2007 - BRGM

Transcription

2007 - BRGM
14:26
Page 1
Head Office
Tour Mirabeau
39-43, quai André-Citroën
75739 Paris Cedex 15 - France
Tél. : (33) 1 40 58 89 00
Fax : (33) 1 40 58 89 33
ANNUAL REPORT 2007
1/08/08
Scientific and
Technical Centre
3, avenue Claude-Guillemin
BP 36009
45060 Orléans Cedex 2 - France
Tél. : (33) 2 38 64 34 34
Fax : (33) 2 38 64 35 18
Reference Centre
Maison de la Géologie
77, rue Claude-Bernard
75005 Paris - France
Tél. : 0 820 90 27 46 (0,14 e/min)
Fax : (33) 1 43 36 76 55
www.brgm.fr
BRGM COMMUNICATION
AND PUBLICATIONS DIVISION
GRAPHIC DESIGN AND PRODUCTION:
EFIL (33) 2 47 47 03 20 / WWW.EFIL.FR
PHOTO CREDITS: [email protected]É
PRINTING: MAME, TOURS
ISBN 978-2-7159-2448-2
BRGM
EXE_COUV_ANG_1807.qxp
annual report
2007
1/08/08
14:26
Page 2
CONTENTS
EXE_COUV_ANG_1807.qxp
1
Profile
2
Message from the Chairman
4
BRGM Governance
6
2007 Highlights
8
Perspectives
12
2007 accounts
18
In the French regions
20
Geology
24
Mineral Resources
28
Geothermal Energy
32
Geological Storage of CO2
36
Water
40
Post-mining
44
Natural Risks
48
Contaminated Land & Waste Management
52
Metrology
56
Information Systems
60
In-house professional environment
64
The BRGM Group
68
Scientific Papers
72
Publications and Communication
Sediment analysis to characterise a carbonated
mineral habit (Taoudeni Basin - Mauritania).
© BRGM [email protected]é - O. Serrano
Profile
The BRGM is a public institution
producing reference studies in
Earth Science applications for
the management of surface and
subsurface resources and risks.
Two objectives
> Understanding geological processes, developing
new methodologies and techniques and producing
and disseminating relevant high-quality data.
> Providing necessary tools to support surface
and subsurface studies and resource management,
risk and pollution prevention and climate change
policies.
Four missions
> Scientific research
> Support to public policy development
> International cooperation and development
assistance
> Mine safety and risk prevention
1008
staff
including over
600 engineers
and researchers
Ten topic areas
> Geology
> Mineral resources
> Geothermal energy
> Geological storage of CO2
> Water
> Post-mining
> Natural risks
> Contaminated land and waste management
> Metrology
> Information systems
Legal Status
The BRGM is a public industrial and commercial
establishment working under the joint supervision
of the Ministry of Research and Higher Education
and the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable
Development and Planning.
+20 %
in turnover
in 2007
120
scientific
papers
in Class A
international
journals
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 01
Message from the Chairman
RISING TO THE CHALLENGES
OF THE 21 ST CENTURY
The geosciences will be playing an increasingly decisive role
in meeting the challenges that humanity has to face as climate
changes take hold, as fossil fuel resources decline and mineral
resources become scarcer. Given the scale of these challenges, the
BRGM can only applaud the wealth of exchanges and debates that
took place during the Grenelle Environment Forum. The conclusions
of this nation-wide consultation have not only confirmed the
relevance of our priority topic areas - contributions to the safety
of underground CO2 storage, geothermal energy development,
groundwater monitoring, coastal erosion problems - but are also
encouraging us to speed up the pace of planned changes and
redeployments that are already well under way in some of our
departments.
The BRGM has become a hub of French research in the
geosciences, and we are also pursuing our partnership policy with
universities, local and central government authorities and agencies,
and with European and international cooperation programmes.
The mineral resources sector is a case in point, and we poised are
to scale up our efforts in this field. We are already involved in a great
many contract-based programmes, with the European Union, the
World Bank, or with companies such as Total, Mitsubishi, Areva and
Eramet. We are also contributing to the development of new
multilateral mechanisms, especially those geared to furthering
knowledge on resources in Africa. We will be paying close attention
to international negotiations on the new rules of governance that
must be implemented in a context of sustained price rises and
increasing concentration of business activity.
1
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 02
2
3
Concerning information systems, and data interoperability in
particular, the BRGM had already anticipated the social demands
that were clearly expressed during the Grenelle Environment Forum.
One of our objectives is to guarantee transparent access for all
audiences (central and local government policy-makers, industries
and the general public) to all available georeferenced information
produced by the BRGM or other organisations. Efforts to this end are
being undertaken with many different scientific and institutional
partners, including the INRIA, DGME, IGN, IFEN and ADEME. In France,
the BRGM is one of the key organisations involved in transposing the
European INSPIRE Directive.
The BRGM has become a reference institution in the field of
groundwater. For the purpose of implementing the EU Water
Framework Directive, we are setting up a piezometric monitoring
network across France on request from the Ministry of Ecology’s
Water Directorate, the Water Agencies and the new Water and
Aquatic Habitats Office (ONEMA). In parallel, we are studying climate
change impacts on the quality of underground water reserves and on
water table replenishment. We recently completed a three-year
contract with Saudi Arabia, where the objective was to assess the
quality and usable resources of the country’s deep aquifers.
2007 also saw the phasing-in of the post-mining activities which
the BRGM, on request from the government, was dissolved to take
over once the state mining company, Charbonnages de France,
was wound up on 1 January 2008. Activities within the Mine Safety
and Risk Prevention Department (DPSM), which we established for this
purpose, have grown rapidly, and about a hundred staff members
4
5
6
7
“
The Grenelle
Environment Forum
has confirmed
the relevance of our
priority topic areas.
”
Philippe Vesseron
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
were recruited to the BRGM to fulfil this new role, mainly with the
four Territorial Post-Mining Units (UTAM). These structural changes
account for a quarter of the exceptionally high rate of growth in
BRGM turnover in 2007 (+20.8%), which was essentially due to
strong demand, both in France and abroad, for our services in
practically all of our topic areas. Resources from research contracts
increased by 31.6%, while our public service and international
activities also grew, by 25.1% and 51.6% respectively.
Divisions
1_Ch. Fouillac
Research Director
2_L. Beroud
Public Services Director
3_J.-C. Guillaneau
International Affairs Director
The BRGM’s ISO 9001 Certification, covering all of our activities
and premises, has been renewed for three years. In future, we will
continue to simplify our operating mechanisms as we work towards
the ISO 14001 standard.
4_M. Bouilleau
Human Resources Director
5_R. Guérillon
Secretary-General
To conduct all these activities, we give particular emphasis to
sourcing new skills, and in 2007, the BRGM again recruited heavily
among younger people. In this respect, like all other geoscience
establishments in France and elsewhere, we are increasingly
confronted with the need to match skills to new requirements.
Developing initial and continuing training is of paramount
importance in rising to the challenges of the future.
6_P.-L. Kircher
Financial Director
7_G. Lehideux-Vernimmen
Communication and Publications Director
8_F. Le Lann
Production, Innovation and Quality
Director
9_J. Varet
Philippe Vesseron
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Forward Studies and Assessments Director
10_J.-M. Verdier
Accounting Division Director
François Démarcq >
Delegate CEO
from 8 October 2007
Didier Houssin
8
9
10
Delegate CEO
up to 16 July 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 03
BRGM Governance
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE
31 December 2007
31 December 2007
Chairman of the BRGM Board of Directors
Philippe Vesseron
Government Commissioner
Benoît Foret
MINISTRY REPRESENTATIVES FOR:
Research
Jean-Francois Stephan, Director of the Department for Earth Sciences
and Sciences of the Universe, the Geo-environment, Aeronautics,
Transport and Space (Ministry for Higher Education and Research)
Foreign and European Affairs
Odile Roussel, Deputy Director for the Environment (Ministry of
Foreign and European Affairs)
Cooperation
Sandrine Boucher, Deputy Director for sectoral policies and the
Millennium Objectives for Development (Ministry of Foreign and
European Affairs)
Environment
Laurent Michel, Director for Pollution and Risk Prevention, delegated
to Major Risks (Ministry of Ecologie and Sustainable Development and
Planning*)
Economy
Yvon Ollivier, Inspector-General for the Treasury
(Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Employment)
Budget
Patrick Vincent, Budget Directorate, Office 3BEPII
(Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Employment)
Industry
Francois Raymond, Deputy Director for Mining and Raw Materials –
DGEMP/DIREM (Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development and
Planning)
* Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Planning
(MEEDDAT) as from March 2008.
MEMBERS SELECTED FOR THEIR PARTICULAR EXPERTISE:
Jean-Pierre Brun, Professor at the University of Rennes –
Geosciences Faculty
Robert Brunck, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Compagnie
Générale de Géophysique – CGG - VERITAS
Pierre Jacquet, Executive Director and Chief Economist, French
Development Agency
Jean Jouzel, Chairman of the Paul Emile Victor Polar Institute and
Director of the Pierre Simon Laplace Institute
BRGM STAFF REPRESENTATIVES:
Robert Fabriol
Jocelyne Marpeaux
Michel Morio
Daniel Raucoules
Florence Jaudin
Alain Longet
AUDITORS
Jean-Pierre Morelle
Anne Cazala
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 04
Chairman
François Scheer
Ambassador for France
AREVA
Odile Roussel, Deputy Director for the Environment,
(Ministry for Foreign and European Affairs, Department
of Economic and Financial Affairs)
Nicolas Prego, MINEFI/DGPTE
Department for Bilateral Relations and International Business
Development - International Business Development Project Assistance Office
Alain Henry, Director, Infrastructure and Urban Development
Department - AFD
M. Paulo de SA, Mining Department - IBRD (World Bank Group)
Henri Martin, Expert, DG Development, European Commission
Mme Dominique Campana, Director, International Affairs ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and Energy
Management)
Guy Fradin, Director-General - Seine-Normandy water Agency
Bruno Weymuller, Director Strategy and Risk Assessment TOTAL
NATIONAL PUBLIC SERVICES
STEERING COMMITTEE
31 December 2007
Representing the Ministry for the Economy, Finance
and Employment
The Director for Regional Activities, Quality and
Industrial Safety
Representing the Ministry for Higher Education
and Research
The Director-general for Research and Innovation
Representing the Ministry for Ecology and Sustainable
Development and Planning
The Director for Energy and Mineral Resources
The Director for Pollution and Risk Prevention
The Director for Water Resources
The Director for Nature and Landscapes
The Director-General for Road Networks
The Director for Scientific and Technical Research
and Facilitation
The Director-General for the Sea and Transport
Representing the Ministry for the Interior and Overseas
and Local Authorities
The Director for Civil Defence and Security
Representing the Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries
The Director-General for Forests and Rural Affairs
Representing the Ministry for Health, Youth and Sport
The Director-General for Health
Representing the Ministry for Culture and Communication
The Director for Architecture and Heritage
The Chairman of the BRGM Scientific Committee
The Chairman of the BRGM
OPERATIONAL DEPARTMENTS
AUDITING COMMITTEE
31 December 2007
Chairman
Yvon Ollivier
Vice Chairman
Jacques Bayle
GEOLOGY
C. Truffert
• Mantle rock and reservoirs
• Sedimentary basins
• Bedrock and orogens
• Maps and reference documents
MINERAL RESOURCES
J. Testard
François Raymond, DGEMP
Deputy Director for Mining and Raw Materials, DIREM
Nicolas Ragache, Ministry for the Budget, Government
accounts and the Civil Service, Budget Directorate
Representing BRGM personnel
Robert Fabriol
Michel Morio
Government Commissioner
Benoit Foret
General Economic and Financial Auditor
Anne Cazala
• Metallogenesis and synopses
• Data processing and development
• Economics, intelligence and sustainable development
• Post-mining regulations and safety
PLANNING AND NATURAL RISKS
H. Modaressi
• Seismic risks
• Subsurface and cavity risks
• Ground instability risks
• Coastal risks
WATER
D. Pennequin
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
31 December 2007
Chairman
Thierry Chambolle, Member of the Academy of Technology (Paris)
Sierd Cloetingh, Scientific Director - Netherlands Research Centre
for Integrated Solid Earth Sciences (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Bernard Coletta, Director, Geology and Geochemistry DepartmentInstitut français du pétrole (French Petroleum Institute, IFP)
(Rueil Malmaison)
Suzanne Corona, Flagstone Re (Martigny, Switzerland)
Emile F.M. Elewaut, Manager Business Development
TNO Built Environment and Geosciences National Geological Survey
(Utrecht, Netherlands)
Saida Laârouchi Engström, Director, Environmental Impact
Assessment and Public Affairs - SKB (Stockholm, Sweden)
Ezio Faccioli, Professor, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale
Politecnico di Milano (Milan, Italy)
Damien Goetz, Director, Geosciences Centre, Ecole des Mines de Paris
(Paris Engineering School) (Fontainebleau)
Thierry Heulin, CNRS Research Director - Head of UM 6191
CNRS-CEA-Université de la Méditerranée - Head of the Institute of
Environmental Biology and Biotechnology (Cadarache)
Françoise Homand, Professor at INPL-ENSG, Laego-INPL (Institut
national polytechnique de Lorraine) (Vandoeuvre lès Nancy)
Sylvie Joussaume, CNRS Research Director - Head of the Scientific
Interest Group on Climate, Environment and Society
(Gif-sur-Yvette, France )
Werner Kuhn, Institut für Geoinformatik
University of Münster (Germany)
François Laurans, Technical Division - VEOLIA EAU (Nanterre, France)
Manoelle Lepoutre, TOTAL - Director for Research and Development
(Pau, France)
Anne Mangeney, Institut de Physique du Globe (Institute of Planetary
Physics) (Paris)
Claudine Schmidt-Lainé, Scientific Director, CEMAGREF (French
Research Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Engineering)
(Antony, Paris)
Christine Tahon, Director, SBU Soda Ash - Head, Chemical Sector
(Brussels, Belgium)
Philip Taylor, Head of the Isotope Measurement unit, European
Commission - Joint Research Centre (Geel, Belgium)
Jacqueline Vander Auwera, Lecturer, University of Liège
(Sart Tilman, Belgium)
Harry L.V. Vereecken, Institut für Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphäre
der Geosphäre (Jülich, Germany)
• Resource assessment and discontinuous environments
• Hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical modelling
• Resource management and environmental impacts
• Methodology development and applications
INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS
AND INNOVATIVE PROCESSES
D. Darmendrail up to October 2007
H. Gaboriau (interim post) from 1 November 2007
• Waste management
• Contaminated land
• Ecotechnologies
• Modelling underground storage impacts
• Environmental testing centre
METROLOGY, MONITORING AND ANALYSES
J.P. Girard in 2007
G. Hervouët from 1 January 2008
• Environmental chemistry
• Rock, soil and mineral characterisation
• Isotope tracers and dating techniques
• Field experiments and facilities
INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES
J.M. Trouillard
• Architecture, security and administration
• Processing and development
• Computing, 3D and virtual reality
• Systems use and support
• Information and documentation
MINE SAFETY AND RISK PREVENTION
J.L. Foucher
UTAM North / UTAM South / UTAM Centre-West / UTAM East
• Safety engineering
• Management of safety facilities and installations
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
F. Boissier
• Geothermal energy development
• New-generation geothermal energy systems
REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS IN FRANCE
M. Beurrier
• RGS groups: North-east / Centre-west / South-west
Centre-east / Mediterranean
Overseas Geological Surveys: Guadeloupe / Martinique
French Guyana / La Reunion
Overseas agencies: Polynesia / New Caledonia / Mayotte
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 05
2007
© BRGM [email protected]é
© BRGM
Highlights
2
3
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
JUNE
> 8 February
Conference on Geothermal
Heat Pumps (Orléans).
A symposium organised as
part of the European GROUNDREACH project, which aims to
develop the issue of geothermal
heat pumps throughout the
European Union.
> 8 March
Signature of the Project
Contract for 2007-2013 between
the State and the Centre Region
by Jean-Michel Bérard, Prefect
for the Centre Region and
Michel Sapin, Chairman of the
Regional Council. The BRGM
will be piloting or contributing
to three major projects:
establishment of a European
centre for geothermal energy in
Orléans, preparation of a pilot
programme for CO2 capture and
storage at Artenay and creation
of a network of observation and
research facilities in the field of
natural resources, including
water, soils, forests, biodiversity
and subsoils (RESONAT project).
> 3 - 5 April
Géo-évènement 2007 – Paris (3).
Contribution on the topic of
data interoperability for
universal access to geological
information systems. One of
the BRGM’s main roles is to
make information on soils and
sub-soils available: Infoterre,
our geoscientific portal, offers
free access to these data.
http://infoterre.brgm.fr
> 7 - 9 June
3rd European Research and
Innovation Fair in Paris (4).
BRGM stand focusing on the
dissemination of scientific
knowledge through the
Géosciences magazine, and
presenting through the Carnot
Institute programme for
partnership-based research and
the Centre Region’s ARITT
programme (support to
innovation and technology
transfers) on geothermal energy
and underground CO2 storage.
> 16 February
Opening forum for the
International Year of Planet Earth
(Unesco - Paris) (1).
Presentation of the activities
planned by the different
partners, in the presence of
Jean Dercourt, Permanent
Secretary of the Academy
of Sciences, Denis Vaslet,
Chairman of the French
organising committee and
Philippe Vesseron, Chairman
of the BRGM. The BRGM will
be producing two major
exhibitions at the Cité des
Sciences and the Muséum
National d’Histoire Naturelle,
books for the general public and
a special issue of Géosciences
magazine.
M AY
> 19 May
Hidéo Aochi, young engineer
BRGM, receives the “Excellent
young seismologist 2007”
award, an honorary
prize for young seismologists.
The Gold Medal was awarded
to the winner in Tokyo, for his
theoretical and digital work
on “seismic mechanisms in a
complex fault system”.
> 2 March
BRGM Editions: Publication
of “L’Après-mine en France”
(Post-mining in France) (2),
co-produced by the BRGM,
Charbonnages de France
and the Paris Mining School
(Ecole des Mines), in the
“Geoscience Challenges”
collection (Les Enjeux des
Géosciences).
> 15 August
Creation of Geogreen, a common
subsidiary of Géostock, the IFP
and the BRGM, which will work
to develop proposals for
engineering services to
companies with an interest in
CO2 capture and storage
projects.
© BRGM [email protected]é
© BRGM [email protected]é - P. Desbordes
> 2 July
ANDRA-BRGM research
partnership agreements for
2007-2010, aiming to build on
the specific and complementary
expertise of both organisations
to advance knowledge in the
field of low-permeability
geological clay formations.
AUGUST
1
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 06
JULY
4
© BRGM [email protected]é
© BRGM [email protected]é
7
> 8 - 9 October
Seminars on salinisation
of the water table in Alsace
(Mulhouse) (6). Organised by
the BRGM and the MDPA (Alsace
Potash Mining Company)
to discuss the hydrogeological
context, the history of saline
pollution, ongoing depollution
work and the future of slag
heaps and pumping stations.
SEPTEMBER
Groundwater: Each year, the
BRGM produces 9 synoptic
analyses on the state of water
tables, along with maps.
The synopsis is available
at www.brgm.fr (“News”
section).
Managing land movement risks.
Production of a 1:100,000 map
of risks arising from land
movements (falling rocks, rock
slides, landslips, mudslips,
subsidence and cavity collapse)
for “Provence calcaire et
Rhodanienne”. Development
of a risk prevention plan
covering 71 municipalities in
the Reims district of the
Champagne-Ardenne Region.
> 10, 11 and 12 October
Participation in the SIM
Congress (Société de l’Industrie
Minérale) held in Orléans (7).
Investment is on the rise in
mineral resource prospecting
and innovation, and the BRGM’s
activities are central to the new
challenges arising in this field.
9
New contracts in Africa.
Signature of two supplemental
agreements for additional work
packages in Gabon, totalling
E3 million (creation of a geology
and mining databank, support
to cartographic studies and
publication of three geological
maps). In Congo, signature of
a E4 million contract with Core
Mining, an Australian company,
for studies on the Avima iron
deposit.
DECEMBER
> 28 November
Renewal for three years of
AFAQ ISO 9001:2000
certification covering all BRGM
activities and its premises in
Orléans.
> 20 December
In Orleans, special preview
of “The 11th Hour”, Leonardo
DiCaprio’s documentary on
global warming, for the families
of BRGM staff (10).
New contract with India (9):
signature of a contract with
the Directorate General
of Hydrocarbons (Ministry of
Petroleum & Natural Gas) for
the evaluation of bituminous
schist reserves in the northeast
of the country. This is the
largest contract (E750 000 over
two years) signed by the BRGM
with India for several years.
NOVEMBER
OCTOBER
> 9 November
Framework agreement signed
by the BRGM and the Water
Agency for the Rhône,
Mediterranean Region and
Corsica, during a symposium
organised by the International
Association of Hydrogeologists,
to address issues arising from
the implementation of the EU
Water Framework Directive
whereby groundwater quality
must be brought up to required
standards by 2015. (8).
> 8 October
François Démarcq appointed
Delegate Managing Director of
the BRGM, succeeding to the
post of Didier Houssin who
has joined the International
Energy Agency.
8
10
5
© BRGM [email protected]é - P. Desbordes
> 4 - 5 October
2nd International Symposium
on CO2 capture and geological
storage (5).
Co-organised by the BRGM, IFP
and ADEME in Paris, France.
Some 500 participants
(researchers, industrialists,
financiers and policy-makers
from the private and public
sectors) from 25 different
countries attended the three-day
event to discuss technological
advances over the last two
years, ongoing research and
initial experimental feedback
from projects across the world.
© BRGM [email protected]é
© BRGM [email protected]é
6
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 07
Perspectives
INTERVIEW
THE GRENELLE ENVIRONMENT FORUM:
WHAT COMES NEXT?
In September 2006, Thierry Chambolle was appointed to the Chair of the BRGM’s
Scientific Committee. Previously, from 1978 to 1988, he headed the Ministry of the
Environment’s Directorate for Water and Prevention of Pollution and Risks. He then took
up the post of Director for technological development with the Lyonnaise des Eaux
Group, before joining the Suez Group as delegate for innovation and the environment.
At the same time, he held the chair of the CEMAGREF (1989-1999). In the last five years,
he has produced several reports commissioned by the government*.
Your many responsibilities over the course
of your career have placed you in an excellent
position as an observer. What are your thoughts
on the Grenelle Environment Forum?
Thierry Chambolle: Although I did not take
part in the forum myself, I followed events closely, particularly on behalf of the Academy of
Technology. All those who took part in the forum
(ecologists, industrialists, union representatives,
experts and civil servants) were fairly satisfied
with the outcome – an achievement that was by
no means a foregone conclusion, and for which
tribute is due to Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet.The
next stages will obviously be more problematical:
for example, how is the aim of 20% of organic
agriculture in France to be achieved, given the
complexities of the current situation? My one
regret has to do with the economic aspects.
Eco businesses, yet again, were not represented,
so that no true strategy for developing eco-technologies and eco-business in France was able to
emerge.
Thierry Chambolle
Chairman of the Scientific
Committee, Member
of the Academy of Technology
“
If the BRGM didn’t exist,
we’d have to invent it!
”
An open-cast mine.
© BRGM [email protected]é
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 08
How do you think the conclusions of the
Grenelle Environment Forum will affect the
BRGM’s strategy ?
Th. C.: I accepted Philippe Vesseron’s offer of
presiding the BRGM’s scientific committee with
great enthusiasm, having previously been a
member of the board for 11 years, at the time
when the BRGM was mainly a holding company
for the mining sector. Since then, the BRGM has
successfully undergone a profound transformation to adapt to the challenges of today. My
enthusiasm for the post lies mainly in the BRGM’s
unique position in France, since it combines
research with public service responsibilities and
an important role in international cooperation.
The Grenelle Environment Forum has recognised that our planet is vulnerable, that It is
unique, and that it cannot continue to withstand
the pressures of its rapidly expanding and
increasingly developed human population.This is
most obviously apparent in climate change, but
The BRGM is closely involved
in issues relating to CO2
storage underground, and was
one of the main organisers
of the 2nd International
Symposium on CO2 capture
and storage held in Paris on
4 - 5 October 2007.
© BRGM [email protected]é - P.Desbordes
the anticipated depletion of fossil energy sources
and some mineral resources and the threat of
water scarcities are also bringing current patterns
of growth into question.With the Grenelle forum,
an attempt has been made to draw conclusions
and to put forward possible policy changes.
