(Koryak I -lykm, -ikm,. KOl`yak II -Itkin, Kamchadal -jk), the pro

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Transcription

(Koryak I -lykm, -ikm,. KOl`yak II -Itkin, Kamchadal -jk), the pro
784
to the indefinite (01' interrogative) pronouns, which may be used 88
nouns as well as verbs.
The structuI'e of the first class of predicative fOl'ms is quite complex, We have to distinguish between intransitive and transitive
verbs. The following structural elements may be recognized. We
have1. Intransitive verbs:
1. Pronominal pI'efix.
2. Temporal 01' modal prefix.
3. Verbal theme.
4. Temporal 01' modal suffix.
5. Pronominal suffix.
n.
Transitive verbs:
1. Pronominal subjective prefix.
2. Temporal or modal prefix.
3. Verbal theme.
4. Temporal 01' modal suffix.
5. Pronominal objective suffix.
§ 62.
without prefix,
no suffix
with the prefix n(I)
with the prefix t
with the prefix q
with the prefix r~
the suffix ?I
the suffix ?I
the suffix ri
the su flix ft(l)
Besides these, there is a peculiar series of derived modes in -lrTtrn
(Koryak I -lykm, -ikm,. KOl'yak II -Itkin, Kamchadal -jk), the pronominal endings of which differ from the ordinary forms, many of
them being dropped. In some caseR the Koryak drops the terminal
-m, as is done in all forms in Kamchadal.
The second class, pl'edicative nominal terms, consists either of
nouns 01' of verbal tltems, which are nominalized by certain pI'efiX"81,
and which take suffixes expressing the terminal relations. The llimp1e
nominalized forms are used as predicative terms of the third person.
Thesc have been dincussed before; They are the nominalized
in -in, -kin, -lin, n(I)-qin (§§ 45-41). In the first and second Oell'8O,.
singular these take a suffix -1-, which may be derived from the
-it 1 TO BE. In the first and second persons plural the UUIIUIlllWIZVU'
form appears in compollition with the pel'sonal pronouns m'!!'i
and t"}ri YOU; so that the whole complex represcnts in the same
a nominal form with predicative function, as in the third
The nominalir,ed form has no true tenses,
'1 cODslder tbls uulilr.cly, since In Koryalr. tbe t should be preserved, nltbougb In Cbukcllel
mIght dlsappcar according to the phonetic laws governIng the pronuDclaLlon of men. !lr,
points out that the f call not be an Iluxtllu.ry vowc1, slucc: this would have to be t. - F. BoAS.
§Gl
735
Struoture of the I:ltra.naitive Verb
"
1. The pronominal prefixes of the intransitive verb are confined to
the th'st person, singular and pluml: t- for the singuhlr, mt- fOI' the
plural. The m of the plural may perhaps be related to thc same element in m"}rj WE, while the t of singular and plural may be the same.
The element mt- conveys the ideo. of plumlity of the first pcrson with
snoh energy, that, in KOl'yak at least, the suffix -1/1.Ik, which repeats
the same idea, may be omitted; the same omisllion occurs rarely in
Chukchee.
2. The temloral and modal elements enter into close relation with
the pronomina prefixes. Most of these follow the ordinary phonetic
laws. Thus
The following simple modes and tenses may be distinguished:
Indicative.
Subjunctive:
(a) Exhortative
(b) Subjunctive
Imperative .
FutuI'e
HANDBOOK OF INDIAN LANGUAGES-CHUIWHEE
801.8J
BUREAU OF AMERJCAN ETHNOLOGY
+
, t r~ ,becomes tr~­
mt + r~ becomes ml1'r~mt +, becomes mm(J)t-
The last of these is not quite regular, since 71iIt(I)t would also seem
The forms of the exhortati I'e can not be cxplained by
phonetic laws. Here we find that the expected
to be possible.
t + n becomes m
mt + n becomes mln
In the subjunctive (b), when the verb begins with a vowel, the auxiliary vowel disappears, and the glottal stop follows the initial vowel
~of the stem. Thi3 occurs hoth in Cbukchee and KOI'yak:
,
tu'w}'liHc (stem uwi) I !lhould cook
8. The verbal themes may be simple 01' compound. Thc former
undergo p6Culiu,rphonetic changes according to their position, the forms
in initial position differing from those found in medial position.
