VVD wil subsidie op houtkachels

Transcription

VVD wil subsidie op houtkachels
GEMEENTE DEN HELDER
INGEKOMEN
Van:
Aan:
BC
Datum
Onderwerp:
Bijlagen:
"B. Hoek" <[email protected]>
1
OEC.
2015
Info D e n Helder
27-11-2015 17:49
W D wil subsidie op houtkachels
E m i s s i e o o r z a k e n Fijn Stof P M 2 . 5 7 - 1 1 - 2 0 1 4 (1).pdf; vergelijking h o u t s t o o k - auto's.pdf
Dit bericht g r a a g d o o r s t u r e n a a n de r a a d s l e d e n
https://www.knmi.nl/over-het-knmi/nieuws/code-oranje-voor-klimaat
Minister K a m p wil d a a r o m e e n n i e u w e subsidieregeling in het l e v e n
roepen voor kleinschalige duurzame energiebronnen, zoals zonneboilers
en houtkachels.
Bron:
http://www.rtlz.nl/algemeen/politiek/armzalig-klimaatbeleid-nederland-het-vieze-jongetje-van-europa
Net na het bericht v a n de G G D dat houtkachels mogelijk schadelijk
zijn. H o u t k a c h e l s zijn die d u u r z a a m ? Duurt 2 0 jaar voordat e e n b o o m
w e e r s t a a t . V e r d e r w i l d e W D i n één g e m e e n t e d e b o m e n g a a n k a p p e n .
Z o d a t het fijnstof beter w e g kan w a a i e n .
E e n b o o m h e e f t 2 0 j a a r n o d i g v o o r d a t hij w e e r s t a a t
In C a n a d a
w o r d e n de b o m e n gepakt, niet o p n i e u w aangepland. W e l k e functie heeft
een boom voor de mens?
O p N P O R a d i o 1 h o o r d e ik p r o p a g a n d a v o o r s c h a l i e g a s . V e r d e r h o o r d e i k
dat Nederland tegen de ecocide wetgeving heeft gestemd.
In d a g b l a d T r o u w s t o n d d a t f i l t e r s bij d e i n d u s t r i e : E r is g e k o z e n
voor de goedkope versie. D e lobbyisten hebben dat mogelijk gemaakt.
Gevolg: Gezondheidskosten n e m e n toe.
S t e m niet o p d e W D a l s u d e n a t u u r lief heeft. S G P : R e n t m e e s t e r s c h a p !
Stuknummer: AI15.07132
G r a f i e k e n T o p 10 e m i s s i e s per b r o n
27-11-2014
Rijksoverheid
•Hl
BH
Emissieregistratie
U bevindt zich op: Emissiereaistratie)
Brontype
Compartiment
Emissies
Emissieoorzaken
>
T
Lucht
T
Fijnstof ( P M 2 . 5 )
Stof
»
* Extra Opties |
ļ Maak grafiek |
Emissieoorzaak
6 000 000-—
J
*\
4 000 000-
\
2 000 000- ţ f-
ļ
i
^
....
H1
—-ļ —
1990
^
1995
2000
i
^
^
^
^
^
2010
2005
jaar
1
Vuurhaarden consumenten,
sfeerverwarming «troning
Varend NCP, Containerschepen
Roken van sigaretten
Uitlaatgassen lichte bedrijfsvoertuigen
diesel, autosnelweg
Brontype
Compartiment
Emissieoorzaak Lucht
Emissieoorzaak Lucht
Emissieoorzaak Lucht
Emissieoorzaak Lucht
Emissieoorzaak Lucht
Emissieoorzaak Lucht
Emissieoorzaak Lucht
Emissieoorzaak Lucht
Emissieoorzaak Lucht
" Varend NCP. Roro lading/autoschepen
, SBI24 (per bedrijf): Vervaardiging
van metalen in primaire vorm
Varend NCP. Chemie/Gastankers
Emissieoorzaak
Vuurhaarden
Fijnstof c o n s u m e n t e n ,
(PM2.5) sfeerverwarming
woning
Fijnstof V a r e n d N C P ,
(PM2.5) Containerschepen
Stof
1990
' Mobiele werktuigen landbouw
, Uitlaatgassen personenauto's
diesel, autosnelweg
' Mobiele werktuigen, bouwsector
1995
2000
2071000 1998000
1393000
2005
2010
2011 |
2012
2013
1430000 1410000 1388000 1367000 1950000
1628000
1373000
1264000 1264000
Fijnstof R o k e n v a n
1773000 1652000 1590000 1286000 1179000 1177000 1177000 1062000
(PM2.5) sigaretten
U i t l a a t g a s s e n lichte
Fijnstof