As a geosciences organisation, the BRGM,
because of its role as a specialist on Planet Earth
- almost in the medical sense - is obviously
closely involved through its cutting-edge activities on issues that range from underground
water reserves to mineral resources, CO2 storage
and natural risks. If the BRGM didn’t exist, we’d
have to invent it!
So the BRGM has a tremendous responsibility?
Th. C.: Yes indeed, the BRGM is taking centre
stage on many of the major policy and scientific
challenges facing Europe today, including climate change and looming scarcities of mineral,
energy and water resources in the face of increasing demand.
The decline of mineral resources needs to
return to the forefront among the BRGM’s concerns. In recent years, facilities supporting this
topic area have been diverted to other priority
areas, such as water, risks or geothermal energy,
mainly because of France’s low potential in the
mining sector. I believe that the BRGM’s strategy
should renew its emphasis on mineral resources,
while correlatively developing its work on recycling, one of our traditional areas of competence.
In an entirely different field, activities on geothermal energy from deep and shallow sources
need to be pursued further. The Grenelle
Environment Forum clearly showed that housing
offers the greatest potential, in the short and
medium term, for leveraging reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Shallow geothermal energy
is probably best suited to achieving significant
reductions in energy consumption for heating
purposes, and the BRGM can provide technical
support to businesses involved in heat-pump
development. Deep geothermal energy is more a
matter for fundamental research.
The BRGM’s multidisciplinary nature is
undoubtedly a real asset in this context …
Th. C.: Most certainly. To take just one
example, if fuel cells are mainstreamed into automobile production, we will need to produce
300 times more platinum than we do at present.
Conversely, other new technologies can help
to avert the risks arising from the depletion of
certain mineral resources. Essential technological
responses to current and future challenges generally require highly integrated multidisciplinary
approaches, and the BRGM’s involvement goes to
the heart of these issues.
* Reports on new energy technologies (2004), on eco-businesses (2006) and on governance in European research (2008).
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 09
Perspectives
ENVIRONMENTAL
INFORMATION: A CHALLENGE
FOR GOVERNANCE
In the last ten years, the
BRGM’s voluntarist policy
for free information
distribution has enabled us
to satisfy both policy-making
requirements and
the demands of public
debate.
Loïc Beroud
Director for Public Services
“
We have anticipated
on current policy
guidelines that require
maximum transparency
in the publication
of information.......
”
7.3
million
visits
in 2007 to the BRGM’s
data distribution sites
on the Web.
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 10
“Establish the production of, and guaranteed
access to, environmental information as a public
policy in itself to support environmental assessments”: this is one of the main recommendations
in the conclusions of the Grenelle Environmental
Forum, which the BRGM can only applaud. For
some 10 years now, the distribution of geoscientific and environmental information has been a
core component of our public service activities.
“Our mission in this area covers all the
expert assessment activities carried out by our
departments for all stakeholders, and public
policy-makers in particular (in central and local
government departments and agencies), as well
as for soil and subsoil monitoring activities at
all levels”, explains Loïc Beroud, the director for
public service activities.
Over and above our traditional responsibilities
(geological mapping and collecting data on all
drilling activities in France), the BRGM has, over
the years, established numerous geolocated
information systems in its various areas of
competence (mineral resources, groundwaters,
natural risks, contaminated land, geothermal
energy, etc.) at national and regional levels.
Web searches are growing
exponentially
These efforts have produced some thirty freeaccess databases and associated web sites. The
exponential increase in the number of searches
on these web sites clearly reflects their success.
“We’ve gone from 300 000 searches in 2005
to 3.73 million in 2007, not counting the
Géocatalogue”, says Loïc Beroud.The “Géocatalogue”,
which went on line in 2006, is the section of the
“Géoportail” produced by the BRGM, and record-
ed almost as many visits in 2007 as the other
sites put together.
However, the sheer volume of on-line information has raised two new problems. The first
concerns access to the information, which has to
be both simple and relevant: users need to be
able to obtain the information they need, and
only that information, as quickly as possible. The
second problem concerns the multiple sources of
information: here, the idea is to ensure that from
the user point of view, access to information, produced by the BRGM or others, is not only
“transparent” but also in accordance with the
roles and responsibilities of each information
source.
Gé[email protected] for decision-support
Here again, the BRGM began to invest in new
technologies at a very early stage, especially in
the area of data interoperability. It contributed to
the development of the European INSPIRE directive and was one of the first French public
organisations that successfully brought the interoperability concept into practice: in 2006 and
2007, all of the BRGM’s georeferenced information systems were brought into compliance
with the new standards. A particular example
is InfoTerre, a cartographic platform for
access to the BRGM’s geoscientific data
(http://infoterre.brgm.fr).
Also of note is the BRGM’s experimental programme on our innovative “Gé[email protected]”.These
“Geo-reports” are synopses that are automatically compiled online from the full set of
information stored in the BRGM’s databases.
Users can request a Gé[email protected] at any time, on
a given issue (subsoil structure, risks, presence
of water, etc.) in any given zone. “This concept
is an outstanding decision-support tool that could
easily be applied to sources of public information
other than the BRGM”, says Loïc Beroud.
As well as its traditional fields of expertise, the
BRGM has thus acquired a new area of competence in information systems. Loïc Beroud points
out that “10 years on from Version 1 of Infoterre,
our priorities are fully in line with the political will
to offer systematic online access to public environmental information”.
THE GEOSCIENCE PROFESSIONS
In an overall context of insufficient recruitment to scientific
training, the geosciences are no exception. The BRGM is in
a position to address this situation with constructive proposals.
The current lack of motivation for scientific
studies is affecting many other countries besides
France. In fact, notes Jacques Varet, the BRGM’s
director for forward studies, the problem seems
less acute in our country than elsewhere, such as
in the United States. Nevertheless, there is an
urgent need to raise awareness of this problem
among young people, their families and
the teaching professions, and to promote
the “teaching-research-industrial partnerships”
triangle.
220
Masters’ Degrees
in France
Boosting interest in mineral
resources
The contract for 2005-2008 between the
BRGM and the State is designed to deliver
sustained activity, full staff mobilisation
and expanded sub-contracting opportunities.
“Looking at our mid-term review, we have to
recognise that the BRGM is up against the
problem of a lack of well-qualified geoscience professionals, whether in terms of internal staffing
needs or external secondments from public (mainly academic) bodies and private organisations
(engineering consultancies, overseas partners,
etc.)”, says Jacques Varet. Qualified students are
opting for sectors like banking or insurance,
rather than aiming for scientific careers, which
have been losing their attraction.
A more detailed analysis of the geosciences
professions shows considerable differences
between topic areas. In the last few years,
qualified geoscientists have mainly been attracted to disciplines concerning the environment
and planning (including risks, waste management and coastal management). “In France,
recruitment to disciplines concerned with mineral resources has been virtually at a standstill, with
the exception of oil and, more recently, uranium”,
explains Jacques Varet. The situation is now critical, given that most of the BRGM’s staff in the
mineral resources and energy sectors were
recruited in the 1970s and will soon be retiring.
Calling on the European geological
survey network
This trend is not only apparent in France.
Almost everywhere, there is an increasing
attraction for environmental professions, while
the image of the extractive industry is losing
favour. Similarly, there is a severe deficit in
training capacity despite the current boom in the
A wide range of careers has
opened up in the geosciences.
© BRGM [email protected]é
extractive sector fuelled by the growth of emerging countries such as China. In France, relevant
training programmes, as well as the required
facilities, are also highly dispersed: only 37 of
220 Master’s courses are likely to be of interest
Jacques Varet
to the oil industry.
Forward Studies
“It has become important to
and Assessments Director
show that subsurface resources
are a component of sustainable
development,” says Jacques Varet,
The BRGM is a major
who adds that careers need to be
employer in the geosciences field,
made more attractive, both for
interfacing between public
French and foreign students, and
scientific research and expert
host programmes for foreign
studies to support
students should be boosted. The
policy-making and business
BRGM has made several proposdevelopment.
als, including the establishment
of an internationally recognised
geosciences faculty at the
University of Orleans. It is also prepared to
encourage senior or retired staff to contribute
actively to training programmes in higher education establishments. Finally, it has suggested
calling on the European geological survey network, especially during the Year of Planet Earth.
“
”
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 11
2007 accounts
RAPIDLY INCREASING
TURNOVER
Total gross operating income for FY 2007 amounted to ¤116.33 million,
a 20.8% increase over 2006. Gross operating expenses increased
by 14.9% to ¤109.78 million.
Total current operating
expenses and income 2007
After deducting expenses carried forward (¤0.34 million) and the
renewal of reserves, total pre-tax current operating income for FY
2007 amounted to ¤112.6 million, up by ¤18.88 million, or +20%,
compared to 2006, while comparable expenses, at ¤106.05 million,
increased by only +¤13.06 million, or +14% over the previous year.
Income:
e112.60m
Expenses:
e106.05m
TOTAL EXPENSES OVER 4 YEARS
(in €m)
Total turnover over 4 years
(in €m)
121.70
5.37
3.4 0.46
120
120
110.65
0.87
105.30
99.65
100
100
97.04
96.39
7.25
2.64
90.23
85.28
57.68
80
80
40.42
60
60
7.53
40
40
59.47
47.26
20
20
12,29
0
0
2004
2005
2006
2007
2004
2005
2006
2007
Financial and extraordinary income
Extraordinary financial expenses, business tax
Renewal of reserves
Depreciation and reserves
Other income and expenses carried forward
Other expenses and taxes
Turnover*
Other purchases and external services
Production in stock
Payroll costs
Operating subsidies**
* Contract resources including post-mining agreements
** MIRES allocation for programmes 187 & 172
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 12
e112.60m
> BREAKDOWN BY FIELD (in eM)
18.07
Total 2007 turnover
15.56
15.77
14.69
11.23
8.85
8.30
7.58
4.44
4.39
This significant growth is not only due to our new post-mining
activity, which accounted for ¤5.17 million of the total income
variation, but also and especially to other gains, which rose by
¤13.71 million, or +15%.
Resources from contracts also continued to increase (+31.6% for
scientific research, 25.1% for public services and 51.6% for international activities).
These results produced a gross operating surplus of ¤10.4 million
as against ¤4.7 million in 2006, an excellent result that enabled us
to implement the current profit sharing agreement with an overall bonus of ¤1.02 million, taking applicable ceilings into account.
FY 2007 therefore produced an atypical operating surplus of
+¤6.5 million, as against +¤0.7 million in 2006.
+20 %
in turnover in 2007
ie
ld
s
rf
he
*including post mine
research (cf.GISOS) and
expert studies (GEODERIS)
Ot
M
et
ro
In
lo
fo
gy
rm
at
io
n
sy
st
Po
em
st
s
-m
in
in
g
–
DP
SM
W
at
M
er
in
er
al
re
so
ur
ce
s*
Na
tu
ra
an
lr
d Co
isk
w n
s
as ta
te m
m ina
an te
ag d
Ge
em lan
ot
en d
he
t
rm
al
Ge
en
ol
er
og
gy
ica
lC
O2
st
or
ag
e
Ge
ol
og
y
3.72
The financial result was positive at ¤3.1 million compared to
¤2.1 million in the previous year, mainly thanks to increased
interest invoiced to our subsidiaries (+¤0.63 million) and higher
income from investments in securities (+¤0.26 million).
The write-off of certain prescribed expenses, our annual flat-rate
tax liability and an exceptional positive result of ¤1.37 million
produced a net accounting income of ¤11 million.
The balance sheet for 2007 shows a significant increase in circulating assets and liabilities, which is partly due to an increase
in our activities and partly to a change in the way these are
presented.
Results for our subsidiaries in FY 2007 were influenced by a
change in the electricity sale price applied at Géothermie
Bouillante after agreement from the CRE, which produced an
operating surplus of ¤1.9 million as against a loss of ¤0.7 million
in 2006, and a positive net accounting result of ¤0.76 million
compared to ¤0.02 million in 2006.
Along with five other public target-oriented research bodies
(CEMAGREF, CIRAD, IFREMER, INRA and IRD), the BRGM comes
under Programme 187 in the Organic Law on Public Accounts
(LOLF) managed by the Interministerial Task Force for Research
and Higher Education (MIRES ). Under this programme, State allocations are divided into 8 activities, with activities 1 to 3 grouped
together under “Scientific research allocations” and activities 6 to
7 under “Public Service allocations”, while activity 8 covers joint
facilities.
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 13
2007 accounts
> BREAKDOWN OF ACTIVITIES BY MISSION
(in em) - Execution of EPRD 2007
Government
allocations
Contracts
29.84
12.29
237
contract
partners
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
42.13
Government
allocations
Contracts
17.42
22.75
STEADY GROWTH IN CONTRACT RESOURCES
Over the 2004-2007 period, contract resources increased steadily
in all departments: scientific research (+¤5.24 million), public services
(+¤8.04 million) and international activities (+¤6.61 million), with a
spurt in 2006-2007.
Among these contracts, resources from those with economic objectives eligible for the Carnot scheme (contracts with businesses, local
authorities and water agencies in France and abroad) increased from
¤3.91 million in 2006 to ¤7.81 million in 2007. Contracts with the
National Research Agency (ANR) earned an additional ¤0.78 million
in 2007, most of which was allocated to skills sourcing (theses, etc.).
PUBLIC SERVICES
40.17
In France
International
6.71
16.01
SERVICES
22.72
POST-MINING (DPSM)
7.58
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 14
In scientific research, the high rate of growth in contract resources
(+74.3%) confirms that the BRGM’s strategic research policies are well
suited to sustainable development concerns that attract national and
international funding. The creation of the ANR in 2005 began to produce significant effects in 2006 and 2007 (about ¤2 million in addition
to the Carnot scheme). Grants from the European Union’s Framework
Programme for Research and Development (FPRD) amounted to
some ¤3.6 million in 2007.The other main clients for these co-financed
activities were local authorities, the ANDRA, ADEME and industrial
partners.
Contract resources from public service activities (observatories,
methodological support,training and expert studies) grew by +54.6%.
This was achieved thanks to a significant increase in partnerships with
target-oriented agencies (water agencies and ADEME) and local
authorities, and in new commissions from government departments
financed under specific agreements (observatories, and methodological support plus expert studies on post-mining for the MEDAD*). A
contract resources over four years
(in €m excl. VAT)
government allocations over four years
(in €m excl. VAT)
7.58
50
50
2.41
16.01
40
40
30
30
10.56
8.82
9.40
47.26
20
44.72
47.26
22.75
45.41
20
18.19
15.84
14.71
10
10
12.29
7,05
7.94
9.34
7.05
2004
2005
2006
0
0
2004
2005
2006
2007
Programme 174
International
MIRES Programmes 187 and 172
Public Services
2007
Scientific Research
slight drop in contracts signed with regional authorities due to the
phasing-in of a new generation of project contracts (2007-2013) was
offset by partnerships with département authorities and municipal
and urban authority groupings. Growth in this activity area in 2007
related mainly to access to geological data (from information systems
especially), to information on contaminated land and waste, geothermal energy and, to a lesser extent, coastlines, groundwater and
post-mining. For the third year running, programme financing from
contracts was in excess of government allocations.
120
scientific
publications
in international Class A journals
Growth in our international activities was particularly strong in
2007 (+70.3%). This high growth rate and the nature of some of the
services undertaken considerably expanded our calls for subcontracting. In 2007, industries (mining and petroleum) accounted for 50%
of our international activities. Multilateral funding remained high at
42%, including from EU sources such as FED/SYSMIN, which provided
over one third of our international income with about ¤6 million;
financing of this type will peak at about ¤9 million in 2008 and
decline substantially as from the following year (to ¤3 million in 2009
and ¤0.6 million in 2010), as the last calls for bids for were issued
in 2007.
The geographical distribution of our international activities confirms
the growing importance of Africa (88% in 2007), which accounted for
only 20% in 2002 and 55% in 2005, followed by Asia, Europe, the
Maghreb and the Middle East.
2007 saw the completion of the technical components of a major
contract with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on modelling of the Saq
aquifer, on which a third of the Kingdom's population relies (completion was expected in 2008).
A ¤2 million contract was signed with Slovenia for geological,
geotechnical and seismic studies prior to the installation of a new
nuclear reactor.The BRGM,leading a consortium that includes the IRSN
and Slovenia's geological survey (GeoZS), won the contract against
competing American and Japanese tenders.
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 15
2007 accounts
Operating result
operating performance
(in €m excl. VAT)
BETTER OPERATING PERFORMANCE
Gross operating surplus
20
47,26
An analysis of BRGM operating performance in the last four years
shows steady growth in the first three years and an atypical result
in the fourth.
Operating performance increased from +¤0.32 million in 2004
to +¤0.73 million in 2006 and +¤6.55 million in 2007, while gross
operating surplus increased by +¤0.47 million from 2004 to 2006
(¤4.19 million to ¤4.66 million), reaching ¤10.4 million in 2007.
In a context of very high growth (+51.6%) in our international activities, this exceptionally wide variation is due in particular to the
completion of a ¤2 million contract in Guinea (including renewal
of a reserve made up when FY 2006 accounts were closed, due to
the troubles that arose in that country in early 2007). Adding to the
result was a delay in committing various external expenses, towards
the end of the year when growth accelerated strongly.
Finally, a high priority was given to production in 2007, in particular to comply with contract and project completion terms. However,
the high rate of production is unlikely to be maintained in 2008,
given the level of staff recruitment (new recruits are not immediately fully operational), the need for strengthened supervision
arising from higher activity levels, renewed efforts to improve our
quality management (integrated ISO 9001 management package,
to be upgraded to 14001) and the decision to strengthen our
contribution to committees whose work is relevant to our activities
at European, national and regional levels.
10.4
16
12
8
6.55
4.67
4.19
3.77
4
0.32
0.56
0.73
0
2004
2005
2006
2007
+51.6%
in international
turnover
> INTERNATIONAL TURNOVER BY REGION
> Albania
> Belgium
> Estonia
> Hungary
> Malta
> Algeria
> Morocco
> Tunisia
> Netherlands
> Romania
> Slovenia
> Switzerland
> Turkey
> UK
> Arabia
> Iran
> Oman
> Cambodia
> China
> India
> Tajikistan
> Brazil
> Peru
> Dom. Rep.
> Angola
> Benin
> Burkina Faso
> Cameroon
> Central African
Républic
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 16
> Chad
> Congo
> Côte d'Ivoire
> Ethiopia
> Gabon
> Ghana
> Guinea. Co
> Madagascar
> Mali
> Mauritania
> Niger
> RDC Congo
> Senegal
> South Africa
> Sudan
> Tanzania
The exposition “Aux sources de la Terre”
(Earth and its Origins) in the Paris Jardin des Plantes,
through 30 novembre 2008.
© BRGM [email protected]é - J.F. Rousseau
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 17
Michel Beurrier,
Head of regional activities
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 18
Ph. Dutartre
Parc Technologique Europarc
24, avenue Léonard de Vinci
33600 Pessac
Tel.: (33) 5 57 26 52 70
Fax: (33) 5 57 26 52 71
[email protected]
3
Ph. Rocher
CENTRE
CHAMPAGNE-ARDENNE
2
CORSICA
Parc Club des Tanneries
15, rue du Tanin
Lingolsheim – B.P. 177
67834 Tanneries Cedex
Tel.: (33) 3 88 77 48 90
Fax: (33) 3 88 76 12 26
[email protected]
4
Y. Siméon
Parc Technologique
27, rue Louis de Broglie
21000 Dijon
Tel.: (33) 3 80 72 90 40
Fax: (33) 3 80 78 01 34
[email protected]
Parc scientifique
et industriel
21 A, rue Alain Savary
25000 Besançon
Tel.: (33) 3 80 72 90 40
Fax: (33) 3 80 78 01 34
[email protected]
5
M. Leclercq
Rennes Atalante Beaulieu
2, rue de Jouanet
35700 Rennes
Tel.: (33) 2 99 84 26 70
Fax: (33) 2 99 84 26 79
[email protected]
ÎLE-DE-FRANCE
12, avenue des Landais
63170 Aubière
Tel.: (33) 4 73 15 23 00
Fax: (33) 4 73 15 23 10
[email protected]
LANGUEDOC-ROUSSILLON
AUVERGNE
1
Ph. Elsass
LIMOUSIN
160 agents (including 110 engineers specialising in the Earth
Sciences and 30 technicians) relay the BRGM’s
expertise in the regions. With the
support of the BRGM’s
scientific and technical centre
in Orleans, they carry out
some 650 regional public
service and research projects
each year in response to the
needs of local authorities,
target-oriented agencies,
companies, devolved State
departments, etc.
BURGUNDY
Each regional organisation acts as a relay for the know-how
acquired by the institution as a whole. Our network-based
organisational system means we are able to pinpoint local needs
as they arise, provide local support to public policy development,
respond to calls for tenders in accordance with our public service
missions and our fields of technical know-how, and refer requests
for expert services or research to the national level where
appropriate. The system also enables us to participate actively in
European inter-regional and transnational cooperation
programmes.
FRANCHE-COMTÉ
With activities in all 22 Regions in mainland
France, in the four overseas départements
and regions (DROM) and Mayotte, the BRGM
has one of France’s most extensive regional
networks.
BRITTANY
A NETWORK
FOR REGIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
AQUITAINE
ALSACE
In the French regions
6
J.-P. Leprêtre
B.P. 36009
45060 Orléans Cedex 2
Tel.: (33) 2 38 64 31 92
Fax: (33) 2 38 64 31 94
[email protected]
7
N. Zornette
Pôle technologique
Henri Farman
12, rue Clément Ader,
B.P. 137
51685 Reims Cedex 2
Tel.: (33) 3 26 84 47 70
Fax: (33) 3 26 84 47 79
[email protected]
8
E. Palvadeau
Immeuble Agostini,
ZI de Furiani
20600 Bastia
Tel.: (33) 4 95 58 04 33
Fax: (33) 4 95 30 62 10
[email protected]
9
M. Le Nir
7, rue du Théâtre
91884 Massy
Tel.: (33) 1 69 75 10 25
Fax: (33) 1 60 11 73 57
[email protected]
10
M. Audibert
1039, rue de Pinville
34000 Montpellier
Tel.: (33) 4 67 15 79 80
Fax: (33) 4 67 64 58 51
[email protected]
11
B. Mauroux
ESTER - TECHNOPOLE
B.P. 6932
87069 Limoges Cedex
Tel.: (33) 5 55 35 27 86
Fax: (33) 5 55 35 64 53
[email protected]
14
17
>
DOM
15
15
7
9
12
1
16
FRENCH GUIANA
5
6
4
LORRAINE
4
12
18
M. Aguillaume
Ph. Weng
Domaine de Suzini
Route de Montabo,
B.P. 552
97333 Cayenne Cedex 2
Tel.: (33) 5 94 30 06 24
Fax: (33) 5 94 31 49 07
[email protected]
11
1, Avenue du Parc de Brabois
54500 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy
Tel.: (33) 3 83 44 81 49
Fax: (33) 3 83 44 15 18
[email protected]
3
20
RÉUNION
2
13
19
13
Ph. Roubichou
Parc technologique du Canal
3, rue Marie Curie
Bât. Aruba - B.P. 49
31527 Ramonville-Saint-Agne
Tel.: (33) 5 62 24 14 50
Fax: (33) 5 62 24 14 69
[email protected]
Parc de la Vatine
10, rue Sakharov
76130 Mont-Saint-Aignan
Tel.: (33) 2 35 60 12 00
Fax: (33) 2 35 60 80 07
[email protected]
Polytech de Rivery
7, rue Anne Frank
80136 Rivery
Tel.: (33) 3 22 91 42 47
Fax: (33) 3 22 92 31 90
[email protected]
11, allée de la Providence
La Gibauderie
86000 Poitiers
Tel.: (33) 5 49 38 15 38
Fax: (33) 5 49 38 15 44
[email protected]
GUADELOUPE
MARTINIQUE
D. Dessandier
117, avenue de Luminy
B.P. 168
13276 Marseille Cedex 09
Tel.: (33) 4 91 17 74 77
Fax: (33) 4 91 17 20 40
[email protected]
18
F. Bichot
Villa Bel Azur,
4 Lot. Miramar
Route Pointe des Nègres
97200 Fort-de-France
Tel.: (33) 5 96 71 17 70
Fax: (33) 5 96 63 21 15
[email protected]
20
F. Deverly
151, Bd Stalingrad
69626 Villeurbanne Cedex
Tel.: (33) 4 72 82 11 50
Fax: (33) 4 72 82 11 51
[email protected]
Antenne POL
Hauts de Pamatai
B.P. 60066
98703 FAA’A
Polynésie Française
Tel.: (33) 0 689 80 07 45
Fax: (33) 0 689 80 07 49
[email protected]
P. Puvilland
Antenne de Mayotte
9, centre Amatoula
Z.I. de Kawéni
B.P. 1398
97600 Mamoudzou
Mayotte
Tel.: (33) 2 69 61 28 13
Fax: (33) 2 69 61 28 15
[email protected]
NEW CALEDONIA
C. Nail
19
POLYNESIA
17
J.-P. Comte
J.-M. Mompelat
SGR/GUA
Morne Houëlmont
Route de l’Observatoire
97113 Gourbeyre
Tel.: (33) 5 90 41 35 48
Fax: (33) 5 90 94 85 82
[email protected]
> COM
MAYOTTE (MAHORE)
CITIS "Odyssée",
Bât. B, 1er étage
4, avenue de Cambridge,
14200 Hérouville Saint-Clair
Tel.: (33) 2 31 06 66 40
Fax: (33) 2 31 06 66 43
[email protected]
1, rue des Saumonières
B.P. 92342
44323 NANTES Cedex 3
Tel.: (33) 2 51 86 01 51
Fax: (33) 2 51 86 01 59
[email protected]
PROVENCE-ALPES-CÔTE-D'AZUR
15
J.-F. Pasquet
16
P. Conil
RHÔNE-ALPES
PICARDY
Synergie Park
6 ter, rue P. et M. Curie
59260 Lezennes
Tel.: (33) 3 20 19 15 40
Fax: (33) 3 20 67 05 56
[email protected]
PAYS-DE-LA-LOIRE
14
J.-R. Mossmann
5, rue Sainte-Anne,
B.P. 906
97478 Saint-Denis Cedex
Tel.: (33) 2 62 21 22 14
Fax: (33) 2 62 21 86 96
[email protected]
8
POITOU-CHARENTES
NORMANDY (UPPER)
NORMANDY (LOWER)
NORD-PAS-DE-CALAIS
MIDI-PYRÉNÉES
10
J.-L. Nédellec
P. Maurizot
CAL Agency
BRGM Desk Officer
at the New Caledonia
Directorate for Industry,
Mining and Energy
1 ter, rue E . Unger,
Vallée du Tir - B.P. 465
98845 Nouméa Cedex
Tel.: (33) 0 687 27 02 36
Fax: (33) 0 687 27 23 45
[email protected]
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 19
The Elephant Rock: Devonian sandstone near
Hodh in Mauritania’s Taoudeni Basin.