This subject has been discusscd in § 7 and § 12. A number of formations, howevCl', are irregular, and not due to the action of phonetic
laws.
qiimi-plltku eating finishing (stem qiimi, from qamltva)
tara'ftvatt they built a house (horn t~-ib to make, yara house)
krnml'1,km he kills children (kminm tnnn'krn)
kuwit'rkm he 9as dead children (7cminm, viE1·km)
The vocalic elements of prefixes, penlOoal and modal, are modified
by the vowels of the stem (see § 3).
The terminal phonetic chamctcI' of the stem also influences the
temporal, modal, and the pronominal suffixes (see § 72).
§62
..., ,
BUREA.U OF AMEIUCAN ETHNOLOGY
786
4. The temporlll and modal suffixe!! have been mentioned befo.r~.
Through contraction between them and the pronominal suffixes on,,no. te forms the historical development of which is not by any means
.
clear. It would seem that there is also a suffix -~i- which appea.~ In
many forms, and does not seem to form part of the pronomInal
element. This, however, has undergone so many cha.nges that Ita
character and function al'e not clear.
5. The pr~nomino.l suffixes do not show a very close relation to the
personal pronoun, and, furthermore, are somewhat differ~ntiatcd ia
different modes of the verb. A .c omparison of the various fOrml
suggests the following as the essential elements of the suffixed pro-
nominal verbal forms:
form bas originated from -tk¥-tlk and is po.l·anel to -tky.j' THOU-US.
The V of the intransitive endings disappears in the series of forms
.THOU-US beco.use its position is intervocalic; for instance-
-thJ.-pi' becomes -tkui'
.
INTRANSITIVE
I
-k
we
-mk
thou
~
ye
-tk
he. . . .
they-t
It mav be that the 7n and t of the first and second persons plural an
related
m¥7l and t¥ri, wllich may contain the same endings as
(see pp. 706, 719, 726). The second person si~~ular is qu.ite do.'ubtr.fullt~
but it is conceivable that it may contain by origin a form m -?l related
to theI>1XlDoun ~ft. . In the intransitive verb the second and third p8l'sons singular are, in their present forms, identical. The third pel'808
plul'al has clearly the element t,' which is DOt the same as the t of the
to
second person plural.
§ 63. St'I'UctU'l'e of the T 'l'ansitive Vm'b
The structure of tbe transitive verb is, on the whole, analogous
that of the intra.nsitive.
i . For the first persons -singular o.nd plural, the same nronoDllilll-'
· prefi~es as in the intraneitive appear, as subjects. The
forms {)f the third person, singular and plural, have the prefix
The clearnesi:! of the picture is obscured by the fact thllt the
fOI'ms
THOU-US; YE-ME,
us and
THOU, YJ':,IlE-ME
•
do not cxist Ilnd generalized intransitive forms o.re used In
place. Thes~ are forlIl;ed "vith the prefix 1n~- 0 .1' with the 8uffix
(see, p. 819,nq. 28; p. 80S, no. 67). It i:l poSSIble that the
form Y~-Hll\I, T~I!:M has the same origin (see p. 809). I pre8ume
.
§63
I
sec plural of nouns. p. 694.
I
2. The temporal and modal prefixes are the same as those of the
intransitive.
'
8. Tbe stems are treated like those of the intro.nsitive verb.
4. The temporal and modal suffixes enter into compound forms
with the pronominal suffixes. The int\'l1nsitive ~ il:! apparently absent,
owing to its floequent intervoOl\lic position.
5. The analogy between the t\'l1nsitive pronominal suffixes and the
iotmnsitive suffi~es is fairly clear, if we consider only those forms
which have true pronominal suffixes. We find tben tbe object
-prt thee
-1nlk us
-tlk you
which evidently correspond to the subjects of tbe intransitive verb.
The correspondence is strict for the two plural pronouns: -~lt may
be the older form of the seoond person intransitive pronoun -pi (pp.
719 et seq.; p. 710).
Tbe thiJ·d person object shows forms in -n wbicb recall tbe nominal
forms in -in (H 45-49), and, like these forms, forlD theiJ' plurals in -I>t.
In , way these forms seem related to tbe nominal predicate. To the
811.me group belongs the form in -U7n THEY-ME, wbich contains the
pronoun pum.. like the nominal forms.
Attention may be culled to the fact that the number of the pronominal suffix, which designntes the object, is naturally determined by the
nnmoor of tbe object.
qa'at tlpo'lallilt (Kor. Ko.m. qoya'w~e tlpe'lanau) I left tbe reiudeer
For tbe first pe:I'son objEct tbe intransitive form with i7l~- is used.
rii/'nutqai gille'ila gin me something
The Koryak forms resemble the Chukchee forms. The Koryak
dual corresponds to the Chukchee plum\. Tbe plural -?a- of tbe
Koryak is o.lways placed immediately following tbe stem. It indicates
pJumlity of subjec~ or object, but occurs once only in ench form, e\'en
if both subject aJ~d object llre pluro.l.