bedrijfsvoertuigen
450700 705900 1274000 1127000 765500 691500 601000 519100
(PM2.5)
diesel, autosnelweg
Fijnstof V a r e n d N C P , R o r o
(PM2.5) lading/autoschepen
S B I 2 4 (per bedrijf):
Fijnstof Vervaardiging v a n
5434000 2587000 931000
( P M 2 . 5 ) m e t a l e n in p r i m a i r e
vorm
Fijnstof V a r e n d N C P ,
(PM2.5) Chemie/Gastankers
Fijnstof Mobiele werktuigen
1257000 1133000 986700
(PM2.5) landbouw
Uitlaatgassen
Fijnstof
1235000 940800 1151000
personenauto's
(PM2.5)
diesel, a u t o s n e l w e g
[
i
h t t p : / / w w w . e m i s s i e r e g i s t r a t i e . n l / e r p u b l i e k / e r p u b / g r a f i e k e n / G r a f i e k e n T o p 1 0 . a s p x 7 i 0^=1
621700
543900
512400
512400
679300
747800
532100
473500
641900
487300
461500
461500
725900
494500
472700
417900
417900
962300
625800
533800
434000
376400
787400
1/2
27-11-2014
G r a f i e k e n T o p 1 0 e m i s s i e s per b r o n
Emissieoorzaak
Lucht
Fijnstof Mobiele
(PM2.5) werktuigen,
bouwsector
í?actior^download8,^4) D o w n l o a d d a t a in C S V f o r m a a t
1636000 1260000
1065000
D e c i m a a l t e k e n (0.5) »
h t t p V / w w w . e m i s s i e r e g i s t r atie.nl/er p u b l i e W e r p u r V g r a f i e k e r V G r a f i e k e n T o p 1 0 . a s p x ? i c M
671500
396600
442200
373300
373300
http-V/woodsmoke. 3sc.net/woodheater-car-compari sonŶtmp^/system/app/templates'prin...
Woodheater-Car Comparison
M a n y people t h i n k that cars are t h e w o r s t p o l l u t a n t s . S y d n e y has lots o f cars but f e w
w o o d h e a t e r s , s o w e ' d expect a l l t h e passenger cars i n S y d n e y t o produce m o r e total
p o l l u t i o n t h a n t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f w o o d h e a t e r s . P M 2 . 5 are n o w considered the m o s t
health-hazardous a i r p o l l u t a n t , responsible f o r about 10 t o 2 0 t i m e s as m a n y p r e m a t u r e
deaths as t h e n e x t w o r s t p o l l u t a n t , o z o n e .
New diesel cars m u s t s a t i s f y s t r i c t E u r o 5 / 6 p o l l u t i o n s t a n d a r d s , w h i c h r e q u i r e a n e w car,
4 W D o r S U V t r a v e l l i n g 2 0 , 0 0 0 k m t o y e a r t o e m i t less t h a n 0.1 k g o f P M 2 . 5 . I n contrast,
the N S W E P A estimates that a n e w w o o d heater w i l l e m i t 9.8 k g o f health-hazardous
P M . 2 5 p e r y e a r . Thus a brand new AS4013 heater emits as many PM2.5 in 10 hours
as a new car does in an entire year and a heater burning 2 tonnes of firewood will
emit 19.6 kg of PM2.5, as much as 196 diesels and 1 0 0 0 petrol cars!
The NSW Air Emissions Community Web tool (image, below) shows that residential wood heating
is responsible for more PM2.S emissions in Sydney that all other sources combined
Region: Sydney
Substance: PM2.5
Sector: (All)
Unit: t o n n e s per y e a r
İS Pie Chart
Menu
jtfki
TopN
Emission by Activity (2008)
Res-dental Wood Heating
A total o f 5 4 5 7 tonnes o f P M 2 . 5 per y e a r i n S y d n e y are e m i t t e d b y S y d n e y ' s
woodheaters, compared to a total o f 135 tonnes f r o m the exhausts o f all petrol vehicles,
813 f r o m diesel vehicle exhausts and 597 tons f r o m road, brake and tyre wear. This
means that the average woodheater m o r e P M 2 . 5 pollution than several hundred passenger
cars.
