembira dengan hasil pekerjaan anda”, dan sebagainya.
2) Dengan mimik dan gerakan badan: senyuman, anggukan, acungan jempol,
tepuk tangan. Hal ini dapat diikuti dengan cara verbal.
3) Penguatan dengan cara mendekati: berdiri di samping peserta didik,
berjalan menuju ke arah peserta didik, duduk dekat peserta
didik/kelompok dan sebagainya. Hal ini dapat dibarengi dengan
penguatan verbal.
4) Dengan sentuhan: Dosen dapat menyatakan persetujuan dan
penghargaan terhadap mahasiswa atas usaha dan penampilannya dengan
cara menepuk pundak, menjabat tangan atau mengangkat tangan peserta
didik yang berprestasi di kelas. Penggunaan penguatan ini harus bijaksana
artinya dipertimbangakan umur, jenis kelamin dan latar kebudayaan
setempat (umpamanya mengelus-elus rambut).
5) Dengan kegiatan yang menyenangkan: kegiatan atau tugas yang
menyenangkan dapat dipakai sebagai penguatan. Misal: mahasiswa yang
dapat menyelesaikan tugasnya terlebih dahulu dan baik dapat diberi tugas
untuk membantu temannya yang kesulitan dan sebagainya.
6) Dengan simbol ataupun benda: komentar tertulis pada buku peserta didik,
kartu bergambar, bintang, lencana dan lainnya asal tidak terlalu mahal
tapi bermakna simbolis.
Aryni Kurniawati (2011) menyatakan bahwa terdapat beberapa
bentuk dari pemberian penghargaan, diantaranya adalah bentuk tulisan,
ucapan, barang, dan penghargaan khusus.
Token Game
Token Game adalah mekanisme penilaian mahasiswa berbasis
keaktifan dalam bertanya. Dalam token game, setiap mahasiswa dijanjikan
reward berupa kesempatan remedial assesmen mahir untuk setiap kajian jika
mampu bertanya sejumlah 30 kali selama perkuliahan berlangsung. Setiap
mahasiswa dibekali form “TIKET REMEDIAL” yang berisi 30 kotak kosong.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Setiap mahasiswa bertanya (dengan cara mengacungkan tangan) maka dosen
akan membubuhkan tanda tangan (atau cap) sebagai tanda pencapaian. Di
akhir semester dosen hanya akan memberikan kesempatan remedial hanya
pada mahasiswa yang sudah mengumpulkan 30 tanda tangan dosen. Tidak
hanya itu, dosen dapat menambah aturan dengan memberi penghargaan jika
sudah mengumpulkan 10 tanda tangan atau 20 tanda tangan (kondisional).
Bentuk rewardnya bisa berupa informasi no. Handphone dosen, facebook
approval, Chat approval, konsultasi ke rumah dosen dan lain sebagainya.
Bentuk reward ini dapat disesuaikan dengan karakter tiap dosennya.
Mekanisme ini menumbuhkan nuansa kompetisi di kelas, keaktifan berrtanya
dan inkuiri aktif mahasiswa. Selain itu, mekanisme ini mendorong komunikasi
dua arah selama pembelajaran di dalam atau di luar kelas. Dokumentasi dari
Token Game ini dapat diolah untuk mengevaluasi proses pengajaran di kelas.
Metode ini juga menumbuhkan keseriusan dalam mahasiswa untuk
mempelajari mata kuliah, karena satu-satunya syarat mereka mendapat
remedial adalah aktif bertanya sampai dapat 30 token.
Pembagian Tingkat Kompetensi (Kompetensi Dasar, Menengah dan Mahir)
Dalam perspektif Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK), Kompetensi
dapat dibagi menjadi 3 bagian, yaitu Kompetensi Dasar, Kompetensi
Menengah, dan Kompetensi Mahir. Pembagian tersebut didasarkan atas
tingkat kesuilitan kompetensi yang harus dikuasai oleh mahasiswa dalam
menyelesaikan sebuah mata kuliah. Dalam mata kuliah jaringan komputer,
kompetensi dasar mencakup kemampuan untuk mengetahui teori dasar
jaringan komputer, kompetensi menengah mencakup kemampuan praktis
jaringan komputer tingkat dasar berkaitan dengan kajian/topik tertentu,
sementara kompetensi mahir mencakup kemampuan praktis jaringan
komputer tingkat lanjut dari kompetensi menengah. Masing-masing
kompetensi sudah didefinisikan bahan kajian yang harus dipelajari, modul
praktikum yang harus dicoba dan tujuan instruksional kajiannya. Bentuk
pengujian berbentuk berjenjang. Jika mahasiswa lulus ujian kompetensi
dasar, maka mahasiswa berhak mengajukan assessment menengah. Jika
mahasiswa lulus kompetensi menengah, maka mereka boleh mengajukan diri
untuk melaksanakan assessment mahir.
Implementasi SCL pada kuliah Jaringan Komputer
Sistem Pengajaran
Dari Tabel 1 kita sudah mengelompokkan ciri-ciri SCL ke dalam
beberapa keywords yaitu :
1) Aktif belajar mandiri (ABM)
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
2) Pengembangan Karakter (PK)
3) Multimedia (M)
4) Dosen dan mahasiswa belajar bersama (DMBB)
5) Berkesinambungan dan integrasi (BI)
6) Kolaboratif, suportif dan kooperatif (KSK) dan
7) Mencapai kompetensi (MK).
Dari kelompok kata kunci ini kita padankan dengan alat pendidikan
yang sekiranya dapat memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut. Pada akhirnya setelah
alat pendidikan ini diterapkan, kita akan mengukur efektifitasnya dan
membandingkannya dengan pola pembelajaran TCCL.
Tabel 2. Penerapan SCL
Token Game
Proses implementasi dilakukan dengan pertama-tama membagi kelas
40 mahasiswa menjadi 5 kelompok diskusi kecil (berjumlah 6-7 orang per
kelompok). Selain pembentukan kelompok diskusi, dipilih juga 5 orang
penanya yang akan bertanya ke setiap kelompok. 1 orang penanya untuk
satu kelompok. Penanya bertugas untuk menanyakan minimal 10 pertanyaan
ke setiap diskusi kelompok. Kelompok diskusi bertugas membuat slide
presentasi, melakukan diskusi dan presentasi ke penanya, kemudian
membuat laporan diskusi. 1 orang dari kelompok presenter harus ada yang
berinisiatif menjadi moderator.
Di pertemuan perdana Dosen mengumumkan aturan main Token
Game dan Assessment. Aturan Token game yang diimplementasikan adalah
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
maksimal nilai token per pertemuan adalah 2 token per seorang yang
bertanya. Aturan ini dimaksudkan agar kompetisi tetap adil dengan
memberikan setiap mahasiswa hak untuk bertanya tanpa didominasi oleh
mahasiswa tertentu (dengan cara terus bertanya dan tidak memberikan
kesempatan bertanya kepada mahasiswa lainnya). Dalam SGLyang berperan
sebagai penanya dihargai dengan 2 token. Peserta diskusi yang aktif dari
kelompok presenter mendapat 2 atau 1 token tergantung seberapa aktif dia
melakukan diskusi. Moderator mendapat 1 token.
Gambar 2. Template TIKET REMEDIAL
Untuk Assessment, dosen mensyaratkan bahwa yang berhak
mengikuti assessment kompetensi mahir adalah hanya bagi mahasiswa yang
sudah lulus assessment kompetensi menengah. Mahasiswa yang berhak
mengikuti assessment menengah adalah mahasiswa yang sudah lulus
assessment dasar.
Materi Jaringan Komputer dikelompokkan menjadi materi teori dan
praktek. Dari 10 Bab, dibuat dan dikelompokkan menjadi 5 kajian (teori dan
praktek) dan masing-masing kajian dibuat paket assessment dasar untuk
mengukur kompetensi dasar, assesment menengah untuk mengukur
kompetensi menengah, dan assement mahir untuk mengukur kompetensi
Kompetensi dasar diukur melalui quis online menggunakan dipilih karena fiturnya yang lengkap, gratis dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
kemudahan yang diberikan dalam mengolah soal, mengatur quis, melihat
pencapaian dan tampilan yang cukup baik. Selain itu, Equizzer juga
mendukung random soal dan random jawaban multiple choice. Hal ini yang
tidak didukung oleh layanan lain yang serupa, padahal random soal dan
random choice sangat dibutuhkan untuk menciptakan sistem quis yang tidak
ada kunci jawaban tunggal (mahasiswa tidak bisa membuat kunci jawaban
untuk dibocorkan ke mahasiswa lainnya). Perbandingan antara
dengan online quis lainnya diperlihatkan dalam Tabel 3.
Tabel 3. Perbandingan Berbagai Situs Quis Online
Fitur yang
dan ada
Cukup baik,
padat dan
Intuitif dan
Berbayar jika
seluruh fitur
fitur File
soal di
Tidak ada
fitur CSV,
yang ada
soal di
soal di
soal di
melihat hasil
per kelas
per kuis per
anak dalam
bentuk teks.
quis dibuat
grafik dan
Laporan quis
dibuat dibuat
grafik dan
Tidak ada
laporan quis
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Fitur yang
Model soal
choice one
fill in the
choice one
fill in the
choice one
fill in the
choice one
user dan
user dibagi
akun dosen,
akun kelas
dan akun
user dibagi
akun dosen,
akun kelas
dan akun
user dibagi
adanya akun
sekolah, akun
dosen, akun
kelas dan
Tidak ada
Fitur – fitur
desain yang
Untuk versi
gratis hanya
diberi jatah
100 kredit
(100 kali
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Settingan equizzer dibuat sebagai berikut:
1) Tiap kajian dipersiapkan 150 bank soal multiple choice one answer.
2) Tiap quis menggenerate 10 soal random dari bank soal. Pilihan jawaban
juga dibuat random.
3) Jika mahasiswa gagal mencapai nilai sempurna, maka mahasiswa harus
mengambil kembali quis online dengan resiko soal yang digenerate sudah
berbeda, dengan pilihan jawaban yang berbeda pula.
4) 10 soal ditampilkan sekaligus. Nilai tidak akan keluar sebelum seluruh soal
ditentukan jawabannya oleh mahasiswa.
5) Tiap quis diberi batasan waktu untuk dikerjakan antara 10 sampai 20
menit. Untuk soal teori 10 menit. Untuk soal hitungan seperti subnetting
20 menit.
6) Jika mahasiswa berhasil menjawab 10 soal dengan sempurna, maka akan
muncul secret words. Secret words ini nantinya harus diemailkan oleh
mahasiswa ke email dosen. Dengan begitu dosen bisa merekam siapa saja
mahasiswa yang sudah lulus assessment dasar. Meskipun begitu, equizzer
sendiri sudah menyediakan rekaman lengkap hasil assessment mahasiswa
jika dosen mau melihatnya.