Certain verbo.l stems may be used both as ·tro.nsitive and as intransitive, generally with a sligbt cbnnge in menning.
S045°-Bull. 40, pt. 2-12--47
§03
.,
.vv
739
HANDBOOK OF INDIAN LANGUAGES-CHUIWHEE
tww~'mUrkrnlknQw,
hear, obey (intransitive)
tuwalo'murkrnevrt I know thee (transitive)
tuwa'lom~ii"k I heard
tuwa'lom~a'n I knew him
§ 611. KORYAK
PRINCIPAl, MODES
INTRANSITIVF.
I,
!
The F01'ms of tile Intransitive Yerb(§§ 64-66)
PRS I
I
PRINCIPAL MODES
Pel'6On
Past I
Prefixes
Imperative
BulBxes
(a)
- -2<1. 8<1 alng.
-PIJ'I
.. (1 .".11)
tgfl
-I
•
•
sumxcs.
-p~
11(1)
In(I)
-!nlp,
-!aye
1Ia'
-tIk
flat
na'
-Iallk
-nnt
na'
-Ra"
11-11
1• •lnr· .
lit <lnftl
IJItpl. .
q-(pI)tlk
q-Iatlk
mtt-rruk
Present
Indennlte
On
-In
'Ja'
ml
nUl1
mlt-,a~lI" mm
"'.
-----
q"-(P!l
- --
mt·u a l
.1:'1 .....
yn-!ail<
kt,! -
klf-
ky-
ya-I
kfj'
-----tya-l
-Ik
-ffllk
_!a(",lk)
"una'
va--lllllk
ya-!alllIk
I,a--rl{
- - -- -
-- ---I'
m/esa-mlk
m,.,a-!a(ffllk)
. tl~""
I
milky·
mltkt}· .
• No ~d persoD.
() May be omltled.
nil
1.t pl. .
tlut-1nrk
mrn
_
Also
q~.
•• No 3d p.rson.
Thl. form does Dot exist In Kory.k IT,
DB:RIVED MODES IN -Irkm (PREFIXES AS IN rRINCIPAL MODES)
ONO 2<1 person.
**NoBd pcra()D.
DERIVED MODF,s IN -'TkIn (PRE1"IXKB AS IN PRINCIPAL .MODES)
O~bcr
-Ilk.
-I «'Ilk
Future
(b)
---+- - - - -
.. (t,Il,II)
I,!=~'k
. .
•
._-
201, 8<1 sing..
lot Blng.
2<1 pI.
Bd pI.
!
Id pi.
(b)
-Uk
2<1 pi.
8<1 pI.
- -- - -
-4t- -• - - - - - -
1
201 <lulll
2d pi.
ad dllAl
ImJvC:o..
Prefixes.
(a)
RubJuncttve
_. _-
SubJnnctlvc
PerJ!:on
§ 64. OHUKOHEE
VF.Rn
-lllk
-(Ok
-1 1
-to
-flIt
(orms
-.-='.W., 11-'' ' '.'
<lno.l
pI.
da~J
pI.
,
It. 2<1, 3<1
ag.;lstd UBI
• I tnkes tbe plnce 01 finlll n: IrkII.
The prefix t- of the first person singular appear!! without .U.'LlII'1Nl
vowel when it .forms an admissible cluster with ~he iuitial sound of
verbul theme.
The derived form -rkrn is used after vowels.
sonants an auxiliary I is in's erted between stem and 8uffix:
qamr'tva-1'km he eats
walo'm-I-rkin he knows
NOMINAL FORMS
I
-- I
2
3
4
b
11
-!afrnt'tlk*
-{kInot
-{km
-{kIn
-!alkIn
-I alkl1Jt!mlk *
-Ikln(ttk
-!alkm<Uk
-{nllk
-~ctfklnellUI:
flf
-I oU.wene
-U:11I.l
-fkl1l!na,,"
- !km
-(kIn
•
'SubJunctlve (b) hn. !<>-I In.lea.d of
la.
-!alkl1lf m1k
"SubJunctive (b) hR" aIL In"teRd 01 (nau.
The prefix tI- of the first person singular appco'l's without auxiliary
vowel whenever it forms an admissible cluster with the first sound
of the verb.