S y d n e y has l o t s o f cars. A r m i d a l e has lots o f w o o d h e a t e r s . T h e g r a p h b e l o w c o m p a r e s
m o n t h l y average P M 2 . 5 nephelometer measurements, recorded by the N S W E P A i n
A r m i d a l e i n 1 9 9 6 a n d S y d n e y i n 1999. W h e n w o o d h e a t e r s are n o t i n use, A r m i d a l e has
c l e a n e r air. B u t as s o o n as t h e w o o d h e a t i n g s e a s o n starts, A r m i d a l e ' s p o l l u t i o n rises
d r a m a t i c a l l y , w i t h o n l y a s m a l l r i s e i n S y d n e y w h e r e o n l y Ą.3% o f h o u s e h o l d s u s e w o o d
as t h e m a i n f o r m o f h e a t i n g . T h i s a g a i n s h o w s t h a t t h e a v e r a g e w o o d h e a t e r e m i t s a l o t
m o r e health-hazardous P M 2 . 5 p o l l u t i o n t h a n the average car and that the o n l y w a y f o r
A r m i d a l e t o h a v e w i n t e r t i m e a i r t h a t i s a s c l e a n a n d h e a l t h y a s i n S y d n e y i s fo r r e s i d e n t s
to use n o n - p o l l u t i n g heating.
Diesel Veh-cle Ex*iaust I
Road. Brake t T yre Wear I
Sloping I
Ceramic Product |
Msnufaetunng |
Prescribed Burning and I
SusnVes |
Manne Aerosol I
Non-Metallc Vineraí Wīning I
and Quarrying I
Waste Collection T reatment I
and Disoosa' Services I
Petroleum and Coal Product I
Manufacturing I
2k
4k
6k V / r
This is despite being used as the main form of heating by only 4.3Va of households,
A B S data showing t h e m a i n for of energy used for space heating for 2 0 0 8 , the year t h e most recent
Emissions Inventory w a s compiled.
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1.25
-Armidale
Liverpool
Tabic 3.8 MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY USED IN SPACE HEATING-2O08
All S y d n e y
Wc
NSW
OM
SA
WA
T H .
G23
CAPITAL CfTY
1 00 rtki
V a n s , gas
« 075 JS
0.50
WttM
252.8
299 ĩ
22i '
182.8
tjOBO-7
ĶJ
*C3 C
2t8
Lf*Q ť o r « a aas
332
IV COC
i
38 0
22 ;
Oft
n
«8
QttMl
t6«
Zì ī
27
NO t » B e r L i s e U
Tom
3Î
42 9
ISİZ
406 1
M2b
f
na
464
i
Jtfi
46.3
06
16
lit
3-3
i e
M
1 2
i'Ĵti
4;
54 3
4/9 '
Piųjuhtai f-v
0.25 -
íe.
Mįįŕil g n
0.00
M
J
J
O
N
Month
P r o f J o h n T o d d ' s a r t i c l e i n " C l e a n A i r a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y " n o t e s t h a t t h e r e ha s
b e e n "only marginal improvement over the past 15 years" i n w o o d h e a t e r e m i s s i o n s .
E m i s s i o n s f r o m n e w c a r s h a v e a l s o i m p r o v e d . A n e w c a r d r i v i n g 1 5 , 0 0 0 k m p e r y ea r
e m i t s a b o u t 1 5 0 g o f P M 2 . 5 . W i t h a v e r a g e f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n o f 2 t o n n e s p e r y ea r
( S y d n e y ) o r 4 t o n n e s ( A r m i d a l e ) , a new woodheater will emit 1 3 3 times (Sydney) or
2 6 7 times (Armidale) as much health-hazardous P M 2 . 5 pollution as the average new
car driving 1 5 , 0 0 0 km per year.
W o o d h e a t e r s a l s o e m i t m o r e g r e e n h o u s e ga s e s t h a n o t h e r f o r m s o f h e a t i n g . M a n y
c o u n c i l s o f f e r s u b s i d i e s t o r e p l ac e w o o d h e a t e r s w i t h n o n - p o l l u t i n g h e a t i n g . W o o d h ea t e r
o w n e r s w h o a re concerned a bout t h e i r h e a l t h o r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s h o u l d r e m e m b e r the
a d v i c e o f t h e N S W D E C C "If vou can see or smell smoke from your wood heater then
you are causins a problem for yourself, your family and your neighbors" a n d c o n s i d e r
taking u p this offer.
