Challenges and opportunities for a generic market for GM crops in

Comments

Transcription

Challenges and opportunities for a generic market for GM crops in
Challenges and opportunities for a
generic market for GM crops in Africa
Diran Makinde
NEPAD Agency African Biosafety Network of Expertise
Presentation at the 2015 IIBN Forum , Ghent June 19, 2015
On the Ground-• Africa, spends between $30 billion to $50 billion/year to import
food. (Funds needed for infrastructure, social & economic
amenities). By 2030 could be up to $150 billion!!!
• Africa’s agric exports accounted for 3.3% (2009-’13) up from
1.2% (‘96-2000);whilst intra-Africa trade has doubled
• Genetic engineering, is one of the most promising technologies
for confronting the multiplicity of challenges facing Africa,
especially food insecurity.
Good news…..
• The voices of pro-transgenic crops is being heard by
a growing number of high-level authorities in more
countries bringing about revised or strengthened
biosafety laws.
• However, a significantly vocal anti-GMs remain
skeptical and stress potential risks.
• ‘Generic’ GM and the roles of AATF on access to
royalty-free technology.
Prospects for GM Trade are rising in Africa
• Total biotech crop ha increased by 6%. From
3,233,781 (‘12) to 3,435,759 ha (‘13). B Faso 51%, Sudan
207%.
• 7 countries conducting CFTs on food security crops.
Banana, cassava, potato, cowpea, maize, rice, sorghum,
wheat & sweet potatoes.
• Distribution of biotech crops’ trait broadened. 37 ongoing: 23 on tropical pest and disease resistance;
5 nutritional enhancement;
3 NUE & salt tolerance;
2 on flower colour in Gypophilia; & 1 modified oils in soybean.
Status of Regulatory Regimes in Africa
Approved Events in Africa
Source: ISAAA Report 2015
South Africa
•
•
•
•
•
Maize 38
Soybean 11
Cotton 10
Canola 4
Rice 1
Burkina Faso
• Cotton 2
Egypt
Sudan
• Maize1
• Cotton 2
Current status of GM Crops in Africa
CROP
TRAITS
COUNTRIES
INVOLVED
STAGE OF
DEV.
PARTNERS
SOURCE OF
FUNDING
Banana
Increase iron and
beta carotene
content
Uganda
CFT
QUT
Gatsby
charitable
Foundation, US
Bacterial Wilt
resistance
Uganda
CFT
AATF, Academia
Sinica, IITA
Gatsby
charitable
Foundation, US
Weevil ,
nematode
resistance
Uganda
Approved
for CFT
Univ. California
(San Diego),Univ.
of Leeds,Univ. of
Pretoria
Bioversity
Int.,Rockerfeller
foundation, Gov.
Of Uganda
Source: FARA, ABNE & MSU, 2013
Current status of GM Crops in Africa II
CROP
TRAITS
Cassava
Cassava
mosaic
disease
Cotton
COUNTRIES
INVOLVED
STAGE
OF DEV.
PARTNERS
SOURCE OF
FUNDING
Kenya, Uganda
CFT
Danforth center,
ETH Zurich,
KARI,NACRRI
Enriched
Vit A, iron,
improved
storage
Kenya,
Nigeria
CFT
Danforth center,
ETH Zurich,
Bill and Melinda Gates
Foundation, Howard
Buffet Foundation,
Monsanto Fund,
USAID
Bill and Melinda Gates
Foundation
Bollworm
resistance
Uganda, Kenya,
Egypt, Malawi
CFT
Monsanto ,
Danforth, NARS
(Uganda,
Kenya, Egypt)
-
27
Source: FARA, ABNE & MSU, 2013
Current status of GM Crops in Africa III
CROP
TRAITS
COUNTRIES
INVOLVED
STAGE
OF DEV.
PARTNERS
SOURCE OF
FUNDING
Cowpea
Pod borer
resistance
(Maruca
vitara)
Nigeria,
Ghana,
Burkina
Faso
CFT
AATF, CSIRO,
IITA,
Kirkhouse,
Monsanto
Rockefeller
Foundation,
USAID
Maize
Stem borer
resistance
Kenya
CFT
CIMMYT, KARI
Syngenta,
Foundation for
Sustainable Dev.
Maize
streak virus
resistance
South Africa
GH C
Pannar Seed,
Univ. Cape
Town
-
Source: ABNE & MSU, 2013
Current status of GM Crops in Africa IV
CROP
TRAITS
COUNTRIES
INVOLVED
Maize
Drought
tolerance
Uganda,
Kenya,
Tanzania,
South Africa
and
STAGE OF
DEV.
CFT in
Uganda,
Kenya GHC
in South
Africa
PARTNERS
SOURCE OF
FUNDING
AATF,
CIMMYT,
Monsanto,
NARS
CFT in Ghana
AATF,
Arcadia
Bioscienc
es, CIAT,
Japan
Tobacco
Bill and Melinda
Gates
Foundation,
Howard G.