The ending -jkrr (KOl'yak I) of the derived forms is used mostly
after stems ending in a single consonant, as wa?o'm-f:krn HE I{NOWa.
Artel' tal'minal vowel the i chnnges to a neutral ~, as va-tkrn HE I~.
In many CRses, ho'wever , tha i is also weakened to ~ or y after a terminal consonant arid RIl auxilial'Y 1 is insertp.cl preceding it, as in
yt/qrykrn WHAT A~T THOU'( Kor. 29.1; i'tlykm ART THou1 Kor, 29:2
§6D
-e'/I
-Ik.-I
-(I);;
-nla
-ma'ft
ILpIt
1
-Infkrnetlk
-(kl
-!afke,
PI-(I) ~
eo.sl
BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY
740
The Forms o/the Transitive Vfwb (§§ 67-7:1.)
NOMINAL },ORMS
I
'
ITt
1
§ 67. OltUKOHEE
(b)
(a)
741
HANDBOOK OF INDIAN LANGUAGES-CHUKCHEE
TraI18itive Sufilxes
_Ik
TRANSITIVE F'ORM8
pa-Cl
FIRST A.ND SECOND PERSON
. -",atl
6
' ._ .._-"
IndlcaU vc I' [mpera~
Subjunctive la . tlve II
. Object
§ 66. KAMOHADAL
ON F.CT8
Future Derived Mode.
III
tn -Irkln IV
..
Il'lTIUN81"rlVE VEI{.B
- - - - - - - - -- -_._._.. _--Per&On
---- -
"ast I
subjunctive
(a) Exhortative
---ld sing.
2d pI.
3d pi.
3d ling.
)5L.IDg.
1st pI. .
I~r:era-
(b) Conditional
- - ----H_\~Jl.J·
-'-t .
un
. . or
kl-cx
:ran-
u'n
u"
\ffl1fn or
xauun
. -t
t-
ltllt'n or
{k or
m-
klfn
or
,,-(kkIt'"
r': or
k-:l~
k/-un
\.mlk
T HlRD PERSON FORMS
.pijln
-111n
-n~t
-'itn1f t
(no ending)
'It
(e) he-him
-nfn
-1tm(n
'In
(e,) he-them
-n! ..~t
-l1m!nIt
-!nst
(t) Mm (except he, ye him) .
(5) Ihem (exCept ho, ye-them)
INTRANdlTIVE FORMS
Itl-k
A;1~tn
mm- tor
J.:If",
nkl-k
Indlcn- Subjune· ImpeIR.tlve I
ttve la
Uvell
Object
-_.
('I) he-me
(S) thou-me. us .
(1),...-•• us ,
10) ye-him, them
I
---
Futnre
III
-- ---
!'?!'
·Il'"
·yt·
'pli'
·llk
·tIk
·Ikl
·llk
·ytlkl
Jfltlk
·/):1
.
-
·flttk,
Derived Modes
In .Irk'm IV
(no ending)
·!tIk
·!Ikl
With .tk" prccedlng pronomina.l 8uffix.
NOMINAL PREDICATIVE l'ORMS
- - - - -- --(11) they-me'
•
. .... '.am
See
I
I·am
-
I
I
__ ~m
__ -i1tm
S1S. Thi. lorm 14ke. the prcflx nr.·.
-.- - - --
Trausitive Prefixes
TRANSITIVE FORMS
tIcjk llenve
tJij,i/,kcjk I t:lleep
tc3'loc?k 1 lie
SubjuncUve I a
Imperntlve
1l
IndlooUve 1
Subject
(a)
Future III
(h)
VERBAL NOUN
3
4
1(1)'
mll·
\\-w
fill·
tIt.
tr~-
mua·
mJlItt.
17I/N'I -
n~nit.
n~rI'
I {l'n ·
ttf"
- -- - - - - - --"--
\ k!-eok
tuiuk lIu'koj I began eat-beginning; i. e., I began to ea.t (tuju to bcgin; -k I; 7l'lf to eat)
I Thi.l. the Incho~t1ve terminal verb (see p. !lOS, DO . 63). The verbnt noun never appe&"
§66
'!ptl
·!lIk
-(tnlk
tJ--uu
tk!nukbI if I eat.
The future is compounded with the terminal verb ot, (0) TO
DESIRE, which may form modes and tenses like the others; the
"present, with the terminal verb (01' suffix) j. The third persoa
plural of this. form is -?crn or jItn.
