Origins of Rome - Leon County Schools

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Origins of Rome - Leon County Schools
CHAPTER 6
ANCIENT ROME
5 0 0 B C – AD 5 0 0
SECTION 1
“THE ROMAN REPUBLIC”
Origins of Rome
• Italian Peninsula
– Tiber River
• Built by _______________
• Influenced by _______________ & Etruscans
The Early Republic
• ____________________ – citizens vote for leaders
– ______________________________ democracy
• Twelve Tables – written __________ code; Forum
• 2 Consuls – elected for one year terms
– One ran the _____________________
– One controlled the ____________________
– Checks & ____________________
• The Roman _________________
– 300 members that served for __________
– Issued decrees and interpreted __________
• Dictator - leader w/ _____________________ power
• Valued ____________________ service
Rome Conquers _______________
• 265 BC - Romans controlled nearly all of Italy
– __________________ policy toward defeated enemies
Rivalry with ____________________
• Carthage - city-state on the northern coast of ___________________
– Settled by ________________________ traders
• _____________ Wars
– 3 wars between Carthage and Rome
–
_______________ won the 1st
W a r w i th C a r th a g e
• 2nd Punic War
– ______________led the Carthaginian army through the Alps into Italy
– Scipio attacked Carthage & ____________________ Hannibal
• 3rd Punic War – Carthage’s final _______________
– Became a ____________________ province
• Rome ruled the _________________________
Chapter 6 Section 2
“THE ROMAN EMPIRE”
The Republic ____________________
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The Republic could not solve problems ____________________
____________________brothers proposed reforms; killed
Civil war – conflict between groups within the ______________________
Soldiers became organized, _______________________________ armies
– Loyal to their _____________________ ($), not _______________
Julius Caesar
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Triumvirate: Caesar, Crassus & ____________________
Conquered ______________
Pompey grew jealous
– Convinced the __________ to order Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome
Caesar’s bid for Power
• Caesar led his army across the __________ River toward Rome
– treason
• He crushed __________________ and his supporters
• Senate named him dictator
• “Veni, Vidi, Vici” – I came, I saw, I ______________________
• ___________________ reforms
Ides of March
• Many worried they would lose their influence
• Caesar was ______________ to death in the ______________
• Start of new _______________________
• Second Triumvirate: ________________, Octavian , & Lepidus
ruled for ten years.
• Power struggle between _________________ and Marc Antony
(joined by ____________________)
A u g u s tu s
• ____________________ defeated _________________________
• The Senate called him “Augustus” (exalted one) He ruled like a ________
– the end of the Republic
Pa x R oma n a
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Pax Romana - “Roman ____________________” for 200 years
Peace, order, unity & ________________________
Largest Land area - Spread of ______________
________________________; Values
Religion
• Many Gods & Goddesses (like the Greeks)
GREEK
ROMAN
Zeus
_________________ - ruled the sky & other gods
Hera
______________ – protected marriage
Poseidon
______________ – god of the sea
• __________________ for the gods
Bread and Circuses
• Entertainment events paid for with ____________ $
– Free admission; satisfy the _______________________
• Circus Maximus – Rome’s largest race course
• Chariot races
G l a d i a to r s
• ______________ trained to fight
• Could win _________________
• A poor showing could mean _________
Chapter 6 Section 3
The Rise of Christianity
Jews and the _____________________
• Religious _________________
• __________________ called for Jews to revolt
• __________________ – savior sent by GOD
The Life of Jesus
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__________ – story of Jesus’ life as written by 4 of his apostles
Jesus was born around 4 BC in Bethlehem & raised in Nazareth
Carpenter
At age 30, he began preaching and performing miracles around
the Sea of ______________________
Jesus’ Message
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One God
Ten Commandments; teachings of the prophets
Messiah, __________ of God;
______________________ salvation and ____________________ life
_______________ your enemies
Death on the Cross
• Jewish priest accused him of ________________________
• ____________________ thought he might lead a rebellion
• He was tried and ____________________
Resurrection
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Jesus _____________________ to his disciples
___________________ – follower that spread Jesus’ message
___________________ – “messiah or savior”
Believers became the first ____________________________
Christianity
• ________________ – excellent conditions to spread Christianity
• Work of __________________
– Spread Christ’s teachings to __________________
– Wrote ___________________ – letters to churches
Jewish Rebellion
• AD 66 – a band of Jews rebelled
– Romans stormed ________________________
– Ended at ______________________ in AD 73
• AD 132 – 2nd rebellion
– Jewish political state ceased to ________________
– ______________________ – dispersal of the Jews
Persecution
• Christians were suspected of ___________ to Rome; Persecuted
• _________________ – people who suffer or die for their beliefs
• Survival: people were impressed by the Christians’ willingness
to __________ for their beliefs
• Widespread ______________
Triumph
• AD 313, Emperor ________________ issued the Edict of Milan
– ended the persecution of Christians
• Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the __________ religion
of Rome
• When the Roman Empire collapsed, the __________ inherited
many of its functions
Early Christian Church
• Priest – __________ church leader
• __________________ – supervised several local churches
• __________ – bishop of Rome (heir to __________); leader of
the whole church
• Disagreements; _________________ – contradictory beliefs
• New __________________ added (Gospels, Epistles, +)
Ch 6 Sec 4
T h e Fa l l o f R o m e
A C e n tu r y o f C r i s i s
AD 180 – death of Marcus __________________
____________________ turmoil
Economic Problems
26 emperors during a 50 year period
Trade disrupted
High ________________
____________________ = drop in $ value + rise in prices
Food shortages
Military Problems
Less discipline & loyalty
___________________ – foreign soldiers for hire
E f f or t s a t R e f or m
Diocletian (284)
___________________ freedoms; restored order
__________________ the empire to make it easier to govern
Appointed a co-emperor to rule the __________________ part
C o n s t a n ti n e ( 3 1 2 )
____________________ Christians – Edict of Milan
Moved the capital to ____________________________\ (Constantinople)
left the west weak
Foreign Invasions
_________ from central Asia pushed Germanic tribes into
Roman territory
410 – Germans plundered Rome
A tti l a th e H u n
444 – _________ led the Huns against both halves of the empire.
Attila died in 453, but his invasions sent many ______________
tribes into the Roman Empire
476 – __________________ (Germanic leader) ousted the
emperor in Rome
Considered the __________ of Rome
Eastern half became the __________________________ Empire
Th e L e g a c y o f R o m e
__________________________ Civilization – mix of Greek & Roman
(Greco-Roman) Culture
Latin & ________________________ Languages
Architecture – arch, dome, ____________________, aqueducts, and roads
Roman __________ – fair & just
Strengthened ___________________ cultural tradition
Review Question:
What were the main reasons for the Romans’ success in
controlling such a large empire? (Read “A Vast and Powerful Empire on pp. 162-163)