Lights and Sound


Lights and Sound
Lights and Sound
Lighting Design
Chorus Line
Greek Theatre
Light Source: The Sun
Chestnut Street Theatre
1818- First theatre lit with gas light
Gas Table
First lighting control system
Iroquois Theatre Fire
Chicago, IL (1903)
Nations worst theatre fire. 602 die
After the Fire
Thomas Edison
1879- Creates the first practical light bulb
Savoy Theatre
1881- First theatre lit with electric lights
Metropolitan Opera House
An early lighting system
Early lighting equipment
Kliegl, 1913
1000w spot lights
Flood light
The Functions of Light
To see
To focus the audience’s attention
To reveal the actor’s form
To give information
To establish a mood
The Properties of Light
1. Intensity – amount of electricity reaching
the lamp
2. Color – The color of the gel
3. Direction – Where the light is placed
4. Distribution – Where the light is pointed
5. Movement – A change in any of the 4
above properties, a cue (Q)
Colored light
Color Media - Gel
Direction of Light
Where the light is hung
Jean Rosenthal
The Magic of Light
“A Photo Essay on Light”
Front Light
Hi Side Light from SL and SR
Pools of Down Light
Back Light
Up Light from SL
Hi Side Light SR & Up Light SL
Spotlights light the actor
“Area” light
Follow Spot
Flood Lights light the scenery
Strip light
“Scoop” or Cyc light
Lighting Control on Broadway
“Piano” Boards
Strand Light Palette
An Old Light Board
Fox Theatre, Atlanta
View from the light booth in the
back of the theatre
Responsibilities of Lighting
1. Develop the cue list
2. Determine the type of instrument, color
and focus for each light in the design
3. Draft the Light Plot and Hook Up chart
4. Supervise the hang
5. Focus the lights
6. Create compositions, “looks”
7. Supervise the tech and dress rehearsals
Cue List
Light Plot
Light Plot: Detail
Type of spotlights
6” Source 4
8” Fresnel
Hook Up Chart
Cue Sheet
Sound Design on Broadway
First designer to receive credit: Jack Mann
Show: Show Girl (w/ Carol Channing)
Eugene O’Neill Theatre
Year: 1961 (100 performances)
Sound Reinforcement
• The amplification of the performer’s voice
• Used primarily in large musicals
• Why? To help the singers project over the
• Type of mikes used: (1) Foot mikes and
(2) wireless body mikes
• Speaker placement: Center cluster hung
above the orchestra pit
Speaker Location
Palace Theatre, Cleveland, OH
Sound Reproduction
• Reproduction of recorded music and
sound effects
• Source: CD, MiniDisc or Computer
• Speaker placement: Back stage
Sound in a Play
• Pre Show, Scene change, Intermission,
• Tends to reflect the period and mood of
the play
Sound effects: Thunder, Wind, Rain, Off
stage gunshots, A passing train
17th Century Sound
Wind Machine
Sound in the 19th Century
Thunder run
20th Century Sound
Thunder Sheet
Sound Designer’s Responsibilities
1. Develop a cue list
2. Locate the required music and sound
3. Specify type of equipment
4. Determine mike and speaker placement
5. Record the master tape or CD
6. Supervise mounting of equipment and
Placement of Sound Board
• Back of the house. Often behind the last row of
• Why? So the board operator hears the same
show as the audience