The numerouS Kamehndal verbs ending in -t change this to -0
in the derived present. This occurs both in intransitive and tran-
out It.
-
·lIk
-mlk
t~o~. ~e:""~.)
-ptl
-ntlk
k-:d
The subjunctive (b) of modern Knmchadal takes in
tel'minal particle -bI. which ill the Russian conjunction 0101.
sitive verbs (see § 122).
tIlk I left
tf'l:ilJclk I slept
tcolk I lay
-
'Plt
----
-C%
_{fmOT
(1) tbee
(2)1ou
(3) UB (except
-
-
I NTRANSITIY E FORMS
.. \
.
-----
(!n~). _
' '
11 (n'''')
111-
I (1I!'''I)'
-n/'·
- - --- ---'--
§67
742
BUREAU OF AMERJCAN ETHNOLOGY
[DDIoL.
40
The form of/if (I7; 1I7) is ral'ely abbreviated to -to
NOMINAL PIIEDICATIVE FORM
qenapelae' and qe'/lapClai/ lcu\'e me I
This shortening is quite frequent in Koryak I (see below).
I
Besides this
~here
-'pt!
-k
3
-lit
4
-mll
6
-'"lI tt
II
qenapefa'e''Rnd qenape?lll;' leave mel
9!-t~
In Chukchee these forms are quite 1'1I.1·e (see p. 741)
PREFIXIB
are a number of imporsonal forms.
Futuro
I
ExhorLnUV8, sing.
pI..
nl-a'n
nt-nat
Exhortative, derived
sing.
nl-rl;ln
TRANSITI VE .'OllbJ8
FIK8T AND SECOND PERSON ODJECTS
, -
. ._-(1) tbee
(2) you
J.:'~~~W~iia
- -pP
-(la) trk
-</a) »Ilk
(3) u•.
Future III
Derived Model
In 'IIt/n IV
-
-pI
-(Pi
-
-<!a)nllk
-(Ia)mlk
-(!a)-{1IIIa
-(!a) tit
I
t
11£1·
/a'-
we
t.bou, ye, he-me
mlt{lIa-
mln-
ml11C1"
"f na'
nat!na-
na-
(lln-
nanal .
no preflx
"'-
they. be-thee, you. us
thou, ye-us
}
he-him, them
I
thou. ye-him. them
TranBitive StURxea
Imperative 11
11
-pin
-fUn
-flna/
-MU
-gWQU
-fltlOU
- -_ .
-itn'"
no endlDl
-("al
-Inau
-(!ft)
(7) he-me
(8) thou-me .
(9) YC-Ille
(9') ye-us
(10) ye-him, tham
§08
Indlcnl-SvQ I:
8ubjuncUvc la Imperative 11
-I
-pa'n
-pi -prtrn
-
-(!a)/Ik
-(pi)
-(!a)llk '
-(/a)""k
-(!n)loo
-(!n)""k
-(!alpltta
nOlla-
.qa-
ya-
NOMINAL FORMS
I
-k
2
-k
3
4
6
~
INTIIANSITIVR FORMS
Object
mIlaa·
y!na-
he, thou-me hlls the ending -n
I, he-you (dual, pI.) has the ending -'lUrk
11
I
-glnaf
-
q!"a -
--
-pat n1
-'tat
- ·n{1&
na'·
tya-
~
-{!4)-fut
TmnD PERSON FORMS.
(6) them dual (c"capl he, ye-them)
(6') them pl.(eltoopt he, ye-them) .
III
--The second indefinite of KOI'yak has tho prefix Ph ky:- (k- before
vowels) and the future endings, except that
(4) him (except he, yc-hlm)
Future
-- - - - - - -
nI-rllnot
---
Imperative
I (b) Sub).
I (a)Exhorl.
S6B. KORYAK,KAMENSKOYE
Object
Subjunctive
Indl~ :atlve
rs-1l
pl. . .
(6) he, they-blm, tbem
Ip6m
-~m
----'wc-lhee -!ape
In the derive~ modes, fa occurs in the same places us in the simple modes, but precedinl~ -f.km.
The Buffixes -Vii and -f/wn (1 8, 4; II 8) of this sories are often contracted to -t 8.DQ. :-n. The former is similar to an intransiti ve form.
