Vas ti ta s Bor ea li s Arca dia P lan i t i a o P a i a Terra A i d al lan it

Transcription

Vas ti ta s Bor ea li s Arca dia P lan i t i a o P a i a Terra A i d al lan it
N
N
Scandia Coll
es
60°
·
a
Nili Fossa
e
· B
arn
ard
es
Holm
S –2
Pla
niac
· Vish
·
ert
Gilb
nit
a
Tyr
rra
Te
·I
sil
i·
200
lla
ia
·
Kas
ab
tes
–8
Suz
by
s
Da o Vallis
40°
is
Vall
Mad
Malea Planum
el
ich
· M
lles
· Te
rb y
eM
on
He
ll
e
tes
He
AR
rhen
al
les
lla
Sc
op
C ha
ulu
r yb
dis
Sco s
pul
us
Scy
Mon
us
20°
Co
ro
na
xi
aC
ol
h
·C
Ne
r
t
sl oges
·
s
s
oros R
upes
80°
Jarry De
Au
xi a
sV
all
e
les
T iu V
allis
O
is
di
Va
llis
Sha
lb a
sa
e
Fla
m
m
Line refers to the max. extent of frost cover
A uqakuh-v.
us
oV
Vallis
Maja
Bosporos Rupes
Fo
ss
a e
la
ri
ta
s
C
Na
ne
sae
Sac ra Fos
e
T
tam
aV
alli
s
es
i V
all
na
on
te
s
ha
rs
is
Ul
yss
M
es
Pa
ter
a
es
up
lci
Su
ga
s
Gi
se
y
i
Hu
s
Ica
r
Ju
vent
ae Ch.
a
pic
Oly
m
u
Lyc
us
S
a
us P
atera
se
Er
eb
us
Phleg
ra M
o
Vall
is
ira
ul
aS
cop
a ni
Hype rn
W
Er
id
Valli
s
Pro
me
th
Promethei P
l.
·
us
P ro m e t h ei R u p
es
· Verlaine
ul
h
a in
· M
op
pu
sM
ons
Sc
Reull
ia
During one Martian year measured at 0° longitude, various
latituted. Source: MGS TES Jun 2000. - Apr. 2002.
tr
Temperature
L
no
Gu
Lu
ntes
Va
llis
Foss
ae
A me
nthe
s
Orc
itia
an
Pl
is
ti a
ani
s Pl
Oe
· McMurd
o
· S ou
t
· Fournier
·
Scopulus
vi
–3900
Isidi
llis
s Va
id
s
u
Arn
Is
e
oll
aC
en
Ar
Vallis
ing
Hs
Liris V
alles
s
Valle
Cor
onae
-85°
600
45°
180°
s
su
1000
90°
sV
cra
Lo
56-sol months (1=Ls 270)
1400
0°
0°
uo
Cu
llis
Va
7 8 9 101112 1 2 3 4 5 6
ae
ss
Fo
ng
*
270° Ls
VIEW OF CHRYSE PLANITIA (Viking–1)
PRESSURE [mbar] Viking–2, 47°N
10 mb
Southern CO2 frost
sublimated
Southern CO2-frost
precipitated
0°
90°
180°
0 mb
270° Ls 0°
WIND SPEED [m/s] Viking–2, 47°N
20
dust storm season
0°
90°
180°
270° Ls 0°
0
TEMPERATURE [C°] Viking–2, 47°N
daily max
.
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
dail y min
.
DAILY SOLAR ENERGY
AT VARIOUS LATITUDES [Wh/sol·m2]
-45°
loe
Co
I
56-sol months (1=Ls 270)
-140
Change of seasons on Mars is expressed as Ls
degrees (Solar Longitude: distance of the Sun from the
first point of Aries).
Seasonal changes are caused not only by the tilt of axis,
but also by the Solar distance, which is a major factor
because of the highly elliptical orbit of Mars. This plays
a major role on the actual extent of the polar (frost)
caps. Southern seasons are extreme: Summer is while
Mars is close to to Sun (perihelion), Winter is while far
from the Sun (aphelion). Northern seasons are less
different: Winter is in perihelion. The basis (x axis) of
the diagrams shown here is not Ls, but a 56-sol month.
The southern Summer is the season for global dust
storms. The almost always cloudless sky of Mars is pale
pink in colour because of the dust. During the winter,
CO2 is precipitated as frost, even at 50° lat. By summer,
this sublimates, adding to global atmospheric pressure
and making strong winds.
85°
*
m
7 8 9 101112 1 2 3 4 5 6
K
313
293
270
253
233
213
193
173
153
133
+M
*
rsu
Do
a
hi C
Sisyp
M.
ore
sC
av i
· Lyell
s
n
po
197
1†
*
Pa
u sa tera
ty
Pi
i by
a M.
