Nuevas técnicas para el aseguramiento fitosanitario de plantas de



Nuevas técnicas para el aseguramiento fitosanitario de plantas de
Seminario de Aseguramiento Fitosanitario de !
Plantas de Viveros Ornamentales y Frutales de Chile!
Nuevas técnicas para el aseguramiento
fitosanitario de plantas de vivero en
Michael Parrella, Ph. D.!
Entomólogo Universidad de California!
Coordinates activities across different federal
Every 60 days California gains a new potentially damaging invasive
Six new species establish in the state every year!
Estimated losses from all invasive species in the state is $3 billion
USD/year !
American Entomologist (Spring 2015) 61(1):39-50 !
The Nursery Industry & Invasive Species:"
Guilty as Charged!!
•  Although many agricultural weeds have arrived
accidentally, the majority of invasive plants were introduced
for horticultural purposes. !
•  One study found that 82% of 235 woody plant species
identified as colonizing outside of cultivation had been used
in landscaping. !
•  An additional 3% were widely distributed for soil erosion
control and virtually all of these were originally introduced
as ornamentals !
•  A voluntary code of conduct has been developed to reduce
the importation of invasive plants by the nursery industry !
Invasive Species Affecting the Nursery
Industry in California!
Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)!
Light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postivittana !
Brown Garden Snail (Cyrptomphalus aspersa) !
Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum)!
Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) !
Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis)!
Diaprepes root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus)!
Red Palm Weevil (Rhynocophorus ferrugineus !
Bagrada bug (Bragrada hilaris)!
Brown marmorated stink bug (Hlyomorpha halys)!
Impact of Invasive Species on the
Floriculture/Nursery Industry in California!
Overall pesticide use in California agriculture is declining!
This is not the case for nursery plants, primarily due to !
satisfying quarantine requirements to prevent the spread of!
invasive pests!
How To Use the Best Management Practices on-Line Tool!
How To Use the Best Management Practices on-Line Tool!
How To Use the Best Management Practices on-Line Tool!
For Red Imported Fire Ant….!
•  Open land on which nursery stock is grown must be
treated once every 3 months, alternating between
fenoxycarb and hydramethylnon.!
•  In addition, growers must treat the individual containers
in which the plants are grown and acceptable treatments
include either a drench with chlorpyrifos thirty days
before shipping, or incorporating a granular insecticide,
bifenthrin, into the soil every 6 months. !
•  The total cost of RIFA becoming established in California
may equal $989 million per year, !
•  The annual cost to treat nurseries for RIFA was estimated
to be $650 per acre in 2002 and is likely higher today. !
2012. Plant Disease 96 (9): 1236 - 1244 !!
The Hazard Analysis of !
Critical Control Points !
System (HACCP)!!
New Technology to Control (Invasive) Pests!
•  Improving plant health with soil amendments/microbial
•  Spraying and trapping/monitoring!
•  High resolution spectral imaging cameras attached to
UMV for early detection, other info!
•  Use of pheromones/baits in attract and kill strategies!
•  Use of natural enemies to supplement other control
•  Development and use of safer, biopesticides as a
supplement to control strategies!
•  Use of genetic RNAi strategies to reduce pests !!
Silicon sources:!
Calcium Silicate!
Sodium Silicate!
Rice hull ash!
Fly ash!
Potassium Silicate !
Liquid formulation!
Water soluble!
Commercially available!
High pH!
Electrostatic Spraying!
•  Improved deposition and greater safety to greenhouse
Egg Larvae
UC IPM Guidelines for Monitoring Thrips
•  Use yellow or blue sticky cards
•  yellow are easier to count and trap other insects
•  Place vertically just above the crop canopy
•  Adjust height as the crop grows
•  Use a minimum of 8 traps/100,000 ft2
•  locate traps in more sensitive cultivars/doorways
•  Check at least weekly - thresholds vary
•  Roses = 25-20 thrips per card
•  Other Crops = 5-10 thrips per card
•  Correctly identify the WFT and check plants
•  Sticky tape to reduce thrips populations?!!
Spanish National Hydrological Plan !
(SNHP) in 2001. !
Natural Enemies!
WFT Management on Chrysanthemums!
!Plant Releases!
Predatory Mites!
Amblyseius cucumeris!
Amblyseius swirksi!
Add alternate food!
Beauveria bassiana!
!Soil Releases!
Predatory Mites!
Stratiolaelaps scimitus!
Entomopathogenic nematodes!
- Steinernema feltiae!

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