© BRGM [email protected]é - O. Serrano
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 20
TOPIC AREAS
> ACQUIRING GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL KNOWLEDGE
> DIGITAL GEOLOGICAL MAPS
> PROCESSED DATA PRODUCTS ON SUBSTRATES
> GEOLOGICAL REFERENCE MAPS FOR FRANCE
> GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS
> 3-D SUBSTRATE MODELLING
> GEOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS FOR CO2 STORAGE
> REFERENCE CARTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION
Geology
The bedrock
of the geosciences
A thorough knowledge of our geological environment is fundamental to
harmonious patterns of development that do not jeopardise the future of
generations to come. A great many areas rely on geological information , including
natural risks, geothermal energy and deep storage of natural gas, CO2 and wastes.
Geological knowledge is built up from continuously updated information collected
from naturalists’ observations and from physical measurements, and also draws on
fundamental scientific research. All this information is compiled into databases
that can be accessed by citizens, public authorities and businesses. The BRGM is
organising full compatibility between all its data through the interoperability rules
currently being defined at international level. We create three-dimensional
geological maps and models that represent our geological environment. In 2007,
we continued the surveys and harmonisation between départements required to
complete the 1:50 000 geological map of France. With our partners (universities,
research institutions and SMEs), we guarantee the quality of current knowledge on
France’s geology. We transfer our know-how abroad under different institutional
support programmes, with a current focus on Africa. In the future, we will be
moving from conventional geological maps to 3D blocks of customised geological
information - a new and highly motivating challenge for the BRGM’s geologists
and their partners!
“
Geology strives to understand
our Earth’s past while
anticipating how it will evolve
in the future.
”
Catherine Truffert
Head of the Geology Department
1
2
3
1_The 1:50 000 geological reference
map of France.
© BRGM
Thickness in meters
2_State of progress in 1:50 000
geological reference mapping of all French
départements.
© BRGM
3_Mapping in Africa: geological map
of Madagascar showing the six sheets
to 1:100 000.
© BRGM
4_Regolite studies: mapping the thickness
of flinty Cretaceous alterites in the Paris
Basin.
© BRGM - F. Quesnel
4
GEOLOGY
Geology
Highlights
2007
The reference geological map
of France
By late 2007, over 650 000 publications were
archived in the BSS – the BRGM’s subsoils
databank. 2007 alone saw the launch of
8 529 new studies and log re-assessments
(BSS validation mission), harmonisation of
1:50,000 maps [1] for 8 départements (bringing
the total to 60 départements ) and surveys
completed for 12 further geological maps to
1:50,000 [2].
Maps for Africa
Significant growth in geological mapping
abroad (+46% over 2006). Countries concerned:
Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Gabon, Ghana,
Angola and Madagascar.
… and Gabon
Objective: 15 geological maps to 1:200,000
under 2 projects financed respectively by the
EDF (SYSMIN) and the government of Gabon.
In partnership with Sander Geophysics
and the Council For Geoscience: 21 460 km
of magnetism and spectral radiometry
recorded by helicopter and about 283 643 km
by plane, used to draw up geological maps and
define strategic zones for geochemical
prospecting.
Our planet is just over
4.5
> French Guiana
The GéOyapock Project
Mantle rock studies
Geological and physico-chemical knowledge
on mantle rocks (regolite) is essential in fields
concerned with water resources, risk
prevention, mineral raw materials, planning
and low-temperature geothermal energy.
Studies addressing a wide range of disciplines
(geology, geophysics, geochemistry,
geochronology and so on) are undertaken in
collaboration with universities and public
institutions under coordinated multidisciplinary
projects.
The International Year
of Planet Earth
Participation in preparations for the International
Year of Planet Earth (officially launched
at UNESCO on 12 and 13 February 2008).
This geological mapping project undertaken
with Brazils’ geological survey institute (CPRM)
has produced the first transboundary
geological map of Brazil and Guyana, to the
scale of 1:250,000. The project analysed and
interpreted the results of joint sampling
missions on either side of the border, drawing
on the scientific and technical skills of each
partner.
billion
years old
+13%
In turnover for the
Geology Department,
2006 – 2007
> Hérault
Geological interpretation
of walking trails
The Hérault district council (Conseil Général)
had decided to provide walkers with readily
understandable information to help people get
to know the main features of the area’s
geology. In order to cover the very wide variety
of rock types and landscapes found along the
“green route” (the council’s network of walking
trails), the BRGM helped to produce brochures
interpreting the area’s geological heritage.
€15.56m
Turnover for the
Geology Department,
or 13.82% of total BRGM
turnover in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 21
GEOLOGY
Flagship project 2007
“
Seismic studies were
considered for many years as
the exclusive preserve of the oil
industry, but have now
become a basic tool for geologists.
”
Olivier Serrano
Sedimentologist
SEISMIC STUDIES HAVE OPENED
UP TREMENDOUS PROSPECTS FOR
GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH
The BRGM has been involved for some ten years in a programme
aiming to validate the borehole samples making up the subsoils
databank (BSS).The goal is to produce isovalue (depth) maps of outstanding interfaces (between tiers or formations) in sedimentary
basins. However, most of the data in the BSS cover layers that are
relatively close to the surface, at a depth of 0 to 200 m on average,
but there is increasing demand for data on much lower depths. The
BRGM has therefore turned towards seismic research, which is
opening up entirely new prospects for geological knowledge.
Seismic studies are by no means a recent discipline: petroleum
companies have all used them for prospecting in sedimentary
basins. Since the Second World War, prospecting companies have
recorded some 350 000 km of seismic profiles across France.The raw
data (field recordings and documents) can now be freely accessed,
as the Mining Code stipulates that they must be made public after
10 years. The BRGM has seized this opportunity to
create data products from some of this information, thereby
clearly showing the value of these data for improving knowledge on
these basins.
2700 km of seismic profiles for the Paris Basin
Some 1800 km of seismic profiles from the Aquitaine Basin have
already been reprocessed and assembled into 14 regional transects,
in collaboration with the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), and the
geological interpretations incorporated into the geometric model of
the basin. For the Paris Basin, 14 regional transects covering a total
of 2700 km of seismic profiles have also been reprocessed and
interpreted, and similar projects are under way for the South-East
Basin, Alsace and Lorraine.
The Office for hydrocarbon prospecting and production (BEPH),
working under the Directorate-General for Energy and Raw
Materials, has approached the BRGM to handle all raw seismic data
on France and to make them available to users. To date, under an
agreement with the BEPH, the BRGM is already managing some 30%
of these data, and is planning to gradually collect and archive
the remaining 70% (held by petroleum companies). The objective is
threefold: to preserve the data, to make them available to potential
users and to incorporate them into added-value data products such
as updated 3D geological models.
Opening up new horizons
Our work in this area has already demonstrated the key role
of seismic studies in furthering knowledge on the geology of
regional basins (architecture, structural complexity, etc.). They are
opening up new horizons in every field that relies on knowledge of
the subsoil, from deep storage of CO2 and other gases to hydrogeology, aquifer use, geothermal energy and natural risks. In view of
the current energy crisis, they could also help to boost prospecting
for new oilfields.
Diagram of seismic profiles recorded in a sector
of the Paris Basin. © BRGM
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 22
1
2
3
1_3D model of the Saint Martin de
Bossenay sector in the Paris Basin.
© BRGM
2_Seismic shots supply the basic data
required to build seismic profiles.
© BRGM
3_Folds in Palaeozoic limestone at the Col du
Portalet (Ossau Valley in the French Pyrenees)
with the Pic du Midi d’Ossau in the
background. © BRGM [email protected]é
4
4_ The Aquitaine Basin: seismic data used
for structural mapping to determine
petroleum potential. © BRGM
5_Example of a reprocessed and interpreted
seismic profile in the Aquitaine Basin. © BRGM
350 000 km
of seismic profiles recorded in France
in the last 50 years
5
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 23
A nickel mine
in New Caledonia’s
Kopéto Range.
© BRGM [email protected]é - A. Genna
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 24
TOPIC AREAS
> IDENTIFYING RESERVES
> MANAGING EXTRACTION IMPACTS
> EXPERT STUDIES ON FORMER MINE SITES
> INFORMATION ON RESOURCES AND MARKETS
> MINERAL PROSPECTING TOOLS
> DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
Mineral resources
Shortages
and high prices
As raw materials become ever scarcer with growing international demand,
governments are giving an increasingly high priority to the security of supplies.
In Europe, this is the responsibility of each State, not of the EU, but a need is
emerging for a policy to meet common needs. Metallogenesis has been a research
area at the BRGM for many years and is of particular relevance in this context.
2007 saw a significant increase in demand in this field, from institutions and
companies in France and abroad (especially those involved in North-South
cooperation programmes), resulting in numerous contracts with governments
(often with international funding), operators and downstream industries
(automobiles and aeronautics in particular). Given this context, we are pursuing
activities that call on our core skills, such as metallogenesis (formation of mineral,
aggregate and metal deposits) and deposit location and description. In parallel,
demand for our post-mining expertise, now required for mining projects, is also
on the increase. Our ambition is to help to build up, along with our colleagues
from other geological survey institutes in Europe and worldwide, a global view
of our planet’s mineral resources.
“
Industrialists are commissioning
BRGM studies to help them
secure their mineral raw
material supplies for the next
10 to 20 years.
Jack Testard
”
Head of the Mineral Resources
Department
1
2
3
4
1_Georesources in Africa:
AEGOS, the African-European
Georesources Observation
System, in Mali’s Songo Plain.
© Fotolia - J.C. Braun
2_Dredging for marine
aggregate.
© BRGM [email protected]é - F. Michel
3_Extraction site
for marine aggregate.
© BRGM [email protected]é - P. Lebret
4_Map of the 8654 extraction
sites in France listed in the
Materials Observatory as
of 31 December 2007.
© BRGM
Highlights
2007
Prevention of mining risks
Contribution to expert studies for Mining Risk
Prevention Plans: assessments of soil instability
and pollution risks (from metal, salt, coal
and liquid hydrocarbon extraction). Draft
methodological guide on identifying,
prioritising and mapping pollution risks at
mine sites.
Observatory on materials
Data capture is virtually complete for
aggregate extraction, and 50% completed for
other minerals. 2008 will see completion of
all data capture, data quality controls and
the launch of a web site for data searches on
materials.
Uranium
Georesources in Africa
> Lorraine
Launch of AEGOS (African-European
Georesources Observation System) under
the 7th European FPRD: design, with over
20 African and European partners, of a shared
interoperable data distribution system and
a range of geoscience services and products.
The Dombasle salt basin
Collaboration with AREVA NC’s “Plate-forme
Afrique” project broadened to the Middle East
and South America; adaptation of the ”GIS
Europe” and “GIS Andes” synopses of mineral
deposit geology to predict uranium deposits.
For soil instability assessments: detailed
geological modelling of the highly urbanised
Dombasle Basin and geometric
characterisation of the salt-water table
overlying the cap rock (electrical geophysical
methods).
Mineral
Resources
MINERAL RESOURCES
+32%
Average annual
increase in copper prices,
2002 to 2007;
nickel prices: +31%
Average increase
in zinc production costs:
+30% per year
> English Channel and Atlantic coasts
Marine aggregates
Identification of extraction sites and potential
deposits of shifting or crushed rock aggregate
in 11 coastal départements. Conclusion:
large volumes identified but of limited use
due to access difficulties.
+71%
In turnover for the Mineral
Resources Department,
2006 – 2007
The Lorraine Region: modelling
the geological section using 700 boreholes
enclosing the Dombasle mine.
© BRGM
€15.77m
Turnover for the Mineral
Resources Department,
or 14% of total BRGM
turnover in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 25
MINERAL RESOURCES
Flagship project 2007
“
I am convinced that our GIS
on metallogenesis in Europe
will soon be helping
to discover new deposits.
”
A SYNOPSIS OF MINERAL
RESOURCES IN EUROPE
The BRGM launched its initiative for a Europe-wide geological
information system (GIS) covering all available information on
metallogenesis in 2005. By the end of 2007, the Europe-wide GIS
contained data on 11 107 deposits and indicators, requiring a great
deal of homogenisation.
Securing supplies for the future
Managing Europe’s mineral resources has become a major challenge, given increasing demand from Asia and fast-growing
domestic consumption in China, with demand from Brazil, Russia
and India also expected to rise significantly. Securing supplies
for both European and developing countries has become a matter
of priority.
The need for sustainability means that all socio-economic and
environmental impacts have to be taken into account. Where
are Europe’s mineral resources located? How are they linked to
their enclosing rock (age, type, specific features)? What forms
of dependence should Europe expect today and in the future?
0
8 500
0
8 000
0
7 500
Cours de Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, de janvier 1999 à décembre 2007
en US$ par tonne
(lissé : moyenne mobile sur 15 jours)
0
7 000
0
6 500
0
6 000
0
5 500
0
5 000
0
4 500
What would the consequences of mining these resources be,
and to what degree are they acceptable in developed countries? All
these questions can be addressed thanks to the GIS, which has been
produced to a scale of 1:1 500,000.
The GIS on mineral resources in Europe covers some 5.5 million km2
and 44 countries (in full or in part), as far as Russian Karelia and
Western Anatolia. Deposits are described in an associated database
through over 40 search fields that provide information on location,
typology, morphology and mineralogy, as well as on mineralisation
age, weathering, the age and nature of enclosing rock, production,
reserves and resources by type of mineral substance, and so on.
Merging digital synopses to create a Europe wide GIS
This GIS was developed by merging several digital synopses
produced at the BRGM over the last few years, which provided the
initial framework. These synopses were the GIS for Central and
South-East Europe, developed for metallogenesis and environmental applications (under GEODE, the international Geodynamics and
Ore Deposit Evolution programme), the French
mining GIS (SIG Mines, for metal-bearing ores in
France) and the GIS for Karelia, developed by the
Franco-Russian metallogenesis laboratory to
improve knowledge on the magmatic, structural
Cuivre
C
and geodynamic control of “giant” ore deposits
and their distribution over space and time. The
GIS for Europe is now accessible and ready for
use.
0
4 000
0
3 500
0
3 000
0
2 500
2 000
0
Graph showing the steep rise
of mineral raw materials prices.
© BRGM
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 26
Daniel Cassard
Structural geologist
P
Plomb
Z
Zinc
A
Aluminium
1
2
3
24
billion
tonnes
of mineral raw materials
are used every year in Europe
4
1_The BRGM’s new map of metallogenesis in Europe, based on an
original geological synopsis and showing the main metal deposits
in Europe to the scale of 1:1 500,000. © BRGM
2_Map of metallogenesis in Europe to 1:1 500,000: zoom-in to the
Bohemian Range, the Germanic and the Alpine-Western Carpathian
transition. © BRGM
3_A chromite mine at Kemi in Finland. © BRGM [email protected]é
4_Ultra-pure quartz in the Boudeau quarry (Dordogne, France).
© BRGM [email protected]é
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 27
Drilling a geothermal borehole at Orly,
near Paris, to feed a network
that will supply heat to several
thousand urban homes.
© ANTEA
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 28
TOPIC AREAS
> GEOTHERMAL HEATING NETWORKS
> HIGH-TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
> NEW-GENERATION GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS
> GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS
> ADVISORY WORK WITH GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PROFESSIONALS
> INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TO FOSTER GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
DEVELOPMENT
Geothermal energy
Geothermal
energy takes off
Renewable energy, and geothermal energy in particular, is higher on the agenda
than ever. The goal in France is to achieve a 20% share of renewables in total
energy consumption by 2020. In the construction sector, where the potential is
greatest in mainland France, deep and shallow geothermal energy offers a range
of heating solutions and could cover 4% of all heating needs in buildings by that
date. In the French overseas areas (DOM), where high-temperature geothermal
energy is being used for electricity production, an even more ambitious aim
is to cover more than 25% of energy demand at competitive prices. The BRGM
is working on all these fronts. We have launched an integrated programme
on shallow geothermal energy, with an experimental platform on geothermal
heat pumps to be launched in 2008. On the deep geothermal energy front
(1500 - 2000 m), geoscientific studies are continuing along with support to new
borehole programmes in the Paris Basin aiming to supply further heat networks.
In the DOM, our development activities at the Bouillante field in Guadeloupe are
also moving ahead. Finally, our large-scale research programme on very high
temperature geothermal energy at Soultz (Alsace) will be producing the first
kWh of electrical power in 2008. To support the development of all forms
of geothermal energy, whether to address climate change or the increasing costs
of fossil resources, this area of BRGM know-how, which we have been building
for over 30 years, is also available to third countries through international
programmes.
“
Geothermal energy will be
making a major contribution
to the objectives of the Grenelle
Environment Forum.
Fabrice Boissier
”
Head of the Geothermal Energy
department
1
3
4
1_High-temperature drilling in the
Krafia geothermal field in northern
Iceland (T = 300-340°C).
© BRGM [email protected]é - B. SanJuan
2_Technical geothermal studies centre:
the derrick housing borehole at Orly.
© ANTEA
3_The “Ground Reach” symposium on heat
pumps held in Orléans.
© BRGM [email protected]é - P. Desbordes
4_Usable geothermal potential
from the Rhine Trench at Buntsandstein
in Alsace.
© BRGM
Highlights
2007
High-temperature geothermal
boreholes
Start of the HiTI programme (6th FPRD)
to develop measuring instruments for
high-temperature boreholes. Chemical and
isotope measurements and analyses by the
BRGM in Iceland to improve understanding
on the operation of the sodium/lithium
geothermometer.
The Renewable Energy Union
On an initiative from the BRGM, a geothermal
energy commission representing all
stakeholders in the sector was set up within
the Renewable Energy Union, to which more
than 300 companies (mainly wind power,
solar power and biomass) belong.
Heat Pumps Symposium
Organisation of a symposium (February 2007)
under the Ground-Reach programme
(6th FPRD) aiming to foster market penetration
of geothermal heat pumps in Europe.
> Ile-de-France
Technical centre on geothermal
energy
Creation of a technical centre on geothermal
energy to provide independent support to
operational geothermal applications
(knowledge building, new research programmes
for sustainable geothermal energy development,
etc.).
Geothermal energy on the Web
Over 900 visits each day to the ADEME-BRGM
site on geothermal energy (www.geothermieperspectives.fr). In 2007, sections for professionals
and the French regions went on line. A GIS on
the geothermal potential of shallow water
tables in the Ile-de-France (Greater Paris), Centre
and Lorraine regions was also posted on line.
> Guadeloupe
Tracer tests at Bouillante
Injecting a tracer into the BO2 borehole and
analysing its reappearance in other boreholes
should bring a better understanding of the
reservoir used by the power plant, with a view
to reinjecting fluids from production.
> Alsace
Experimental pilot at
Soultz-sous-Forêts: the generator
producing electrical current is
shown in green, the reduction
gear in blue and the 1.5 MW
turbine in grey.
© BRGM [email protected]é
Geothermal
energy
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
Experimental pilot
at Soultz-sous-Forêts
50%
of the energy used
in France is in the form
of heat
+62%
In turnover for the
Geothermal Energy
Department,
2006 – 2007
Monitoring of chemical stimulation operations
at the GPK-3 and GPK-4 boreholes and
measurement of their impacts on borehole
injectivity and productivity. Installation
of a 1.5 MW turbine.
> Alsace
Geothermal potential
Assessment of geothermal potential:
mapping of the thickness and temperature
of Triassic clastic reservoirs and identification
of favourable geothermal zones in the
northern part of the Rhine Trench.
€3.72 m
Turnover for the
Geothermal Energy
Department, or 3.30%
of total BRGM turnover
in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 29
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
Flagship project 2007
“
Geothermal activities are forging
ahead at the BRGM, with turnover
doubling in a single year.
AN EXPERIMENTAL PLATFORM
FOR HEAT PUMPS
One obstacle to the distribution of some types of geothermal
energy is cost. This is true of shallow systems, which rely on heat
pumps. The experimental platform at Orleans, which the BRGM
decided to establish in 2007, will be investigating ways of improving the performance of subterranean heat exchangers while
reducing costs, including underground installation costs. The new
platform is being developed as part of the European geothermal
centre, which involves the BRGM and the Centre Region authority
through the State-Region Project Contract (CPER) signed on 8 March
2007 by the President of the Regional Council and the Prefect for
the Centre Region.
”
Hervé Lesueur
Engineer, Head
of Energy studies
Assessing long-term impacts
The platform will be used as a facility for tests, under realistic
conditions, on subterranean exchangers of all types, including those
already available on the market as well as innovative designs (as
regards their geometry in particular). Experimental designs will be
tested over several months and connected to loops simulating energy demand from a building. In parallel, data collected by partners
from a network of instruments in different sites will be centralised
and incorporated to be run through digital models.
Crucial issues include the impacts of these exchangers on the
subterranean environment. For example, if heat is taken from the
subsoil, its temperature will obviously drop. Therefore:
- Under what conditions will its temperature returned to normal?
This is a matter of the dimensioning of the installation design, which
directly affects its cost. We therefore need to have a better understanding of the relationship between design and the installation’s
impacts on soil temperature, in order to optimise costs without
damaging the subsoil. During the heating period, a vertical predesigned exchanger captures about 50 W per metre.
- What would be the impacts of this in the long term? The aim
here is to assess these over a long enough period that includes
summer and winter seasons.
A reference centre
Reconnaissance
operations.
© BRGM [email protected]é
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 30
Another issue is to assess how far the geochemical, hydrogeological and biological equilibrium might be disturbed. What would be
the long-term impacts of causing the soil to warm up and cool down
during each operating cycle? This could slightly alter soil mechanics,
which in turn would affect performance. This is the reason why,
in parallel with our research work, we are also running support
activities for the sector through training sessions and good practice
dissemination. We are also contributing to the establishment of a
regulatory framework with the relevant ministries.
All these activities are conducted through various partnerships,
in the Centre Region to begin with. The platform could also become
a reference centre for subterranean heat exchangers, under the
SIMBIO project now under development. This project, a CSTB initiative, will be conducting overall studies on energy in buildings.
1
50%
of energy supplies in the DOM
will be renewable by 2020
2
1_A panoramic view of the platform.
© BRGM [email protected]é
2_Setting up temperature sensors
beneath the experimental platform.
© BRGM [email protected]é
3_Reference geothermal heat exchangers.
© BRGM [email protected]é
4_Exploded diagrams cutaway views
of the different experimental components
of the platform.
