Medical Terminology

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Medical Terminology
Medical Terminology
Dr. Bassim I. ALSheibani
1. Common Suffixes
2. Common Prefixes
3. Body Planes
4. Body Directions
Common Suffixes
 Although the suffix is last in a medical term, it most
often comes first in its definition
 For example, appendicitis means “inflammation(itis) of the appendix.” So the suffix, in this case -itis,
provides us with the first word of the defining phrase
Categories of Suffixes
1. Suffixes that signify medical conditions
2. Suffixes that signify diagnostic
information, or surgical procedures
terms,
test
3. Suffixes associated with a medical specialty or
specialist
4. Suffixes that convert a noun to an adjective
Suffixes That Signify Medical Conditions
No
Suffix
Refers to
Example
1
itis
inflammation
Hepatitis
2
megaly
enlargement
Splenomegaly
3
algia
pain
Arthralgia
4
cele
protrusion, hernia
Gastrocele
5
malacia
softening
Osteomalacia
6
Plegia
paralysis
Cardioplegia
7
Rrhexis
rupture
Cardiorrhexis
Suffixes That Signify Diagnostic Terms, Test
Information, or Surgical Procedures
No
Suffix
Refers to
Example
1
centesis
surgical puncture
Thoracocentesis
2
ectomy
surgical removal
Nephroectomy
3
genesis
producing
Spermatogenesis
4
pexy
surgical fixation
Cardiopexy
5
plasty
surgical repair
Urthroplasty
6
rrhaphy
suture
Gastrorraphy
7
scope
device for viewing
Arthroscope
8
scopy
act of viewing
Colonoscopy
9
Tomy
incision
Thoracotomy
10
graphy
act of graphic or pictorial recording Electrocardiography
Suffixes Associated with a Medical Specialty
or Specialist
No
Suffixes
1
2
3
4
ist
ian
iatrist
logist
Suffixes
Specialty
cy
Pharmacy
ics
Pediatrics
iatry
Psychiatry
logy
Cardiology
Specialist
Pharmacist
Pediatrician
Psychiatrist
Cardiologist
Suffixes That Denote Adjectives
No
Suffixes
Noun
Adjective Form
1
or
extension
extensor
2
al
Urethra
Urthral
3
oid
epidermis
epidermoid
4
ic
hypothalamus
hypothalamic
5
ular
gland
glandular
Common Prefix
 A prefix is a word element that comes at the
beginning of a word
 When one is present, it always comes at the very
beginning of the word and is critical to its meaning.
For example, hyper glycemia (“high blood sugar”)
and hypo glycemia (“low blood sugar”) name
conditions that are exact opposites
Categories of Prefixes
1. Prefixes of time or speed
2. Prefixes of direction
3. Prefixes of position
4. Prefixes of size or number
5. Prefixes of Color
Prefixes of Time or Speed
 Ante- (pre- before, ex: antenatal)
 Brady- (abnormally slow rate of speed )
 Neo- (new)
 Post- (after)
 Tachy- (rapid, abnormally high rate of speed, EX:
Tachypnea is a rapid breathing rate)
Prefixes of Direction
 endo- within (endocardium ,the inner part of the heart)
 epi- upon, subsequent to (Epicardium)
 exo outside
 extra- beyond
 hyper- above, beyond normal (hypertension)
 hypo- below, below normal (hypotension)
Prefixes of Direction
 pan- all or everywhere
 para- alongside, like
 retro- backward, behind (ex: retrograde)
 infra- below
 inter- between
 intra- inside (ex: intraventricular)
 anti- against, opposed (ex: antihypertensive)
Prefixes of Size or Number
 bi- two (ex: biannual)
 hemi-, semi- half (ex; hemisphere)
 macro- big
 micro- small
 mono- one (ex: monoarticular)
 olig-, oligo- a few or little (ex: oliguria)
 Poly, many (ex: polyuria)
Prefixes of Size or Number
 quadri- four (ex: quadriplegia)
 tri- three (ex: triceps)
 uni- one
Prefixes of Color
Levels of Organization


Cells, Cytology
Tissues, Histology
– epithelial
– connective
– muscle
– nervous



Organs
Systems
Organism
Body Planes
Imaginary horizontal and
vertical lines
Easier to describe
location of organ or
problem
the two major body cavities and their
subdivisions
Ventral cavity is front
body
cavity;
subcavities (thoracic
and abdominopelvic)
Dorsal cavity is ack
body
cavity;
subcavities
(cranial
and spinal)
The Anatomic Position and Directional Terms
In the anatomic position,
the body is erect and
facing forward with the
palms of the hands also
facing forward
The Anatomic Position and Directional Terms
Body Directions
Anatomic
No
Position
Direction
1
anterior or
ventral
toward the front and away from the back ofthe body
2
posterior or
dorsal
toward the back and away from the front of the body
3
distal
away from the attachment point of a limb (arm or leg)
4
proximal
toward the attachment point of a limb (arm or leg)
5
inferior
away from the head
6
superior or
cranial
toward the head
7
Lateral
away from the middle of and toward the side of
the body
8
medial
toward the middle of the body
Divisions of the Abdomen




right upper quadrant RRQ
left upper quadrant LUQ
right lower quadrant RLQ
left lower quadrant LLQ
Divisions of the Abdomen

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