Climate Change solutions in Madagascar: The role of forests


Climate Change solutions in Madagascar: The role of forests
REDD at the Copenhagen Climate Talks and beyond :
Bridging the gap between negotiation and action
Nairobi 16-18 November 2009
Climate Change solutions in Madagascar :
The role of forests
Jean Roger Rakotoarijaona
Pierrot Rakotoniaina
Julia Randimbisoa
Madagascar key facts
• One of the main source of green house gas
emissions is deforestation
• > 75% of the 20 million population is rural and
dependent on the land and its natural resources
• Very high number of endemic species
Key facts
• Unparalleled levels of endemism at the genus
and family levels:
25 endemic families;
209 plant genera; 6 families
34 bird genera; 5 families
15 mammal genera; 5 families
Madagascar forest cover change
What deforestation is
occurring in Madagascar?
Total natural forest (million ha)
1990 : 10.6
2000 : 9.7
2005 : 9.4
Rate of deforestation
40,000 hectares per year
(0.53% /y)
Key drivers of deforestation and
• Main causes :
– slash-and burn agriculture, conversion
of land for agriculture
– charcoal production, fuel-wood
– legal and illegal logging
– mining
• Underlying causes:
– lack of good governance in forest
– increasing demand for land, fuel and
– unclear land tenure
– lack of viable alternative fuel sources
– lack of alternative revenue sources
Policies and measures
• Creation of new protected areas
• Clear forest-use zoning plans at the
regional level
• Transfer of forest resources management to
• Creation of Sustainable Forest
Management sites
• Promotion of reforestation and forest
• Reform of forest administration
• SWAp process
• Multisectorial approach of land use
• Reform of land tenure policy
• Promotion of alternative energy sources
• Rural Development Program
Madagascar’s experiences
of forest carbon
• The Mantadia corridor:
– Ankeniheny-Zahamena
Protected Area (376,000
– Mantadia reforestation area
(1000ha of habitat restoration)
• Makira protected area
• Fandriana-Vondrozo
corridor (250,000 ha)
: projects developing REDD
• other small scale
afforestation initiatives
Ongoing RPP process with keys
In-depth deforestation analysis
Assessment of policies and measures
Strategies options to address drivers
Methodological approach for developing
reference scenario and monitoring system
• Costs analysis for REDD preparation
Financial mechanisms
At national level
REDD Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) being
established with WorldBank
GTZ and Swiss Intercooperation support REDD national
system setting
At project level
Payment for Environmental Services (PES) are
Local foundations will be created to manage and
distribute funds to the communities
WCS signs an agreement with the Government to
market Makira carbon 9,1 Million tons to 2033 :
to communities
to AP management
to Ministry monitoring
to marketing
to monitoring
to funds management
Social groups affected
• The only group considered as indigenous
forest dwellers are the Mikea in the southwest of the country
• Local people tend to live on forest
peripheries and to be forest users
• Local communities will be actively engaged
in forest management activities through two
main mechanisms :
– Transfer of forest for community forest
– Co-management of protected areas
• Environmental and social impact
assessment is required and Government’s
own social safeguard procedures are
applied to all new protected areas
Institutions created
• Climate Change Platform : Intersectorial
Coordination and information sharing in
order to include all stakeholders
• CT-REDD : technical support to the
Environment and Forest Ministry
• ONE : national institution for national data
and carbon monitoring
• Local foundations : revenue distribution
Social and Environmental cobenefits
• EIA and safeguards : Environmental
and social management plan
• Local public consultations
• Empowerment of communities for
improved resources management and
involvement in governance structures
• REDD revenues can be used to
improve livelihoods of communities
dependent on forest resources
• Use of multiple standards for REDD
National Methodological issues
Main issue
Spatial delimitation
project encroachment, leakage belt definition
Carbon quantification
and forest inventory
which carbon pools
Different forest types
equity issue
Reference Scenario:
Challenge: moving towards a national approach
Financing mechanisms
and carbon market
risk management
Benefits sharing
through projects lessons learned
Credit validation
southern experts needed / regional verification center ?
REDD Scale
national approach beyond :
- national accounting, monitoring, reporting
- crediting at project level temporarily
Institutional Issues
• Multisectorality
• Engagement of keys sector needed for
developing REDD strategies
• Developing structure to coordinate/ manage/
lead/ REDD strategy
• Governance
• Carbon revenue sharing
• Build national capacities, through integrating
local agents in the process
In conclusion… REDD should
• Address all causes of deforestation
• Take into account the impacts of all REDD
strategy options : social and environmental
• Conciliate market and local community
• Clarify land and resources rights
• Use pro-poor approaches