7) Dosen dapat menentukan kapan sebuah quis itu available untuk
dikerjakan mahasiswa.
8) Assesment boleh dilakukan di rumah sebagai latihan. Namun, yang
dianggap sebagai assessment resmi adalah yang dikerjakan di kelas. Ada
peluang memang soal yang sudah dilatih di rumah akan keluar kembali di
assessment resmi. Meskipun begitu ada trade off untuk penentuan nilai
yang akan dibahas di subbab selanjutnya.
Kompetensi menengah diukur melalui ujian praktikum terbimbing.
Dosen sudah menyiapkan modul praktikum yang lengkap baik dari teori
pendukung, langkah kerja dan soal-soal yang perlu dijawab. Di sini mahasiswa
dibimbing oleh asisten praktikum dan diberi kesempatan untuk mencoba
modul praktikum sampai berhasil. Jika masih gagal, mahasiswa diminta untuk
mencoba lagi sampai berhasil. Mahasiswa diminta proaktif bertanya ke
asisten praktikum jika ada yang tidak dimengerti. Mahasiswa dikatakan lulus
assessment menengah jika memenuhi dua kondisi : a) lulus assessment dasar
b) berhasil mencapai tujuan praktikum sesuai modul yang telah diberikan.
Kompetensi mahir diukur melalui berbagai metode yaitu : a) Oral test
b) Tes tertulis c) Tes praktek, d) menjelaskan video bisu, e) menjelaskan
skema bergerak.
Oral test yang digunakan adalah oral test satu arah yang berbatas
waktu. Dalam ujian mahasiswa diminta menyampaikan berbagai hal yang dia
ketahui mengenai topik pembelajaran yang ditentukan selama batas waktu
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
tertentu. Biasanya antara 3 sampai 4 menit. Tantangannya adalah mahasiswa
tidak diberi kesempatan untuk mengambil jeda (diam tidak berbicara).
Metode ini digunakan untuk menguji hafalan mahasiswa mengenai teori yang
dipelajari. Jika mahasiswa diam terlalu lama, dosen berhak membatalkan
ujian, dan mahasiswa tersebut dinyatakan tidak lulus.
Tes tertulis diadakan untuk soal-soal hitungan jaringan komputer
yaitu subnetting CIDR dan VLSM. Mahasiswa disediakan 2 soal hitungan dan
diminta mengerjakan dengan berbatas waktu tertentu.
Aturan tes praktek adalah seperti berikut :
1) Dosen menantang mahasiswa untuk mengimplementasikan tugas
2) Dosen membebaskan metode yang digunakan untuk mengerjakan tugas
tersebut selama tujuan praktek tercapai.
3) Jika tujuan praktek tercapai, maka mahasiswa tersebut dinyatakan lulus
assesment mahir
Yang dimaksud menjelaskan video bisu adalah Dosen sudah
mempersiapkan sebuah video peraga yang menjelaskan sebuah proses yang
terjadi dalam jaringan komputer. Video itu sengaja tidak diisi dengan suara
narasi untuk keperluan assessment mahir. Mahasiswa diminta menjadi
narator untuk video tersebut. Mahasiswa dinyatakan lulus jika mampu
dengan lancar menjelaskan video bisu.
Yang dimaksud menjelaskan skema bergerak adalah dosen sudah
menyediakan beberapa skema bergerak dalam format .swf mengenai proses
– proses yang terjadi di jaringan seperti perutingan, algoritma link state dan
distance vector, prorokol – protokol jaringan, cara kerja internet dan lainnya.
Mahasiswa diminta menjelaskan beberapa skema saja yang dipilih secara
random. Jika mahasiswa berhasil menjelakan skema yang dimaksud maka
mahasiswa dinyatakan lulus. Skema bergerak yang digunakan adalah buatan
Saat pembelajaran dosen membagi sesi kelas menjadi 2 subsesi.
Subsesi pertama adalah diskusi mahasiswa, sesi kedua adalah lecturing
dosen. Di pertemuan lain format bisa dirubah menjadi sesi pertama diskusi,
sesi kedua adalah praktikum. Bisa juga seluruh sesi digunakan untuk
assessement. Cooperative learning dan Collaborative learning dilakukan di
luar kelas dengan menggunakan tools equizzer dan dropbox.
CBSF yang digunakan adalah Fitur dropbox yang
beragam membantu terjadinya proses kerja kolaboratif pada pembelajaran
mata kuliah jarkom. Ketika mahasiswa dalam SGL sudah ditugaskan membuat
laporan diskusi, mahasiswa mengunggah berkas laporan ke dropbox. Karena
sudah mendukung collaborative activity, file laporan diskusi yang sudah
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
diletakkan di dropbox otomatis terunduh oleh klien dropbox yang dimiliki
oleh masing-masing anggota kelompok diskusi. Mekanisme kerja dropbox
adalah ketika ada suatu file yang dimodifikasi oleh seseorang, maka otomatis
perubahan tersebut juga di-update untuk file yang disimpan oleh klien
dropbox lainnya, selama pengguna dropbox dalam keadaan online. Kita juga
bisa melakukan chatting menggunakan file berformat .txt yang diletakkan di
dropbox. Setiap ada perubahan file di dropbox, akan muncul notifikasi dari
windows icon tray yang artinya file kita telah di-update oleh teman kita di
tempat yang lain.
Sistem penilaian
Sistem penilaian yang digunakan menggunakan index A, A-, B+, B,B-,
C, D dan E. Mahasiswa akan mendapat nilai C jika dari 5 kajian mata kuliah
Jaringan Komputer keseluruhannya hanya lulus Kompetensi Dasar.
Mahasiswa akan mendapat nilai B jika mahasiswa lulus seluruh Kompetensi
Dasar dan juga lulus Kompetensi Menengah. Mahasiswa akan mendapat nilai
A jika lulus seluruh kompetensi dasar, kompetensi menengah, dan
kompetensi mahir. Nilai di antara A dan B (A-, B+), atau antara B dan C (B-)
diraih bergantung dari variasi jumlah kelulusan kompetensi dasar, menengah
dan mahir.
Secara statistika (sampel diambil dari 2 kelas jaringan komputer pada
3 waktu yang berbeda : Semester Ganjil 2010, Semester Genap 2011 dan
Semester Ganjil 2011) ada beberapa aspek yang meningkat seiring
penerapan SCL yaitu :
1. Absensi meningkat
Pada pembelajaran Jaringan Komputer sebelum diterapkan SCL,
pengajaran bersifat monoton sehingga mahasiswa mudah jenuh dan
puncaknya adalah malas kuliah. Pada SCL metode pengajaran menjadi
sangat variatif sehingga membuat mahasiswa bersemangat ke kelas
menanti metode pengajaran yang baru atau mengejar poin token. Ratarata kehadiran mahasiswa sebelum SCL adalah 82,7 %. Setelah penerapan
SCL menjadi 95,6%. Perlu diperhatikan bahwa salah satu syarat kelulusan
mata kuliah di Politeknik Telkom adalah tingkat kehadiran lebih dari 80%.
2. Tingkat keaktifan bertanya meningkat
Karena perolehan token menentukan mahasiswa boleh remedial atau
tidak, maka mahasiswa mau tidak mau harus berani mengacungkan
tangan dan bertanya. Bagi beberapa mahasiswa yang masih malu-malu
bertanya di tengah pembelajaran ada juga mahasiswa yang sering main ke
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
ruangan dosen untuk bertanya, atau ada juga yang ketika berpapasan
dengan dosen memanfaatkan kesempatan tersebut untuk bertanya.
Momen ini juga semakin membuat hubungan dosen dan mahasiswa
menjadi lebih cair. Keaktifan mahasiswa sebelum diterapkan SCL adalah
rata-rata 7/40 mahasiswa aktif yang bertanya di kelas (16,7%). Setelah SCL
yang bertanya menjadi 85% mahasiswa yang aktif bertanya di kelas.
3. Nilai rata-rata mahasiswa meningkat
Data nilai di semester ganjil 2010 sebelum diterapkannya SCL rata-rata
untuk nilai A adalah 13,8% mahasiswa. Untuk nilai B 57,2% mahasiswa.
Untuk nilai dibawah B 29% mahasiswa. Data nilai di semester genap 2011
sebelum diterapkannya SCL rata-rata untuk nilai A adalah 19,4%
mahasiswa. Untuk nilai B 62,6% mahasiswa. Untuk nilai dibawah B 18%
mahasiswa. Setelah diterapkan SCL, untuk mahasiswa yang berbeda di
semester ganjil 2011 perolehan nilai A dan A- adalah 53,5%mahasiswa.
Yang mendapat nilai B+, B, dan B- menjadi 24,6% mahasiswa. Sisanya
mendapat nilai C, D dan E (21,9%).
Tabel 4. Rekapitulasi nilai mahasiswa
peserta mata kuliah Jakrom 2010 – 2011 dari sampel 2 kelas
Semester ganjil
Semester genap
Semester ganjil
Pada semester ganjil 2010 dan semester genap 2011 belum
diterapkan nilai A-, B+, B-. Ekivalensi nilai dari sistem TCCL ke SCL
adalah A = A dan A-, B = B+ , B dan B-, C = C, D = D, E = E.
Dari pengamatan, didapati ada beberapa hal yang membuat
pembelajaran Jaringan Komputer lebih efektif dengan menggunakan SCL
dibanding menggunakan TCCL. Hasil tersebut adalah :
1) Mahasiswa lebih merasa bertanggung jawab terhadap nilai prestasi yang
harus ia capai, karena sukses atau tidaknya benar-benar ditentukan oleh
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
seberapa aktif mahasiswa mau berusaha. Hal ini membangun karakter
disiplin dan bertanggung jawab pada diri mahasiswa.
Lebih banyak pertanyaan muncul karena pengaruh pengerjaan Online
Quis e-quizzer, target pencapaian Assessment Dasar, Menengah dan
Mahir, serta diskusi kelompok mandiri di kelas.
Interaksi antara dosen dan mahasiswa tidak sebatas di kelas, karena lewat
Dropbox Mahasiswa bisa bertukar data dengan dosen dan sesama
mahasiswa, menanyakan persoalan yang rumit, berbagi sumber bacaan
(e-book) dan melaporkan hasil diskusi kelas.
Mahasiswa tidak hanya mengejar nilai, tetapi juga mengejar nilai
keaktifan agar mendapat kesempatan remedial di akhir semester. Hal ini
membuat mahasiswa yang terbiasa diam pun mau tidak mau harus mulai
terbiasa aktif agar memperoleh kesempatan remedial.