Proportion of PM2.5 emissions (the most health-hazardous air pollutant) emitted by residential wood heaters (purple line
joining the triangles) in Sydney by month. This g raph from NSW EPA website, is from their emissions inventory which
shows that more than half of all man-made PM2.5 emissions are from the small proportion of households using wood
heaters. ABS statistics showthat only 5Vti of Sydney households use wood as the main form of heating.
D
t6 l
L P e t ì M B ë ű nas
20
Wood
43
O*
um
Ĩ4 9
M
404
4/ 0
»e
ƒ39
00
34 1
41.4
0/
07
i
TA
143
Oh
i ļ
3.1
03
t 4
04
29
M 1
ft?
ĪÓŬ 0
ĩOCO
«WO
fOOö
10
i-;rt1
I
i e
Í77
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Vt
ìf.4
9
a
ì 4
ïS 1
1 9
1 4
S È
ros G
Other Air Toxics
T h e t a b l e b e l o w c o m p a r e s a l l m a j o r p o l l u t a n t s a n d a i r t o x i c s e m i t t e d b y t h e a v e ra g e
petrol-fuelled pa ssenger ca r a nd the a vera ge woodhea ter, a ccording t o the N S W E P A
Emissions Inventories for 2008 a nd 2003.
E x h a u s t e m i s s i o n s f r o m p e t r o l - f u e l l e d p as s e n g e r c a r s i n S y n d e y h a v e f a l l e n f r o m 7 9 7
tonnes P M 2 . 5 per yea r, t o 8 8 tonnes, w i t h substa ntia l reductions i n a l l m aj o r polluta nts.
I n contra st, w o o d hea ter emissions ha ve increa sed f r o m 4 5 0 3 tonnes to 7 3 5 9 tonnes,
a l m o s t 1 0 t i m e s m o r e t h a n a l l t h e p e t r o l - f u e l l e d p as s e n g e r c a r s i n S y d n e y .
T h i s is despite the fa ct A B S estima tes s h o w a decline i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f households
u s i n g w o o d a s t h e m a i n f o r m o f h e a t i n g i n N S W ( f r o m 1 1 W/o 2 0 0 2 t o l ŭ . 3 % i n 2 0 0 8 ) .
Because o f the big reduction i n emissions per vehicle ( f r o m 0.44 k g per year to 0.05
k g ) , a h e a v i l y used w o o d heater i n S y d n e y can e m i t o v e r 1,000 t i m e s as m u c h P M 2 . 5 (the
m o s t h e a l t h - h a z a r d o u s p o l l u t a n t ) a s t h e a v e r a g e p e t r o l -f u e l l e d p a s s e n g e r f a r . I n g e n e r a l ,
w o o d h e a t e r s e m i t m o r e t o x i c p o l l u t a n t s - a b o u t 4 4 t i m e s as m a n y P A H as t h e a v e r a g e
car, 12 t i m e s as m u c h b e n z e n e a n d o t h e r V O C ( v o l a t i l e o r g a n i c c o m p o u n d s ) a n d 6 6 t i m e s
as m u c h f o r m a l d e h y d e .
Comparison of air pollution emissions from woodheaters and petrol-fuelled
passenger cars in Sydney in 2 0 0 8 and 2 0 0 3
2008 Emissions - Sydney
Ambient A O N E P M
PM2.5
V O C (ozone precursor)
CO
2 van 6
t/vr
88
7789
75067
Cars
ks/vehiele
0.05
4.30
41.45
Woodheaters
t/vr
kg/heater
5457
51.43
56.10
5952
40034
377.32
Ratio
woodheater/car
1059.66
13.04
9.10
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NO
Monthly PM,, « 1 1 1 1 1 * 1 0 » In the Sydney region
so
c
•y
1 2ÖŰ -::
c:
« 0 too oo
FĪ7
•jj,
Month
f-lJiurat Í 3 u r í » i
s
Aíŕĵut!