0°
Schroeter
HUYGENS
Alphe
us Co
u s Pa tera
ne
Am
Pe
ph
i
Pa rites
t
a
e
P
ter
r
a
a
e
l
a
a
M
ia
ev
Br
t
u Toi · Dana
· D
oly
· J
S i s y p h i Te r r a
es
nt
Mo
rmán
ps
n Ká · Philli
o
v
·
Wegener ·
Australe
-140
K
303
293
283
273
263
258
253
243
213
203
183
173
163
153
148
143
is
all
aV
· Russell
80°
· Schaeber
le
· Green
hi
°C
30
20
10
0
-10
-15
-20
-30
-60
-70
-90
-100
-110
-120
-125
-130
T i si a
· Denning
· Bouguer
· Lambert
· Procto
r
· Roddenberry
Doaus Vallis
Planum
60°
PHOTOMAP OF MARS
Showing albedo features of the surface
Lambert Transversal Equivalent
Azimuthal Projection
Published by Eötvös Loránd University
Cosmic Materials Space Research Group,
Budapest, Hungary
http://planetologia.elte.hu
Source: Viking Orbiter
Map © Henrik Hargitai 2008
ISBN HU 978-963-463-969-5
North
METEO DATA
Legend
· Teisserenc de Bort
· Rabe
· Kaiser
p
Sisy
· Maraldi
Fri
g
· Flaugegues
Noachis Terra
· D a r w in
Planum
li Pa
60°
Dawes ·
· Le Verrier
l
al
sV
opa
c
a
l
Pal
20°
Syrtis
M a j o r tera
40°
Sa ba Ter ra
· Lohse
· Galle
Argentea
llis
Va
Pa
a
DI
ANTONIA
ier
Perid
* Ni 2300
Patera
* Meroe
Niesten
· Wirtz
ai V.
· Pollack
os
M
is
· F
ont
an
lle
Va
is
m
Sa
Rup
es
Bakhuysen ·
Newcomb
· Novara
· Helmholz
te
Charitum Mon
yre
rs
me
al l
s
lli
o
·N
ra
–3500
t
· Balde
al
les
· Shatskiy
· Mena
· Arkhangelsky
Dzig
A rg
ra · Peta
na
V.
as
im a
ov ra
Val
les
·K
er
r
· Wislicenus
· Vogel
· Hartwig
re
Arg y
nitia
Pla
ley
Hal
Ma
th
era V.
Him
e
· Hook
E vros
· Beer
+ MARS –6
· Bozkir
Na
kt
o
Janssen ·
V
os
Braz
· Jones
· Foros
arion
SCHIAPARELLI
Margaritifer Terra
1974†· Cartago
Ery th · Ostrov ma
raea
Fossa
m Montes
du
i
e
m
nu
S
x.
56-sol months (1=Ls 270)
T
Va
ll
80°
Highest daytime temperatures during one Mars year [K]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112
alin
ek
V.
80°
a
em
56-sol months (1=Ls 270)
-140
n
Pl a
· Airy
ti C a
vi
im
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112
EL
L
ia
·
ni
ridia
· Mädler
· Ag · Schm
assiz
idt An
gu s
·
ilt
56-sol months (1=Ls 270)
-140
do
· Henr y
20°
2004
· Hale
in
· Sumg
60°
da
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112
n
LO
W
· Lorika
· Bond
· Bunge
e
· Eg
glass
Dou
·
Uzboi Vallis
·
60°
1 61 126 193 257 317 371 421 468 514 562 612 668 φ
Solar Distance: 206–249 million km Sol 1 61 126 193 257 317 371 421 468 514 562 612 668 φ
80
80
Earth Distance: 54–401 million km
70
70
60
Equatorial Radius: 3396.2 km
60
50
50
Obliquity to orbit: 25°19’ (±10°)
40
40
Orbital Period: 668.59 Mars Day
30
30
20
20
(668.59 Sol) (=687 Earth Day)
10
10
Rotational Period (1 sol): 24h:37m
0
0
10
Gravity: 0.38 g
10
20
20
Length of Equator: 21 300 km
30
30
Surface Area: 144.2 million km2
40
40
50
50
Atmosphere: 95% CO2; 2,6% N2
60
60
Pressure: 6 mbar [min: 0,7–Olympus,
70
70
max: 12–Hellas)
80
80
Ls 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 350 Ls 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 350
0. Longitude: Airy-0 crater
da
Height Datum 3396 km radius
40
40
40
40 30°S
40 60°S
il t i
0°
me
20 60°N dailtime max.
20 30°N dailtime max.