Nuansa kompetisi diantara mahasiswa membuat pembelajaran Jaringan
Komputer lebih relax dan menyenangkan namun tetap serius dalam
mencapai nilai sebaik-baiknya.
Mahasiswa mengisi waktu di luar perkuliahan untuk menyelesaikan equizzer. Ini membantu mahasiswa untuk terbiasa belajar di luar kelas
dengan membuka buku, mencari jawaban di internet dan belajar
Mahasiswa terbiasa untuk berbagi ilmu dan membantu mengembangkan
potensi teman-temannya berkaitan dengan materi keterampilan.
Perkuliahan Jaringan Komputer semakin irit menggunakan kertaskarena
untuk assessment dan pembelajaran sudah beralih ke format digital dan
dilaksanakan secara online, meskipun tidak optimal karena untuk
beberapa hal modul printable masih dibutuhkan.
Need for Improvement
Di samping terdapat banyaknya kelebihan yang dipetik, ada juga
beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan dan dicarikan solusinya. Diantaranya
sebagai berikut :
a. Karena pengawasannya yang sangat longgar, terkadang ada beberapa
mahasiswa yang mengerjakan E-quizzer dengan dibantu mahasiswa lain
tanpa melalui proses belajar yang wajar. Tidak wajar disini maksudnya
adalah mahasiswa menggunakan jasa joki untuk membantu menjawabkan
soal-soal equizzer.
b. Waktu di kelas cukup tersita banyak dengan kegiatan menandatangani
Tiket Remedial dan kelulusan kompetensi dasar, menengah dan mahir.
Rata-rata untuk mengisi tanda tangan token sekitar 5 sampai 10 menit.
Akibatnya efektifitas waktu untuk proses pembelajaran berkurang.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
c. Banyak mahasiswa yang bertanya dengan pertanyaan yang kurang
berkualitas (tidak penting untuk ditanyakan) demi mendapat token.
Sebenarnya isu ini masih menjadi perdebatan apakah merupakan
kekurangan atau justru memang bagian dari proses membiasakan
mahasiswa jadi aktif bertanya.
d. Fitur paperless masih belum bisa dilaksanakan secara penuh, karena pada
saat praktikum ternyata lebih nyaman jika modul masih berupa printable
modul, karena laptop digunakan untuk menjalankan program simulasi
Dari implementasi SCL pada perkuliahan Jaringan Komputer di
Politeknik Telkom dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut :
1. SCL berhasil diimplementasikan pada kelas Jaringan Komputer Politeknik
Telkom dengan memperhatikan korelasi antara alat-alat pendidikan
dengan definisi pembelajaran berdasarkan UU Sisdiknas no.2 tahun 2003.
2. Implementasi SCL melibatkan alat-alat pendidikan seperti, ,
Small Group Learning(SGL), Collaborative Learning (CL), Cloud Based
Sharing Files (CBSF) menggunakan, Token Game, Lecturing,
Praktikum, dan Pembagian assessment menjadi Assessment Dasar,
Menengah dan Mahir.
3. Kehandalan SCL dibanding TCCL digambarkan melalui meningkatnya nilai
siswa, meningkatnya tingkat keaktifan mahasiswa dan meningkatnya
absensi mahasiswa.
Adapun saran agar implementasi SCL dapat lebih baik adalah :
1. Meng-explore lebih jauh metode-metode lain dari SCL
2. Meng-explore alat pendidikan lain yang sekiranya dapat lebih efektif
dalam mencapai kebutuhan SCL
3. Menambah jumlah bank soal untuk lebih meminimalisir bocornya
jawaban dari online quiz
4. Menggunakan infrastruktur lokal untuk pengembangan e-quiz dan elearning agar lebih handal
5. Menggunakan aplikasi sendiri yang lebih configurable dan compact
Kunaefi, Tresna Darmawan dan Tim Penyusun (2008). Buku Panduan
Pengembangan Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi Pendidikan Tinggi.
Jakarta : Direktorat Akademik Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Wulandari, Nunung, Umu Latifah, Dian Adiprana dan Novantoni (2011). Peran
Penghargaan Dalam Rangka Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar Siswa.
Bandung : Universitas Pendidikan Bandung
Undang- Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem
Pendidikan (n.d.). diambil dari http://www.dikti.
What is equizzer? (n.d.). diambil dari
.php?option=com_ content&task =view&id=1&Itemid=1
(n.d.). diambil
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Rifana S.S.I Kawet
Faculty of Technic, State University of Manado, Manado, Indonesia
[email protected]
This study aimed to investigate the influence of the School
performance, and leadership and quality of schools in the city of
Manado. A survey in primary schools, or with a randomly selected
sample of30. This study concluded that there wasa direct influence:
(1) school performance and leadership, (2) school performance and
service quality, (3) In addition there isa direct influenceon service
quality leadership. Therefore, based on the results of research,
Educational Quality of Service can be improved through school
performance, and leadership.
Keywords: quality, service, school, leadership,performance.
Kualitas paling tidak dapat dilihat dari kompetensi kepala sekolah
meliputi, kompetensi kepribadian, kompetensi manajerial, kompetensi
kewirausahaan, kompetensi supervisi, dan kompetensi (Permendiknas
Nomor 13 Tahun 2007. Standar Kompetensi Kepala Sekolah. Jakarta). Untuk
itu, kompetensi-kompetensi tersebut diharapkan dapat melaksanakan tugas
keprofesionalan kepala sekolah yang tampak sebagai kinerja sekolah. Selama
ini ada kecenderungan kepala sekolah merasa puas dengan apa yang
dilakukannya meskipun belum tentu menjadi kepuasan bagi siswa, guru, dan
masyarakat yang dilayaninya (Hasbullah, 2006: 61). mengatakan bahwa
“lembaga pendidikan yang tidak berkualitas lama kelamaan akan ditinggalkan
orang dan tersingkir dengan sendirinya” Dengan rumusan masalah sebagai
berikut; Apakah terdapat pengaruh kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dengan
kualitas pelayanan sekolah? Apakah terdapat pengaruh kinerja sekolah
dengan kualitas pelayanan sekolah? Apakah terdapat pengaruh kinerja
sekolah, kepemimpinan kepala sekolah secara bersama-sama dengan kualitas
pelayanan sekolah di Kota Manado? Kegunaan penelitian ini diharapkan
secara teoretis dapat menjelaskan variabel-variabel penelitian dalam upaya
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
memberikan masukan kepada sekolah, terutama dalam kualitas pelayanan,
dan secara praktis dapat digunakan sebagai panduan kepada setiap sekolah
dalam mengelola manajemen yaitu: mencari tipe kepemimpinan yang dapat
menjalan visi dan misi sekolah pada jalur yang sesuai harapan masyarakat
luas dan meningkatkan kinerja sekolah.
Kualitas Pelayanan
Menurut, Nawawi (2000: 125-129), kualitas sangat dipengaruhi oleh
pihak di luar organisasi yang disebut konsumen, di samping keinginan
konsumen berbeda-beda juga selalu berubah dan berkembang secara
dinamis. Namun sejauh mana masyarakat merasa puas dilayani atau dengan
kata lain tidak ada keluhan anggota masyarakat pada proses pemberian
pelayanan prinsip utamanya terletak pada komitmen pucuk pimpinan (top
manajer) dan semua staf pimpinan (manajer lain bawahannya) yang secara
keseluruhan disebut eksekutif yang diharapkan dapat mendasari
kepemimpinannya (Nawawi, 2000: 129). Kualitas secara bijaksana, yaitu
membuat seasli mungkin seperti "apa adanya“, memberi gambaran secara
singkat dan padat untuk sesuatu hal, kemudian di aplikasikan seperti
seharusnya dengan memberikan urutan pelayanan yang tepat kepada
pelanggan (Taylor and Hosker, 1992: 1). Dan terpenting adalah kualitas
pelayanan yang sangat memuaskan, melampaui keinginan atau kebutuhan
para pelanggan(Sallis, 1993: 24).
Ada sepuluh langkah untuk mencapai kualitas seperti: (1) bangun
kesadaran tentang peningkatan kesempatan, (2) set goal untuk suatu
peningkatan, (3) mengorganisir untuk penelitian sebuah goal, (4) sediakan
training, (5) mencari jalan keluar untuk suatu pemecahan masalah,
(6) membuat laporan kemajuan, (7) memberi pengakuan/pengenalan,
(8) membuat keputusan yang dikomunikasikan, (9) mencari skor dan
(10) penjagaan daya gerak dengan membuat peningkatan-peningkatan
tahunan yang merupakan bagian dari sistem regular dan merupakan proses
perusahaan (Lindsay and Petrick, 1997: 74). Maka, diutamakan konsistensi
penerapan kualitas yang: (a) berguna dan dapat dipergunakan untuk semua
hal yang diperlukan, (b) memiliki keutamaan dan karakteristik sebuah produk
dan pelayanan yang ditunjang dengan kemampuan untuk memuaskan serta
memiliki perlengkapan yang dibutuhkan, (c) gabungan antara produk dan
karakeristik pelayanan dari pemasaran, permesinan, manufaktur, dan biaya
pemeliharaan, yang akan di berikan pada konsumen, (d) dapat disesuaikan
dengan kebutuhan. (e) ada beberapa perbedaan dalam mendefinisikan
istilah Quality, tapi ada sebuah bentuk konsensus yang muncul dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
menyatakan kualitas sebagai ”kekuatan untuk suatu tujuan”. Kualitas
manajemen menyeluruh adalah system manjemen yang terfokus pada
individu, tujuannya meningkatkan kepuasan pelanggan secara terus menerus,
namun dengan modal yang seminimal mungkin. Kualitas menyeluruh adalah
pendekatan system yang berfungsi setara dengan fungsi dan departemen
dalam perusahaan. Melibatkan seluruh karyawan, manajer dari atas hingga
menengah, serta bagian pelaksana hingga pelanggan.
Konseptual manajemen kualitas dapat diterapkan baik pada barang
maupun jasa, karena yang ditekankan dalam penerapan manajemen kualitas
adalah perbaikan sistem kualitas, bukan sekedar perbaikan barang atau jasa.
Dengan demikian yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pengembangan sistem
kualitas dan perbaikan sistem kualitas.