© BRGM [email protected]é
3
4
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 31
Greenhouse gas emissions.
© fotolia
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 32
TOPIC AREAS
> GEOLOGICAL STORAGE
> STORAGE IN AQUIFERS
> SAFETY CRITERIA
> REDUCING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS
> PREDICTIVE MODELLING
> EUROPEAN INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND REGULATIONS
> INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMMES
Geological storage of CO2
Safe
underground
storage of carbon
dioxide
BRGM activities on underground CO2 storage increased sharply in 2007, a trend
which is likely to continue through 2008. For example, we are involved in five
new ANR projects, as coordinating agency for two of these, and in numerous
European partnerships. We have continued to give priority to safety issues arising
from storage in deep aquifers. At national level, we are also contributing to the
project launched by Total (Lacq) in 2007, which is investigating CO2 storage
possibilities in depleted natural gas reservoirs. We are also taking part
in activities aiming to foster other demonstrator projects. In parallel, under
the Centre Region’s Project Contract with State (CPER), the BRGM will be
coordinating a preliminary study on CO2 storage in a deep aquifer near Artenay
(Loiret département), downstream from a planned second-generation biofuel
production plant. Engineering studies are conducted by Geogreen, a joint
company established in 2007 by Geostock, the IFP and the BRGM. All these
activities are supported by public information campaigns on this new
technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Geological CO2 storage
allows cleaner fossil fuel combustion, and in the case of biofuel combustion,
the emissions balance is negative – in order words, it helps to clean up the
atmosphere.
“
Time is getting short - sites
selected for CO2 storage must be
operational by 2020.
Christian Fouillac
Research Director
”
1
2
1_Safety criteria: proposed reference
scenarios for CO2 injection
and storage behaviour (normal
and degraded).
© BRGM
2_Scientific exchanges and symposia:
BRGM-IFP-ADEME symposium on CO2
capture and storage, 4 - 5 October
2007.
© BRGM [email protected]é - P. Desbordes
3_Physico-chemical impacts: injection
and storage of CO2 in a North Sea
gas reservoir (K12B). 3D diagram of a
grid model.
© BRGM
4_Demonstration pilot at Lacq
Aquitaine: hydrogeological synopsis
produced for TOTAL’s pilot CO2
injection plant.
© BRGM
3
4
Highlights
2007
Safety criteria
Preliminary list of safety criteria for storage in
deep aquifers in the Paris Basin. Analytical
models built for rapid assessments of leakage
risks and their impacts. Support to the MEDAD
to develop French proposals for the European
Framework Directive on underground storage.
Scientific exchanges and symposia
The BRGM is now managing the European
CO2GeoNet on CO2 storage. We organised
two major events in 2007, in Paris: the
CO2GeoNet Training & Dialogue Workshop
on CO2 geological storage on 3 October
(www.co2geonet.com/NewData.aspx?) and,
on 4 - 5 October, a symposium on CO2 capture
and storage with the ADEME and the IFP.
Physico-chemical impacts
of injection
A new research field where the heterogeneity
of the natural environment is taken into
account to assess physico-chemical impacts
of injection on scales ranging from rock pores
to reservoirs. Collaboration with the EC-funded
HPC-Europa Visitor Programme on the very
large volume of calculations involved in
coupling flows and chemical interactions.
Russia and China
Start of the European INTAS project with Russia
to assess storage capacities in western Siberia.
With China: strengthened collaboration to
assess the most promising storage opportunities
in the north-east of the country (Bohai Basin).
Geological
storage of CO2
GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CO2
> Aquitaine
ANR symposium in Pau
(December 2007)
Communication: geological modelling of
complex carbonated reservoirs and workflow
design for site characterisation, descriptions
of chemical disturbances around boreholes
arising from injection (injectivity), modelling
of the mechanical behaviour of cap rocks and
statistical methods to assess the limits
of injection pressures (integrity), design of a
low-cost technique for geophysical monitoring.
30%
of the increase in the
BRGM’s R&D budget
in 2006 and 2007 was
allocated to CO2 storage
+61%
> Aquitaine
Demonstration pilot at Lacq
In turnover, 2006-2007
BRGM-Total cooperative programme at the
Rousse site: preliminary hydrogeological site
characterisation to build a far-field
hydrogeological model. BRGM contributions
to dialogues with the citizens concerned.
€4.44 m
or 3.94% of BRGM
turnover in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 33
GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CO2
Flagship project 2007
“
Demonstrating the feasibility of CO2
storage in deep aquifers requires highly
detailed modelling of all physical,
geochemical, hydrological and other
mechanisms involved.
MODELLING CO2 STORAGE
IN AQUIFERS
The BRGM has been working for some 15 years on issues arising
from underground CO2 storage, especially in deep aquifers. Potential
storage aquifers, containing briny waters that are unfit for use, are
located at depths of 800 m to 2500 m. The initial aim was to test
the feasibility of storing CO2 in this way, using models as well as data
from pilot sites (such as Sleipner, offshore from Norway).The current
objective is to acquire the more detailed knowledge required to
establish safety criteria.
Defining safety criteria
One of the issues is injection, the first stage in the storage process.
All previous studies showed that it is the injection stage that triggers
the strongest mechanical, chemical, hydraulic, thermal and other
reactions. One important outcome in 2007 was a description of the
three main change phases in the zone closest to the injection borehole. During the first phase, the aquifer remains in its initial state
where the porous environment is saturated with water. In the
second phase, the CO2 injected combines with the briny water, acidifying the surrounding environment. Phase 3 is when the CO2 tends
”
Pascal Audigane
Hydromodelling specialist
to fill all the rock pores, depending on how long and how fast the
gas is injected (within several dozen years at a flow rate of several
million tonnes per year).The process is then known as “dewatering”.
Specific studies are needed to predict the chemical effects of acidification and dewatering (mineral dissolution/precipitation) as well
as mechanical effects, which may influence injection capacities and
the leakproof properties of the storage reservoir. These studies are
being conducted for a potential storage site in the Paris Basin, with
a theoretical rate of injection of 1 million tonnes a year for 20 years.
We are also looking into problems arising from the heterogeneous nature of the environment in which CO2 is injected. Up to now,
most models were developed for homogeneous environments.
However, geological and chemical heterogeneity must be investigated to ensure that simulations of spatial migration and geochemical
interactions are based on sound data.
All these activities are geared to the definition of safety criteria.
One of these concerns injection pressure: if this is too high, the rock
may fracture. Another criteria relates to the behaviour of the CO2
once it is injected into the aquifer. The issue here is to predict
the spatial distribution of CO2 in the aquifer in the short term
(10 to 20 years) and then in the next 1000 years. A third topic relates
to the risk of fissures appearing or reappearing in the cap rock, which
would allow the gas to leak out.
Developing proposals for the Framework Directive
Digital simulation
of a CO2 bubble rising
through a clayey
reservoir interbedded
with clay lentils.
Structural heterogeneity
plays a key role in the
migration of stored CO2.
© BRGM [email protected]é
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 34
One of our objectives is to provide the government with expert
advice for the preparation of the French proposals for the European
Framework Directive on greenhouse gas storage. Our expertise in this
area is recognised at the national and European levels. For example,
the BRGM was recently entrusted with the management of the
European CO2Geo2Net network of excellence. This covers a wide
range of topic areas including laboratory testing and modelling of the
geochemical and geomechanical impacts of CO2 on borehole rock and
cement.
2
1
3
4
1_Diagram centred on a CO2 injection
borehole drilled into an aquifer.
© BRGM
2_Modelling the migration of CO2
dissolved in brine in an aquifer,
4 years, 100 years and 2000 years
after the start of injection.
© BRGM
1 000 years
The time-scale in which
effective storage must be
guaranteed
3_Gradual dissolution of CO2 in
the brine of a reservoir followed
in the long term by partial
mineralisation.
© BRGM
4_Injection and storage of CO2
in a North Sea gas reservoir (K12B).
The injected CO2 migrates through
the most permeable zones of
the reservoir, forcing methane gas
towards the two production
boreholes.
© Gaz de France
5_The BRGM is managing
CO2GeoNet, a European network
of excellence.
6_Modelling possible leakage
from an abandoned borehole that
connects the storage aquifer with
another aquifer nearer to the
surface. Simulations are used
to estimate potential leakage rates
according to borehole locations.
5
© BRGM
6
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 35
A petrifying spring near Digne in Provence.
© BRGM [email protected]é - F. Michel
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 36
TOPIC AREAS
> HYDROSYSTEM FUNCTIONS
> PREDICTIVE MODELS
> 3D AQUIFER MAPPING
> MAPPING OF THE GEOCHEMICAL BOTTOM LAYER IN FRANCE
> UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DIFFUSE POLLUTION
> MANAGEMENT TOOLS
> ARCHIVING AND DISTRIBUTION OF DATA
> DECISION-SUPPORT TOOLS
> MANAGEMENT OF TRANSBOUNDARY RESOURCES
Water
Water quality
and sustainable
resource management
The adoption of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), and its daughter
directive on groundwater, was initially accompanied by a data acquisition phase,
followed by the organisation of water table monitoring. We have now reached
the most important phase in the implementation of these directives, involving
the development of measurement programmes for each basin and action plans
comprising initiatives to achieve and protect the required standards of water
quality. The BRGM is closely involved in the entire process, providing support to
the relevant water agencies and authorities. In parallel, we are continuing our
research on diffuse pollution and its mechanisms, on the characterisation of
natural and human pollutants, on complex systems (such as karsts), and on the
socio-economic aspects of water management (cost-benefit analyses of different
policies). As well as contributing to European programmes, we are working with
emerging countries such as China, India and Brazil to seek alternative resources,
and with Saudi Arabia to develop sustainable management approaches. As climate
changes take hold, groundwater resources can only increase in importance, and
this is what we are preparing for with our partners.
“
In Europe, we first need
to restore water quality, while
in the countries of the South, the
overriding aim is to preserve
the quantities of water required
to lessen the impacts
of drought.
”
Didier Pennequin
Head of the Water Department
1
2
1_Regional information systems
on groundwater: a synoptic map
of potential groundwater reserves
in Martinique.
(extracted from the SIGRES multi-layer
information system)
2_Karstic aquifers: a typical
karst, from the feed zone to
the immersed zone.
© BRGM - H. Fournié d’après Alain Mangin.
3_Transboundary resource
management: a regional geological
and hydrogeological model
(Estonia and Russia) developed for
aquifer management.
© BRGM / GDM - MARTHE
3
Highlights
2007
Re-using wastewater
Participation in 2 European projects
(RECLAIMWATER, SAFIR) on the use of nonconventional water resources (artificial
replenishment of water tables with wastewater).
Partnership with VEOLIA Environnement on
active resource management (reuse of water,
artificial replenishment, preventing saline
intrusion, etc.).
> Picardy
Climate change impacts
Predicting high water levels
Start of the VULCAIN research project on the
impacts of global changes on resource
management in the Mediterranean environment
(Languedoc-Roussillon).
Under a Franco-British partnership (INTERREG III
project - A FLOOD1) and following the
implementation of measurement site at WarloyBaillon (Somme, N. France), improved qualitative
understanding of saturation/desaturation cycles
and water table fluctuations according to
climate variations.
Socio-economic issues
Development of a methodology for cost-benefit
analyses in partnership with the RhoneMediterranean and Corsican water agencies,
with applications for cost estimates of water
protection methods (on the scale of a district or
regional water management plan - SAGE ) and
environmental benefit assessments.
Karstic aquifers
As part of its karst research projects, including
the European MEDITATE project (2004-07)
which it coordinated, the BRGM is developing
methods and tools for water abstraction from
karstic aquifers, for quantifying their potential
and for active management of these resources.
Management of transboundary
resources
Application of the Water Framework Directive
to water management at Lake Peipsi, between
Estonia and Russia: integrated resource
management model, information system,
impact studies, support tools for transboundary
management, etc.
Vocational training for the water
sector
Development, in partnership with the
International Water Office, of a major project
to establish a vocational training centre for the
water sector in Saudi Arabia (management,
abstraction, distribution, district sewerage and
water treatment).
Reactive transfers
Advances in understanding the phenomena
involved in mass exchanges in non-saturated
hydrogeological environments characterised by
the coexistence of three phases: gas, saltwater
and porous and/or fissured groundmass.
Applications envisaged for studies on
contaminant transfers.
> Rhône-Alpes
Water table rise
Under a multiannual research and development
agreement between the Greater Lyon area and
the BRGM: coupled 3D hydro-dynamic model of
the Rhône and Saône rivers to assess risks of
water table rise in the Greater Lyon area when
the two rivers come into spate.
> Aquitaine
Water
WATER
2/3
of the water used by
households (3.6 billion
m3/year) is abstracted
from water tables. In
the developed countries,
household demand has
been dropping by 1% per
year in the last 15 years
Management of water tables in the
Gironde département
The BRGM’s contribution to groundwater
management under a collaborative programme
with the Council for the Gironde département
(Conseil Général) resulted in the implementation
of a monitoring network that will have been
operating for 50 years in 2008. In 2007, these
activities covered 166 piezometres (including 56
“WFD facilities”) and 49 quality metres (including
36 “WFD facilities”). The data acquired are used
for the Gironde deep aquifers water
management plan (SAGE), for assessing potential
resources, managing water abstraction and
diagnosing the condition of water tables to meet
WFD requirements.
> Martinique
A regional information system
on groundwater
Partnership with the regional authority since
2005 to assess potential groundwater resources.
In 2007, presentation of the first phase
(quantitative aspects) of the SIGRES regional
information system on groundwater in
Martinique. These indicate that the island's
groundwaters would be sufficient to counter
the drinking water deficit predicted for 2015.
Studies are continuing in 2008 on water quality
and vulnerability.
+5%
in turnover for the Water
Department, 2006-2007
€18.07m
turnover for the Water
Department, or 16.05%
of BRGM turnover in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 37
WATER
Flagship project 2007
“
Our projects on water are fully in line
with recent major policy initiatives arising
from the Grenelle environment forum,
European framework directives, the common
agricultural policy and directives on
sustainable pesticide use.
DIFFUSE POLLUTION:
THE COUNTDOWN
Under the WFD, all member states must prove, by 2015, that
the quality of water bodies covered by their action plans (officially,
implementation by the end of 2009) is effectively up to the required
standard. Diffuse pollution, particularly from farming (nitrates,
pesticides, etc.), is of major concern. The mechanisms of pollutant
transfer in soils and subsoils must be fully understood in order to
model and predict their behaviour and define appropriate measures.
The BRGM has been actively working on these issues for some
15 years, producing a number of proposals on methodology and
analysis techniques (isotope analyses in particular), while also
working to identify new water resources.
Nitrate pollution - a major problem
Among its activities at European scale, the BRGM has produced
an extensive description of phytosanitary product use in farming,
with an assessment of the environmental risk in each type of environment. The study involves 15 partners in nine countries working
Pesticides
Laurence Chéry
Hydrogeochemist
”
under the European FOOTPRINT project, which is coordinated by the
BRGM. The results are being incorporated into easy-to-use software
packages with which users can make approximate assessments
of pesticide transfers to water bodies at any geographical scale
(European, national, catchment basins and individual farms). These
tools are already helping decision-makers to set priorities. The next
stages will involve acquiring more detailed knowledge (transfer patterns in space and time, risks of water table contamination, etc.).This
is the aim of the European AQUATERRA project, in which the BRGM
is also involved.
Concerning methodology, the BRGM is using new tracers to
improve measurements of the rate of subterranean transfers of
pollutants in fertilisers and phytosanitary products. For example,
halogenated compounds (CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113) and sulphur
hexafluorides (SF6) were used in 2007 to date underground waters
in different hydrogeological contexts, including volcanic systems in
Martinique, fissured bedrock aquifers in Brittany and sedimentary
formations in the Loire-Brittany and Ile-de-France regions.
Nitrates are a major issue. BRGM studies in this area are focusing on the processes involved in natural denitration, to obtain more
accurate quality assessments of underground and surface waters in
catchment basins and identify more appropriate sites for drinking
water abstraction according to their natural denitration potential.
For example, a deep drilling campaign in 2007 identified naturally
denitrated water resources in the subsoil in Brittany. We are now
considering the development of in situ pilot sites for groundwater
denitration.
EU penalties deferred until 2009
1
Pesticide
transfer
2
Accumulation in
the water body
1
Pesticide transfers
into groundwater.
© BRGM [email protected]é - M. Villey
Soil
Non-saturated
zone
1
Piezometric
level
Zone saturated with
groundwater
2
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 38
In Brittany again,we developed a rapid modelling approach for nine
catchment basins, on request from the Ministry for Ecology. Our study
showed that a one-third reduction in nitrate inputs in 7 out of 9 basins
is needed to comply with current standards (50 mg / l nitrates). This
study aimed to achieve European nitrates standards in the Brittany
region, at resulted in the implementation of new measures and local
level that enabled France to obtain a further deferment of penalties,
until 2009, from the European Commission, in the current dispute
on this matter.
1_Deep drilling maximises
water collection and helps to
purify drinking water by natural
denitrification.
© BRGM [email protected]é
2_Pesticides are a source of
groundwater pollution.
© Fotolia
3_Main mechanisms involved
in pesticide leaching from the
surface into water tables.
© BRGM
1
4_Measuring parameters for a
project on pesticide transfers
into non-saturated zones
and groundwater (alluvial
groundwater table in the Ariège,
southern France).
© BRGM [email protected]é
-33%
The cuts required
in nitrogen inputs to comply
with nitrate standards
2
3
4
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 39
A pit-head at Lewarde in northern France.
© BRGM [email protected]é - F. Michel
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 40
TOPIC AREAS
> OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF HYDRAULIC SAFETY INSTALLATIONS
> OPERATION AND SURVEILLANCE OF RISK PREVENTION SYSTEMS
> STATE-DELEGATED RESPONSIBILITY FOR SAFETY ENGINEERING
> MANAGEMENT OF INTERMEDIATE MINE ARCHIVES
> MANAGEMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF MINE INFORMATION
Post-mining
Mine safety
and conservation
of mining records
The BRGM’s department for mine safety and risk prevention (DPSM) was
established in 2006 to manage post-mining activities. These have continued
to grow through 2007, and now cover virtually all of mainland France, with
the (temporary) exception of Alsace, Lorraine and Franche-Comté. The DPSM’s
activities concern all former mining sites, whatever the substances mined, for
which the State has had to take over responsibility. They cover issues such as
safety for people and property, quantitative and qualitative water management
and monitoring of soil stability and gas releases. The DPSM has also conducted
safety engineering work to fill in galleries and mine shafts in derelict iron mines
in Normandy, and sulphur mines in Marseille, for example. The department also
manages intermediate technical archives formerly held by mine operators, mainly
in the public sector, converting them into digital form to ensure ready access to
all records in the event of an emergency. For all these activities, the department
calls on the expertise of former public-sector mine operators, mainly
Charbonnages de France. By the end of 2008, with the establishment of the
fourth territorial post-mine unit (UTAM) for Eastern France at Freyming
Merlebach, the DPSM’s activities will cover all of mainland France.
“
Post-mine management is one
of the phases of sustainable
development and planning
in former mining areas.
Jean-Luc Foucher
”
Head of the Mine Safety
and Risk Prevention Department
1
2
3
4
1_Maintenance and optimisation work
on water management facilities at Salsigne in
the southern Massif Central.
© CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE – ANMT
2, 3 et 6_Monitoring, drilling and infilling
to consolidate shallow mine galleries (Calvados,
Normandy).
© CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE – ANMT
4_Infilling to consolidate a former dynamiting
site at Bouvigny-Boyeffle in the Calais region.
© BRGM [email protected]é
5_Archives from mine workings in southern
France.
© CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE – ANMT
5
POST-MINING
Post-mining
Highlights
2007
Transferring know-how
and preserving records
Charbonnages de France seconded 22 employees
to ensure a smooth handover of site management
when responsibility for mine workings and
safety installations was transferred to the State
after the company was dissolved on 31-12-07.
Deployment of the post-mine
management mission
Creation of two territorial post-mine units
(UTAM) for the Centre-West and Southern
regions, in Orléans (Loiret) and Gardanne
(Bouches-du-Rhône), bringing total UTAM
coverage to three quarters of mainland France.
> Languedoc-Roussillon
> Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur
Water treatment plant
Mining risk prevention
Operational management of a water treatment
plant located on a former mine-working
at Salsigne (Aude), as part of overall site
management. Maintenance and optimisation
tasks: improved water collection and monitoring
systems, and grassy embankments created
along sectors eroded into gullies by heavy rains.
Refurbishment of the BRGM premises at
Gardanne (Bouches du Rhône) to receive
mine records from the southern French
regions. Sixteen m3 of archives from the
Salsigne gold mine and Charbonnages de
France are already housed at the site,
awaiting sorting, conditioning, indexing,
referencing and loading into the database.
> Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Location of mine shafts and safety
engineering
Location on the surface of mine shaft 1,
at Annezin (Vendin-lez-Béthune concession,
Pas-de-Calais) by analysing département
archives and the Charbonnages de France
intermediate technical records (managed by
the DPSM). Infilling to consolidate a former
dynamited site at Bouvigny-Boyeffles
(Gouy-Servins concession, Pas-de-Calais).
1.4
billion
tonnes
of coal extracted in 50 years
of coal mining in France,
through 1800 mine shafts
and 4000 galleries
+314%
in turnover for the Mine
Safety and Risk Prevention
Department, 2006-2007
> Normandy
Safety engineering
Infilling to consolidate galleries close to the
surface (below houses and roads), for example
at Saint-Martin-de-Fontenay (Saint-André-surOrne mining concession in the Calvados
département) and May-sur-Orne
(May-sur-Orne mining
concession, Calvados).
6
€7.58 m
turnover for the Mine
Safety and Risk Prevention
Department, or 6.73% of
BRGM turnover in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 41
POST-MINING
Flagship project 2007
“
The BRGM is responsible for
monitoring the necessary safety
measures introduced after the
cessation of mining operations.
”
Jean Werstler
Technical Coordinator for hydraulic
safety engineering
HYDRAULIC SAFETY ENGINEERING
IN THE NORD-PAS-DE-CALAIS
COAL BASIN
Coal mining finally came to an end in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais in
the late 1990s, as the last coal cobbles were extracted from the
Oignies mine between Lens and Lille. Decades of coal mining
inevitably left their mark on the landscape, which is still pitted
with hollows that formed as soils subsided, obstructing natural
water flow. Successive mine operators, and finally Charbonnages
de France, set up dewatering plants to restore water flow. The
BRGM is now responsible, on behalf of the state, for ensuring the
continued operation of these facilities. This is one of the missions
entrusted to the UTAM-Nord at Billy-Montigny (Pas-de-Calais).
These hydraulic safety facilities are essential to the safety of
populations and housing in the coal basin, as they help to prevent
flood risks.Two of the 54 existing facilities were handed over to local
authorities in 2007, so that the BRGM is responsible for the
remaining 52. The facilities are designed to operate according to
highly specific criteria: for example, they cannot be left idle for more
than eight hours at a stretch.
24-hour surveillance
The BRGM subcontracts technical maintenance to specialised
companies. At present, three of these cover the main sectors of
the coal basin around Valenciennes, Douai and Lens-Bruay. Sites
are monitored continuously for 24 hours a day, with staff on call
in the event of a breakdown, due to pump failure, vandalism or
electricity outages for example. The largest facilities typically run
seven pumps, with a nominal output per station of up to
10 000 m3/h. The total volume of water pumped in 2007 amounted
to just over 100 million m3, with annual variability obviously directly
correlated to rainfall.The safety record is excellent as no breakdown
exceeding eight hours was recorded.
The Territorial Post-Mining Unit for
the Nord département is responsible
for operating hydraulic safety
installations and water pumping
stations in particular.
© CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE – ANMT
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 42
1
3
4
2
1_Oignies is the oldest coal mine in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais
region.
© CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE – ANMT – 1990
2_The Petit Diable water pumping plant at Onnaing in
northern France.
© CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE – ANMT
3_Subsidence at the Saint-Pierre-Bis station near Thivencelle,
northern France.
© CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE – ANMT
4_The station at Waziers pumps out 10 000 m3 of water
per hour.
© CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE – ANMT
2, 3, 4_The Nord-Pas-de-Calais region’s 54 operational water
pumping stations restore surface water flow in areas where
derelict mine workings have caused subsidence.