20
20
20
ma
Distance from Earth at Light
0
0
0
0
0
x
.
-20
-20
-20
-20
-20
speed : 03:02–22:19 min.
-40
-40
-40
-40 Duststorm→
-40Duststorm→
Duststorm→
Duststorm→
-60
-60
-60
-60
-60
Solar Distance: 589.2 W/m2
-80
-80
-80
-80
-80
nighttime min.
-100
-100
nighttime
min.
-100
-100
-100
nighttime
min.
nighttime min.
nighttime min.
Satellites: Phobos, Deimos
-120
-120
-120
-120
-120
-140
lis
Lowest nighttime temperature [K]
llis
Va
CLIMATE
T iu
’s
ion
ar
er
La
l Va
llis
y
· Ritche
m
anu
s Pl
OPPORTUNI TY + Me
Margaritifer
Chaos
ire
H
Va
lle
s
· Tikhonravov
· Crommelin
0°
Lo
V.
ga
Nilosyrtis Men sae
r
· Schöne
Indus V
allis
· Gill
Pyrrhae
Chaos
is N Holden
irga
·
u ngarian 18
77
p/H
ma
wr
l
Va
South
North
MARS FACTS
He
rD
es h
er V
all
· Pasteur
A ra bia Ter ra
Iani Chaos
340°
Asrinoses
Chaos
· Flamm
CASSINI
· Marth
Aureum
Chaos
Vinogradov
· Luzin
· Bequerel
t
olles
Nili C
Cerulli
Maggini ·
Are
sV
a
audo
· Ren
ensae
isset
· Quen
· Rutherford
· Radau
· Galilaei
Aurorae Chaos
u
Os
akin
S
EÖTVÖS L. UNIVERSITY
COSMIC MATERIALS
SPACE RESEARCH GROUP
BUDAPEST, HUNGARY
s
Eo
40°
·R
·
Ma
es
Ar
m
au
Th
s
eno
rte
r
40°
x·
Rudau
s
· Trouvelot
ma
as
Ch
Eos Chaos
imov
· Ibrag
ro
spo
b
· Ba
North
ux
· More
sm
enia
e
e Fossa
· Sklodowska
V
Aram
Chaos
a
erl
in
ear
asia
Thaum
m
Planu
ae
ens
M
ia
on
· Marursky
· Sagan
rr
· St
He
av
ys
ide
Par va Planum
am
b
· Po
s
Fo
ia
as
lli
Va
ud
Sim
· Ch
· Lassel
40°
· McLaughin
Te
· Do
k uc
h ae
v
· Br
ash
pr
Ca
VA LLES M A
RIN
ERIS
Bo
· Paks
Ganges Chasma
la
nu
um
m
Mela
Plan a
s Ch
ra e
a sm Cop
sm
o
r
r
u
ates C
ha
a
hasm A
iC
·
Semeykin
Curie
1997
Hydraotes
Chaos
Da Vinci ·
s
up e
Og ygis R
·
Orson Welles ·
o
rk
e
· Mutch
a
C oprates Catena
20°
20°
r Ch
.
d
Cy
+ PATHFINDER
320°
he
A
sma
lanu
m
nt
Fossae
80°
· Cla
sa
os
F
a
s
Mensa
Protonilu
sM
e
Mensa
nilus
o
r
e
t
eu
i
t
ni
a
Pl
a
pi
Uto
LYOT
tia
D
+ VIKING–1
ris Necta
Planum Australe
·
60°
Kunowski
Nilokeras M
ensae
V.
Xa
lph
La
u
ius Sc.
ot
Australe Ch
a
Oudemans ·
Acidalia
· Timbuktu
Si
olds
Lou ros Valle
has
ma
Plani
Chryse P
lanitia
· Sharanov
ir P
Oph
· Sto
n ey
en
lis
al
300°
ae
oss
is F
rac
Co
· Re
yn
um
ith
Sm
upes
· Mill
man
· Charlier
· Richardson
Ius C
lia
· Sytin
skaya
m
nu
s
os
1999†
es
R
ei
· Nans
· Wright
· Trump
er
+ MA R S
AR L ANDER
POL
g
num
· Kuiper
· Suess
· Pickerin
· Eud oxu
s
er
Va
lle
s
Liu Hsin
pes
is R u
Jeans ·
p
Ru
60°
d
Byr
n ·
nlei um
i
e
· H einba
· W
Bu
rro
ugh
s·
Hut
ton
·
Liai
s·
les
y
xle
Hu
COPERNICUS
Ulyx
hi
a
Kov al’sky
NEWTON
Hipparchu
s·
Pto lemaeus ·
· Li Fan
· Mendel
Chronium
Planum
ne
F
os
C
Cando
Tithoniae Cat
ena
Planum
e
sa
Ter ra S
iren
Cimmeria T
erra
·
· Campbell
T hy
c
ec
·S
·
lls
We
rr
e·
ac
all
e· s
u
Very ·
e
ir
· Bern ard
ra
Maja
hir
Icaria Pla
ov
Te
ikh
·T
i
r
· K
ch
ovi
tof
ish
o Brah
Tych
· Huggin
S
Gorgonum C haos
· Bjerknes
Dra
Rossby
va Va·lles
s
s
cti yr
No Lab
us
inth
· Tim
oshe
nko
1976
Ganges
Catena
Op
asma
ssae
Luna Me
nsa
· Chia
Perrotin ·
Tithonium Ch
ida
ul
Nilo
keras Scop
Kase i Valles
Bahram
Vallis
280°
Heb
es Ch.