Kualitas pelayanan : (1) bukti langsung (tangible), meliputi fasilitas
fisik perlengkapan pegawai dan sarana komunikasi (2) keandalan (reliability),
yaitu kemampuan memberikan pelayanan yang dijanjikan dengan segera,
akurat dan memuaskan (3) daya tanggap (responsiveness) yaitu keinginan
para staf untuk membantu para pelanggan dan memberikan pelayanan
dengan tanggap (4) jaminan (assurance), mencakup pengetahuan,
kemampuan, kesopanan dan sifat dapat dipercaya yang dimiliki para staf,
bebas dari bahaya, resiko atau keragu-raguan, (5) empati (empaty), meliputi
kemudahan dalam melakukan hubungan, komunikasi yang baik, perhatian
pribadi, dan memahami kebutuhan pribadi, dan memahami kebutuhan para
Sekolah adalah suatu pendidikan formal yang merupakan lembaga
layanan jasa pendidikan. Orang yang paling berperan dalam pelayanan jasa di
sekolah adalah kepala sekolah. Yang merupakan sasaran pelayanan adalah
seluruh warga sekolah termasuk stakeholder dan masyarakat. Untuk itu
kualitas layanan yang diberikan oleh kepala sekolah hendaknya selalu
ditingkatkan agar sekolah itu menjadi terkenal karena kualitas
pendidikannya. Sekolah dasar merupakan salah satu lembaga pendidikan
formal yang harus memenuhi syarat suatu lembaga layanan jasa di bidang
pendidikan dasar.
Namun pada intinya, pelayanan adalah suatu kegiatan yang
ditawarkan oleh organisasi atau perorangan kepada konsumen
(customer/yang dilayani), yang bersifat tidak berwujud dan tidak dapat
dimiliki. Hal ini sesuai dengan apa yang disampaikan oleh Normann mengenai
karakteristik tentang pelayanan, yakni sebagai berikut : (1) Pelayanan bersifat
tidak dapat diraba, pelayanan sangat berlawanan sifatnya dengan barang
jadi. (2) Pelayanan itu kenyataannya terdiri dari tindakan nyata dan
merupakan pengaruh yang sifatnya adalah tindakan sosial; (3) Produksi dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
konsumsi dari pelayanan tidak dapat dipisahkan secara nyata, karena pada
umumnya kejadiannya bersamaan dan terjadi di tempat yang sama (Lindsay
and Petrick, 1997: 74).
Berdasarkan hasil analisis teoritik di atas, bahwa kualitas pelayanan
sekolah yang dimaksud dalam penelitian ini adalah seperangkatpersepsi
seseorang terhadapkegiatan sekolah,
dengan indikator: bukti fisik
(tangibles), reliabilitas (reliability), daya tanggap (responsiveness), jaminan
(assurance), (empati.
Sutopo dan Suryanto (2003: 83), menyatakan kinerja sebagai tingkat
keberhasilan seseorang di dalam melakukan tugas pekerjaannya. Pengertian
ini menekankan pada keberhasilan seseorang dalam melaksanakan tugasnya,
tetapi tidak boleh diabaikan bahwa yang dikerjakan seseorang itu tidak selalu
menghasilkan wujud nyata. Sementara itu, Bernardin dan Russel mengartikan
kinerja sebagai …”the record of outcomes produced on a specified job
function or activity during a specified time period” (As’ad, 2004: 47). Kinerja
(performance) adalah menggambarkan hasil kerja yang dapat dicapai
seseorang atau sekelompok orang dalam suatu organisasi, sesuai dengan
wewenang dan tanggung jawab masing-masing, dalam rangka upaya
mencapai tujuan organisasi yang bersangkutan secara legal, tidak melanggar
hukum dan sesuai dengan moral dan etika (Bernardin dan Russell, 1999:
379). Kinerja terdiri dari dua aspek, yaitu efisiensi dan efektifitas. Efisiensi
adalah perbandingan antara hasil yang dicapai dengan usaha yang
dikeluarkan, sedangkan efektivitas adalah perbandingan antara hasil yang
dicapai dengan hasil yang diharapkan (Prawirosentoro, 1999: 5).
Disisi lain penekanan kinerja lebih mengarah kepada penilaian atau
pencatatan mengenai outcome atau hasil akhir yang diperoleh setelah suatu
pekerjaan atau aktivitas dilaksanakan. Jadi ukuran keberhasilan suatu
institusi mencakup seluruh kegiatan melalui uji tuntas terhadap tujuan usaha
yang telah ditetapkan dan dilaksanakan. Murphy dan Cleveland memberi
pengertian kinerja sebagai perhitungan hasil akhir (countable outcomes),
atau dalam istilah Rue dan Syars sebagai tingkat pencapaian hasil atau
penyelesaian terhadap tujuan organisasi (the degree of accomplishment)
(1995: 8).
Kinerja merupakan prestasi sekolah melalui penerimaan sasaransasaran, nilai-nilai organisasi sekolah, kesediaan atau kemauan untuk
berusaha menjadi bagian dari organisasi sekolah, serta keinginan untuk
bertahan di dalam organisasi sekolah. Penilaian kinerja bertitik tolak pada
aktivitas, perilaku, dan produktivitas layanan belajar yang bermutu dan
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
mampu bersaing dengan sekolah sejenis. Hal ini didukung oleh penerapan
manajemen berbasis sekolah bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kinerja sekolah
melalui pemberian kewenangan dan tanggung jawab yang lebih besar kepada
sekolah menjalankan prinsip-prinsip tata pengelolaan sekolah yang baik,
yaitu partisipasi, transparansi, dan akuntabilitas. Adapun kinerja sekolah
meliputi peningkatan kualitas, efektivitas, efisiensi, produktivitas, dan inovasi
Dalam pada itu, bahwa kinerja sekolah yang dimaksud dalam
penelitian ini adalah tingkat capaian hasil yang diperoleh sekolah dalam
melaksanakan fungsi manajemen sekolah sesuai dengan nilai-nilai kebijakan
pendidikan nasional dalam kerangka desentralisasi pada suatu periode waktu
tertentu, meliputi indikator : kualitas, efektivitas, efisiensi, produktivitas,
inovasi pendidikan.
Kepemimpinan, menunjukkan jalan bagi orang lain, dan
mempengaruhi perilaku mereka melalui ide-ide, dan perbuatan mereka.
Grifin memandang kepemimpinan dari dua sudut pandang yang berbeda,
yaitu (1) proses, yang berarti penggunaan pengaruh yang tidak memiliki
kekuasaan untuk memberikan sanksi, membentuk tujuan kelompok atau
organisasi, mengarahkan perilaku mereka untuk mencapai tujuan dan
membantu menciptakan budaya kelompok atau organisasi; dan
(2) kepemilikan, yang diartikan sebagai seperangkat ciri yang menjadi atribut
seseorang yang dipersepsikan sebagai pemimpin (Rohiat, 2008: 49). Cox dan
Jhon (2002) mengemukakan, kepemimpinan yang baik itu menghasilkan
pengembangan potensi personal, dan profesional serta memungkinkan
tercapainya sasaran tim. Dan kepemimpinan merupakan elemen penting
dalam memimpin orang lain dan terdapat beberapa kejadian dimana individu
mendemontrasikan kemampuan yang luar biasa. Hoy dan Cecil
mengklasifikasikan lima faktor personal yang harus dimiliki pemimpin yaitu:
(1) Kapasitas; berupa intelegensi, kehati-hatian, kemampuan verbal,
orisinalitas, dan pengambilan keputusan. (2) Pencapaian; berupa beasiswa
dan pengetahuan. (3) Tanggungjawab; berupa ketergantungan, inisiatif,
keagresifan, percaya diri dan keinginan untuk menjadi yang terbaik.
(4) Partisipasi; berupa aktivitas, sosialisasi, kooperatif, kemampuan adaptasi
dan humoris dan, (5) Status; berupa posisi sosial ekonomi dan popularitas.
menggerakkan atau mekinerja anggota organisasi agar secara serentak
melakukan kegiatan yang sama dan terarah pencapaian tujuannya, dan
memiliki kemampuan mewujudkan peran serta aktif setiap anggota
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
organisasi, sesuai dengan posisi/jabatannya di dalam organisasi (Goleman,
2003: 87). Kepemimpinan dapat mengilhami dan membimbing individu atau
kelompok. Nelson dan James (1997: 60) membagi 2 bentuk kepemimpinan
dalam organisasi, yaitu: (1) Formal leadership, terjadi ketika anggota
kelompok memberikan kekuatan dan kekuasaan penuh kepada pemimpin
untuk mengarahkan dan mengatur berbagai hal yang terjadi dalam
organisasi. (2) Informal leadership, terjadi ketika orang lain diluar anggota
organisasi di beri kekuatan dan kekuasaan untuk mengarahkan dan mengatur
berbagai hal yang terjadi dalam organisasi.
Namun pada intinya seorang pemimpin pendidikan seperti kepala
sekolah hendaknya memiliki prinsip kepemimpinan yang jelas dan tegas
sehingga upaya pencapaian tujuan sekolah akan lebih cepat, tepat, dan
akurat. Adapun fungsi-fungsi kepemimpinan kepala sekolah adalah sebagai
administrator dan manajer. Pemimpin sebagai administrator karena
pemimpin tersebut yang melaksanakan kepemimpinan. Hal tersebut
sebagaimana diungkapkan oleh Sutisna bahwa “pemimpin-pemimpin efektif
menjadi masukan penting bagi organisasi yang berhasil, karena itu semua
administrator adalah pemimpin walaupun tidak semua pemimpin harus
memiliki kemampuan administratif” (Sutisna, 2000: 203).
Berdasarkan analisis teoritik tersebut, bahwa kepemimpinan kepala
sekolah yang dimaksud dalam penelitian ini adalah seperangkat perilaku
kepala sekolah mempengaruhi bawahannya, dengan indikator indikator:
(a) direktif, (b) suportif, (c) partisipatif, (d) delegatif.
Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei dengan pendekatan
statistik deskriptif untuk mendeskripsi hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan
kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dan kinerja sekolah serta kualitas pelayanan
dan dengan pendekatan inferensial untuk melihat hubungan kepemimpinan
kepala sekolah dengan kualitas pelayanan, kinerja sekolah dengan kualitas
pelayanan, dan hubungan kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dan kinerja sekolah
secara-bersama dengan kualitas pelayanan sekolah.
Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kota Manado selama 3 bulan, dengan
populasi sasaran adalah semua sekolah di Kota Manado dengan sampel
penelitian yang diambil dengan jumlah sampel sebesar yang diambil secara
simple random sampling. Alat pengumpul data menggunakan instrumen
dalam bentuk angket meliputi; angkat kepemimpinan, kinerja sekolah dan
kualitas pelayanan sekolah. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan
teknik analisis jalur. Dengan hipotesis sebagai berikut: Terdapat pengaruh
langsung kinerja terhadap kualitas pelayanan sekolah? Terdapat
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pengaruhlangsung kepemimpinan terhadap kualitas pelayanan sekolah?