100
million m3
of water pumped from the
Nord-Pas-de-Calais coal basin in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 43
The Al Hoceima earthquake,
24 February 2004 (Morocco).
© BRGM [email protected]é - H. Modaressi
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 44
TOPIC AREAS
> MECHANISMS UNDERLYING GEOLOGICAL RISKS
> DEVELOPING MONITORING SYSTEMS AND PREDICTIVE MODELS
> MAPPING GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS AND ASSOCIATED RISKS
> URBAN AND COASTAL PLANNING
> DATABASE DISTRIBUTION
> VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS
> CLIMATE CHANGE
> SECURITY ANALYSES
Natural risks
Risks, vulneralility
and socio-economic
impacts
As climate change takes hold, security and the necessary assessments of natural
or human-induced risks have become matters of increasing concern. Climate
risks are now compounding or magnifying the effects of geological hazards
such as earthquakes. There are two strategic lines of action: risk reduction and
adaptation. From the scientific point of view, this requires multidisciplinary
and multi-risk studies to improve our knowledge on risks to the safety of certain
sites that arise from land movements, coastal erosion and seismic activity.
The BRGM has gained widely recognised expertise in all these aspects, both
in France and abroad, and is now responsible for managing and/or coordinating
a large number of national and European projects. In practice, we implement
innovative evaluation methods designed to gradually incorporate risk-sensitive
socioeconomic parameters into our models. To address the transboundary - and
sometimes global - scale of certain risks, we are also contributing to numerous
international projects, particularly with the countries of the South.
“
To address the combined effects
of geological and climate
hazards, multi-risk analyses
have become essential.
Hormoz Modaressi
”
Head of the Planning
and Natural Risks Department
1
2
1_A GIS for Sri Lanka: tsunami
risk map (high risk > 3m,
average 1 - 3m, low < 1m).
© BRGM [email protected]é
2_Seismic risks in Iran:
co-seismic deformation study
at Bam (Iran) by radar
interferometry.
© M. de Michelle
3_Cyclone swells: swamped
areas at Capesterre (Guadeloupe)
during cyclone Dean.
© BRGM [email protected]é
4_Cyclone swells: significant
height (H1/3) of south-westerly
cyclone waves 13m in height out
to sea with a 12-second wave
period.
© BRGM - R. Pedreros ou S. Lecacheux
3
4
Highlights
2007
Five new European projects
The BRGM is coordinating three of five new
projects on risks under the 7th FPRD: MIA-VITA
(volcanic risks), ENSURE (resilience to risks),
DIGISOIL (digital soil mapping), MOVE
(vulnerability) and MICORE (coastal risks).
Three ANR projects
EVSIM (vulnerability of buildings to seismic
risks), MISEEVA (socio-economic and
environmental vulnerability to submersion
risks), Belle-Plaine (soil liquefaction).
Seismic risks plan for France
Creation and management of the
www.planseisme.fr site for the MEDAD.
Preliminary studies of tsunami risks (Caribbean,
French Mediterranean area). Seismic microzoning of Guadeloupe’s Mahault-Lamentin Bay
and updating for Fort de France, Schoelcher and
Lamentin in Martinique. Seismic risk scenario
for the Bouches-du-Rhône département.
Seismic risks in Iran
Identification by remote sensing of co-seismic
deformations during the Bam earthquake (2003).
Micro-zoning of four major cities co-managed
with DKP (Iranian engineering consultancy).
Decision-support activities
On behalf of the General Delegation for
Armaments, feasibility study for an integrated
decision-support system to assess trafficability
for various machines over different zones, based
on satellite, aerial and map data amongst others.
A GIS for Sri Lanka
Production of a coastal multi-risk GIS incorporating effects due to the tsunami, to coastal
erosion, coastal submersion and sea level rise.
Applications: land planning and risk reduction.
Seismic characteristics of a nuclear
power plant site in Slovenia
Assessment of seismic risks in two potential
sites for the construction of a new nuclear power
plant close to the existing facility at Krsko.
> Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur
Seismic emergency simulation
Contribution, with the State and local
authorities, to development, organisation and
feedback from a seismic emergency exercise in
the Bouches-du-Rhône département.
Organisation and monitoring were managed
with software developed by the BRGM.
> Mayotte, Guadeloupe
and Martinique
Cyclone swells
Modelling of cyclone swells affecting the reef
and lagoon around Mayotte to estimate marine
submersion. Characterisation of wave impacts
along the coasts of Guadeloupe and Martinique
during cyclone Dean.
Natural
risks
NATURAL RISKS
By 2010,
> French Caribbean
Earthquake analysis
Analysis of data from the November 2007
earthquake in the Caribbean and its
consequences: induced land movements,
damage to buildings, etc. (observations,
interpretation of measurements and digital
simulations).
> Centre Region
Flood risks from ruptured
embankments along the Loire River
A 3-year programme was initiated under a
research and development agreement with the
DIREN for the Centre Region, to determine the
presence of karsts beneath public-owned
embankments in the Loire basin in order to
prevent risks of collapse associated with these
natural cavities. In 2007, a geological and
hydrogeological study produced an accurate
geological map of the Loire Valley, highlighting
the substrate beneath the embankments.
150
million
people
will be living in large
harbour cities threatened
by storm surges and high
winds.
(source: OCDE, 2008)
-9%
in turnover for the
Natural Risks Department,
2006-2007
> La Réunion
Geological studies on the
substrate beneath the planned
Tram-Train link.
The planned rail link between Saint-Paul and
Saint-Benoit includes a section of about 20 km
of tunnels through the Massif de la Montagne
in the northwest of La Réunion. The BRGM was
commissioned to produce a synopsis and a
model of the geological data acquired (ground
surveys, deep boreholes and geophysical
profiles) along the different variants envisaged
for the route. These studies revealed hitherto
unknown complex geological objects and
structures. The digital 3D model built by the
BRGM proved to be an essential tool in
developing tunnelling approaches through
critical underground structures.
€14,69m
turnover for the Natural
Risks Department,
or 13.04% of BRGM
turnover in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 45
NATURAL RISKS
Flagship project 2007
“
Prevention policies necessarily rely
on vulnerability assessments.
ASSESSING VULNERABILITY
TO ANTICIPATE RISKS
Vulnerability is a determining factor of risk, whether due to
natural or human causes. What degree of damage to industrial
zones, towns of villages can be expected in the event or an earthquake or volcanic eruption? Anticipating risks and adequate planning
measures (for buildings, road networks, etc.) depends on finding
answers to this question.Vulnerability analyses are used to translate
a given hazard level into an estimated degree of risk. The concept of
physical vulnerability to seismic risks is fairly well understood today,
and our emphasis today is on vulnerability to other risks.
The vulnerability concept is usually addressed from four different
angles. Physical vulnerability concerns structural damage (to buildings and infrastructure) on the scale of a given territory. Systemic
or functional vulnerability relates to the links between urban or
regional systems and economic and social systems. Social vulnerability encompasses the vulnerability of populations, organisations
and institutions. Finally, economic vulnerability concerns both microeconomic damage (to local production facilities for example) and
macro-economic damage (market impacts for example). Up to now,
BRGM studies have mainly focused on physical and systemic vulnerability.
Sri Lanka: simulation of the maximum height of the tsunami
above sea level.
© BRGM
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 46
”
Evelyne Foerster
Engineer in soil dynamics, civil
engineering and digital modelling
From land movements to tsunamis
This is the case with land movement risks, which we investigated under the European LESSLOSS project, completed in 2007, using
a pilot site in Italy. In the late 1990s, the municipality of Corniglio
(Parma Province) sustained severe damage from a landslip. An
inventory of the damage was carried out, as well as an assessment
of physical vulnerability to differential settling of the ground
within a given zone.This produced fragility contours, which highlight
the probability of damage according to the intensity of a phenomenon. Contour maps of this kind will be used to build scenarios for
other risk-prone regions.
Different kinds of natural risks arise from tsunamis.The Sri Lanka
project is working to develop a methodology for assessing vulnerability to tsunami risks, based on data from the tsunami that
swept across South-East Asia in late 2004. A great many observation missions have been carried out in the south-east of Sri Lanka
in order to draw up an inventory of damage and conduct surveys
among the population. Again, the resulting data we used to produce
fragility contours. A similar approach is being used under the ANR’s
recently launched VULSACO project to test the vulnerability of
sandy beaches to climate change effects and human pressures.
Also of note are developments in our approach to multi-risk analysis, for example in an assessment, on behalf of the World Bank,
of vulnerability in Algiers to several different risks including earthquakes, land movements and flooding.
In parallel, we have also begun assessments of socioeconomic
vulnerability, for example under the European ENSURE project which
the BRGM is coordinating. The VULNERISK project, launched by
the BRGM in 2006, is modelling losses according to the intensity
of a given phenomenon and the scale of damage. Ultimately, the
aim is to integrate all aspects of vulnerability within an overall
approach.
1
3
2
the
2ndlargest
share
of compensation paid out by
the French natural disasters fund
(CatNat) was for damage caused
by clay soil swelling and shrinkage
5
4
1_Tsunami wave propagation at
-25, -110, -230 and -250 mn (Sri Lanka 2004).
© BRGM [email protected]é
2_Major lateral displacement caused by soil
liquefaction (Mexico 1985).
© BRGM [email protected]é
3_Damage along Sri Lanka’s coasts caused
by the December 2004 tsunami.
© Photo GSMB
4_Digital model of the landslide at Corniglio
(Italy): comparison between computed
and observed displacement (from 04/07/96
to 04/11/96).
© Source: BRGM et Studio Geotecnico Italiano, S.r.l.
5_Soil liquefaction causes buildings to lean
over (Nigata, Japan 1964).
© Steinbrugge Collection, NISEE
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 47
A holding tank for acid waters
from a sulphur mine.
© BRGM [email protected]é - D. Cazaux
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 48
TOPIC AREAS
> IMPACTS OF POLLUTION AND RISK ASSESSMENTS
> OVERALL WASTE MANAGEMENT
> CONFINEMENT SYSTEMS
> RECYCLING AND RECOVERY PROCESSES
> DEPOLLUTION TECHNIQUES
> INVENTORIES OF DERELICT INDUSTRIAL SITES
> ENVIRONMENTAL SITE MANAGEMENT
> ASSISTANCE IN DEVELOPING REGULATIONS
> THIRD-PARTY EXPERT STUDIES FOR CONCEPT DOCUMENTS
Contaminated land and waste management
Fostering
responsibility for the
environment and health
The creation in 2007 of the Ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development
Planning (MEDAD)*, and the recommendations produced by the Grenelle
Environment Forum have given new emphasis to the overall context of the
BRGM’s activities. The objectives set out in the national plan have confirmed
the validity of our policies in the last few years on preventive action for the
environment and health, as implemented through our research, public policy
support or international cooperation activities. Our projects on waste are
working to reduce impacts by analysing and optimising waste management
and recycling methods to reduce the consumption of mineral raw materials.
Since 2006, we have been keeping records of groundwater quality monitoring
in sites directly beneath listed industrial facilities and contaminated sites.
In 2007, we launched a new programme to identify sensitive establishments,
such as daycare centres and schools, located in former industrial sites.
*Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Planning (MEEDDAT) since March 2008.
“
2007 has seen
an overall increase
in our public service
activities.
”
Hervé Gaboriau
Head of the Industrial
Environment and Innovative
Processes Department
1
1
2
1_Bacteria photographed through an optical
microscope after fluorescent marking.
© BRGM [email protected]é
2_Landfill site rehabilitation: programme for a
24-hectare landfill in the city of Pune (India).
© BRGM [email protected]é
3
3_Guyana: mercury concentrations in river water
downstream from a gold panning site.
© BRGM [email protected]é - V. Laperche
4_The BRGM’s thermodynamics database
(http://thermoddem.brgm.fr).
5_A barge carries a boring tool to take samples
from the estuary of the Margajita River (Lake
Hatillo, Dominican Republic - 2007). © BRGM [email protected]é
4
5
Highlights
2007
Third-party expert studies
Third-party expert studies on risks and impact
studies in all aspects of contaminated land
and listed facilities management, commissioned
by companies or the DRIRE.
Thermodynamic database
With partners, production of a database of
digital calculations of the chemical balance
when water, rock and gases interact in
sedimentary systems, contaminated soils and
mineral wastes (http://thermoddem.brgm.fr).
Greenhouse gas emissions
from landfill sites
Launch with partner organisations of the
ISOBIOGAZ project on isotope methods to
quantify overall greenhouse gas emissions through
the covering materials of storage facilities for
household and similar waste.
Molecular ecology
Development of molecular tools (genetic
fingerprinting) to further our understanding of
the diversity, functions and changes over space
and time in bacterial ecosystems. Applications
include geomicrobiology, natural mitigation and
bioprocesses.
Mining environments
In the Dominican Republic: study on the
mechanisms of two catchment basins
(Margajita and Maguaca rivers) and Lake Hatillo,
which in the last 13 years have been the main
outlets for methyl-bearing wastes from the Pueblo
Viejo gold mine and the Bonao nickel mine.
Environmental and health risk assessment study.
Landfill site rehabilitation
A programme for a 24-hectare landfill in the city
of Pune, India (3.7 million inhabitants), containing
2.5 million tonnes of waste: recommendations
on reducing waste volumes, covering materials,
biogas recovery and use and leachate collection
and the groundwater monitoring network.
Listed facilities
In compliance with the directives on water
and groundwater, archiving of data from
groundwater quality monitoring directly
beneath listed facilities and contaminated sites
(ADES databank: http://www.ades.eaufrance.fr/),
and development of IT tools for downloading
and processing the data.
> Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur
Integrated risk management
For the member organisations of the new
municipal services federation for western
Provence (Bouches-du-Rhône), design of a
decision-support tool based on multi-criteria
analyses, for case-by-case risk assessments in
development planning projects and industrial
and/or urban redevelopment programmes.
> French Guiana
Mercury concentrations
Completion of a project in Guiana aiming to
draw up a country inventory of mercury
concentrations in river sediment and in
carnivorous fish (in cooperation with the CNRS).
The study determined natural background
geochemical mercury in sediments,
distinguished the share for which gold-mining
is responsible and assessed how this relates to
the presence of mercury in the flesh of
carnivorous fish. On an initiative from the
Prefect of Guiana, the project resulted in an
action plan to reduce mercury impregnation
among exposed populations.
Contaminated land and
waste management
CONTAMINATED LAND AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
85%
of our R&D projects
are under contract
+6%
in turnover for the Industrial
Environment and Innovative
Processes Department,
2006-2007
> Franche-Comté Region
Nickel concentrations in soils
This study was carried out to characterise
and map soils in the Franche-Comté Region
according to natural nickel concentrations.
A semi-quantitative analysis of the risks of
exceeding the 50 mg/kg threshold for nickel in
soils was performed on the scale of the region
as a whole. The mapping process provided
information on zones where soils are likely
to contain high natural nickel concentrations,
which can be used to select spreading zones
in accordance with the regulations in force.
€11.23m
turnover for the Industrial
Environment and
Innovative Processes
Department, or 9.97% of
BRGM turnover in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 49
CONTAMINATED LAND AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
Flagship project 2007
“
Building on its existing expert knowledge
on primary mineral resources, the BRGM
is now looking into secondary deposits
associated with recycling.
”
Dominique Guyonnet
Hydrodeologist, head
of the waste management
department
RECYCLING WASTE
AND REDUCING CO2 EMISSIONS
Reducing consumption in every form has become an imperative.
Savings are needed in fossil fuel use, because reserves are becoming
depleted, because prices are rising, but especially to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Savings are also needed in the consumption
of mineral raw materials, largely for the same reasons. And the
volume of waste also has to be reduced to prevent harm to the
environment.The BRGM is closely involved in all these areas through
national European and international programmes.
Recycling - a threefold challenge
In response to the European Union's goal of achieving what the
Commission has called a “recycling society,” the BRGM has proposed
a range of tools, including for decision support. For example, we are
coordinating the FORWAST project (6th FPRD, which has a twofold
aim: one is to draw up an inventory of materials stocks that have
accumulated within the 27 member countries of the EU, with a
forecast of the quantities of waste to be anticipated, by resource
category, in the next 25 years; the other is to assess the environmental impacts of different scenarios (prevention, recycling and waste
treatment).
Generally speaking, recycling raises issues that fall into three
main categories. One is the recovery of secondary resources, which
requires waste sorting techniques. Another is environmental
characterisation and evaluation. The third is the reduction of CO2
emissions. The BRGM is working actively on all three fronts.
For example, we are building on our long-established know-how
in mineral separation techniques to separate the components of
different wastes and produce purified fractions, either for use as
alternatives to primary resources or for environmental protection
purposes. At our dedicated facility in Orléans, we are looking in
particular into electrical and electronic equipment recycling and the
treatment of low-dosage pollution in soils and sediments.
The LIMULE2 project (on multi-scale lixiviation), cofinanced by
the ADEME, is investigating the behaviour of residues degraded by
meteoric waters (moisture precipitated from the atmosphere), to
further understanding of their environmental impacts.
Development and frugal resource use
Finally, the BRGM is taking an increasing interest in synergies
between waste recycling and CO2 emission reductions. For example,
we are coordinating the ANR’s DECALCO project, which is aiming to
improve the environmental performance of the Solvay process for
producing sodium carbonate: the CO2 released is used to stabilise
hyperalcaline briny residues into carbonates that can then be recycled.
Recycling is set to become one of the foundations of an economic system that will need to reconcile development and frugal
resource use, an approach to which the BRGM is already actively
contributing.
Test rig for
studying
carbonation in
solid waste.
© BRGM [email protected]é
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 50
2
LIMULE: Lixiviation Multi-Echelle
1
2
4
180
million
tonnes
of demolition waste are
produced each year
in the European Union.
1_Deposits of waste materials have highly
variable characteristics.
© BRGM [email protected]é - D. Cazaux
3
2_Domestic waste tonnages by
management method.
Source: ADEME (2006)
3_LIMULE: large soil column for
monitoring water percolation through
incineration ash.
© BRGM [email protected]é
4_Microprobe analysis and image
processing to identify the carrying phases
of metallic pollutants and/or understand
the mechanisms of CO2 trapping.
© BRGM [email protected]é
5_A sorting facility for household and
similar waste.
© BRGM [email protected]é
6_Spiral-path treatment of sediment.
© BRGM [email protected]é
5
6
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 51
Automated processes are used to prepare
carbonated rocks in very small quantities (<100µg)
for isotope analysis. © BRGM [email protected]é
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 52
TOPIC AREAS
> MONITORING NETWORKS
> MEASUREMENT TRACEABILITY AND RELIABILITY
> ON-SITE AND CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENTS
> GLOBAL ALERTING INDICATORS
> REFERENCE LABORATORY
> INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION
Metrology
A research field in its
own right
Measurement quality relies on rigorous and detailed prior analysis of the nature
and representativeness of samples, accurate determination of the analysis matrix
and the choice of appropriate techniques. Our priorities in the area of metrology
are to identify and quantify the mineral and organic micropollutants found in
groundwaters and the components of soils and subsoils. Our primary aim is to
supply geological data for internal needs, such as isotope dating of geological
formations, and data to support environmental protection. We also provide
supporting documentation for public policy development, which has to be based
on reliable knowledge and data on mineral and organic substances that are
potentially dangerous to people or the environment. Finally, we conduct research
and development work to design innovative analytical tools that help to
understand pollutant transfers and to trace them back to their sources. We are
involved in a great many national and European projects and contribute actively
to the AQUAREF virtual laboratory. This was established in mid-2007 in order to
exchange and pool the analytical expertise of five public institutions to support
implementation of the Water Framework Directive. At the same time, we are
seeking innovative solutions to address future challenges such as new and lowdosage polluting substances.
“
Data quality for analytical
purposes requires highly
sophisticated methodologies,
techniques and expert
knowledge.
”
Gilles Hervouët
Head of the Metrology,
Monitoring and Analysis department
1
2
1_Herbicide migration: taking on-line
measurements during percolation through a soil
column.
© BRGM [email protected]é
2_Infra-trace metals: quadripolar ICPMS
instrument with collision-reaction unit.
© BRGM [email protected]é
3_Geothermal potential in Tahiti: iron-bearing
carbonated springs in the Leiefaatautau valley.
© BRGM [email protected]é
4_Water resource management in Mayotte:
a hillside reservoir near Dzoumogné.
© BRGM [email protected]é
3
4
Highlights
2007
Zircon dating
Successful implementation of the U-Pb isotope
dating method using zircons to date the
deposition of quaternary volcanites (coupled
laser ICP/MS-MC). Validation by the SHRIMP
benchmark and independent whole-rock
40Ar/39Ar method.
Integration of isotopic monitoring
Demonstration of the effectiveness of isotope
monitoring for environmental water
management: feasibility of water body
characterisation and impact analyses on
sources of NO3 pollution (European ISONITRATE
project); identification of sources of industrial
pollution in surface and groundwaters using
isotope measurements (Pb, Cd, Zn) (European
AQUATERRA project).
Herbicide migration
Metrology
METROLOGY
Our study of a C14-dated 2.4-D herbicide in
sterile agricultural land using a bromide tracer
produced a contour plot and computed
sorption parameters.
A new isotope technique
Development of Ca isotope analysis using
thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS).
Application: analyses of groundwaters and rock
weathering processes.
Pharmaceutical compounds
Continuation of the European KNAPPE project
(6th FPRD) to assess current knowledge on
pharmaceutical compounds found in the
environment (identification, impacts and risks).
> Mayotte
Sustainable water resource
management
Analysis of the current structure and functions
of plankton communities found in the Combani
and Dzoumogné water reservoirs, with
a physico-chemical description of their
environment.
different substances and
physico-chemical parameters
are analysed in our
laboratories
> Tahiti
-5%
Geothermal potential
Infra-trace metals
Acquisition of a new-generation quadripolar
ICPMS instrument to analyse trace and
infra-trace elements in environmental matrices
(water, soils, mud, waste and sediments) and
geological matrices (rocks and minerals).
1200
For the government of French Polynesia,
geological observations and hydrogeochemical
measurements in the field; chemical and
isotope analyses of water, gases and rock and
spring deposits; thermal modelling.
in turnover for the
Metrology, Monitoring
and Analyses
Department, 2006-2007
> Centre Region
Archaeometry
A study on the origin of the black pigments
used in the Garenne cave paintings
(Saint-Marcel, Indre): our multi-technique
mineralogical approach excluded the possibility
that these pigments were of native origin or
from the Massif Central.
€4.39m
turnover for the
Metrology, Monitoring
and Analyses Department,
or 3.90% of BRGM
turnover in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 53
METROLOGY
Flagship project 2007
“
Layered double hydroxides could
offer a new solution for arsenic
and nitrate depollution and possibly
for CO2 capture.
NANOMATERIALS
TO CLEAN UP POLLUTION
Layered double hydroxides (LDH) make up a family of materials
that was first discovered in the 19th century and which could be used
to trap substances such as nitrates, arsenic or CO2. LDHs are among
the very few known anion exchangers among mineral species.
When chemically broken down into amorphous oxides, they are
capable of reforming, so that they can be used repeatedly. They are
rare in the natural world, but can now be chemically synthesised
into LDHs using a non-toxic process.
A low-cost depollution method
The chemical composition of LDHs, which are generically written
as [M(II)1-xM(III)x(OH)2] [An-]x/n.mH2O, can be highly varied. For
example, M(II) will be a divalent cation such as Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+,
Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and so on, while M(III) is a trivalent cation such as Al3+,
Fe3+, Cr3+ or Ga3. The interfoliar anions (An) that give structures their
”
Fabian Delorme
Materials Physics
and Chemistry specialist
stability are as likely to be Cl- chloride anions as fragments of ADN.
Typically, unwanted anions are trapped either by reconstructing
mixed oxides or by substituting much less toxic interfoliar anions
(An-) that are then released into the environment.
A method for synthesising LDHs from common industrial minerals and/or certain industrial wastes was developed in 2004 for
large-scale production at much lower cost than with previous
techniques (SYNTHDL project). The process also results in microto nano-particles whose composition is suitable for the target
applications.
One of these applications is water depollution. Studies carried out
in 2005 showed that LDHs can completely purify water with arsenic
concentrations similar to those found in Bangladesh (six times
higher than the maximum levels set by the WHO). A project financed
by the Centre Region (TRAINIT), involving the BRGM and the
University of Orléans Institute of Earth Sciences (ISTO), starting in
2008, will be looking into the potential of LDHs for eliminating
nitrate pollution from water tables in the Beauce cereal-growing
region.
From feasibility to optimisation
Another potential application is CO2 capture, more specifically in
its anionic form (CO32- carbonates). The BRGM has developed an
innovative process under the ANR’s CAPCO2 project, in partnership
with the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), several university laboratories and CNRS research teams and companies such as Lafarge, Gaz
de France and Arcelor. Preliminary results show that the capturing
potential of LDHs is similar to that of amines, with much lower
environmental toxicity. Having demonstrated the technical feasibility of the process, the project is now working to optimise energy
consumption for LDH regeneration, to ensure that the process can
become economically viable.