NOMINAl, FORM8
I
2
. I -p6m(
(11) they-me
I
743
HANDBOOK OF INDIAN LANGUAGES-":'CHUKCHEE
_8)
pa-ta
}mlSSlng
'
. - .- _._- "
-ma~1
§68
."uture 111
D.rlT6d)(~
In \lk'" IV
no cnding
no ending
no encJlDlf
noendlDg
-(!a)lIllk
-(!a)mlk
-(!a)ll11ta
-(I,HU'
-(ltHtnlt
-«1,)-1*
745
HANDBOOK OF INDIAN LANGUAOES-CHUKCllEE
[BlILL. 40
BUREA U OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY
,744
TnIRD PERSON FORMS
As in Chukchee there occur also a number of impersonal forms.
fa-I!
Futuro
Exborla~lon ,
sing
Dun!
E.l<borlat'ion, porloc!, pi.
Blng.
Inc!ICfttlve I
h1m(exceptbc,they,yc-h1m ) .
them (except he,tbey, ye-them)
be, tbey-hlm
ho, they-thom ,
nl-o.'n
nl-nal
nl-nDU
...
SubJunctlve
....
·X
·un
-'n
-nin
-nitn
,In
on-in
.ofti'n
Imperative
Prescnt
."
-nin
-ni'n
nI--fkJ ft
INTRANSITIVE FORMS
nl-lklnot
Dual
--nunA:
thou-me.
1e- me.uB.
)'e-hlm ,
ye-them ,
nI-t'tIn.aU
XAJ40HADAL (§§ 69-71)
i
Object
-uln
_ _ _ _ _ __
69. Types of Transitive Verb
-1111111:
-mllll:cz
·.. ink""
·cz
...erl'n
---1_
_ _ _ . _ __
·mrftk
·mrllkcz
-nln
-C"ZI'n
--.!..._ _ _-'--_
_
_
NOMINAL PREDICA'j'IVE FORMS
The Kainc.hadal transitive verb shows peeuliarities of structure
similar to those of the Chukchee and Km·yak. Only the forms with
the obiec~ THEE, YOU, us, are formed with the pronomina!..!~r.1Jl1I
correaponding to the intramllitivo suffixes. The combination YJIIus is bere also excepted, although no indication of a change of the
verb into an intransitive form by means of a special suffix is fouod.
Instead of that, the forms THOU, YE-ME have the ending -mlAk,.
which does not occur in the intra.nsitive verb, but seems to oorl'eepond to -1nrk WE of Chukchee-Koryak. It may be mentioned bero
again that in Koryak this ending tends to be dropped. In the
Karnchadal forms here discusscd it mILY express the intl'8.ositiv8
first person plural, as though wc hod, for instance, instead of
THOU LEAVEST ME, WE PART. When used for the 8ingular THOUME, the E',nding is often pronounced -mrn, which may be an older
form. The form YB--ME, us ,takes, in addition to -1nlfik, the ending -ere YE, which corresponds to the intmnsitive subject. In
ag'l'eement with the llominal forms, the third person plul'aJ object
, ,has -'no The nominal-predicative form is used here for both singo" lal' and plural of thethi,rd person with the object .~E.
The for01s of a second type of conjugation are not quite so clear.
§ 70. Type I
TtlANBlTlVE SUFFIXES
TR.\NSITIVK FORMS
Object
IndlcaUve
r
tn
thee . . . . . . •
you • . . • . . •
us (exnept ye-us) .
§§69,70
be, ·'n
-CZln
,mrllk
SubjuDcUv O
ImperaUve
.. hm
I·hin
\~In
-mlflk
I'resen~
he, tbey,-n
-CZln
·mlflk
-mlflk
he-mt' . .'
tbey-mo .
I
'h"'''''i'n
-humni'n
/.
I . .
wc,
.
he, .
thoy •
~.ye
I
hnmni'"
hum"/',,
humni'n
hum'Plt' n
--~----~------~----PREFIXES
IndlcnUve
Subject
I
n·
SubJuncth'c
Im(l<lrnUve
"'.
Present
f·
".
m./nor Z'Oll-
:r'an
4,,·
z 'an
k·
A comparison betwecn this tablo and the one on p. 740 shows that
alJ..the prefixes, except 00- of the third person plural, are the same
88 those of the intrnnsitive verbs.
An example of this type of vorb is the stem txl- (present txc· ) TO
BEAT. In verbs beginning with t, the prefix t of the first person
singula.r is dropped.
Indico.tive forms have the theme tmli-.
Subjunctive forms have the theme txlr- .
Present forms have the theme txci(r)- with auxiliary vowel 1
before terminal nand befo,r e glottn.1 stop.