Syria P
d
Ta
ri
Eu
y·
he
o
olst
A. T
R
KEPLE
et
V.
n·
iso
nn
om
Harm akhis
c
ebe
· S
Reull Va
llis
40°
enius ·
Arrh
Pr
v.
Dao-
Hellas M.
Rupes
· Cruls
14057
260°
Arsia Mons
Daed alia
er
Tempe
Mensa
h.
· Martz
M
or
ph
e os
Niger Vallis
a ca
dri a
Ha ater
P
Pavonis Mons
um
lan
is P
Sol
M.
*
Mariner ·
ia
ov
um
Plan
a
oni
Aus
·
ich
Sav
· M agelhaens
AtlantisChaos
um
e
Va s t it a s B o re a l i s
ti
a
Pl
· Poynting
ae
e
sa
os
eF
Nilus Chaos ra Mensa
S ac
Sinai
· C olumbus
Ar iadnes
Colles
18229
Fortuna Fossae
Moleswor th
·
on
ss
Fesen
k
20°
20°
8700 is Tholus
s
Thar
Müller ·
M
· Dejnev
n
em
Fo
era
Pat
ra
Pate
Apollinaris Tholus
e um
Planum Bor
Acidalia Colles
Lob
Mons
Ascraeus
17780
o
pe F
Tem
Ac
ris Planum
s
niu
um
· W illiams
Co mas Sola ·
be a
La
Ura
h
Qa
Al-
Graff ·
s
T holu
· B urton
2004
Hadley ·
na
Cate
a
rhen
Tyr
SPIRIT+· Gusev
s
niu
Ura s
lu
o
h
T 4700 0
460
Pere
pelki
n
e
e T
p
T es Fom
ssa
240°
Aganippe Fossa
· Igal
de Vaucouleurs
Boeddic ker
is
Ma’adim Vall
an
Mensae
v.
Pl
· Marca
Cobres ·
mp
Te
8000 holus
T
nius
u
a
r
Ce
Biblis
Patera
Mangala Va lles
Wien
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rius-
a
*
20°
Reuyl
220°
Fo
ss
ae
um
lan
P
s
u
Du
ri
Luc
R
ae
Apollinaris
Patera
3100
HERSCHEL
H
pe
200°
180°
ensa
e
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n
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es
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te
s
o
az
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orsum
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Aeolis M
*
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du
Me
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ae
e
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on
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120°
100°
nitia
te
m
rsu
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sa
r
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ib
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14126
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s
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s
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siu
m
ra
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ena
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luctus
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*
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tis
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ar
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a
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en
at
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li
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ia
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ba
op
Va
lle
s
2003†
ra
ate 6700
P
a
Al b
s
Al
Ut
ico
nV
all
e
a
ic
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r
Ru
b
na
Ta
VIK 197
ING 6
–2 +
a
hasm
a
Hy
perboreae Und
60°
M 1:320 000 000
1 cm = 320 km
sae
Fos
lus
les
Val
nta
Ta R avius
ssae
a Fo
40°
Esc
ori
al
A lb
kovic
Milan
Stokes
B
C
ale
ore
Lomonosov
Va s t it a s B o re a l i s
North
dae
os Un
Abal
88
18
li
el
P H O T O M A P
Solis Dorsa
· Korolev
Ka
60°
80°
Sch
iap
ar
MARS
e
Oly
mpia Unda
sma
Ko
nk
oly
80°
Planum Boreum
Echus C ha
80°
80°
Chalcop
l ós 1877
Mik
ge
e
Th
0°
SPRING
90°
180°
SUMMER
270° Ls 0°
AUTUMN
WINTER
SOLAR DISTANCE (million km)
2
200
0°
0
2,5
0°
90°
180°
270° Ls
0°
VIEW OF UTOPIA PLANITIA (Viking–2)

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