LDH microparticles synthesised from volatile ash.
© BRGM
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 54
1
2
Each LDH “molecule”
will trap
1 molecule
of CO2
4
3
Couche octaédrique
1_Nanoparticles of layered double hydroxides (LDH)
synthesised from magnesium.
© BRGM
2_Diagram of X-ray diffraction showing pH influence
on the crystalline structure of LDHs.
3_Tests on trapping mineral species with LDHs.
© BRGM [email protected]é - D. Chauveau
4_Diagram of LDH structure and trapping methods.
© BRGM
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 55
Managing data on soils and subsoils
for interoperability.
© BRGM
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 56
TOPIC AREAS
> DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
> ARCHITECTURE, MAINTENANCE, USE AND SECURITY OF IT INFRASTRUCTURE
> COMPUTING, 3D VISUALISATION AND VIRTUAL REALITY
> INTEROPERABILITY AND WEB DISTRIBUTION
Information Systems
Towards
“intelligent”
database searching
Our activities are aiming to meet increasing demand for georeferenced data,
at European, national, regional and local levels. We have therefore adopted a
proactive strategy for transposing the European INSPIRE Directive (adopted in
April 2007), aiming to apply its founding concepts in France and to explain the
issues, principles and rules involved to local authorities. The INSPIRE Directive
is designed to guarantee the interoperability of environmental data, whatever
their source. This has guided our work in developing a new version of the InfoTerre
portal, which provides access to georeferenced information produced by the
BRGM and other organisations and to a wide range of online services.
The number of searches through our web sites continued to grow in 2007,
with the environment and natural resources featuring as the main concerns.
To cater more effectively for user needs, we have decided to implement an
“intelligent” search engine that will simplify data searches and improve access,
including for non-specialists, to the dozens of databases run by the BRGM.
All these dimensions, from semantics to “intelligent” classification and
cross-searching, are to be continued and upscaled.
“
Environmental information
is more than ever a core
requirement for policy
development.
”
Jean-Marc Trouillard
Head of the Information Systems
and Technology Department
1
2
1_Environmental mapping:
http://carmen.ecologie.gouv.fr/
2_Enhanced reality techniques are
used to combine actual observations
with virtual models.
3_The Géocatalogue: version 2 came
on line in late 2007, with improved
search functions.
4_The “Sensor web” concept, an
integrated system through which
sensors transmit their position,
link up to the internet and record
metadata for remote reading.
© 2006 Open Geospatial consortium, Inc.
Tous droits réservés.
3
4
Highlights
2007
Environmental mapping
The MEDAD has commissioned the BRGM to
host and distribute its online cartographic
platform (Carmen), which is used to produce
and disseminate maps highlighting
environmental issues via the government's
regional web sites (http://carto.ecologie.gouv.fr).
Groundwaters: the ADES website
The ADES was entirely renovated in 2007 to
offer more user-friendly access and new
downloading features (http://ades.eaufrance.fr).
All cartographic information is now
interoperable and access to high-quality data
is provided through online services that are
compatible with the water information system
(SIE).
Information
systems
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Digitised public reports
Public reports produced by the BRGM have
been digitised and the full text can now be
accessed on the BRGM web site. 7883 reports
are already available for downloading free of
charge.
The Géocatalogue
Version 2 of the Géocatalogue (a catalogue
and search engine available from the national
Géoportail) came on line in late 2007, with
improved search functions provided by a new
“intelligent” search engine developed by
Exalead.
On-line sensor data
Under a research project on new information
technologies, tests were made on new
interoperability standards for sensor data and
online access. A prototype is now providing
access to real-time data on water levels from
several piezometric sensors.
BRGM website
searches up by
+300%
Enhanced reality
As part of the ANR’s Raxenv project (enhanced
reality applications for the environment),
demonstration of the feasibility of using these
systems in the field to combine actual
observations and virtual models.
Virtual servers
+38%
in turnover for the
Information Systems and
Technologies Department,
2006-2007
Implementation in physical virtualisation
architecture servers to cater for the increasing
load of website distribution functions. The new
infrastructure (nine large physical servers) is
able to run some 170 virtual machines.
€8.85m
turnover for the Information
Systems and Technologies
Department, or 7.86% of
BRGM turnover in 2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 57
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Flagship project 2007
“
The InfoTerre portal
provides free access
to all geoscientific information
produced by the BRGM.
INFOTERRE: INFORMATION
AT THE CLICK OF A MOUSE
The first version of the InfoTerre portal went on line in 1998. Our
objective was to make all geoscientific information produced by the
BRGM available to all potential users (decision-makers, geologists,
engineering consultancies, etc.) through the internet. The basic
idea was to present information in map form, with digitised maps
gradually phasing out traditional maps in printed form. The new
version completed at the end of 2007 enhances the functions of
InfoTerre as a gateway to information (http://infoterre.brgm.fr),
thanks to the implementation of interoperability standards and the
exclusive use of Open Source applications.
What does InfoTerre contain? Suppose a decision has been made
to develop a given locality in mainland or overseas France. Decisionmakers can connect to InfoTerre to access all the geoscientific
information they need for the zone in question, including groundwater resources, their depth, their geological structure, the location
”
Pierre Lagarde
Information Systems
Engineer
of existing boreholes and their characteristics, as well as any
natural risks to which the area might be subject (land movements,
clay soil shrinking and swelling, seismic risks, etc.) and contaminated
soils and sites.
Interoperability, ergonomics…
The ergonomics of new version of the portal have been entirely
redesigned (web 2.0) to rely exclusively on the Open Geospatial
Consortium (OGC) interoperability standards. The aim is to be able
to display information from very different sources with just a
few mouse-clicks, including data outside the BRGM’s spheres of
activity. One example is the data produced by the CEMAGREF on
avalanche risks, which can be displayed on InfoTerre and coupled
if need be with our own data on land movement risks. Users can
therefore access information from other geoscientific data producers without the need to transfer them first to the BRGM website.
We also make every effort to comply as closely as possible with applicable standards under the European INSPIRE Directive, which came
into force in May 2007.
…and efficiency
In parallel, we are pursuing our technological work to improve
efficiency, given that the applications and interfaces handled by the
portal require very large computing capacities. Concerning content,
we are also continuing efforts to post information from the different BRGM departments on line (including reports, catalogue entries,
map legends and so on), after a very demanding validation phase.
Finally, on the key factor of ergonomics, information needs to be
accessed as rapidly as possible and we are therefore working to
develop harmonised semiological bases that will meet the need for
maximum efficiency in user-friendly operation.
InfoTerre allows the consultation
of digital geological maps.
© BRGM
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 58
1
Tools to prepare ones own map
(composition and location, …).
2
2
1000
3
visits each day
to the Info Terre site
1_The Infoterre 2007 interface.
2_Metadata help to visualise and
understand data by describing each data
layer and how it is represented.
3_Searching for and accessing data:
in this example, relevant data is associated
with the drilling operation selected.
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 59
In-house professional environment
A RECRUITMENT POLICY
TO MEET OUR CHANGING NEEDS
Female
recruitment
up from 30%
to
40 %
in 10 years
Like the previous year, 2007
saw a high level of recruitment,
with 40% of women included
in the initial target of 100 new
employees, despite a relatively
unfavourable context due to a
certain amount of tension in
the job market generally, which
is affecting all research fields
and is especially perceptible in
the geosciences.
Profiles to match our needs
Recruitment in 2007 also featured a change in
employee profiles. In particular, there has been a
“
Recruitment to the
BRGM remained at high
levels in 2007.
Anita Slansky
Recruitments,
Mobility and
Careers Officer
”
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 60
A geologist surveys a sediment
cross-section in Mauritania.
© BRGM [email protected]é - O. Serrano
significant increase in graduate recruits from
Group A engineering schools, although most of
our scientific staff is obviously recruited at PhD
level, with geology, hydrogeology and geotechnology predominating.
Our recruitment in 2007 has enabled us adjust
the distribution of our staff between different
topic areas, by defining profiles that match the
BRGM’s changing needs. Training also leverages
development, and we slightly exceeded our training scheme objectives in 2007.
Encouraging mobility
Finally, in-house mobility is also helping to
adapt our areas of expertise to the current
issues we need to address, and is strongly
encouraged. A marked upward trend in 2007 is
likely to continue through 2008. About sixty
employees, including engineers, technicians and
administrative staff, were able to benefit from
inplacement incentives during the year.
Christelle Gandrille,
an accountant with the BRGM
> BRGM staff by departments
ANGDM staff
(post-mining)
Mining and processes
99 persons*
38 persons
Information
technology
78 persons
Hydrogeology
1008 people**
Supporting occupations
133 persons
193 persons
on the BRGM payroll
as of 01/01/2008
Operational occupations
815 persons
Chemistry
and geochemistry
Geotechnology
50 persons
111 persons
Geophysics
Documentation
and publishing
39 persons
39 persons
Geology
228 persons
*Staff seconded to the BRGM from the national agency for mining staff employment
in post-mine activities, including 76 people as from 1 January 2008.
**Including 7 post-doc students, 8 doctoral students, 8 civilian technical assistance
volunteers (VCAT ) and 11 staff on sandwich courses.
> Age pyramid
at 01/01/2008:
356 manual workers, technicians
and supervisors
652 engineers and executives
55
≥ 60
111
8
69
55-60
96
91
50-55
45-50
72
Average age
70
51
40-45
66
44.5 years
Average age
47.1 years
80
14
35-40
83
30-35
24
23
25-30
75
4
≤25
6
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 61
In-house professional environment
QUALITY
MORE CONSISTENT,
MORE VISIBLE
The BRGM is pursuing its policy for strengthening
and adjusting skills to match current issues facing
environmental and geosciences.
Inter-disciplinary integration
In late 2007, the AFAQ-AFNOR Certification
Agency renewed the BRGM’s ISO 9001:2000
certification for all its activities and premises
for a period of three years. We had first obtained
certification in December 2004.
Thanks to our customer-geared policy, we have
been able to define clear targets at all levels
of BRGM organisation. These have resulted in
responses that are more closely matched to both
in-house and external demands and expectations. At a time of rapid growth in our activities,
the “process approach” is effectively removing
divisions between disciplines and helping all staff
members to develop an overall, practical view of
their individual activities. The result is greater
satisfaction among customers and partners, at
central government and
local levels, companies and
research institutes and also
at European and internaOur approach
tional levels (cooperation
has successfully
and development assisimplemented quality
tance organisations).
improvement
Our new management
as a dynamic
system has promoted betprocess.
ter handling of mechanisms
such as calls for tenders
from public administrations, companies and
agencies, and more effective fulfilment of StateRegion project contracts, Carnot projects and
international projects.
Towards ISO 14001 certification
Our policy for continuous improvement is opening up the BRGM to new and more ambitious
goals, for example on environmental issues in the
wake of recommendations from the Grenelle
Environment Forum. We constantly try to anticipate social needs, and this is why we are now
considering an ISO 14001 certification procedure.
The “sustainable development” commission set
up in 2007 within the BRGM works council
reflects the determination of the BRGM and
its staff to work in practical ways towards
rational management approaches to the major
issues of the 21st century.
“
”
Florence Auclaire
Quality Manager
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 62
The four cycles of quality assurance
(planning - doing - acting - checking)
are implemented continuously.
TRAINING
TRAINING PROGRAMMES
IN ALL OF THE BRGM’S TOPIC
AREAS
Over and above our research, public service and
international cooperation activities, we make every effort
to transfer BRGM knowledge and know-how to others.
Trainee numbers up by 40% in 2007.
© BRGM [email protected]é
Particular emphasis was given in 2007 to training
in two topic areas, water and contaminated
lands and waste. Examples were the training
sessions on the new regulations and methodological developments in the area of contaminated soils and sites. These sessions were
organised in close collaboration with the
Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable
Development and Planning. The BRGM has
effectively become a reference institution for
technical training in these areas.
Our training programmes also cover all our
other topic areas, albeit to a lesser extent. On
natural risks, for example, training modules on
offer address not only seismic risks, but also
risks arising from land movements and clay soil
swelling and shrinkage. We also offer courses on
mineral resources as well as pioneering modules
for the geothermal and geological storage
sectors. Our training programmes are designed
to cater for very different levels of knowledge,
and range from introductory courses to highly
specialised technical modules.
Trainee numbers are on the increase
Most of the BRGM’s training activities are in
continuing vocational training, with courses
designed for a very broad audience including
government services, public institutions, local
authorities, engineering consultancies and
industries. Customers from different organisations increased by 64% in 2007 (from 98 to
just over 160), while the number of course
participants increased by 40%. Training sessions
are organised into inter-organisation courses, inhouse (custom designed) courses and combined
56
training
sessions organised
in 2007, up by 14%
sessions attended by BRGM agents on in-house
training schemes and external customers.
Partnerships for training
The BRGM is also involved in initial training, in
partnership with academic institutions or in
response to individual requests from its staff,
many of whom are in regular demand from
universities and higher education establishments
(grandes écoles).
2007 also saw the introduction of a new system
of co-produced training programmes, with the
ADEME on geothermal heat pumps, for example,
with the INERIS and the School of Higher
Laurent Albouy
Head of Training Programmes
Studies on Public Health (EHESP) in Rennes on
chronic health risks arising from contaminated
sites and soils, and with the
Rennes Agrocampus on soil
science applications to indiThe BRGM has become
vidual sewerage systems.
a reference establishment
At the BRGM, we believe
for technical training in water
that training is one of our
issues and contaminated
fundamental missions - in
environments.
other words, transferring
knowledge and know-how
to all those involved in the geosciences and, more
generally, in sustainable development issues.
“
”
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 63
The BRGM Group
SUBSIDIARIES AND HOLDINGS
The BRGM’s subsidiaries and holdings are grouped into three holding companies,
SAGEOS (engineering and geothermal energy), SERGAP (instrumentation) and
BRGM SA (residual BRGM holdings in the mining sector).
BRGM Group Structure
at 31 December 2007
BRGM
(EPIC)
SAGEOS
SERGAP
100%
100%
BRGM SA
COFRAMINES
68,6%
100%
31,4%
GEOTHERMIE
BOUILLANTE
IRIS
GEOGREEN
60%
51%
20%
CFG SERVICES
METSO
MINERALS CISA
100%
49%
ERAMET
1,4%
CFG Services
In 2007, SAS CFG Services achieved a turnover
of ¤7.5m and an after-tax profit of ¤0.12m.
> Chairman: Jean-Michel Prévosteau
> Turnover: ¤7.5m
> BRGM holding: 100%
> Payroll: 38 employees
Jean-Michel
Prévosteau
Chairman
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 64
Turnover for their Heat Production and
Management Division, specialising in the maintenance of low-energy geothermal installations
in the Paris region, increased by 20% over the
previous year. This upturn stems from the
feasibility studies carried out for the renovation
of existing facilities, and from new projects.
The high-energy division is continuing its programme of exploratory drilling in La Réunion,
preparing for the reconnaissance of the northern
part of the Bouillante reservoir with a new
drilling programme and pursuing the examination of a project for Dominique, which is
hoping to export its surplus power to
Guadeloupe and Martinique. A new
operating contract for the Bouillante
plant in Guadeloupe was implemented
in 2007. Studies on the behaviour of facilities
have begun, focusing on fluid reinjection as a priority.
Internationally, CFG Services is running projects
in China, Kazakhstan, Spain and the Azores.
Finally, 2007 saw the completion of studies on
a device for field measurements of biocorrosion
in steel piping for fluid transport. Marketing is
expected to begin in the next few months.
1
Géothermie Bouillante SA
Géothermie Bouillante specialises in the
development of power supplies from geothermal energy in Guadeloupe and the Caribbean
region as a whole.
> Chairman: Didier Houssin
Géothermie Bouillante runs the only power
plant in Guadeloupe’s Basse-Terre area and
contributed almost 8% of the island’s electricity
supplies in 2007.
> EDEV holding (EDF group): 40%
Power production in 2006 did not achieve
cruising speed until the summer (industrial commissioning of the B2 facility in July); on 1 January
2007 , the Operations and Maintenance contract
came into force, whereby GB handed over plant
operations and maintenance to CFG Services
for a period of ten years, with binding obligations
as to results.
Production from the B1 facility in 2007 was
18.2 GWh, and 76.8 GWh from B2, amounting to
a service availability rate, expressed in operating
time, of 84% (compared to 30% in 2006) and 91%
(86% in 2006) respectively. These excellent
results confirm that plant operation is now
largely stable.
After two years of simultaneous operation of
the B1 and B2 facilities, the anticipated reduction
in well-head pressure caused a reduction in the
flow of geothermal fluid, justifying financing
commitments in 2007 for two studies, to be
concluded in 2008, on:
> Managing Director: Francois Le Lann
> Turnover: ¤10.4m
> SAGEOS holding (BRGM Group): 60%
> Payroll: operations are contracted out to CFG
Services, with 11 employees on site and support
from experts at the Orleans head office
• Modelling of the operations of the geothermal reservoir and feasibility of reinjection of the
geothermal fluids currently released into the sea;
• Possibilities for installing a binary-cycle
plant running on residual fluids, which would
eventually replace the B1 facility now nearing the
end of its useful life (after operating since 1985).
An application was submitted to the energy
control commission (Commission de régulation
de l’énergie - CRE) to increase the sale price per
kWh produced by the B2 facility from 82 ¤/MWh
to 100 ¤/MWh as from 1 November 2006. After
numerous exchanges, a favourable decision from
the CRE was notified on 28 January 2008 to the
EDF and the BRGM. The new contract has been
submitted for signature.
Since the new sale price took effect from
1 November 2006, total income for GB for FY
2007 has reached about ¤10.4m (compared to
¤6.2m in 2006), producing an operating surplus
of ¤0.765m.
Didier Houssin
Chairman
2
1_CFG’s MIC probe mounted on a geothermal duct
in the Paris region to monitor bacterial corrosion.
2_The mixer.
3_The turbine.
3
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 65
The BRGM Group
IRIS Instruments
IRIS Instruments specialises in instruments for
subsoil exploration and surveillance, with applications in hydrogeology, geotechnology, environmental engineering and mineral prospecting.
The company employs 20 people.
> Chairman: Jean Bernard
> Turnover: ¤6.05m
> BRGM holding: 51%
> OYO holding: 49%
> Payroll: 20 employees
Turnover increased by 21% compared to 2006, to
¤6.05m. Operating surplus amounted to 1.89
M?. Net after-tax profit increased by 44% over FY
2006 at ¤1.29m, more than 20% of turnover. A
dividend is to be paid out to shareholders for FY
2006, for the sixth year running.
Growth continued in all markets for the company’s products. Electrical equipment for
exploratory environmental and geotechnology
studies accounted for over half of all product
sales. Most of this product range involves
electrical imaging systems, for which SYSCAL
Pro Switch multi-electrode and multi-channel
measuring equipment is best suited thanks
to its high measurement yields.
Induced polarisation equipment, used for mineral prospecting, accounted for about one quarter of sales. Sales in this range have been growing steadily for seven years, mainly to the traditional Canadian market, but 2007 also saw large
sales volumes in China and Mongolia.
Four PMR instruments (proton magnetic resonance) used for groundwater prospecting were
delivered to France, Jordan, Uganda and Rwanda.
Almost 85% of turnover was from exports, especially to Europe and Asia/Oceania. For the first
time, sales volumes in Africa overtook those to
the Americas. The largest sales were to France,
Russia, Canada, Australia and the United States.
In the R&D field, the industrial prototype of the
PROMIS frequential electro-magnetic profiling
apparatus was made available to customers
for full-scale testing. This instrument is
designed for use in environmental and mineral
prospecting, to detect lateral facies variations
and fault zones. Marketing operations will
begin in Canada, where the technique is most
frequently used.
Development studies began on a multi-sensor
magnetic resonance instrument for groundwater
prospecting, supported by a far-field reference
technique that improves measurement quality
in noisy environments. This new instrument is
expected to attract new customers for products
of this type.
Jean Bernard
Chairman
1
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 66
2
Metso Minerals Cisa
Metso Minerals Cisa is a joint subsidiary of
the BRGM group and the Finnish Metso group,
the world's leading supplier of equipment for the
manufacture of paper and wood pulp and for
mineral ore processing. In 2007, Metso Minerals
Cisa achieved a turnover of ¤21m, an 8% increase
over 2006, which produced a profit of ¤0.22m
after tax and dividends.
As well as its main offices in Orleans, Metso
Minerals Cisa has been running permanent
offices in the United States, South Africa and
Chile for several years.
Since it was established in 1990, the company's main activity has been the design and production of expert automated operating systems
for ore processing plants, using its own OCS©
software (online artificial intelligence), which
continuously pilots ore processing plants on
every continent for the world’s largest mining
corporations, such as Rio Tinto, Anglogold, BHP
Billiton, Newmont, Vale (formerly CVRD), etc.
Metso Minerals Cisa has developed an innovative automatic surveillance system, incorporating OCS© software, for a range of applications:
VisioFroth™ for mineral flotation workshops – a
highly specific application in which Metso
Minerals Cisa is currently the world leader VisioRock™ for crushing and grinding facilities,
and VisioPellet™ and VisioTruck™ for other specialised applications.
> Managing Director: Alain Broussaud
> Turnover: ¤3.21m
> BRGM holding: 49%
> Metso holding: 51%
> Payroll: 13 employees in France and
3 employees à l’étranger
Two new software applications were added
to Metso’s product range in 2007:
• VisioRock-Studio©, for off-line granulometric analyses, with new applications in aggregate
quarrying,
• OCS-Navigator©, an on-line decision-support tool based on response plans.
Turnover in 2007 was mainly from contracts
in the United States, Canada, Chile, Brazil, Australia,
South Africa and Zambia. Sales have continued
to benefit from today’s highly favourable economic conditions in mining industries.
Alain Broussaud
Managing Director
3
1_Magnetic resonance measurements
to prospect for water in Sri Lanka.
2_Demonstration of an electrical imaging
instrument in Russia.
3_Measuring particle size at a landfill dump
with VisioRock-Studio©.
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 67
Scientific papers
A selection of scientific papers published in 2007*
Geology / Natural risks / Water / Metrology / Mineral resources and post-mining /
Contaminated land, wastes and processes / Information systems /
Geothermal energy / Geological storage of CO2
GEOLOGY
MINERAL RESOURCES AND POST-MINING
> Savanier.D., Maury.R.C., Guille.G., Legendre.C., ROSSI.P., Guillou.H., Blais.S., Deroussi.S.
> Ettler.V., JOHAN.Z., Mihaljevic.M., Sebek.O., Bezdicka.P., Klementova.M.
Geological map of French Polynesia (1:50,000), Nuku Hiva sheet (Marquesas Islands).
Orléans: Editions BRGM, Nuku Hiva sheet (Marquesas Islands)
Mineralogy and alteration of fly ash from secondary Pb metallurgy. Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, Vol. 71, issue 15, suppl.
> Maury.R.C., Guille.G., Legendre.C., Savanier.D., Guillou.H., ROSSI.P., Blais.S.
> MORIN.D.
Explanatory notes for the Geological map of French Polynesia (1:50,000), Nuku Hiva sheet
(Marquesas Islands), Orléans: Editions BRGM, Nuku Hiva sheet (Marquesas Islands)
Les biotechnologies appliquées à la métallurgie extractive. Géologues - Revue officielle de
l'union française des géologiques, n° 153, p. 53-57
> DE.MICHELE.M., Briole.P.
> LEROUGE.C., DESCHAMPS.Y., PIANTONE.P., GILLES.C., BRETON.J.
Deformation between 1989 and 1997 at Piton de la Fournaise volcano retrieved from
correlation of panchromatic airborne images. Geophysical journal international, Vol.169, N°1,
p. 357-364
Metal-carrier accessory minerals associated with W+/-Sn mineralization, La Châtaigneraie
tungsten ore district, Massif Central, France. Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 45, part 4, p. 875-889
> Bellot.J.P., ROIG.J.Y.
Episodic exhumation of HP rocks inferred from structural data and P-T paths from the
southwestern Massif Central (Variscan belt, France). Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 29,
issue 9, p. 1538-1557
> THEVENIAUT.H., QUESNEL.F., WYNS.R., Hugues G.
Paleomagnetic dating of the "Borne de fer" ferricrete (NE France): Lower Cretaceous
continental weathering. Palaeogeography - Palaeoclimatology - Palaeoecology, N° 253,
p. 271-279
> CALCAGNO.P., Lazarre.J., COURRIOUX.G., LEDRU.P.