Buffett
Foundation
DFID-UK,USAID
Mozambique
Rice
Water– use
efficiency
(WUE),
Nitrogen Use
Efficiency
(NUE) and
salt
tolerance
Burkina Faso,
Uganda,
Nigeria,
Ghana
Source: FARA, ABNE & MSU,
2013
Current status of GM Crops in Africa V
CROP
TRAITS
Sorghum
Sweet
Potato
COUNTRIES
INVOLVED
STAGE OF
DEV.
PARTNERS
SOURCE OF
FUNDING
Iron, Zinc,
Kenya , Nigeria,
pro vit. A,
B. Faso and S.
protein(quality Africa
and digestibility)
CFT- Kenya
and Nigeria.
GHC in S.
Africa
AATF, Africa Harvest,
CORAF/
WECARD,CSIR
(S.Africa),Danforth
Center, ICRISAT,
Pioneer ,Univ. Of
California Berkeley,
Univ. of Pretoria,
Bill and
Melinda Gate
Foundation
and Howard
Buffet
Foundation
Weevil
resistance
GHC
Auburn Univ. BecA,
CIP, Danforth
Center, Kenyatta
Univ., Univ. of
Ghent, Univ. of
Puerto Rico
30
Bill and
Melinda Gates
Foundation,
Rockefeller
Foundation
and USAID
Uganda and
Kenya
Source: FARA, ABNE and MSU, 2013
AFRICAN ORPHAN CROPS CONSORTIUM
The African Orphan Crops
Consortiums Genomics Lab
The African Plant Breeding
Academy (AfPBA)
•
•
Dec 3rd 2013: Opened at the World Agroforestry
Centre (ICRAF)
•
Dec 2014: 1st batch of 25 breeders graduated
•
250 plant breeders and technicians will be
trained over 5 years.
•
•
•
Dec 2013: Life Technologies donated
instrumentation and lab establishment started
Jan- Sept 2014: Lab set up; Staff was appointed
(2 technical assistants, 1 scientist)
December 2014: 1st species sent for whole
genome sequencing to BGI, China
February 2015: 1st re-sequenced genome of
common bean at ICRAF
WHERE ARE WE NOW?
1 Whole genome sequencing (WGS) at BGI
Re-sequencing at AOCC lab, ICRAF
P2 Ion chip: expected
2
Re-sequencing done for 40 accessions
Whole Genome Sequencing
began for 12 species












Adansonia digitata
Adansonia kilima
Vigna subterranea
Casimiroa edulis
Annona senegalensis
Sclerocarya birrea
Faidherbia albida
Solanum aethiopicum
Lablab purpureus
Moringa oleifera
Eleusine coracana
Celosia argentea
 Phaseolus vulgaris (12)
 Cleome gynandra (28)
On-going activities:
3
Gene sequencing: 50 AOCC species
Genome size estimation: for 101 species
4
Current Intra-African Trade
• 20% (+ informal & all products combined)
• Higher in East Africa (16%) vs. West Africa (11%). Europe
60%; North America 40%; ASEAN countries 30%.
• East Africa prone to chronic droughts
- maize, rice, sugar, livestock & cassava(limited).
- Kenya is the centre of gravity with mainly imports
from Tanzania & Uganda.
- Maize is imported from US, South Africa & Mexico
- Rice from Asia and US (15-25%) TZ is the highest
producer.
Current Intra-African Trade II
West Africa- roots & tubers, cereals (maize, millet,
sorghum & rice), vegetable oils & vegetables (onions,
potatoes).
Trade is polarised by Nigeria (half the W. Africa population &
accounts for 60% of regional transactions in cereals.)
Millet & Sorghum- Northern Nigeria, B. Faso, & Mali with Niger
& Mauritania main recipient.
Maize to Niger from Ghana, Benin, Cote d’Ivoire
Lesser amount from B.Faso & Mali
Current Intra-African Trade III
• Rice: Region has large deficit & covers only 50% of
its needs. Main importers are Nigeria (1.8-2
MT/year), Senegal, Cote d’Ivoire, & Benin.
• Onions: Niger major producer. Trade with Senegal,
Ghana & Cote d’Ivoire.