Indicative:
txli'lun I beat thee
t<eU'n he beat thee
tmliMilmni'n he beat me
trIJli'1nrfl.k you beat me, us; he boot us
(J:nj,(£lt~ c.~rn they beat you
ntxlrn we beat him
IlIntxli'n'i n they beat him
§70
746
BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETUNOl,OU'{
HANDBOOK OF INDIAN LANGUAGE&-CHUKCHKE
INTRA.NSITIVE FORMS
Subjunctive:
mtwlI' hrn let me beat thee
w'antrclI'n£n let him beat him
rIJ'alltwll'mlfik let him, them, beat Uti'
w'antwldtumni'?1 iet him, them, beat me
mmtxll'cxln let us boot you
Imperative:
ktwll'mIfi.k beat thou me, us
k:tidlml'f1kcw beat ye mc, us
. k:twtl(]) beat him
ktwtu;:D beat ye him
Object
he, they-me
§ 71. Type 11
TRANSITIVE SUI FIXKS
TRANSITIVE FORMS
Indicative
·zkln
tbee
l~c
you
l~e
us (except ye-U8) .
(they ·:tIcmI7lk
be
·"klmlllk
.. t,.nm
· zkl~%ln
·ez.rllln
SubjuncLlve
·klt",
thou-him.
-fliUn
wc-him
-flu,
I-them .
(111'
"
·kltI'n
tbou-them
-l/fll·n
we-t.hem
-1U'n
he-him
·tliJn/lI
-/1hlin
, th!!y-hilll .
hc-them
tbey-th.m
§71
p-,
-dItI
·zJ:rnln
,.,t,_
THIRD· PERSON FORMS
{-fllU
ImperatIve
·zJ::rn
·:tIcmlilk
lIln
·kl~n
{-fun
·kltln
.JIl'"
·k,tl'n
..fII'n
(-.l:Jtl'n
·tIA1IUI
-/flnln
·~l;blt'n
·tI11nt'n
-11fni'n
·tanI'n
SubJllnctive
-:rl"ml1U:
·"bRlnk
-o:hntft
. . . . . ' .'
[mperatlve
Present
·"kmhlk
-zJ.'m l11k
-zkimI71J:ez
-x4"mlfU:a
-xkmlflkcx
·tCl:l1l1n
·lc;uflln
-CZ1111n
·t=lfll'n
·cc:zIfi,tn
·c:t/ll/f 71
NOMINAl, PREDICATIVE
txcjhrn 1 am beating thee
ntrccjll1n we at'e beating thee
txcjr'n thou art beating them
twcjnin he is beating him
dmtwcjexl'n they are beatirig you
nt(1)cjm we are beating him
Object
Indi<'ativc
thou-me
ye-me, UR
re-him
ye-them
Present:
I-him
747
I
FOHM~
'''./;;''''''';'11
Evideutly these fOl'mt! Ilrc closely related to those of Type I, but
the symmetry is disturbed by a number of peculiar contractions,
some of which seem to be due to misunderstandings. The prefixel!
are the same as those of Type 1.
As an example may be given fOl'WS of the stem kef '1'0 ACOEPT.
IndiCd.tive and subjunctive have the theme kej-,
.
Present has the theme k~/j-,
Indicative:
tke'jwkin I accepted thee
ktl,iclflm he accepted thee
('i;nhlj[1)kimrnk they Ilccepted us
nke'jnm we accepted him
tke' jnI'n or tke'ikicl'n I accepted them
ke:iCcrcI·YU'/t ye accepted them
Subjunctive:
mke'jwkin let me acccpt thee
w'a1lkejrckiJ.mni'n let him accept me
ml1lke'jnl'n 01' 1Ilmke:ikicl'n let us accept them
rtJ'an1ce'jxkm let him, them, accept thee
Imperative:
zkej:tClk accept him
ookejxckr'n or xkejxcnin accept them (k before le changes to x)
rckejrekml'7Ilc accept me, us
I
r»kejwkmr'nkcm accept ye me, UB
rc1ce'jec:JJ1nrn accept ye him
zke'jccxrf'u'n aocept ye them
Present:
tkejljxki'sxm I am accepting you
nkdjljnm we al'O accepting him
Ilnkdj-Ij-Innin they are accepting him
ke'jljni'n he is accepting them
ke'jIjnI'n thou art acoepting him, them
..
~81
The nominal forms of these two types areType II
TTpe I
~}
-twt
-ic, oil
-tuka (rare)
3
-2ka (rare)
As in the intransitive verb, the future is expressed by the pru-
l
ent of the desiderative.
taJlamrn I shall beat thee
taJlalrn I s ha.ll beat him
'.