Terdapat pengaruhlangsung kinerja sekolah, terhadap kepemimpinan kepala
Deskripsi data hasil penelitian dimaksudkan untuk memberikan
gambaran umum mengenai penyebaran/distribusi data, baik berupa ukuran
gejala sentral, ukuran letak maupun distribusi frekuensi. Harga-harga yang
akan disajikan setelah diolah dari data mentah dengan menggunakan metode
statistik deskriptif, yaitu: harga rata-rata, simpangan baku, modus, median,
distribusi frekuensi serta grafik histogram.
Berdasarkan banyaknya variabel dan merujuk kepada masalah
penelitian, maka deskripsi data dapat dikelompokkan menjadi tiga bagian
yakni; (1) Kualitas pelayanan , (2) Kinerja sekolah, dan (3) Kepemimpinan.
Uraian singkat hasil perhitungan statistik deskriptif tersebut akan
dikemukakan berikut ini:
Kualitas Pelayanan
Skor teoretik yang diharapkan diperoleh dari variabel pinerja pegawai
adalah terletak pada rentangan skor antara 30 sampai 150. Ternyata hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Kualitas pelayanan berada antara 102
sampai dengan 149, skor rata-rata sebesar 122,67 simpangan baku atau
standar deviasi sebesar 11,888. median sebesar 120 modus sebesar 112.
Distribusi frekuensi dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut ini.
Tabel 1. Distribusi Frekuensi Kualitas pelayanan
No Interval
1 102 - 109
2 110 - 117
3 118 - 125
4 126 - 133
5 134 - 141
6 142 - 149
Relatif (%)
Kumulatif (%)
Berdasarkan tabel distribusi frekuensi di atas, jika dibandingkan
dengan harga rata-rata menunjukkan bahwa skor Kualitas pelayanan yang
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
berada di bawah harga rata-rata sebanyak 11 responden (18,33%), sedang
yang berada pada kelompok kelas harga rata-rata adalah sebanyak 16
responden (26,67%) dan yang berada di atas harga rata-rata 33 responden
(55%). Selanjutnya histogram variabel ini dapat ditunjukkan pada Gambar
4.1. berikut ini.
Gambar 1. Histogram Frekuensi Kualitas pelayanan
Kinerja Sekolah
Skor teoretik yang diharapkan diperoleh dari penelitian untuk
variabel Kinerja sekolah adalah berada pada rentangan skor antara 30 sampai
150. Ternyata hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa skor Kinerja sekolah
hanya berada antara 90 sampai dengan 115, skor rata-rata sebesar 100,23
simpangan baku atau standar deviasi sebesar 7,356, median sebesar 99,00,
modus sebesar 94. Sedangkan distribusi frekuensi dapat dilihat pada tabel
berikut ini.
Tabel 2. Distribusi Frekuensi Kinerja sekolah
No Interval
1 90
2 95
3 100
4 105
5 110
6 115
- 94
- 99
- 104
- 109
- 114
- 119
Relatif (%)
Kumulatif (%)
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Dari data yang terlihat pada tabel distribusi frekuensi di atas, jika
dibandingkan dengan harga rata-rata menunjukkan bahwa skor Kinerja
sekolah yang berada di bawah harga rata-rata sebanyak 17 responden
(28,33%), sedang yang berada pada kelompok kelas harga rata-rata adalah
sebanyak 18 responden (30%) dan yang berada di atas harga rata-rata 25
responden (41,67%). Selanjutnya histogram variabel ini dapat ditunjukkan
pada Gambar 4.3 berikut ini.
Gambar 2. Histogram Frekuensi Kinerja sekolah
Skor teoretik yang diharapkan diperoleh dari penelitian untuk
variabel Kepemimpinan adalah berada pada rentangan skor antara 30
sampai 150. Ternyata hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa skor
Kepemimpinan berada antara 89 sampai dengan 125, skor rata-rata sebesar
104,02 simpangan baku atau standar deviasi sebesar 9,406, median sebesar
102,50, modus sebesar 99. Sedangkan distribusi frekuensi dapat dilihat pada
tabel berikut ini.
Tabel 3. Distribusi Frekuensi Kepemimpinan
- 94
- 100
101 - 106
107 - 112
113 - 118
119 - 125
Relatif (%)
Kumulatif (%)
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Dari data yang terlihat pada tabel distribusi frekuensi di atas, jika
dibandingkan dengan harga rata-rata menunjukkan bahwa skor
Kepemimpinan yang berada di bawah harga rata-rata sebanyak 26 responden
(43,33%), sedang yang berada pada kelompok kelas harga rata-rata adalah
sebanyak 12 responden (20%) dan yang berada di atas harga rata-rata 22
responden (36,67%). Selanjutnya histogram variabel ini dapat ditunjukkan
pada Gambar 4.3. berikut ini.
108,5 113,5
Gambar 3. Histogram Frekuensi Kepemimpinan
Pengujian Persyaratan Analisis
Data variabel penelitian yang dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis
statistik inferensial melalui teknik korelasi sederhana dan regresi ganda harus
memenuhi beberapa persyaratan. Untuk memenuhi persyaratan tersebut
telah dilakukan pengujian persyaratan analisis adalah sebagai berikut:
Uji Normalitas
Pengujian normalitas distribusi data dengan menggunakan Uji K-S.
Hasil pengujian dikemukakan berikut ini:
Pengujian normalitas data Y menghasilkan harga KShitung maksimum
sebesar 0,155 sedangkan KStabel pada taraf nyata alpha 0,05 diperoleh nilai
sebesar 0,162. Ternyata Lhitung< Ltabel atau 0,155< 0,162. Dengan demikian
dapat disimpulkan bahwa kelompok data Y berdistribusi normal.
Pengujian normalitas data X1 menghasilkan harga KShitung maksimum
sebesar 0,109 sedangkan KStabel pada taraf nyata alpha 0,05 diperoleh nilai
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
sebesar 0,162. Ternyata Lhitung< Ltabel atau 0,109< 0,162. Dengan demikian
dapat disimpulkan bahwa kelompok data Y berdistribusi normal.
Pengujian normalitas data X2 menghasilkan harga KShitung maksimum
sebesar 0,126 sedangkan KStabel pada taraf nyata alpha 0,05 diperoleh nilai
sebesar 0,162. Ternyata Lhitung< Ltabel atau 0,126< 0,162. Dengan demikian
dapat disimpulkan bahwa kelompok data Y berdistribusi normal. Hasil
pengujian normalitas secara keseluruhan dapat diperlihatkan pada lampiran
6. Sedangkan rangkuman hasil pengujian normalitas secara keseluruhan
dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut ini.
Tabel 4. Rangkuman Uji Normalitas
0, 109
Terima H0
Terima H0
Terima H0
Pengujian Signifikansi dan Linearitas Model Regresi
Persyaratan terakhir ini harus dipenuhi dalam melakukan analisis
jalur adalah, variabel-variabel bebas yang dirumuskan dalam teoritik
mempunyai hubungan linear secara nyata. Oleh larena itu, dilakukan uji
signifikansi dan linearitas model regresi linear sesuai dengan model
hubungan antarvariabel yang dirumuskan dalam model hipotetik. Yang
selanjutnya dilakukan uji signifikansi dan linearitas model regresi linear
dengan SPSS 18 dengan hasil sebagai berikut :
Kepemimpinan (X2) atas kinerja (X1)
Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi kepemimpinan (X2) atas kinerja
(X1) hasil perhitungan dapat dilihat dalam tabel.5 sebagai berikut:
Tabel 5. ANAVA Untuk Uji Signifikansi
dan Linieritas Model Regresi X2 atas X1
Sumber Variasi
Total Reduksi
Regresi (b|a)
Tuna Cocok
1304.590 1304.590 28.962**
1261.277 45.046
 0,05  0,01
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
= Regresi sangat signifikan
Dari tabel hasil ANAVA di atas tampak bahwa harga Fhitung regresi =
28.962 > Ftabel (0,01) = 6,96. Dengan demikian dapat dikemukakan bahwa model
dugaan regresi tersebut adalah sangat signifikan. Selanjutnya hasil ANAVA
tersebut menunjukan bahwa nilai Fhitung Tuna Cocok sebesar = 0.543< Ftabel
(0,05) = 1,72 (di atas 0,05). Hal ini berarti bahwa garis persamaan regresi X2=
13,346 + 0,912 X1adalah linear.
Kualitas pelayanan (Y) atas kinerja (X1)
Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi kualitas pelayanan (Y) atas kinerja
(X1) hasil perhitungan dapat dilihat dalam tabel 6 sebagai berikut:
Tabel 6. ANAVA Untuk Uji Signifikansi
dan Linieritas Model Regresi X2 atas X1
Sumber Variasi dk
Total Reduksi
 0,05
Regresi (b|a)
1905.606 24.330**
Tuna Cocok
= Regresi sangat signifikan
= nonsignifikan = regresi linier
= derajat kebebesan
= Jumlah Kuadrat
= Rerata Jumlah Kuadrat
 0,01
Dari tabel hasil ANAVA di atas tampak bahwa harga Fhitung regresi = 24.330 >
Ftabel (0,01) = 6,96. Dengan demikian dapat dikemukakan bahwa model dugaan
regresi tersebut adalah sangat signifikan. Selanjutnya hasil ANAVA tersebut
menunjukan bahwa nilai Fhitung Tuna Cocok sebesar = 0.613< Ftabel (0,05) =
1,72 (di atas 0,05). Hal ini berarti bahwa garis persamaan regresi Y= 12,216 +
1, 102 X1adalah linear.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
d. Kualitas Pelayanan (Y) atas Kepemimpinan (X2)
Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi Kualitas Pelayanan (Y) atas
Kepemimpinan (X2) hasil perhitungan dapat dilihat dalam tabel 7 sebagai
Tabel 7. ANAVA Untuk Uji Signifikansi
dan Linieritas Model Regresi Y atas X2
Sumber Variasi dk JK
Total Reduksi 29 4098.667
Regresi (b|a)
1 2309.543 2309.543 36.145**
28 1789.124 63.897
Tuna Cocok
20 1588.457 79.423
8 200.667 26.083
= Regresi sangat signifikan
= nonsignifikan = regresi linier
= derajat kebebesan
= Jumlah Kuadrat
= Rerata Jumlah Kuadrat
 0,05  0,01
4,20 7,64
Dari tabel hasil ANAVA di atas tampak bahwa harga Fhitung regresi =
36.145 > Ftabel (0,01) =4,20. Dengan demikian dapat dikemukakan bahwa model
dugaan regresi tersebut adalah sangat signifikan. Dan ANAVA tersebut
menunjukan bahwa nilai Fhitung Tuna Cocok sebesar = 2.166< Ftabel (0,05) =
3,15 (di atas 0,05). Hal ini berarti bahwa garis persamaan regresi Y= 23,302 +
0,949X2.adalah linear.
