Nuevas técnicas para el aseguramiento fitosanitario de plantas de

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Nuevas técnicas para el aseguramiento fitosanitario de plantas de
Seminario de Aseguramiento Fitosanitario de !
Plantas de Viveros Ornamentales y Frutales de Chile!
30 DE JULIO DE 2015 – OPEN HOTEL QUILLOTA!
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Nuevas técnicas para el aseguramiento
fitosanitario de plantas de vivero en
California!
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Michael Parrella, Ph. D.!
Entomólogo Universidad de California!
Coordinates activities across different federal
agencies!
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Every 60 days California gains a new potentially damaging invasive
species!
Six new species establish in the state every year!
Estimated losses from all invasive species in the state is $3 billion
USD/year !
American Entomologist (Spring 2015) 61(1):39-50 !
The Nursery Industry & Invasive Species:"
Guilty as Charged!!
•  Although many agricultural weeds have arrived
accidentally, the majority of invasive plants were introduced
for horticultural purposes. !
•  One study found that 82% of 235 woody plant species
identified as colonizing outside of cultivation had been used
in landscaping. !
•  An additional 3% were widely distributed for soil erosion
control and virtually all of these were originally introduced
as ornamentals !
•  A voluntary code of conduct has been developed to reduce
the importation of invasive plants by the nursery industry !
Invasive Species Affecting the Nursery
Industry in California!
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Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)!
Light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postivittana !
Brown Garden Snail (Cyrptomphalus aspersa) !
Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum)!
Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) !
Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis)!
Diaprepes root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus)!
Red Palm Weevil (Rhynocophorus ferrugineus !
Bagrada bug (Bragrada hilaris)!
Brown marmorated stink bug (Hlyomorpha halys)!
Impact of Invasive Species on the
Floriculture/Nursery Industry in California!
Overall pesticide use in California agriculture is declining!
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This is not the case for nursery plants, primarily due to !
satisfying quarantine requirements to prevent the spread of!
invasive pests!
How To Use the Best Management Practices on-Line Tool!
How To Use the Best Management Practices on-Line Tool!
How To Use the Best Management Practices on-Line Tool!
For Red Imported Fire Ant….!
•  Open land on which nursery stock is grown must be
treated once every 3 months, alternating between
fenoxycarb and hydramethylnon.!
•  In addition, growers must treat the individual containers
in which the plants are grown and acceptable treatments
include either a drench with chlorpyrifos thirty days
before shipping, or incorporating a granular insecticide,
bifenthrin, into the soil every 6 months. !
•  The total cost of RIFA becoming established in California
may equal $989 million per year, !
•  The annual cost to treat nurseries for RIFA was estimated
to be $650 per acre in 2002 and is likely higher today. !
2012. Plant Disease 96 (9): 1236 - 1244 !
http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=411229&fy=2010!
The Hazard Analysis of !
Critical Control Points !
System (HACCP)!
http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=411229&fy=2010!
New Technology to Control (Invasive) Pests!
•  Improving plant health with soil amendments/microbial
inoculants!
•  Spraying and trapping/monitoring!
•  High resolution spectral imaging cameras attached to
UMV for early detection, other info!
•  Use of pheromones/baits in attract and kill strategies!
•  Use of natural enemies to supplement other control
strategies!
•  Development and use of safer, biopesticides as a
supplement to control strategies!
•  Use of genetic RNAi strategies to reduce pests !
http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=411229&fy=2010!
Silicon sources:!
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Calcium Silicate!
Sodium Silicate!
Rice hull ash!
Fly ash!
Potassium Silicate !
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Liquid formulation!
Water soluble!
Commercially available!
High pH!
Electrostatic Spraying!
•  Improved deposition and greater safety to greenhouse
workers!
http://www.ontargetspray.com/!
http://news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=10623!
Egg Larvae
Pupae
Adults
UC IPM Guidelines for Monitoring Thrips
•  Use yellow or blue sticky cards
•  yellow are easier to count and trap other insects
•  Place vertically just above the crop canopy
•  Adjust height as the crop grows
•  Use a minimum of 8 traps/100,000 ft2
•  locate traps in more sensitive cultivars/doorways
•  Check at least weekly - thresholds vary
•  Roses = 25-20 thrips per card
•  Other Crops = 5-10 thrips per card
•  Correctly identify the WFT and check plants
•  Sticky tape to reduce thrips populations?
http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r280390411.html?printpage!
www.green-tek.com/pdf/Insect.pdf!
Spanish National Hydrological Plan !
(SNHP) in 2001. !
http://www.allaboutswirskii.com/
Natural Enemies!
WFT Management on Chrysanthemums!
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!Plant Releases!
Predatory Mites!
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Amblyseius cucumeris!
Amblyseius swirksi!
Add alternate food!
Entomopathogens!
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Beauveria bassiana!
!Soil Releases!
Predatory Mites!
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Stratiolaelaps scimitus!
Entomopathogenic nematodes!
- Steinernema feltiae!
Questions?!

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