• Palm oil is dominated by Nigeria (1.3 MT and
consumed within the country) & Cote
d’Ivoire(330,000T)
Top Export Commodities from Burkina Faso in Tons
(2009-2010)
Export Quantity in Tons
Item
2009
2010
198,272.0
164,415.0
Sesame Seed
49,518.0
61,298.0
Karite Nuts (Sheanuts)
62,788.0
68,797.0
Maize
14,467.0
22,892.0
5,355.0
6,915.0
21,842.0
21,832.0
Dry Beans
3,713.0
19,161.0
Sorghum
2,702.0
9000.0
Tomatoes
6,924.0
12,929.0
Cotton Lint
Fruit, Tropical Fresh
Cottonseed cake
Source: USAID / CILSS (2013)
Regional & Cross-border Trade Flows in Agricultural Products in West Africa
(December 2013)
Regional & Cross-border Trade in Maize
(December 2013)
Exporting
Country
Tons
Value
(in
USD/
000)
Export
Price
USD /
Ton
Côte
d’Ivoire
(CI)
5,254
973.9
185
SNG
3,520
644
257
CI
Nigeria
(NIG)
1,871
721.2
385
BF
1,885
465
282
CI, GHN,
TG
Burkina
Faso (BF)
1,690
434.2
275
ML
1,207
231
CI
Ghana
(GHN)
938
227.1
242
NG
3,906
123
BF, CI,
GHN
Benin
(BN)
620
168.3
271
Mauritania
310
81
Mali (ML)
250
70.5
282
BN
15
4
Togo (TG)
220
59.7
271
10,843
2,655
10,843
1,547
Total
Value (in
USD/
000)
Source: USAID/CILSS (2013)
Export
Price
USD/Ton
Destination
Countries
Regional & Cross-border Trade in Maize
(December 2013)
Impor-ting
Country
Total
Tons
271
Country
of origin
CI, ML
BF
Regional & Cross-border Trade in Millet
(December 2013)
Exporting
Country
Tons
Nigeria
(NIG)
5,109
2,367
Ghana
(GHN)
468
52
Burkina
Faso (BF)
Total
5,629
Value (in
USD/000)
Destination
Countries
Importing
Country
Tons
463
NG
NIG
3,510
2,235
637
NG
166
354
BN, CI,
GHN, TG
BF
532
134
257
BN, GHN,
NG, TG
10
184
BF
ML
161
37
230
BF
TG
53
8
152
BF
4,256
2,414
2,543
Source: USAID/CILSS (2013)
Export
Price
USD/
Ton
Regional & Cross-border Trade in Sorghum
(December 2013)
Total
Value
(in USD /
000)
Export
Price
USD/
Ton
Country of
origin
Marketing challenges
Constraints include Institutional and infrastructure.
• High transactions costs high due to market inefficiencies;
• Poor organization of smallholders- producing small
amounts of variable quality,
• Inadequate infrastructure to production areas,
• Limited storage capacity at key locations,
• Cumbersome customs and border procedures,
• Insecurity,
• Lack of reliable market information, and lack of financing
viable activities.
COMESA Region
Major challenges of the agriculture
sector in COMESA region
Policy
• Despite the Free Trade Area agreement by 11
of the 19 MS, barriers to regional trade in
staple and other foods do occur.
– periodic import or export bans,
– superfluous sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS)
requirements,
– duties and other charges on cross border trade.
Easier to export into the world market than to
trade with a neighbouring country
Technology
• Dependency on uncertain rainfall and
nutritionally deficient soils.
• Cultivated area under irrigation is only 9 per
cent;
• Adoption of improved seed varieties is only 30
per cent; and
• Fertilizer intensity use is only 10 kg/ha
compared to global average of 50 kg/
GMO Trade: Challenges
• Export risks due to potential market losses in
Europe may have been exaggerated (but
regulatory frameworks influenced under extensive bilateral
aid to Africa).
• Most agric. exports: tea, coffee, cocoa,
vegetables & flowers rather than staples that are
likely to be GM are traded within Africa.
• GM staples for intra-Africa trade will require:
– Regional trade agreements (regional biosafety procedures
& regional regulatory decision-making);
-Bilateral & multilateral mechanisms to manage
it.
South Africa Uniqueness
• Almost 2 decades experience in GM
production & trade;
• Management of the marketing and trade of
GM crops continues to evolve;
• 1997 approval for import permits of GM
products after safety review(commodity
clearance);
• 7 out of 10 countries in SADC have restrictions
on GM maize imports, except it is milled.
AU/NEPAD Agency ABNE Approach
• Regulatory harmonization- more similarities
than differences exist
• RECs must strive for co-ordinated coexistence,
adventitious presence and identity
preservation standards to facilitate regional
trade(COMESA/RABESA/ACTESA;
ECOWAS/WAEMU/CILSS).
• Niche markets exist for both GM and non-GM
crops with growing demand for GM crops
NEPAD Agency ABNE Approach II
• AU Member states are importers of GM technology.
Therefore, there is need for proper stewardship of
products e.g. implementing IRM, in case of
resistance built up to inform concerned authorities.
• In case of challenges product should be phased out
from the market as a risk mitigation measure.
• Need for proper and adequate seed quality
production
• Responsible use of regulatory data for application
Technology transfer is a marathon not a sprint
Conclusion
• GMO is needs-based for Africa.
• Africa’s share of world agric. trade has
increased in recent years after decline, &
trade among African countries has been on
the rise with the decreasing trade barriers.
Conclusion II
• The ability of decision-makers to discern the
appropriateness of data necessary to
adequately conduct a risk assessment (“nice
to know” vs. “need to know”), all have
considerable consequences. For example, too much
information often confuses decision-making
Thank You
Visit us at
www.nepadbiosafety.net