Pengujian Model
Dari pengujian prasyarat analisis, terlihat bahwa hubungan variable
bebas dengan variable terikat adalah linear, galat baku taksiran variable
terikat terhadap variable bebas berdisbusi normal, dan varians variable
terikat berdasarkan variable bebas homogen. Dengan terpenuhi prasyarat
analisis, maka pengujian selanjutnya adalah pengujian model kausalitas yang
dihipotesiskan. Pengujian ini dilakukan untuk menguji apakah model yang
dihipotesiskan telah menjadi model final dalam penelitian ini.
Sebelum melakukan pengujian model, maka salah satu syarat yang
harus dipenuhi adalah adanya korelasi yang signifikan antara variabel yang
berkait. Dari analisis regresi sederhana untuk pengujian linearitas, telah
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
dihasilkan koefisien korelasi variable bebas dengan variable terikat. Koefisien
korelasi tersebut kemudian disusun dalam bentuk matriks sebagai berikut:
Tabel 8. Matriks Korelasi Sederhana Antar Variabel
Berdasarkan model kausalitas yang dibentuk secara teoritik, akan diperoleh
diagram jalur sebagai berikut:
Gambar 4. Model Hubungan Struktural Sesuai
dengan Hipotesis Penelitian
Dalam mencari koefisien jalur, pengujian jalur serta pengujian untuk
model tersebut, digunakan bantuan program SPSS 18.
Gambar 5
menunjukkan model yang dihipotesiskan dengan koefisien jalur.
Gambar 5. Model Hipotesis dengan Koefisien Jalur
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan dan sesuai model struktural seperti
gambar 4.6 bahwa semua jalur signifikan terhadap kinerja. Tabel.9
menyajikan rincian hasil perhitungan koefisien jalur.
Tabel 9. Koefisien Jalur Model Struktural Penelitian
ttabel ( )
KoefIsien P
Y X1
Y X2
= sangat signifikan
= signifikan
Pengujian Hipotesis
Uji Hipotesis Pertama
Hipotesis pertama menyatakan bahwa “kinerja sekolah (X1)
berpengaruh langsung terhadap Kepemimpinan (X2).
H0 : ρX2X1 ≤ 0
H1 : ρX2X1> 0
Hasil perhitungan koefisien jalur untuk model kausal yang
dihipotesiskan diperoleh nilai koefisien jalur ρX2X1 = 0,713 dengan thitung =
5,382 dan ttabel = 1,697 pada α = 0,05. Karena thitung> ttabel maka koefisien jalur
ini signifikan, maka H0 ditolak. Artinya, hipotesis pertama terbukti, bahwa
variabel kinerja sekolah berpengaruh langsung terhadap variabel kinerja.
Uji Hipotesis Kedua
Hipotesis kedua menyatakan bahwa “kinerja (X1) berpengaruh
langsung terhadap kualitas pelayanan (Y).
H0 : ρyX1≤ 0
H1 : ρXyX1> 0
Hasil perhitungan koefisien jalur untuk model kausal yang
dihipotesiskan diperoleh nilai koefisien jalur ρyX1 = 0,298 dengan thitung = 1,734
dan ttabel = 1,697 pada α = 0,05. Karena thitung> ttabel maka koefisien jalur ini
signifikan, maka H0 ditolak. Artinya, hipotesis kedua terbukti, bahwa variabel
kinerja sekolah berpengaruh langsung terhadap variabel kualitas pelayanan.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Uji Hipotesis Ketiga
Hipotesis ketiga menyatakan bahwa “kepemimpinan (X2)
berpengaruh langsung terhadap kualitas pelayanan (Y).
H0 : ρYX2 = 0
H1 : ρYX2> 0
Hasil perhitungan koefisien jalur untuk model kausal yang
dihipotesiskan diperoleh nilai koefisien jalur ρyX2 = 0,538 dengan thitung = 3,127
dan ttabel = 1,697 pada α = 0,05. Karena thitung> ttabel maka koefisien jalur ini
signifikan, maka H0 ditolak. Artinya, hipotesis ketiga terbukti, bahwa variabel
kinerja sekolah berpengaruh langsung terhadap variabel kinerja.
Pembahasan Penelitian
Pengaruh Kinerja Sekolah dengan Kepemimpinan Kepala Sekolah
Hipotesis pertama yang diajukan adalah “Terdapat pengaruhlangsung
kinerja sekolah terhadap kepemimpinan kepala sekolah”.
Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi linear sederhana antara pasangan
data kinerja (variabel X1) dengan kepemimpinan sekolah (variabel X2),
diketahui bahwa nilai koefisien regresi b yang diperoleh adalah sebesar 0.949
dan nilai konstanta a sebesar 23,302. Dengan demikian persamaan regresi
antara variabel kinerja sekolah terhadap kepemimpinan adalah Ŷ = 23,302+
0.949X1. Dan hasil perhitungan dinyatakan persamaan regresi pasangan data
antara kinerja sekolah terhadap kepemimpinan kepala sekolah adalah sangat
signifikan, karena Fhitung yang diperoleh lebih besar dari Ftabel (36.145> 7,64)
pada  = 0,01. Maka dari itu persamaan regresi Ŷ = 23,302+ 0.949X1.dapat
digunakan untuk menjelaskan dan mengambil kesimpulan lebih lanjut
mengenai pengaruhkinerja sekolah terhadap kepemimpinan kepala sekolah.
Hasil perhitungan juga menyebutkan bahwa persamaan regresi pasangan
data kinerja dengankepemimpinan adalah linear, karena Fhitung yang
diperoleh lebih kecil dari Ftabel (2,166 <3,15) pada  = 0,05.
Perhitungan koefisien korelasi sederhana terhadap pasangan data
variabel kinerja sekolah (X1) dengan variabel kepemimpinan kepala sekolah
(X2), menghasilkan harga koefisien korelasi ry1 sebesar 0,751. Angka ini
mengisyaratkan bahwa hubungan ataupun pengaruh kinerja terhadap
variabel kepemimpinan kepala sekolah adalah positif. Hal ini terbukti
setelah dilakukan pengujian dengan menggunakan analisis uji “t”. Hasil
analisis uji “t” diperoleh besaran thitung sebesar 6,012. Jika besaran ini
dikonsultasikan dengan besaran ttabel (0.01) diperoleh besaran sebesar 2,630
yang menunjukkan bahwa koefisien korelasi antara kinerja sekolah (variabel
X2) dengan kualitas pelayanan (variabel Y) sangat signifikan.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Pengaruh Kinerja sekolah dengan Kualitas pelayanan
Hipotesis kedua yang diajukan adalah “Terdapat pengaruhlangsung
kinerja sekolahterhadapkualitas pelayanan ”.
Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi linear sederhana antara pasangan
data kinerja sekolah (variabel X1) dengan kualitas pelayanan (variabel Y),
diketahui bahwa nilai koefisien regresi b yang diperoleh adalah sebesar 1.102
dan nilai konstanta a sebesar 12,216. Dengan demikian persamaan regresi
antara variabel kinerja sekolah dengan kualitas pelayanan adalah Ŷ =
12,216 + 1.102 X1. Dan hasil perhitungan dinyatakan persamaan regresi
pasangan data antara kinerja sekolah dengan Kualitas pelayanan adalah
sangat signifikan, karena Fhitung yang diperoleh lebih besar dari Ftabel (24.330>
7,06) pada  = 0,01. Maka dari itu persamaan regresi Ŷ = 12,216 + 1.102 X1
dapat digunakan untuk menjelaskan dan mengambil kesimpulan lebih lanjut
mengenai pengaruh kinerja sekolah dengan kualitas pelayanan. Hasil
perhitungan juga menyebutkan bahwa persamaan regresi pasangan data
antara kinerja sekolah dengan kualitas pelayanan adalah linear, karena Fhitung
yang diperoleh lebih kecil dari Ftabel (0,613 < 1,94) pada  = 0,05.
Perhitungan koefisien korelasi sederhana terhadap pasangan data
variabel kinerja sekolah (X2) dengan variabel kualitas pelayanan (Y),
menghasilkan harga koefisien korelasi ry1 sebesar 0,298. Angka ini
mengisyaratkan bahwa hubungan ataupun pengaruh kinerja sekolahterhadap
variabel kualitas pelayanan adalah positif. Hal ini terbukti setelah dilakukan
pengujian dengan menggunakan analisis uji “t”. Hasil analisis uji “t” diperoleh
besaran thitung sebesar 1,734. Jika besaran ini dikonsultasikan dengan besaran
ttabel (0.05) diperoleh besaran sebesar 1,67 yang menunjukkan bahwa koefisien
korelasi antara Kinerja sekolah (variabel X2) dengan kualitas pelayanan
(variabel Y) sangat signifikan.
Pengaruh Kepemimpinan dengan Kualitas pelayanan
Hipotesis kedua yang diajukan adalah “Terdapat pengaruhlangsung
kepemimpinan terhadapkualitas pelayanan ”.
Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi linear sederhana antara pasangan
data kepemimpinan sekolah (variabel X2) dengan kualitas pelayanan
(variabel Y), diketahui bahwa nilai koefisien regresi b yang diperoleh adalah
sebesar 0.538kepemimpinan sekolah dengan kualitas pelayanan adalah Ŷ =
23,302 + 0,949X2. Dan hasil perhitungan dinyatakan persamaan regresi
pasangan data antara kinerja sekolah dengan Kualitas pelayanan adalah
sangat signifikan, karena Fhitung yang diperoleh lebih besar dari Ftabel (36.145>
7,06) pada  = 0,01. Maka dari itu persamaan regresi Ŷ = 23,302 + 0,949X2
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
dapat digunakan untuk menjelaskan dan mengambil kesimpulan lebih lanjut
mengenai penagruhkepemimpinan sekolah dengan kualitas pelayanan. Hasil
perhitungan juga menyebutkan bahwa persamaan regresi pasangan data
antara kepemimpinan sekolah dengan kualitas pelayanan adalah linear,
karena Fhitung yang diperoleh lebih kecil dari Ftabel (2.166<2,23) pada  = 0,01.