S^CflnT-O*'
Öíîcŵ*'
ĮiaVtmbw
C Í 3 S P A - Ì C ö A t * á irtduflfV
- * — H f r - t d ^ i a ! / . c o d Miatur-,
21575
11 9 1
601
5.66
0.48
144
96
11.38
woodheater/car
12.2
t/vr
0.08
p/vehicle
t/vr
0.90
p/heater
Benzene
382
211
274
2582
Toluene
712
393
76
716
1.8
Formaldehyde
117
65
454
4279
66.2
Xylene
589
325
42
396
1.2
PAH
39
22
100
943
43.8
Air toxics NEPM
r occ « j c s
1
į
x
2
For both tables, emissions per vehicle and p e r w o o d h e a t e r w e r e calculated b y dividing total emissions
( N S W D E C C Emissions Inventory, T a b l e s E S 4 i n the domestic-commercial a n d on-road emissions i n t h e
2 0 0 8 inventory, E S 4 a n d and E S 1 . 4 i nt h e 2003 inventory) by the n u m b e r o fwoodheaters (106,100)
a n d passenger cars (1.811 m i l l i o n i n 2 0 0 7 ) i n S y d n e y .
2 0 0 3 Emissions - Sydney
Ambient A O NEPM
Ctcçřnrx
Cars
t/vr
Woodheaters
ke/vehicle
Ratio
ka/hcater
woodhcater/car
797
0.44
!åi
4503
42.44
96.39
VOC (ozone precursor)
26066
14.39
9524
89.76
6.24
CO
323953
178.88
27889
262.86
1.47
38175
21.08
361
3.40
0.16
PM2.5
NO
so
x
645
0.36
73
0.68
1.92
t/vr
e/vehiele
t/vr
g/heater
woodheater/car
Benzene
1217
672
463
4364
6.49
Toluene
1311
724
148
1395
1.93
Formaldehyde
340
188
111
7323
38.95
Xylene
1815
1002
71.9
678
0.68
PAH
120
66
69.2
652
9.82
2
Air toxics NEPM
A B C News April 2008: Wood smoke worse that car exhausts
"In t h e limited a m o u n t o f studies that have been done so rar that h a v e directly comp ared
s m o k e from fires w i t h t h e s a m e l e v e l o f pa r t i c u l a t e s a n d s m o k e f r o m c a r e x h a u s t ,
industry have a l l tended to s h o w that the effects f r o m the w o o d s m o k e are actually worse
f o r l u n g conditions t h a n a s i m i l a r a m o u n t f r o m , say, car exhausts"
Norwegian Study comparing genetic damage from woodsmoke and traffic in human
cell lines: "In conclusion, woodsmoke p articulate matter (WSPM) generated more DNA damage than trafficgenerated PMp er unit mass in human cell lines, possibly due to the high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in
WSPM. This suggests that exp osure to WSPM might be more hazardous than PM collected from vehicle exhaust with
respect to development of lung cancer."
Greenhouse gases.
Methane emissions from the average woodheater can cause more global warming than heating the same house with gas
or reverse cycle airconditioning.
USEPA-certified stoves
T h e average n e w EPA-certified stove e m i t s a n e s t i m a t e d 9 7 lbs ( 4 4kg)o f P M 2 . 5 p e r year
Measured e m i s s i o n s from gasoline-fuelled cars (PV-S, in Fig7 below) average about 1
m g / k m , implying t h a t a s m a l l petrol (gasoline)-fuelled vehicle travelling 2 0 , 0 0 0 k mp e r
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year will e m i t 2 0 grams of PM2.5.
A U S E P A - c e r t i f i e d w o o d s t o v e is t h e r e f o r e a s polluting a s 2 , 2 0 0 p a s s e n g e r
a u t o m o b i l e s fueled by g a s o l i n e .