3D geometric modelling of an external orogenic domain: a case history from the western
Alps (massif de Morges, Pelvoux). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, Vol. 178, issue 4,
p. 263-274
> FERAUD.J., Maliqi.G., Meha.V.
Famous mineral localities: the Trepca mine, Stari Trg, Kosovo. Mineralogical Magazine,
Vol. 38, n° 4, p.267-298, 60 figs
> GLOAGUEN.E., Branquet.Y., Boulvais.P., Moëlo.Y., Chauvel.J.J. (coll.), Chiappero.P.J.,
Marcoux.E.
Palaeozoic oolitic ironstone of the French Armorican Massif: a chemical and structural trap
for orogenic base metal-As-Sb-Au mineralisation during Hercynian strike-slip deformation.
Mineralium Deposita, 42:399-422
> ORRU.J.F., PELON.R., GENTILHOMME.P.
Le diamant dans la géopolitique africaine. Afrique contemporaine, Vol 221, 2007-1, pp. 173-204
> Escuder.Viruete.J., Contreras.F., Stein.G., URIEN.P., JOUBERT.M., Perez.Estaun.A.,
N-FindR method versus independent component analysis for lithological identification in
hyperspectral imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 28, issue 23, p. 5315-5338
Friedman.R., Ullrich.T.
Magmatic relationships and ages between adakites, magnesian andesites and Nb-enriched
basalt-andesites from Hispaniola: record of a major change in the Carribbean island arc
magma sources. Lithos, Vol. 99, n° 3, p. 151-177
> Be.Mezeme.E., Faure.G., Chen.Y., COCHERIE.A., Talbot.J.Y.
> CHAMARET.A., O'Connor.M., RECOCHE.G.
Structural, AMS and geochronological study of a laccolith emplaced during the Variscan late
orogenic extension: the Rocles pluton (SE French Massif Central). International Journal of
Earth Sciences, vol.96, n°2, pp;215-228, Plein.txt
Top-down/bottom-up approach for developing sustainable development indicators for
mining: application to the Arlit urganium mines (Niger). International Journal of Sustainable
Development, Vol. 10, n° 1/2, p. 161-174
> Gomez.C., Le.Borgne.H., Allemand.P., Delacourt.C., LEDRU.P.
> COCHERIE.A., LEGENDRE.O.
Potential minerals for determining U-Th-Pb chemical age using electron microprobe. Lithos,
Vol.93, n°3-4, pp. 288-309
> Cartannaz.C., Rolin.P., COCHERIE.A., Marquer.D., LEGENDRE.O., Fanning.C.M., ROSSI.P.
Characterization of wrench tectonics from dating of syn-to post-magmatism in the northwestern French Massif Central. International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.96, n°2, pp.271-287
> Escuder.Viruete.J., Perez.Estaun.A., Contreras.F., JOUBERT.M., Weis.D., Ullrich.T., Spadea.P.
Plume mantle source heterogeneity through time: insights from the Duarte Complex,
Hispaniola, northeastern Caribbean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, vol. 112,
issue B4
> Burov.E.B., GUILLOU-FROTTIER.L., Cloetingh.S.
Plume head - lithosphere interactions near intracontinental plate boundaries. Geophysical
Research Abstracts, Vol 9, 05374
> Burov.E.B., GUILLOU.FROTTIER.L., D'Acremont.E., Le.Pourhiet.L., Cloetingh.S.
The plume head lithosphere interactions near intra-continental plate boundaries.
Tectonophysics, Vol. 434, n° 1, p. 15-38
> GUILLOU.FROTTIER.L., Burov.E.B., NEHLIG.P., WYNS.R.
Deciphering plume-lithosphere interactions beneath Europe from topographic signatures.
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 58, n° 1-4, p. 119-140
> Harcouët.V., GUILLOU.FROTTIER.L., Bonneville.A., BOUCHOT.V., MILESI.J.P.
Geological and thermal conditions before the Paleoproterozoic gold-rich event at Ashanti,
Ghana, as inferred from improved thermal modelling. Precambrian Research, Vol. 154, n° 1,
p. 71-87
> GENNA.A., CAPDEVILLE.J.P.
Réorganisation Hydrographiques du Minervois, exemples de la Cesse et du Ruisseau du
Saint-Michel (Hérault, France) au Quaternaire, conséquences géologiques. Quaternaire, n° 18,
p. 271-282
> Longuevergne.L., Florsch.N., ELSASS.P.
Extracting coherent regional information from local measurements with Karhunen-Loeve
transform: Case study of an alluvial aquifer (Rhine valley, France and Germany). Water
Resources Research, Vol.43, n°4, W04430 avril/2007
> BELLOT.J.P.
Pre-to syn-extension melt-assisted nucleation and grouwth of extensional gneiss domes:
The western French Massif Central (Variscan belt). Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 29,
issue 5, p. 863-880
* BRGM authors are indicated by upper-case letters.
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 68
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
> Guisseau.D., Mas.P.P., Beaufort.D., GIRARD.J.P., Inoue.A., SANJUAN.B., Petit.S.,
Lens.A., GENTER.A.
Significance of the depth-related transition montmorillonite-beidellite in the Bouillante
geothermal field (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). American Mineralogist, Vol. 92, issues 11-12,
p. 1800-1813
> Joly.A., Chen.Y., Faure.M., MARTELET.G.
A multidisciplinary study of a syntectonic pluton close to a major lithospheric-scale fault.
Relationships between the Montmarault granitic massif and the Sillon Houiller Fault
in the can French massif Central. Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, Vol. 112, issue
B10
> Manzella.A., FABRIOL.H.
Geophysical methods for EGS investigation: an overview of actual and future perspectives.
Actes/Proceedings of the Engine Mid-Term Conference - Potsdam - Germany - 09-12/01/2007
> LE.BEL.L., Kaltschmitt.M.
Electricity generation from Enhanced Geothermal System. Actes/Proceedings of the Engine
Mid-Term Conference - Potsdam - Germany - 09-12/01/2007
> LEDRU.P.
R&D and industrial perspectives for the development and enhancement of geothermal
systems in Europe. Energy - Challenges of European Research Collaboration - Prague République Tchèque - 05/12/2007
> FOUILLAC.C.
Reinforcing the role of EGS in the future energy mix. Actes/Proceedings of the Engine
Mid-Term Conference - Potsdam - Germany - 09-12/01/2007
> LEDRU.P., GENTER.A.
ENhanced Geothermal Innovative Network for Europe. EGC 2007 - European Geothermal
Congress - 30/05-01/06/2007 - Unterhaching - Germany
> LEDRU.P., Bruhn.D., CALCAGNO.P., GENTER.A., Huenges.E., Kaltschmitt.M., Kohl.T.,
LE.BEL.L., Manzella.A., Thorhallsson.S.
ENhanced Geothermal Innovative Network for Europe: the state of the art.
Actes/Proceedings of the Engine Mid-Term Conference 09-12 January 2007 - Potsdam - Germany
> AZAROUAL.M., Pruess.K., FOUILLAC.C.
Feasibility of using supercritical CO2 as heat transmission fluid in the EGS integrating the
carbon storage constraints
Actes Proceedings of the Engine Workshop 2 Exploring high temperature reservoirs: new challenges for geothermal energy 1-4 April 2007 - Volterra - Italy
> Sausse.J., DEZAYES.C., GENTER.A.
> CZERNICHOWSKI.LAURIOL.I.
From geological interpretation and 3D modelling to the characterisation of the deep seated
BGS reservoir of Soultz (France). EGC 2007 - European Geothermal Congress - 30/0501/06/2007 - Unterhaching - Germany
European efforts towards CCS and confidence building. WORKSHOP ON CONFIDENCE
BUILDING IN THE LONG-TERM EFFECRTIVENESS OF CCS - 24-25/01/2007 - Tokyo - Japan
> Lombard.J.M., LIONS.J.
> CALCAGNO.P.
The ENGINE information system birthday. Actes/Proceedings of the Engine Mid-Term
Conference 09-12 January 2007 - Potsdam - Germany
Interactions roche/fluide: percolations réactives de CO2 dans une roche réservoir du Bassin
Parisien. Congrès ANR 2007 - Captage et stockage du CO2 - 11-13/12/2007 - Pau - France
> SBAI.A., BOURGINE.B., Tarsi.A.
> DEZAYES.C., THINON.I., GENTER.A., COURRIOUX.G.
Clastic réservoirs in the Rhine graben: geothermal potential of the Triassic sandstones based
on seismic profiles and deep boreholes. EGC 2007 - European Geothermal Congress - 30/0501/06/2007 - Unterhaching - Germany
Calcul à haute performances du stockage du CO2 à long terme dans les aquifères salins
profonds. Approches et défis futurs. Congrès ANR 2007 - Capture et stockage du CO2 - 1113/12/2007 - Pau - France
> SBAI.A., BOURGINE.B., Mouche.E., Mügler.C., Vu Hoang.D., Trenty.L., Bernard.D.
> GENTER.A., Patrier.Mas.P., Beaufort.D., DEZAYES.C., Guisseau.D., Ledesert.B.,
Mas.A., Traineau.H.
Clay mineral occurences in volcanic and granitic geothermal contexts: signatures of high
temperature fluid circulations in natural permeable fractures. Actes Proceedings of the
Engine Workshop 2 Exploring high temperature reservoirs: new challenges for geothermal
energy 1-4 April 2007 - Volterra - Italy
Présentation du Projet Hétérogénéités-CO2: Etat d'avancement et objectifs futurs. Congrès
ANR 2007 - Capture et stockage du CO2 - 11-13/12/2007 - Pau - France
> Bildstein.O., Credoz.A., Pironon.J., Hubert.G., Kohler.E., Parra.T., Vidal.O., LIONS.J.,
> GENTER.A., Cuenot.N., DEZAYES.C., Sausse.J., Valley.B., Baumgartner.J., Fritsch.D.
KERVEVAN.C., Lagneau.V.
Approche expérimentale et numérique de l'intégrité d'une couverture argilo-carbonatée en
présence de CO2: cas du callovo-oxfordien du Bassin de Paris. Congrès ARN 2007 - Captage et
stockage du CO2 - 11-13/12/2007 - Pau - France
How a better characterization of a deep crystalline reservoir can contribute to improve EGS
performance at Soultz
> Brosse.E., Dufournet.A., Vidal.Gilbert.S., DURST.P., KERVEVAN.C., Fradet.A.
> GENTER.A., DEZAYES.C., Sausse.J.
How geology can contribute to improve the knowledge of EGS fields in Europe.
Actes/Proceedings of the Engine Mid-Term Conference - Potsdam - Germany - 09-12/01/07
Modéliser le comportement d'un stockage de CO2 pour préparer le dossier règlementaire:
premiers résultats, perspectives, questions ouvertes. Congrès ANR 2007 - Captage et stockage
du CO2 - 11-13/12/2007 - Pau - France
> SBAI.A., AZAROUAL.M.
> SANJUAN.B., MILLOT.R., BRACH.M.
Lithium isotopic signature of high temperature geothermal fluids in volcanic arc islands
(Guadeloupe and Martinique, French West Indies): an efficient tool to constrain the rock
nature of the reservoirs and their depth. Actes Proceedings of the Engine Workshop 2
Exploring high temperature reservoirs: new challenges for geothermal energy 1-4 April 2007 Volterra - ItalyA
GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CO2
> SEYEDI.M., Hild.F.
Vers un modèle probabiliste pour la formation de réseaux de fissures dans les roches lors
de l'injection de CO2. Revue Française de Géotechnique, n° 119, p. 73-82
> ANDRE.L., AUDIGANE.P., AZAROUAL.M., MENJOZ.A.
Numerical modelling of fluid-rock interactions at the supercritical CO2-liquid interface
during carbon dioxide injection into a carbonate reservoir, the Dogger Aquifer (Paris basin,
France). Energy conversion and management, Vol. 48 - pp. 1782-1797
> PAUWELS.H., GAUS.I., LE.NINDRE.Y.M., Pearce.J., CZERNICHOWSKI.LAURIOL.I.
Chemistry of fluids from a natural analogue for a geological CO2 storage site (Montmiral,
France): Lessons for CO2-water-rock interaction assessment and monitoring. Applied
Geochemistry, Vol. 22, n° 12, p. 2817-2833
> BOUC.O.
Safety criteria for geological storage of C02 and methodological investigations for their
definition. CO2NET 2007 Annual Seminar - Lisbon - Portugal - 6-7/11/2007
> FABRIOL.H., Becquey.M., Huguet.F., Lescanne.M., Pironon.J., Pokryszka.Z., Vu Hoang.D.
Surveillance et monitoring du stockage géologique du CO2. Captage et stockage du CO2 Séminaire 2007 - Pau - France - 12-13/12/2007
> BOURGEOIS.B., GIRARD.J.F.
Premières modélisations de la réponse EM d'un stockage de CO2 dans le Bassin Parisien.
Captage et stockage du CO2 - Séminaire 2007 - Pau - France - 12-13/12/2007
> SEYEDI.M., Guy.N., ROHMER.J., DUCELLIER.A., Hild.F.
Modélisation hydromécanique de l'intégrité de stockage géologique de CO2. Captage et
stockage du CO2 - Séminaire 2007 - Pau - France - 12-13/12/2007
> PAJOT.W., LE.COZANNET.G., DEBEGLIA.N., RAUCOULES.D., CARNEC.C.
Surveillance par microgravimétrie et interférométrie radar d'un site d'injection de gaz naturel.
Captage et stockage du CO2 - Séminaire 2007 - Pau - France - 12-13/12/2007
> Brosse.E., Hasanov.H., BONIJOLY.D., Garcia.D., Rigollet.C., Munier.G., Thoraval.A.,
Lescanne.M.
The PICOREF project: selection of geological sites for pilot CO2 injection and storage in the
Paris Basin. Potsdam Workshop (june 2007)
> BLAISONNEAU.A., ANDRE.L., AUDIGANE.P.
Modelling of the hydromechanical impact on the reservoir properties during supercritical
CO2 injection. FIRST FRENCH-GERMANY SYMPOSIUM ON TEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CO2 - 2122/06/2007 - Potsdam - Allemagne
> CZERNICHOWSKI.LAURIOL.I.
CO2GeoNet on going joint research activities. CARBON SEQUESTRATION LEADERSHIP FORUM 26-28/03/2007 - Paris - France
> AZAROUAL.M., Lombard.J.M., Lorizzo.M., Broseta.D., Fourar.M., Billaux.D.,
Saint Marc.J., Egermann.P.
Comportement du puits et du champ proche lors de l'injection de CO2. Congrès ANR 2007
Modelling the transport of particulate suspensions and formation damage during the deep
injection of carbon dioxide. FIRST FRENCH-GERMAN SYMPOSIUM ON GEOLOGICAL STORAGE
OF CO2 - 21-22/06/2007 - Potsdam - Germany
> KERVEVAN.C., DURST.P.
Simulation de l'injection de CO2 dans l'aquifère salin du Dogger (bassin de Paris): premiers
résultats d'un modèle de transport diphasique réactif. CAPTAGE ET STOCKAGE DU CO2 - 1213/12/2007 - Pau - France
> Lombard.J.M., Egermann.P., LIONS.J., ANDRE.L., AZAROUAL.M.
Impact of dissolution / precipitation processes on injectivity during a CO2 injection.
SYMPOSIUM ON GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CO2 - 21-22/06/2007 - Postdam - Germany
> AUDIGANE.P., Oldenburg.C.M., Van.der.Meer.B., Geel.K., LIONS.J., GAUS.I., ROBELIN.C.,
DURST.P., Xu.T.
Hydrodynamics and geochemical modelling of CO2 injection at the K 12B Gas Field. EAGE
2007 - 11-14/06/2007 - London, UK
> ANDRE.L., AZAROUAL.M., MENJOZ.A., KERVEVAN.C., Lombard.J.M., Egermann.P.
Control of supercritical CO2 injectivity in the deep Dogger aquifer of the Paris basin from
different injection scenarios. 1st french-german Symposium on geological storage of CO2 Potsdam - Germany - 21-22/06/2007
> LIONS.J., ANDRE.L., AUDIGANE.P., DURST.P., KERVEVAN.C., AZAROUAL.M., Lombard.J.M.,
Le Gallo.Y., Lesage.A.
Multiple modeling approaches of CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer (dogger formation,
Paris Basin, France). Congrès GEOITALIA 2007 - 12-14/09/2007 - Rimini - Italy
> AUDIGANE.P., ANDRE.L., CZERNICHOWSKI.LAURIOL.I., DURST.P., GAUS.I., LIONS.J.,
ROBELIN.C.
Long term predictions of CO2 migration and fluid rock interaction during CO2 geological
storage. 6th annual conference on carbon capture & sequestration - 05-10/05/07 - New-York USA
> AUDIGANE.P., ANDRE.L., CZERNICHOWSKI.LAURIOL.I., DURST.P., GAUS.I.,
LIONS.J., ROBELIN.C.
Long term predictions of CO2 migration and fluid rock interaction during CO2-geological
storage. EGU 2007 - European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007 - Vienna - Austria 15-20/04/2007
> JACQUEMET.N., Pironon.J., AUDIGANE.P., BURNOL.A., Saint-Marc.J.
Well cement ageing in various H2S-CO2 fluids a high presure and high temperature:
experiments and modeling. 3rd IEA GHG Network Meeting - Santa Fe - USA - 12-13/03/2007
> AZAROUAL.M., ANDRE.L., BLAISONNEAU.A., SBAI.A., Lombard.J.M., Egermann.P.
Etude des scenarios d'injection de CO2 dans l'aquifère salin du Dogger du Bassin de Paris.
Congrès ANR 2007 - 12-13/12/2007 - Pau - France
> RUBERT.Y., Ramboz.C., Lerouge.G., LE.NINDRE.Y.M., Lescanne.M., BENY.C.
Petrographic indicators of CO2 migration in the Montmiral natural analogue. FIRST FRENCHGERMAN SYMPOSIUM ON GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CO2 - 21-22/06/07 - Berlin - Germany
> JACQUEMET.N., BURNOL.A., AUDIGANE.P.
Effets comparés d'une saumure à CO2 et d'une saumure à CO2+SO2 sur un ciment de puits résultats préliminaires de modélisations couplées chimie-transport. Congrès ANR 2007 Captage et stockage du CO2 - 11-13/12/2007 - Pau - France
> GAUCHER.E., Defossez.P.D.C., BIZI.M., PROUST.E.
CO2 storage mechanisms in coal seams. 1st French-German Symposium on Geological Storage
of CO2 - Potsdam - Germany - 21-22/06/2007
> GAL.F., LE.PIERRES.K., Battani.A., Tocqué.E., BRACH.M., BRAIBANT.G., Benoît.Y.
Géochimie des gaz des sols sur un analogue naturel: cas du site de Montmiral (Drôme),
réservoir naturel de CO2. Séminaire ANR CO2 - Pau - France - 12-13/12/2007
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 69
Publications scientifiques
WATER
> Klaver.G., Van.os.B., NEGREL.P., PETELET.GIRAUD.E.
> PINAULT.J.L., Berthier.F.
Influence of hydropower dams on the composition of the suspended and riverbank
sediments in the Danube. Environmental Pollution, 148 (3), p. 718-728
A methodological approach to characterize the resilience of aquatic ecosystems with
application to Lake Annecy, France. Water Resources Research, Vol. 43, n°1, W01418
> NEGREL.P., LEMIERE.B., MACHARD.DE.GRAMONT.H., BILLAUD.P., Sengupta.B.
> Calvet.R., Barriuso.E., DUBUS.I.G.
Application of two surface complexation models to the adsorption of three weak organic
acids by five soils. European Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 58, issue 3, p. 609-624
Hydrogeochemical processes, mixing and isotope tracing in hard rock aquifers and surface
waters from the Subarnarekha River Basin (east Singhbhum District, Jharkhand State, India).
Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 15, issue 8, p. 1535-1552
> MILLOT.R., NEGREL.P., PETELET.GIRAUD.E.
> Barth.J.A.C, Steidle.D., Kuntz.D., Gocht.T., MOUVET.C., Von.Tümpling.W., Lobe.I.,
Multi-isotopic (Li, B, Sr, Nd) approach for geothermal reservoir characterization in the
Limagne Basin (Massif Central, France). Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 22, issue 11, p. 2307-2325
Langenhoff.A., Albrechtsen.H.J., Anniche.G.S., Morasch.B., Hunkeler.D., Grathwohl.P.
Deposition, persistence and turnover of polluants: first results from the EU Project Aquaterra
for selected river basins and aquifers. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 376, n° 1, p. 40-50
> CABALLERO.Y., Voirin.Morel.S., Habets.F.
> FLEURY.P., Bakalowicz.M., De.Marsily.G., Costes.M.
Hydrological sensitivity of the Adour-Garonne river basin to climate change. Water Resources
Research, Vol. 43, issue 7
Functioning of a coastal karstic system with a submarine outlet. Hydrogeology Journal, 11p
> BRENOT.A., Carignan.J., France.Lanord.C., Benoît.M.
Geological and land use controls on delta S-34 and delta 0-18 of river dissolved sulfate:
the Moselle river basin, France. Chemical Geology, Vol. 244, issues 1-2, p. 25-41
> FLEURY.P., Plagnes.V., Bakalowicz.M.
Modelling of the functioning of karst aquifers and flow-rate simulation: Fontaine de
Vaucluse. Journal of Hydrology, 345 - pp. 38-49
> Kumar.D., Ahmed.S., Krishnamurthy.N.S., DEWANDEL.B.
Reducing ambiguities in vertical electrical souding interpretations: a geostatistical
application. Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 62, n° 1, p. 16-32
NATURAL RISKS
> Cruz.Atiena.V.M., Virieux.J., AOCHI.H.
3D finite-difference dynamic-rupture modeling along nonplanar faults. Geophysics, Vol. 72,
issue 5, suppl. S, p. 123-137
> BAGHDADI.N., Holah.N., Dubois.P., Dupuis.X., Garestier.F.
Evaluation of polarimetric L- and P-bands Ramses data for characterizing mediterranean
vineyards. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, n° 6, p. 380-389
> Bou.Keir.R., CERDAN.O., Girard.M.C., Chadi.Abdallah.C.
Submarine springs and coastal karst aquifers. Journal of Hydrology, 339 - pp. 79-92
Importance of taking into account DTM in three dimensions for the mapping of runoff
potential, application to Lebanon. Zeïtschrift für Geomorphologie, Vol. 51, n° 2, p. 207-225
> Calmels.D., Gaillardet.J., BRENOT.A., France.Lanord.C.
> DOUGLAS.J.
> FLEURY.P., Bakalowicz.M., De.Marsily.G.
Sustained sulfide oxidation by physical erosion processes in the Mackenzie River basin:
climatic perspectives. Geology, Vol. 35 - pp. 1003-1006
Inferred ground motions on Guadeloupe during the 2004 Les Saintes earthquake. Bulletin of
Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 5, n° 3, p. 363-376
> MOUVET.C.
> Clouard.V., Campos.J., LEMOINE.A., Perez.A., Kausel.E.
Toward a better understanding of contamination of ground water by pesticides. Ground
Water, Vol. 45, n° 2, p.115
Outer rise stress changes related to the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge, centre
Chile. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 112, B05305
> DEWANDEL.B., GANDOLFI.J.M., Zaidi.F.K., Ahmed.S., Subrahmanyam.K.
> DOUGLAS.J.
A decision support tool with variable agro-climatic scenarios for sustainable groundwater
management in semi-arid hard-rock areas. Current Science of India, Vol. 92, n° 8, p. 1092-1102
Physical vulnerability modelling in natural hazard risk assessment. Natural Hazards and
Earth System Sciences, Vol. 7, n° 2, p. 283-288
> Wendland.F., BLUM.A., Coetsiers.M., Goroya.R., Griffioen.J., Grima.J., Hinsby.K., Kunkel.R.,
> Delacourt.C., Allemand.P., Berthier.E., RAUCOULES.D., Casson.B., Grandjean.P.,
Marandi.A., Melo.T., Panagopoulos.A., Ruisi.M., Traversa.P., Vermooten.J.S.A., Walraevens.K.
European aquifer typology: a practical framework for an overview of major groundwater
composition at European scale. Environmental Geology, DOI 10.1007/s00254-0966-5
Pambrun.C., Varel.E.
Remote-sensing techniques for analysing landslide kinematics: a review. Bulletin de la Société
Géologique de France, Vol. 178, n° 2, p. 89-100
> BARAN.N., Richert.J., MOUVET.C.
> Fukushima.Y., Bonilla.L.F., Scotti.O., DOUGLAS.J.
Field data and modelling of water and nitrate movement through deep unsaturated loess.