Perhitungan koefisien korelasi sederhana terhadap pasangan data
variabel kepemimpinan sekolah (X2) dengan variabel kualitas pelayanan (Y),
menghasilkan harga koefisien korelasi ry2 sebesar 0,538. Angka ini
mengisyaratkan bahwa hubungan ataupun pengaruh kepemimpinan
sekolahterhadap variabel kualitas pelayanan adalah positif. Hal ini terbukti
setelah dilakukan pengujian dengan menggunakan analisis uji “t”. Hasil
analisis uji “t” diperoleh besaran thitung sebesar 3,127. Jika besaran ini
dikonsultasikan dengan besaran ttabel (0.01) diperoleh besaran sebesar 2,630
yang menunjukkan bahwa koefisien korelasi antara kepemimpinan (variabel
X2) dengan kualitas pelayanan (variabel Y) sangat signifikan.
Keterbatasan Penelitian
Dalam melakukan penelitian ini berbagai upaya telah dilakukan untuk
menghindari hal-hal yang dapat mengurangi keakuratan hasil penelitian ini,
namun diakui terdapat banyak hal yang menjadi keterbatasan dan
kelemahan yang tidak dapat dikendalikan, antara lain : 1) dalam mengisi
instrumen penelitian ada kemungkinan responden memilih alternatif pilihan
yang ideal menurut pendapatnya, sehingga data yang diperoleh kurang dapat
mencerminkan keadaan yang sebenarnya; 2) tidak ada kontrol terhadap
variabel-variabel lainnya yang juga berhubungan dengan kualitas pelayanan ,
sehingga ada kemungkinan hubungan antara variabel penelitian ini
disebabkan oleh variabel lainnya yang lebih dominan; 3) penelitian ini hanya
dilakukan terhadap pegawai tertentu dengan ukuran sampel sangat terbatas,
maka generalisasinya pun juga terbatas pada populasi yang karakteristiknya
sama dengan penelitian yang dilakukan.
Berdasarkan hasil dan pembahasan di atas dapat disimpulkan, bahwa
untuk meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan sekolah, melalui peningkatkan
kinerja sekolah dan peningkatan kepemimpinan kepala sekolah. Artinya,
dengan perencanaan kinerja sekolah yang baik, dan kepemimpinan kepala
sekolah yang visioner akan melahirkan kualitas pelayanan yang memberi
kepuasan kepada konsumen.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
As'ad, Mohammad. (2004). Psikologi Industr. Yogyakarta: Liberty.
Bernardin, H.J. dan J.E.A. Russell. (1999). Human Resource Management.
Singapore: MacGraw Hill, Inc..
Cox, Danny & John Hoover. (2002). Leadership when the Heat`s on (New
York: McGraw-Hill.
Edward, Sallis. (1993).Total Quality Management In Education.
Biddles Ltd.
Griffin & Nix. (1991).Educational Assesment and Reporting. Sydney: Harcount
Brace Jovanovich, Publisher.
Hasbullah. (2006). Otonomi Pendidikan. PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta.
Lindsay, William M. and Joseph A. Petrick. (1997).Total Quality and
organization Development. U.S.A: St. Lucie Press..
Malcom, Taylor And Harry H. Hosker. (1992). Quality Assurance
Building Desing. England:Logman Group Ltd.
Nawawi, Hadari. (2000). Manajemen
University Press.
Strategik.Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada
Permendiknas Nomor 13 Tahun 2007. Standar Kompetensi Kepala Sekolah.
Prawirosentono, Suyadi. (1999). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia,
Kebijakan Kinerja Karyawan. Yogyakarta: BPFE.
Rohiat. (2008). Manajemen Sekolah: Teori Dasar dan Praktik. Bandung : PT.
Refika Aditama.
Rothwell, William J. (1992). Mastering Instructional Design Process, a
Systematic Approach. San Fancisco: Jossey Bass Publisher.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Sutopo dan Adi Suryanto. (2003). Pelayanan Prima, Lembaga Administrasi
Negara. Jakarta.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
(Video Conference sebagai Media Komunikasi
dan Informasi Mahasiswa)
Reni Nuraeni
Institute of Management Telkom, Bandung, Indonesia
[email protected]
The education needs of communication media in supporting the
teaching and learning process, using the communication media of
communication between educators and students are expected to be
achieved or realized effective communication. Effective
communication is happening in the learning process is the arrival of
a message or learning material as expected of educators. Currently
used as communication media alternative learning strategies, one
video conferencing communication media are now starting to be
maximized. Many of the benefits of learning media video
conference, apart from the efficiency of technological innovation is
generated by using this communication medium. Learning to use
teleconference participants even though sources with different
places and separated a distance but the communication process
occurs and the essence of learning still available.
Keywords: media, video conferencing, communication process
Perkembangan teknologi saat ini banyak memberikan manfaat salah
satunya adalah kemudahan manusia dalam berkomunikasi dan mendapatkan
informasi. Dalam hal berinteraksi dan berkomunikasi internet menjadikan
manusia dari berbagai belahan dunia dapat berkomunikasi tanpa batas jarak
dan waktu, hadirnya internet juga memudahkan manusia dalam hal
mengakses berbagai informasi yang dibutuhkan. Hampir semua bidang
bidang mendapatkan manfaat dari hadirnya internet.
Salah satu bidang yang mendapatkan dampak yang cukup berarti dari
perkembangan teknologi adalah bidang pendidikan, dimana pada dasarnya
pendidikan merupakan suatu proses komunikasi dan informasi dari pendidik
kepada peserta didik yang berisi informasi-informasi pendidikan yang
memiliki unsur-unsur pendidik sebagai sumber informasi, media sebagai
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
media penyajian ide, gagasan, materi pendidikan serta peserta didik itu
sendiri. ( diakses tanggal 1 Mei 2012).
Insan-insan pendidikan yang membutuhkan informasi dapat dengan
mudah memperoleh dan mengakses informasi yang dibutuhkan dalam proses
pembelajaran. Dalam dunia pendidikan, perkembangan teknologi digunakan
selain sebagai media informasi yang dibutuhkan pada proses belajar dan juga
digunakan sebagai media berkomunikasi antara guru dengan murid,
mahasiswa dengan dosen, institusi pendidikan dengan institusi pendidikan,
Dalam setiap komunikasi apapun, bentuk medianya merupakan
unsur yang sangat penting untuk diperhatikan, karena melalui media, pesan
dari komunikator ke komunikan dapat tersalurkan.
Media pembelajaran adalah sarana fisik untuk menyampaikan
isi/materi pembelajaran seperti : buku, film, video dan sebagainya. Kemudian
menurut National Education Associaton (1969) mengungkapkan bahwa
media pembelajaran adalah sarana komunikasi dalam bentuk cetak maupun
tanggal 2 Mei 2012)
Media pembelajaran sebagai sarana menyampaikan pesan atau
berkomunikasi saat ini yang sudah mulai banyak dipergunakan perguruan
tinggi di Indonesia adalah teleconference. Pilihan media teknologi mutakhir
berupa media berbasis telekomunikasi (misal teleconference) dan media
berbasis mikroprosesor (misal: permainan komputer dan hypermedia).
( diakses tanggal 2 Mei 2012).
Teleconference merupakan angin segar di dunia pendidikan dan
apabila digunakan, maka efisiensi dalam beberapa hal dapat dicapai, di
antaranya dapat berkomunikasi dengan pihak lain manakala dibutuhkan
tanpa harus berada di lokasi yang sama. Teleconference dalam dunia
pendidikan bisa dimanfaatkan untuk aktivitas pembelajaran, contohnya mulai
dari kuliah umum, diskusi dengan perguruan tinggi dari maupun dalam,
seminar untuk bertukar informasi, dll. Teleconference adalah teknologi
komunikasi yang memungkinkan seseorang dari daerah lain maupun dari
negara lain untuk saling bertatap muka langsung melalui komputer dan
melakukan komunikasi dan interaksi. (Kusyawatno, 2003 : 7)
Pemanfaatan Fasilitas video conference ini bagi dunia pendidikan di
Indonesia sudah didukung dengan pemberian fasilitas kepada institusi
pendidikan negeri oleh Dikti Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Video conference merupakan suatu teknologi telekomunikasi
interaktif yang memungkinkan dua lokasi atau lebih untuk berinteraksi lewat
video dan audio secara simultan. Perguruan Tinggi Negeri dapat bergabung
dengan jaringan INHERENT yang disediakan Dikti Departemen Pendidikan
Nasional Indonesia yang mendukung Perguruan Tinggi Negeri dengan
memberikan fasilitas video conference.
Perguruan Tinggi Negeri di Indonesia telah berada di suatu jaringan
komputer yang disediakan oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi (Dikti)
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia atas rumusan rancangan
bersama dari Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Universitas Indonesia (UI),
Universitas Gajah Mada (UGM) dan Institut Teknologi Surabaya (ITS).
Kemudian setelah dilaksanakan tender, maka terpilih PT Telkom sebagai
penyedia infrastruktur jaringan, serta PT Multipolar sebagai Partner dari
( diakses tanggal 2 Mei2012)
Tabel 1. Implementasi penggunaan dan pemanfaatan dari video conference
perguruan-perguruan tinggi negeri
Video Conference Seminar, contohnya: Seminar Teknologi Grid Computing
yang diselenggarakan oleh Sun Microsystem bekerjasama dengan
Universitas Indonesia, disaksikan oleh empat universitas (ITB, Unibraw,
Aktivitas Video Conference untuk rapat antara Dikti dengan Universitas
penerima Hibah K-1
08 Mei 2007, Launching program CMDG dan GLAD yang dilakukan oleh ITB
23-02-2009, 10:00-12:00: GDLN UI dan FE UI akan mengadakan kembali
studium generale bidang manajemen dengan topik Marketing in Crisis,
pembicara: Rhenald Kasali, PhD.
25-02-2009, 15.00-16.00: Dikti bekerjasama dengan British Council akan
mengadakan widya telewicara tentang perguruan tinggi di UK dalam 4 sesi.
Sesi keempat adalah tentang pendidikan Tourism & Hospitalityrelated
25-02-2009, 15.00-16.00: Dikti bekerjasama dengan British Council akan
mengadakan widya telewicara tentang perguruan tinggi di UK dalam 4sesi.
Sesi keempat adalah tentang pendidikan Tourism & Hospitality related
14-10-2008, 09:00-12:00: UGM: Ekspose dan Diskusi Mengembangkan Kerja
Sama Indonesia- Swedia dalam Pemanfaatan Limbah (Waste Refinery),
program pemanfaatan limbah ini digagas oleh jurusan Teknik Kimia UGM
bekerja sama dengan University of Boras dan Boras Municipality
(Pemerintah Boras), Swedia
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Video-Conference ALSA Universitas Indonesia dengan ALSA Waseda
University, Jepang
Pendidikan hukum tingkat sarjana (S1) di FHUI telah memasuki ke
tingkatyang lebih tinggi dengan penggunaan fasilitas Video Conference yang
tersedia di Ruang Multimedia Soemadipradja & Taher.
Asian Law Student Association (ALSA) Komite Lokal Universitas Indonesia
yang pertama kali menyelenggarakan Video Conference dengan ALSA
Waseda University, Jepang.
23-02-2009, 10:00-12:00: GDLN UI dan FE UI akan mengadakan kembali
studium generale bidang manajemen dengan topik Marketing in Crisis,
pembicara: Rhenald Kasali, PhD.
Sumber: implementasi-videoconference/,diaksestanggal 2Mei2012
Melihat tabel di atas perguruan tinggi di Indonesia sudah mulai
banyak yang memanfaatkan teleconference sebagai sarana berkomunikasi
dan informasi sebagai sumber pembelajaran yang dibutuhkan mahasiswa dan
institusi pendidikan.
Media adalah saluran penyampaian pesan dalam komunikasi antara
umat manusia. (2009 : 204). Sesuai dengan definisi di atas maka media
komunikasi adalah sarana yang dipergunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi
sama dengan lainnya. Dalam proses pembelajaran di dunia pendidikan,
media komunikasi dijadikan sarana sebagai sarana mendapatkan informasi
apapun yang dapat menambah wawasan dan pengetahuan mahasiswa.
Media komunikasi video conference merupakan media pembelajaran
yang saat ini banyak dipergunakan institusi pendidikan yang ada di Indonesia,
teleconference digunakan untuk kegiatan kuliah umum. Pada kegiatan kuliah
umum dengan menghadirkan pakar/ahli yang diperlukan informasinya sesuai
dengan informasi yang dibutuhkan.
Fasilitas teleconference, narasumber yang berbeda lokasi dan waktu
bisa dapat berkomunikasi dengan para peserta teleconference. Pertukaran
informasi dilihat dari proses terjadinya komunikasi peserta yang terlibat
dalam teleconference. Menurut Effendi (dalam Ruslan, 2006 : 81) Komunikasi
berasal dari bahasa latin : communicatio yang berarti “pemberitahuan” atau
“pertukaran pikiran”. Dengan demikian secara garis besar dalam suatu proses
komunikasi harus terdapat unsur-unsur kesamaan makna agar terjadi suatu
pertukaran pikiran atau pengertian, antara komunikator dan komunikan.
Dalam proses pembelajaran menggunakan teleconference
komunikasi yang terjadi jika lihat dari Model komunikasi David K. Berlo
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
(dalam Dewi 2009 : 3, yang dikutip dalam Cangara,2004), Berlo menyebutkan
unsur utama komunikasi terdiri atas SMCR, yakni Source (sumber atau
pengirim), Message (pesan atau informasi), Channel (saluran dan media),
dan Receiver (penerima). Disamping itu terdapat 3 unsur lain, yaitu Feedback
(tanggapan balik), efek dan lingkungan.
Gambar 1. Model Komunikasi Berlo
Sumber : Dewi,2009, Komunikasi Bisnis hal 3
Semua peristiwa komunikasi akan melibatkan sumber sebagai
pengirim informasi. Sumber bisa terdiri dari satu orang atau kelompok,
misalnya partai, organisasi, atau lembaga. Sumber sering disebut
komunikator, source, sender atau encoder. Pada proses pembelajaran
menggunakan teleconference yang dimaksud sumber disini jelas adalah pakar
akademisi/praktisi yang dibutuhkan informasi atau pengetahuannya sesuai
yang dibutuhkan mahasiswa. Pakar praktisi/akademisi bisa berasal dari
dalam/luar negeri dapat dijadikan narasumber dalam kuliah umum tetapi
dipastikan narasumber mempunyai fasilitas video conference sehingga akan
terjadi proses komunikasi yang diharapkan.
Pesan adalah sesuatu (pengetahuan, hiburan, informasi, nasehat,
atau propaganda) yang disampaikan pengirim kepada penerima. Pesan dapat
disampaikan dengan cara tatap muka atau melalui media komunikasi. Pesan
sering disebut message, content, atau information. Dalam kegiatan kuliah
umum, pesan ini dimaksudkan dengan materi atau isi pembicaraan yang
didiskusikan antara narasumber dan peserta teleconference.
Saluran dan Media
Saluran komunikasi terdiri atas komunikasi lisan, tertulis, dan
elektronik. Media yang dimaksud disini adalah alat atau sarana yang
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
digunakan untuk memindahkan pesan dari pengirim kepada penerima. Pada
kegiatan kuliah umum melalui teleconference, video teleconference dijadikan
sebagai media komunikasi yang mampu menjembatani jarak atau tempat
antara narasumber dan peserta teleconference sehingga menjadikan proses
transformasi informasi seakan tidak berbeda dengan perkuliahan tatap muka
di kelas.
Penerima adalah pihak yang menjadi sasaran pesan yang dikirim oleh
pengirim. Penerima bisa terdiri dari satu orang atau kelompok. Penerima
merupakan elemen penting dalam proses komunikasi karena menjadi
sasaran dalam suatu komunikasi. Penerima sering disebut dengan berbagai
istilah, antara lain khalayak, sasaran, komunikan, audiens atau receiver.
Dalam proses kegiatan kuliah umum yang menggunakan teleconference
penerima ini adalah kelompok mahasiswa yang disiapkan menerima
informasi jadi komunikasi yang digunakan juga komunikasi kelompok.
Komunikasi kelompok adalah komunikasi yang terjadi dalam
sejumlah orang yang memiliki tujuan yang sama, yang sebagaiman dijelaskan
oleh Michael Burgoon (1978: 224 dalam Wiryanto, 2004:46), ia
mendefinisikan komunikasi kelompok sebagai berikut:
Group communication is the face to face interaction of three or
more individuals, for a recognized purpose such as information
sharing, self maintainance, or problem solving, such that the
members are able to recall personal characteristics of the other
members accurately (komunikasi kelompok adalah interaksi
secara tatap muka atara tiga orang atau lebih,dengan tujuan
yang telah diketahui, seperti berbagi informasi, menjaga diri,
pemecahan masalah, yang mana anggota – anggotanya dapat
mengingat karakteristik pribadi anggota – anggota yang lain
secara tepat).
Umpan balik
Umpan balik merupakan respon atau reaksi yang diberikan oleh
penerima. Umpan balik bisa berupa data, pendapat, komentar atau saran.
Pada kegiatan teleconference walaupun narasumber dan penerima pesan
berbeda tempat dan terpisahkan oleh jarak tapi dalam proses komunikasinya
hampir sama dengan tatap muka dimana pertanyaan dapat langsung dijawab
dan juga dapat mendiskusikan sesuatu topik dan langsung akan didapatkan
hasilnya ketika kegiatan teleconference selesai dilaksanakan. kegiatan
teleconference merupakan kegiatan komunikasi dua arah (interaktif) yang
terjadi antara peserta dan narasumber teleconference.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Efek atau pengaruh merupakan perbedaan antara apa yang
dipikirkan, dirasakan dan dilakukan oleh penerima sebelum dan sesudah
menerima pesan. Pengaruh bisa terjadi dalam bentuk perubahan
pengetahuan (knowledge), sikap (attitude), dan perilaku (behavior). Setelah
dilakukan proses komunikasi dan transformasi ilmu pengetahuan, mahasiswa
akan mendapatkan informasi yang dibutuhkan atau wawasan baru setelah
mengikuti kegiatan teleconference. Bertambahnya ilmu pengetahuan dapat
terjadi setelah narasumber dan peserta melakukan diskusi.
Lingkungan atau situasi adalah faktor – faktor tertentu yang dapat
mempengaruhi jalannya komunikasi. Lingkungan dapat berupa :
a. Lingkungan fisik (misalnya letak geografis dan jarak)
b. Lingkungan sosial budaya (misalnya bahasa, adat – istiadat, dan status
c. Lingkungan psikologis (pertimbangan kejiwaan)
d. Dimensi waktu (misalnya musim, pagi/siang/malam).
Setiap unsur tersebut saling bergantung satu sama lain dan memiliki
peran penting dalam membangun proses komunikasi, sehingga terjadi
komunikasi yang efektif.
Pada kegiatan teleconference Dalam aspek penyampaian materi yang
dibicarakan hal yang harus diperhatikan adalah bahasa. Masalah bahasa
merupakan masalah yang penting dalam proses dimengertinya pesan yang
disampaikan karena jika bahasa yang dipergunakan narasumber yang tidak
dimengerti oleh peserta, maksud pesan dalam komunikasi ini tidak akan
tersampaikan. Hal ini biasanya jika narasumber atau dosen yang memberikan
materi berasal dari luar negeri, maka sebelum dilakukan teleconference
kemampuan bahasa peserta harus dipersiapkan terlebih dahulu supaya
dalam terjadinya proses komunikasi yang efektif
Teleconference merupakan media komunikasi alternatif dalam
proses pembelajaran karena perbedaan jarak, tempat dan waktu tidak
dijadikan hambatan dalam proses belajar dan mendapatkan pengetahuan.
1. Kelebihan teleconference
a. Meningkatkan produktivitas karena kemampuan VTC untuk berbagi
dokumen, ide, atau gambar dengan mudah
b. Menghemat biaya
c. Menghemat waktu
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
2. Kekurangan teleconference
a. Harga masih terbilang mahal untuk memiliki sehingga hanya perusahaan
organisasi tertentu yang mempunyai cukup dana dan sangat
membutuhkan memiliki video konferensi
b. Alat-alat video konferensi sulit untuk didapat dan dalam proses
( diakses tanggal 1 Mei 2012)
Walaupun pada awalnya biaya pengadaan teknologi teleconference
ini cukup mahal, tapi setelah itu pihakpenyelenggara dalam melakukan
efisiensi biaya karena Teleconference bisa dijadikan alternatif media
pembelajaran tanpaharus mengeluarkan biaya/ongkos mendatangkan
narasumber atau pakar yang dibutuhkan baik pada saat penyelenggaraan
kuliah umum, seminar, dll.
Dewi, Sutrisna. (2007). Komunikasi Bisnis. Yogyakarta: Andi.
Nova, Firsan. (2009). Crisis Public Relation. Jakarta: Grasindo
Hamalik, O. (1994). Media Pendidikan. cetakan ke-7. Bandung: PT. CitraAditya
Kuswayatno, Lia. (2006). Mahir Berkomunikasi. Jakarta: Grafindo Media
Ruslan, Rosady. (2006). Manajemen Public Relations dan Media Komunikasi.
Jakarta : PT. Raja Grafindo Persada.
Wiryanto. 2004. Pengantar Ilmu Komunikasi. Jakarta: Grasindo.