Annual Fine Particle Pollution
(PM2.5) from heating a
Northwest home
(pounds per year)
- J
" i i R . * ' . • - C A i n o C'f.ln
Uncertified
Woodstove
(244 lbs)
EPACertified
Woodstove
(97lbs)
Pellet
Stove
(27 lbs)
Oil
Furnace
(«1/4 lb)
iif, I ' e i 4
AÍ' AfKMlev
Gas
Furnace
(«1/6 lb)
Note A l t h o u g h o p e n - h e a r t h f i r e p l a c e s a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f f i n e p a r t i c l e
p o l l u t i o n ( e v e n m o r e t h a n w o o d s t o v e f i r e s ) , t h e y a r e n o t i n c l u d e d In t h e a b o v e
d i a g r a m because this diagram compares e m i s s i o n s based on eciuivalent heat
o u t p u t , a n d fireplaces a r e n o t actually a h e a t s o u r c e for a r e s i d e n c e
Homeowners
will o f t e n find their h o u s e g l o w i n g colder w h i l e a fife is burning i n a n o p e n
f i r e p l a c e b e c a u s e w a r m air f r o m t h e h o m e i s b e i n g d r a w n u pt h e c h i m n e y
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Figure 7: Average and maximum P M
category (fleet subset)
NISE2 fleet: average P M
J5
results by vehicle and age
2 5
Enor bar shows maximum recorded result in that vehicle category
250
Key:
PV-S
• PV-M
«PV-L
SUV-C
«SUV-L
LCV
200
Ē
9; 100
50
00
1994-1998
1999-2003
2004-2D05
2006-2007
Note: T h e r e are n o fine particulate m a t t e r limits for petrol vehicles in
the A D R s .
T h e graph a b o v e (from the second n a t i o n a l in-service e m i s s i o n s study ( N I S E 2 ) ) s h o w s in-service P M 2 . 5
emissions for petrol vehicles T h e 2 0 0 6 - 0 7 average P M 2 . 5 emissions of 1 mg/km i m p l i e s that a vehicle
t r a v e l l i n g 2 0 , 0 0 0 k m w i l l e m i t j u s t 2 0 g r a m s o f P M 2 . 5 , less than the average domestic wood heater in
the first hour after lighting.
T h e a b b r e v i a t i o n s in t h e key: P V - S , P V - M a n d P V - L d e n o t e s m a l l , m e d i u m , large p a s s e n g e r vehicles;
S U V - C and S U V - L denote compact a n d large S U V ; L V C denotes light commercial vehicles.
F o r d i e s e l c a r s , t h e E u r o - 5 l i m i t i s 5 m g / k m ( 0 . 0 0 5 g / k m ) . T h i s i s a m o r e t h a n 99Vo r e d u c t i o n c o m p a r e d
to emissions of pre-1989 diesels, a s discussed o n p a g e 3 of the peer-reviewed research paper: A i r
p o l l u t i o n in A u s t r a l i a : r e v i e w o f costs, s o u r c e s a n d p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s .
In c o n t r a s t , r e a l - l i f e e m i s s i o n s o f n e w s t o v e s a r e l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t f r o m 1 9 8 9 . I n 2 0 1 3 O r e g o n , N e w Y o r k
and five other states sued the U S E P A because their "25 years of inaction on woodstove emission
standards violates the C l e a n Air Act". However, progress h a s b e e n slow. T h e n e w standards reduce
e m i s s i o n s to 4.5 g / h r i n 2 0 1 5 and 2.5 g / h r i n 2 0 2 0 . However, t h e certification process is based o n a
correctly-operated stove burning seasoned w o o d . Real-life emissions are often m u c h higher.
35
30
•525 J
E
5 van 6
Comparison of USEPA-certified 8. real-life emissions
(grams/hr, Table 3-12 of Fisher et al.. 2000)
A report published
in 2 0 0 0 compared
real-life and
EPA-certified
emissionsfor 16
stoves installed in
Portland, Oregon
and Klamath
28-9-2015 14:02
http:ZZwoodsmoke.3sc.netZwoodheater-car-comparison?tmpl Zsy stem/app/templates/prin...
s
A3
"20 -
«2
310-
e
s-
USEPA Certified Emissions (grams/hour)
* Non-catalytic stove
A Catalytic stove
Falls. EPA-certification v a l u e s o f non-catalytic stoves averaged 4.2 grams/hour, m u c h l o w e r t h a n
average real-life emissions o f 9.7 grams/hr. EPA-certification v a l u e s o f catalytic stoves averaged 3.5
g r a m s / h o u r , m u c h l o w e r t h a n a v e r a g e real-life e m i s s i o n s o f 1 3 . 8 grams/hr. A s s h o w n i n t h e g r a p h (left),
t h e r e i s little o r n o r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n real-life e m i s s i o n s a n d t h o s e f r o m t h e E P A - c e r t i f i c a t i o n test.
T h i s is particularly true f o r catalytic stoves w h e r e t h e stove with the lowest EPA-certified emissions (1.6
g r a m s / h r ) h a d t h e real-life e m i s s i o n s o f 2 4 . 1 g/hr.
6 van 6
28-9-2015
14:02

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