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 345, issues 1-2, p. 27-37
> Zaidi.F.K., Ahmed.S., DEWANDEL.B., MARECHAL.J.C.
Optimizing a piezometric network in the estimation of the groundwater budget: a case
study from a crystalline-rock watershed in southern India. Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 15,
issue 6, p. 1131-1145
> PINAULT.J.L., ALLIER.D.
Site classification using horizontal-to-vertical response spectral ratios and its impact when
deriving empirical ground motion prediction equations. Journal of Earthquake Engineering,
Vol. 11, n° 5, p. 712-724
> Souriau.A., ROULLE.A., Ponsolles.C.
Site effects in the ciy of Lourdes, France from H/V measurements: implication for seismic-risk
evaluation. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, Vol. 97, n° 6, p. 2118-2136
> Havenith.H.B., Fah.D., Polom.Y., ROULLE.A
Regionalization of rainfall for broad-scale modeling: an inverse approach. Water Resources
Research, Vol. 43, issue 9
S-wave velocity measurements applied to the seismic microzonation of Basel, Upper Rhine
Graben. Geophysical journal international, Vol 170, p. 346-358
> AUDIGANE.P., GAUS.I., CZERNICHOWSKI.LAURIOL.I., Pruess.K., Xu.T.
> Gélis.C., Virieux.J., GRANDJEAN.G.
Two-dimensional reactive transport modeling of CO2 injection in a saline aquifer at the
Sleipner site, North Sea. American Journal of Science, Vol. 307, issue 7, p. 974-1008
Two dimensional elastic full waveform inversion using Born and Rytov formulations in the
frequency domain. Geophysical journal international, Vol. 168, n° 2, p. 605-633
> BARAN.N., MOUVET.C., NEGREL.P.
> Vouillamoz.J.M., Chatenoux.B., MATHIEU.F., BALTASSAT.J.M., Legchenko.A.
Hydrodynamic and geochemical constraints on pesticide concentrations in the groundwater
of an agricultural catchment (Brévilles, France). Environmental Pollution, Vol. 148 - pp. 729-738
Efficiency of joint use of MRS and VES to characterize coastal aquifer in Myanmar. Journal of
Applied Geophysics, Vol. 61, issue 2, p. 142-164
> PETELET.GIRAUD.E., NEGREL.P.
> GRANDJEAN.G., Malet.J.P., BITRI.A., Meric.O.
Geochemical flood deconvolution in a Mediterranean catchment (Herault, France) by Sr
isotopes, major and trace elements. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 337, issue 1-2, p. 224-241
Geophysical data fusion by fuzzy logic for imaging the mechanical behaviour of mudslides.
Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, Vol.177, n° 2, p. 127-136
> PETELET.GIRAUD.E., NEGREL.P., GOURCY.L., Schmidt.C., Schirmer.M. Geochemical and
> JOUSSET.P., DOUGLAS.J.
isotopic constraints on groundwater-surface water interactions in a highly anthropized site.
The Wolfen/Bitterfeld megasite (Mulde subcatchment, Germany). Environmental Pollution,
Vol. 148, issue 3, p. 707-717
> NEGREL.P., GUERROT.C., MILLOT.R.
Chemical and strontium isotope characterization of rainwater in France: influence of sources
and hydrogeochemical implications. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, Vol. 43,
issue 3, p. 179-196
* BRGM authors are indicated by upper-case letters.
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 70
Long-period earthquake ground displacements recorded on Guadeloupe (French Antilles).
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol.36, n° 7, p.949-963
> THIERRY.P., STIELTJES.L., Kouokam.E., Nguéya.P., Salley.M.P.
Multi hazard risk mapping and assessment on an active volcano: the GRINP project at
Mount Cameroon. Natural Hazards, publié on line
> BERNARDIE.S., Gilbert.J.P., LEBERT.F., FABRIOL.H.
High-frequency hydroacoustic monitoring in an underground iron-mine. Pure and Applied
Geophysics, vol.164, n°1, pp.177-197, Plein.txt
> GIRARD.J.F., BOUCHER.M., LEGCHENKO.A.V., BALTASSAT.J.M.
> D'HUGUES.P., JOULIAN.C., SPOLAORE.P., MICHEL.C., GARRIDO.F., MORIN.D.
2D magnetic resonance tomography applied to karstic conduit imaging. Journal of Applied
Geophysics, Vol. 63, issue 3-4, p. 103-116
Continuous bioleaching of a pyrite in stired reactors: population dynamics and
exopolysaccharide production vs. bioleaching performances. Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 20-21,
p. 62-65
> BAGHDADI.N., PEDREROS.R., DEWEZ.T., LENOTRE.N., Paganini.M.
Effect of polarization and incidence of the ASAR sensor for coastine mapping: example of
Gabon. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 28, n° 17, p. 3841-3849
CONTAMINATED LAND, WASTE AND PROCESSES
> Charlet.L., Scheinost.AC., TOURNASSAT.C., Grenèche.J.M., Géhin.A., Fernandez.A.M.,
Coudert.S., Tisserand.D., Brendlé.J.
Electron transfer at the mineral/water interface: Selenium reduction by ferrous iron sorbed
on clay. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, Vol. 71, issue 23, p. 5731-5749
> LASSIN.A., PIANTONE.P., BURNOL.A., BODENAN.F., Chateau.L., LEROUGE.C., CROUZET.C.,
GUYONNET.D., BAILLY.L.
Reactivity of waste generated during lead recycling: an integrated study. Journal of
Hazardous Materials, Vol. 139, n°3, pp. 430-437, Plein.txt
> MICHEL.C., Jean.M., COULON.S., DICTOR.M.C., DELORME.F., MORIN.D., GARRIDO.F.
Biofilms of As(III)-oxidising bacteria: formation and activity studies for bioremediation
processes development. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 77, issue 2, p. 457-467,
DOI. 10.1007/s00253-007-1169-4
> TOURNASSAT.C., GAILHANOU.H., CROUZET.C., BRAIBANT.G., GAUTIER.A., LASSIN.A.,
Hydraulic properties of sulphoaluminate belite cement based on steelmaking slags.
Advances in Cement Research, 19, n° 3, July, p. 133-138
BLANC.P., GAUCHER.E.
Two cation exchange models for direct and inverse modelling of solution major cation
composition in equilibrium with illite surfaces. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, Vol. 71,
p. 1098-1114, Plein.txt
> BAUDRIT.C., Couso.I., Dubois.D.
> Birke.V., Burmeier.H., Jefferis.S., GABORIAU.H., TOUZE.S., CHARTIER.R.
Joint propagation of probability and possibility in risk analysis: toward a formal framework.
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, Vol. 45, issue 1, p. 82-105
Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) in Europe: potentials and expectations. Italian Journal of
Engineering Geology and Environment, Special Issue 1, p. 31-38.
> Baudrit.C., GUYONNET.D., Dubois.D.
> BLANC.P., LEGENDRE.O., GAUCHER.E.
Joint propagation of variability and partial ignorance in a groundwater risk assessment.
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Vol. 93, issue 1-4, p. 72-84
Estimation of clay minerals quantities from XRD pattern modelling: the ARQUANT model.
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Journal, Vol. 32/1-7, p. 135-144
> Leroy.P., Revil.A., Altmann.S., TOURNASSAT.C.
> Amiard.J.C., Geffard.A., Amiard.Triquet.C., CROUZET.C.
Modeling of the composition of the pore water in a clayrock geological formation
(Callovo-Oxfordian, France). Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, Vol. 71, p. 1087-1097, Plein.txt
Relationship between the lability of sediment-bound metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) and their
bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 72, issue 3,
p. 511-521
> Adolfsson.D., MENAD.N., Viggh.E., Björkman.B.
> Géhin.A., Grenèche.J.M., TOURNASSAT.C., Brendlé.Miehé.J., Rancourt.D.G., Charlet.L.
Reversible surface-sorption-induced electron-transfer oxidation of Fe(II) at reactive sites on
a synthetic clay mineral. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, vol. 71, n°4, pp. 863-876
> Schafer.T., Chanudet.V., CLARET.F., Filella.M.
Spectromicroscopy mapping of colloidal/Particulate organic matter in lake Brienz,
Switzerland. Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 41, p. 7867-7869
> Cailteux.J., Kampunzu.A.B., LEROUGE.C.
The Neoproterozoic Mwashya-kansuki sedimentary rock succession in the central African
Copperbelt, its Cu-Co mineralisation, and regional correlations. Gondwana Research , Vol. 11,
n° 3, p.414-431
> Adolfsson.D., MENAD.N., Viggh.E., Björkman.B.
Steelmaking slags as rax material for sulphoaluminate belite cement. Advances in cement
research, Vol. 19, issue 4, p; 147-156
> DELORME.F., SERON.A., GAUTIER.A., CROUZET.C.
Comparison of the fluoride, arsenate and nitrate anions water depollution potential of a
calcined quintinite, a layered double hydroxide compound. Journal of Materials Science,
Vol. 42, n° 14, p.5799-5804
METROLOGY
> Carignan.J., Vigier.N., MILLOT.R.
Three secondary reference materials for Li isotope measurements: Li7-N, Li6-N and LiCl-N.
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, Vol. 31, n°1, p. 7-12
> WIDORY.D.
Nitrogen isotopes: tracers of origin and processes affecting PM10 in the atmosphere of Paris.
Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, issue 11, p. 2382-2390
> Cravo-Laureau.C., Labat.C., JOULIAN.C., Matheron.R., Hirschler-Rea.A.
Desulfatiferula olefinivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a long chain n-alkene-degrading
sulfate-reducing bacterium. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology,
N° 57, p. 2699-2702
> COCHERIE.A., ROBERT.M.
> Thevenieau.F., Fardeau.M.L., Ollivier.B., JOULIAN.C., Baena.S.
> Allan.J.I., Knutsson.J., GUIGUES.N., Mills.A.G., FOUILLAC.A.M., Greenwood.R.
Desulfomicrobium thermophilum sp. nov., a novel thermophilic sulphate-reducing
bacterium isolated from a terrestrial hot spring in Colombia. Extremophiles, Vol. 11, p. 295-303
Evaluation of the chemcatcher and DGT passive samplers for monitoring metals with highly
fluctuating water concentrations. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 9, p. 672-681
> Mirando.Tello.E., Fardeau.M.L., JOULIAN.C., Magot.M., Thomas.P., Tholozan.J.L., Ollivier.B.
> MILLOT.R., NEGREL.P.
Petrotoga halophila sp.nov., a thermophilic, moderately halophilic, fermentative bacterium
isolated from an offshore oil well in Congo. International Journal of Systematic and
Evolutionary Microbiology, N° 57, p. 40-44
Multi-isotopic tracing (delta Li-7, delta B-11, Sr-87/Sr-86) and chemical geothermometry:
evidence from hydrogeothermal systems in France. Chemical Geology, Vol. 244, issue 3-4,
p. 664-678
> Gerzabek.M.H., Barcelo.D., Bellin.A., Rijnaarts.H.H.M., Slob.A., DARMENDRAIL.D.,
> NEGREL.P., ROY.S., PETELET.GIRAUD.E., MILLOT.R., BRENOT.A.
Fowler.H., NEGREL.P., Frank.E., Grathwohl.P., Kuntz.D., Barth.J.A.C
The integrated project AquaTerra of EU sixth Framework lays Foundations for better
Understanding of River-Sediment-Soil-Groundwater Systems. Journal of Environment
Management , Vol. 84, n° 2, p.237-243
Long-term fluxes of dissolved and suspended matter in the Ebro River Basin (Spain).
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 342, issues 3-4, p. 249-260
> TOURNASSAT.C., GAUCHER.E., Fattahi.M., Grambow.B.
On the mobility of iodine in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation. Physics and Chemistry of the
Earth Journal, Vol. 32, issue 8-14, p. 539-551
> Joubert.A., Lucas.L., GARRIDO.F., JOULIAN.C., Jauzein.M.
Effect of temperature, gas phase composition, pH and microbial activity on As, Zn, Pb and Cd
mobility in selected soils in the Ebro and Meuse Basins in the context of global change.
Environmental Pollution, Vol. 148, n° 3, p.749-758
Direct measurement of lead isotope ratios in low concentration environmental samples by
MC-ICP-MS and multi-ion counting. Chemical Geology, vol. 243, issue 1-2, p.90-104
> CABALLERO.Y., Chevallier.P, Boone.A., Noilhan.J., Habets.F.
Calibration of the interaction soil biosphere atmosphere land-surface scheme on a small
tropical high-mountain basin (Coraillera Real Bolivia). Water Resources Research, vol. 43, issue 7
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
> BAGHDADI.N., OLIVEROS.C.
Potential of Asar/Envisat data for mudbank monitoring in French Guiana in comparison to
Aster imagery. Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 23, n° 6, p. 1509-1517
> GAILHANOU.H., Van.Miltenburg.J.C., Rogez.J., Olives.J., Amouric.M., GAUCHER.E., BLANC.P.
Thermodynamic properties of anhydrous smectite MX-80, illite IMt-2 and mixed-layer illitesmectite ISCz-1 as determined by calorimetric methods. Part I. Heat capacities, heat contents
and entropies. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, Vol. 71, issue 22, 5463-5473
> RAUCOULES.D., Colesanti.C., CARNEC.C.
> BATTAGLIA.BRUNET.F., MICHEL.C., JOULIAN.C., Ollivier.B., IGNATIADIS.I.
> CABALLERO.Y., Voirin.Morel.S., Habets.F., Noilhan.J., Lemoigne.P., Lehenaff.A., Boone.A.
Relationship between sulphate starvation and chromate reduction in a H2-fed fixed-film
bioreactor. Water Air & Soil Pollution, Vol. 183, p. 341-353
Hydrological impact of climate change in the Adour-Garonne river basin. Water Resources
Research, Vol. 43, W07448, doi:10.1029/2005WR004192
Use of SAR interferometry for detecting and assessing ground subsidence. Comptes rendus
Geoscience, Vol. 339, n° 5, p. 289-302
> BURNOL.A., GARRIDO.F., Baranger.P., JOULIAN.C., DICTOR.M.C., BODENAN.F.,
Morin.G., Charlet.L.
Decoupling of arsenic and iron release from ferrihydrite suspension under reducing
conditions: a biogeochemical model. Geochemical Transactions, Volume 8, article 12
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 71
Publications and Communication
2007-2008,
THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR
OF PLANET EARTH
In keeping with its research and expert study missions, the BRGM contributes
to the dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge among the scientific
community, professionals, development planners and the general public.
“Aux sources de la Terre”, an exhibition for the general public, exploring the varied
geology of France. Geological mapping is essential for understanding, managing
and protecting our environment. © BRGM [email protected]é - J.C. Rousseau
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 72
www.brgm.fr
> The Earth Sciences portal
Our web site provides full information on the
BRGM, its role and activities in France and abroad,
as well as details on marketed products. These
include our “georeports” (“Gé[email protected]”), digital
data, books, photographs and a range of directly
downloadable documents such as our annual
reports, journals and the Géosciences magazine.
BRGM ÉDITIONS
The BRGM Éditions website describes all available books, CD-Roms and maps
(over 2 000 titles), with on-line geographical selection, order forms and secure
payment facilities.
http://www.brgm.fr/live.jsp
Editions BRGM offers a choice of geological maps, CD-Roms and books
on the Earth Sciences that is unique in France.
> NEW PUBLICATIONS 2007-2008
LA GÉOLOGIE DE LA FRANCE
À LA PORTÉE DE TOUS
> This “Geologist’s Tour de France” illustrates France’s
geology with over 1000 photographs, maps,
diagrams and documents to help everyone explore
the landscapes of France and their history.
> Planet Earth at the Heart of Science, co-published by
six scientific institutions (BRGM, CEMAGREF, IFREMER,
INRA, IRD, MNHN) and the Ministry of Ecology, Energy,
Sustainable Development and Planning, features
magnificent photographs from their image banks to
illustrate the research they are conducting to preserve
our planet.
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 73
Publications and Communication
GEOLOGICAL MAPS OF FRANCE
Over 1000 geological maps cover the whole of mainland and overseas
France to different scales (1:50,000, 1:250,000, 1:1 000,000).
>
>
Meymac
Simplified lithographic map of France (scale 1:2 000,000).
The BRGM’s geological maps of France are an essential source of documentation for professionals, teachers,
students and enthusiasts.
The BRGM also offers a selection of educational maps for teachers.
The collection includes 192 maps to 1:50,000 and 14 maps to
1:250,000, selected for their relevance to one or more geological
topics included in school curricula. They show a wide range of
geological formations as well as geological sections on the map or
in the legend.
The BRGM’s geological maps of France are an essential source of
documentation for professionals, teachers, students and enthusiasts.
As the foremost medium for disseminating geological information,
they offer a synopsis of current knowledge, accurately locating a
great deal of information on substrates.They are indispensable decision-support tools for spatial planning, mineral prospecting,
groundwater prospecting and protection, pollution control, natural
risk prevention and the characterisation of local areas.
The geological maps programme was entrusted to the BRGM
in 1968 and is piloted by an external scientific community that
guarantees the quantity of all cartographic information produced.
http://www.brgm.fr/carte50pedago/
GÉOSCIENCES
COMMUNICATION
TOOLS
> A scientific magazine for everyone
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 74
> Synoptic scientific data sheets
They give a review
of a specific topic.
>
is not just another
scientific journal - it is designed to
interface between different debates,
different issues and different areas
of research, highlighting essential
though sometimes conflicting points
of view. Géosciences is written by
recognised specialists in each field,
for a much larger audience than the
scientific community alone. It is
designed to arouse the interest of
economic players, associations and
all members of society with an active
interest in sustainable development
issues.
Issue 6 on geoscientific
information systems
Double issue 7-8 on France’s
geological heritage.
Main databases and web sites
on soils and substrates
The BRGM’s role is to discover, protect and enhance the value of the Earth’s
resources. Output from its research and policy support activities, in France
and abroad, is used to build and disseminate databases and web sites
on soils and substrates.
A selection of these sites is described below.
INFOTERRE
partnership by the BRGM, DIREM, FEDEM
and SIM to provide information on mineral
raw materials for the general public as well
as professionals (ECOMINE journal, news,
statistics, addresses, etc.).
environment and its dynamic and
sedimentary characteristics.
http://www.mineralinfo.org/
BDCAVITÉ
http://www.bosco.tm.fr
BASIAS
> The geological information portal
With InfoTerre, users can display and
combine all kinds of substrate data on, for
example, a given municipality, to show its
geological and hydrological characteristics,
industrial site inventories, subterranean
cavities, past seismic activity and so on.
http: //infoterre.brgm.fr
ADES
> Access to data on groundwater
ADES is the national databank on groundwater.
The qualitative and quantitative information it
contains are a particularly useful tool to
support local groundwater management and
to address issues arising from the European
Water Framework Directive, such as monitoring
of underground water bodies and the
implementation and evaluation of
management policies and plans.
> Inventory of former industrial sites
and service activities.
The national BASIAS database covers
historical regional inventories (IHR) of
industrial sites and service activities,
whether operational or not.
The main purposes of these inventories are
to maintain a wide-ranging and systematic
census of all industrial sites - derelict or not
- that are liable to pollute the environment,
to preserve records of these sites, and to
supply relevant information for urban and
land use planning and environmental
protection.
> National database on subterranean
cavities
The BDCavité database collects, analyses
and distributes the basic information
required to understand and conduct
preliminary studies on phenomena
associated with subterranean cavities.
http://www.bdcavite.net
BDMVT
http://basias.brgm.fr
BOSCO
> National database on land movements.
The BDMvt database is particularly relevant
to the development of natural risk
prevention policies to improve protection
for people and property.
The database covers and disseminates all
information available in mainland and
overseas France on recent and past land
movement events.
http://ades.eaufrance.fr
MINERALINFO
http://www.bdmvt.net
> National coastal monitoring database
> A French-language site on the mining sector
The Mineralinfo portal was set up in
BOSCO is a national database covering
coastline changes and coastal erosion, for
the use of government departments, local
authorities, public institutions, scientific and
technical research organisations and
engineering consultancies.
The database covers information relevant to
the monitoring of the physical coastal
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 75
Main databases and web sites
on soils and substrates
GÉOTHERMIE PERSPECTIVES
WATER TABLE RISE
of all mineral and hydrogeological resources
and to enhance skills and expertise among
national geological surveys organisations.
http://www.sigafrique.net/
THE FRENCH SEISMIC RISKS PLAN
(PLAN SÉISME)
This database is designed to disseminate
information as broadly as possible on the
advantages of geothermal energy as an ecofriendly, economical and renewable source of
energy. It presents up-to-date and relevant
information for a very broad audience, from
individual citizens to teachers, students,
industrialists, energy producers and local
authorities.
> Spates, floods, runoff, overflow
and water table rise
This site provides a wide range of general
information on floods, river spates, water table
rise, overflows, runoff, etc., with maps for
professional and general public use on
sensitivity to water table rise in each
département.
http://www.inondationsnappes.fr/
http://www.geothermie-perspectives.fr
WEBMINERAL
> An atlas of 495 minerals
and mineral varieties
A atlas of minerals produced by the BRGM
with the Ministry of Education, Higher
Education and Research and assistance from
the National Natural History Museum in
Paris.
http://webmineral.brgm.fr:8003
SISFRANCE
CLAY SOIL SHRINKAGE
AND SWELLING
What is the likelihood of your home being
affected by subsidence in the next ten
years? This site provides relevant
information and risk maps on clay soil
shrinking and swelling.
The BRGM, on request from the Ministry of
Ecology and Sustainable Development
(MEDD), creates qualitative risk maps for the
forty most vulnerable departments in
France.
> A national programme for the prevention
of seismic risks in France
This programme is designed to promote
responsible management of seismic risks at
local levels on order to save human lives. In
aiming to reduce the vulnerability of people
and property, it is also designed to enhance
the national heritage and to improve the
quality of buildings.
The Plan’s main objectives are to improve
knowledge and information on seismic
hazards and risks, to ensure that these are
taken into account in construction projects,
to foster consultations, cooperation and
communication between all those concerned
and to contribute to tsunami risk prevention.
http://www.planseisme.fr/
GÉOPORTAIL
http://www.argiles.fr
SIG AFRIQUE (GIS)
> A geological information network
for sustainable development in Africa
> National database on seismic activity
in mainland France
Covering 6000 seismic events, SisFrance is an
essential tool for evaluating seismic hazards
and risks. The site can be searched on the
scale of France as a whole, by département or
by smaller areas.
http://www.sisfrance.net
BRGM > AN NUAL REPORT 2007 > PAGE 76
The SIG Afrique network aims to support
poverty-reduction programmes by developing
regional policies for Africa based on
processed Earth Sciences information on the
African continent, which it distributes to
promote, amongst others, the development
> Geoinformation for all citizens
on every area in France
The Géoportail is designed for citizens as
well as central and local government
departments and businesses as a reference
tool for access to public geographical
information. It provides 2D navigation
through aerial photographs, maps and IGN
geographical data on any selected area in
mainland and overseas France.
http://www.geoportail.fr/
1/08/08
14:26
Page 2
CONTENTS
EXE_COUV_ANG_1807.qxp
1
Profile
2
Message from the Chairman
4
BRGM Governance
6
2007 Highlights
8
Perspectives
12
2007 accounts
18
In the French regions
20
Geology
24
Mineral Resources
28
Geothermal Energy
32
Geological Storage of CO2
36
Water
40
Post-mining
44
Natural Risks
48
Contaminated Land & Waste Management
52
Metrology
56
Information Systems
60
In-house professional environment
64
The BRGM Group
68
Scientific Papers
72
Publications and Communication
Sediment analysis to characterise a carbonated
mineral habit (Taoudeni Basin - Mauritania).
© BRGM [email protected]é - O. Serrano
14:26
Page 1
Head Office
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75739 Paris Cedex 15 - France
Tél. : (33) 1 40 58 89 00
Fax : (33) 1 40 58 89 33
ANNUAL REPORT 2007
1/08/08
Scientific and
Technical Centre
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45060 Orléans Cedex 2 - France
Tél. : (33) 2 38 64 34 34
Fax : (33) 2 38 64 35 18
Reference Centre
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Tél. : 0 820 90 27 46 (0,14 e/min)
Fax : (33) 1 43 36 76 55
www.brgm.fr
BRGM COMMUNICATION
AND PUBLICATIONS DIVISION
GRAPHIC DESIGN AND PRODUCTION:
EFIL (33) 2 47 47 03 20 / WWW.EFIL.FR
PHOTO CREDITS: [email protected]É
PRINTING: MAME, TOURS
ISBN 978-2-7159-2448-2
BRGM
EXE_COUV_ANG_1807.qxp
annual report
2007