HANDBOOK OF INDIAN LANGUAGES-CHUJWHEE
749
BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY
748
~k~a'aikrn I shall accept thee
tkejalfLrn or tkejalkr~rn I shall
accept him
The two types of conjugation depend upon suffixes which precede the pl'onominal elements. Some 'verbal stems Ilre used with
and without these suffixes, with a modification of meaning.
~i'jrn (Type I) I take away my boots
twli'j7£rn (Type II) I take away something from the table
The los8 of modes in Kam.ehadal may be due to Russian intluenee.
There Ilre a number of Kamehadal forms, evidently remains of .
older forms, whioh resemble the Chukchee even more closely tba
the forms just described. Thus we findl{&mchndnl
Chultcbee
yr'll'rkm
jlljrn
jr'lrjkilm
(iJ,)ndr'ijnniJlc
ndyrlMlm
ndyrlmlk
thou givest him
they gave me
they gave us
§ 1'2. Examples of Ve1'bal Sujfrxes
CHUXOHEE
The phonetic l'ule8 discussed in §§ 1-23 bring about frequ8Dt,
changes in the verbal suffixes. As a matter of convenience I willsuIDml\l'ize horo the most common modifications, a few of wbich can D~
be explained by the general phonetic laws.
'
1. Verbal stems terminating in R. vowel add the vel'bal suffix witIJ.
out auxiliary vowel. Whenever the initial p of the suffix stands la
intel'vocalic position, it is either dropped or pronounced very weakly.
telere'ii!k < t-elere'-~iifk I folt lonesomc
nq.yo"Mg~' <llf-yg'fi:fl,g-!li' he began to be overtaken 10.7
In stems ending in a double vowel this may lead to trivoco.lic cllJloo
ters, which
0.1'(1
never contmcted.
trpa' aa'k < tr-pf!'f!-~9:'k I ceased 21.1
trya'aa'k < tr-Yff'lj-!l9:'k I used
§72
2. Whfln stems ending in consonants would form consonantic clusters '
of mol'~ t~an two consonants, when combined. with suffixes, aUlI.uxilill.ry
vowel 18 IIlserted before the suffix.
pe'ni'men <JJf1ir-njn be attacks him
ted'kInin < teiJc-nin he mllde it
qena'nm'll8' <~~ng-t1Jl'-fli' kill mel
8. In a few ~ S Iluxilin.ry vowels are also introduced when two
CODsonants come IIlto contaot that would form inadmissible clusters.
peplime'trlrn <pe~ti-met-lm hauling- a sledge 15.3
Among the tYPffi! of assimilation of sounds may be mentiooed 4.
Stems
with terminal tt diphthong transform the corn b'1110.t'100 ul{
.
.
IOto wkw. The following auxiliary vowel is u.
tlma'1'awkwa'k < tr-ml}'Tffu-Vij/k I quarl'eled.
trmara'wkut <·tr-mf/1·t}·/Jrvrt I blamed thee
i'wkwi' <iu-Vi' he spoke 8.14
1'eIJ'qi'wkil <1'etJ'qiu-~i' he entel'ed 11.2
~hcn the diphthong is accented, and followed by a consonant with
",bLOh
has c
a arlC c: huracter. w would flnn! an admissible cluster,the
vuo
ma1'a'u1·krn he quarrel!:!
\\tith those stems in wbich u hI by origin a weak vowel or an unchangeabl~ :owe~, the (J of the suffix, being an intervocalic sound, drops out.
I'lf'l'hn he rows (perhaps from iyu)
tfU1·krn he shakes
••
trWug'n I shook
6. Stems ending in t change tbe initial ~ of suffixes into y.
ewkwe'tyi' <ilWkwet-vi' he left 8.7
trye'tytj'k < tr-yet-~o/k I came 124.11
~kwe tyo,'k < t-ewkwe't-V0,'k I left
11. Stems ending in 1 change the initial I{ of suffixes into yor h.
une'lyoft <u1fel-~o"t they gatbered fuel 30 6
lIe'l;yo,'t <nel-~o!t it became 12.2
"
qune'llli' < q-'lIIilel-~i' gH.thel· fuel! 27.1
mi"ilhrt <mi:Yil-~It let me give thee 121-.24
7. Stems ending in l,
pi" fjn < ~-j'I" -Zjn he
pene' fin < 1{~-1U:l-tjn
1',
t, t, with following l, form
has gone acr088
he became 10.8
.
L
or
,f..
§72
..
!: