Garden Guide - Golden Acre Garden Sentre

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Garden Guide - Golden Acre Garden Sentre
GARDEN
GUIDE
620 Goddard Avenue NE
(403) 274-4286
www.goldenacre.ca
GArDen Sentre
$.99 SKU 480
GOLDEN ACRE GARDEN GUIDE
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Apply at the Customer Service Desk
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store information
contents
STORE INFORMATION.........................3-17
ANNUALS...........................................18-34
VEGETABLES........................................40-46
BULBS.................................................47-67
PERENNIALS........................................68-91
HOUSEPLANTS....................................93-105
TREES AND SHRUBS.............................106-133
ROSES.................................................135-142
Print Management
The PRINTMAN,
Calgary
[email protected]
LAWNS................................................147-149
LANDSCAPING....................................150
XERISCAPING......................................151-153
SOIL...................................................154
COMPOSTING....................................155
NUTRIENTS.........................................157-161
B IR D S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 2 - 1 6 3
PESTS & PROBLEMS.........................164-178
C H RI S TMA S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 9 - 1 8 1
620 Goddard Avenue NE
1 Block North from the corner of Edmonton trial and McKnight Blvd.
Phone: (403) 274-4286
Goddard Ave.
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calgary
4th St. n.e.
Store Information
How tofind us
edmonton tr.
mcKnight Blvd.
visit our website at www.goldenacre.ca
store information
store map
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Golden Acre Garden Sentres Guarantee and Return Policy
GUARANTEE POLICY
1.
2.
3.
4.
Perennials are guaranteed up to the first frost of the season
Tropicals are guaranteed for 30 days from the date of purchase
Trees, Shrubs, Evergreens, and Shrub Roses are guaranteed for one (1) year from the date of purchase
□ A Replacement Certificate will be provided for returned items
Non-plant hard goods are guaranteed for 30 days from the date of purchase
Items Not Guaranteed
•
•
•
•
•
Annual Plants
Seasonal Flowering Tropicals
Tea Roses
Cedars
Holiday Merchandise
store information
Guarantees
RETURN POLICY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Customer must have a valid receipt for any returned items (no exceptions)
Returns less than $5 will receive Cash Back
Returns greater than $5 will receive Golden Acre Gift Card
Purchases with a Replacement Certificate are final sale and not guaranteed
Items not deemed resalable will not be returned
Golden Acre reserves the right to deny any returned merchandise if it is deemed to be misused, abused, or carelessly
treated
Delivery Service
• Golden Acre Garden Sentres is glad to deliver any of your large purchases such as trees, shrubs, house plants, bird baths,
fountains, or other concrete products.
• A general delivery service charge applies to most deliveries, consisting of any number of items, which are delivered to the same
address within the city limits.
• A higher delivery service charge applies to patio furniture and fountains which are leveled and set up upon delivery to the same
address.
• Deliveries cannot be specified to arrive in the morning or afternoon on a specific day. We will guarantee that your delivery will
arrive between 9am-9pm on the specified day of delivery.
• Due to the seasonality of our business the frequency of our delivery service varies periodically. Please check with sales staff
you for specific delivery days.
• Special instructions on where delivery items can be placed in your yard are to be indicated on the delivery form at the time of
purchase.
It is not necessary that you be home when your delivery arrives. Your delivery items will be placed in your yard as you requested
at the time of delivery. If no special instructions were given at the time of purchase our driver will place your delivery items in the
most appropriate available location.
• Occasional problems do occur with deliveries. Please notify Golden Acre within 24 hours if you experience any difficulties with
your delivered items.
Store Information
ccht/lanta Certification
Aaron
Barb
Carol
Donna
Jeanette
Kelly
Ken
Liana
Nancy
Pavlina
Golden Acre Garden Sentres Ltd. Calgary is proud
to announce that we have the greatest number of
Canadian Nursery Trades Association/ certified
Horticultural Technicians in Western Canada. In
order to serve you better and to fulfill our mission
statement every year staff members train for the
nationally recognized CNTA program. Each of our
staff members who has taken and passed this course
underwent rigorous testing in both practical and
applied knowledge across a wide range of subjects
such as plant identification and care, pest and plant
pathology, fertilizing, and so on. All our staff members
who have attained this high level of horticultural
training are listed to the left . Ask them any question
you may have; their knowledge base is broad and if
they do not know the answer they will know who does.
Congratulations to all who have acheived this honour!
At Golden Acre Garden Sentre and Gifts you can find
everything you need for the perfect christmas. And that
includes the perfect gift.
In our Giftware Department we carry a variety of gifts
ideal for both the home and garden. We have racks of
stunning artwork, realistic artificial flowers, decorative
containers, hand & body lotion, and anything else you
might need (or want).
Our stock is constantly changing, and we are always
receiving new and unique giftware. Come in and see
our amazing selection for yourself.
store information
GiftS &
Home
DeCor
Store Information
working with
our communities
Calgary Children’s Foundation
The Calgary Children’s Foundation has always been one of Golden Acre’s favorite charities. We have supported
the Children’s Foundation for over 20 years and donated over $300,000. Wade Hartwell, founder of Golden Acre,
is even a director of the foundation. During May, designated Arbor Month, we donate $1.00 from every tree sold
at both the North and South Calgary store to the Calgary Children’s Foundation. At Christmas we hold a Black Tie
Gala from which all proceeds of a silent auction go to the Children’s Foundation. Also during Christmas we donate
$1.00 from every live tree and $5.00 from every everlasting tree over six feet tall that we sell.
10
Olds College Foundation
Golden Acre is a big supporter of the Olds College Foundation, improving education in our industry and agriculture
in Alberta. Projects we have worked on are the development of an indoor teaching centre and the Olds College
Arboretum.
Our Community
In addition to these programs, Golden Acre assists literally hundreds of community organizations in a number of
ways. We are always willing to help schools through donations of plant material for educational purposes, goods
for fundraising raffles, and beautification projects. Golden Acre helps out more than 400 organizations including churches, sports teams, community associations, and performing arts groups by donating items for raffles,
money raising activities, and so on. For the past few years we have been proud to support the Dean House, Fort
Calgary, and the Okotoks Community Center by supplying plants for their extensive gardens. Finally, and perhaps
most importantly, Golden Acre is committed to education. We assist schools in fundraising and by supplying plant
material for learning purposes.
store information
Store Information
12
landscape consultant
Dan Sinclair
If you have landscaping in mind for this year and don't know where to begin, Golden Acre offers a landscaping
consulting service. Our consultant, Dan Sinclair, has been in the horticultural industry for over 30 years. For a
fee he will offer recommendations regarding placement of structutral elements, and planting advice. He will also
make suggestions regarding evergreens, colorful trees and shrubs, perennial flowers, shade planting, seasonal
flowering, annuals, and ground covers.
Dan can help with trouble-shooting your garden. If you have any questions about pests, problems, or diseases
he will be able to assist you from an Integrated Pest Management point of view. He is also available to give advice
on pruning and tree care.
to arrange an appointment call:
274-4286
CALGAry’S
GArDen Center
SinCe 1967
GArDen Sentre
store information
Store Information
16
alberta plant hardiness
zone map
We at Golden Acre Garden Sentres Ltd. are proud of
the diversity and enthusiasm of local gardening groups
and are aware of the benefits they bring to the horticultural milieu of Calgary and southern Alberta. They are
an exceptional group of people involved in exceptional
groups! Above all they love gardening and growing by
their own hands and for this they should be recognized.
To help promote the individual groups and to encourage
the diversity of our horticultural community we would like
to try to mention most of the societies active in southern
Alberta. If you belong to a horticultural society that you
think should be listed here, please give us a call at (403)
274-4286.
WEBSITES
Calgary Horticultural Society
208-50 Ave S. Calgary, AB
403-287-3469 Fax: 403-287-6986
E-mail: [email protected]
http://www.calhort.org
store information
local
horticultural SOCIETIES
Calgary Rock and Alpine Garden Society
http://www.crags.ca
Calgary Rose Society
E-mail: [email protected]
http://www.calgaryrosesociety.com
Foothill Orchid Society
E-mail: [email protected]
http://members.shaw.ca/foothillsorchidsociety/
Stampede City African Violet Society
E-mail: [email protected]
http://www3.telus.net/scavs
McKenzie Towne Gardening Club
http://www.mckenzietownegardeningclub.com
LANTA
Landscape Alberta Nursery Trades Association,
10215 - 176 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T5S 1M1
Phone: (780) 489-1991, Fax: (780) 444-2152
http://www.landscape-alberta.com
Petals Garden Club - Okotoks, AB
http://www.petalsgc.shawbiz.ca/petals/
Morinville Garden Club - Morinville, AB
http://www.petalsgc.shawbiz.ca/mgc/
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ANNUALS
18
annuals your questions
Q: What is that white powdery substance on the top of
my begonia? Rose? Impatiens leaf?
A: Powdery mildew is the name of this fungus that attacks the
upper leaf structure of begonias, roses, chrysanthemums,
and impatiens. It starts out as white spotting which,
with time, forms a white mass on the leaf. This is due to
high humidity coupled with poor air circulation around a
stressed plant. Watch your planting space so plants are
not so close as to be overcrowded when mature;
avoid watering at night. When powdery mildew
is at it’s beginning phase,
spray with a fungicide
like Funginex, following
directions on the bottle.
Q: My peppers have
little tiny green bugs on
the tips of the plant. What
are they?
A: These bugs are called
aphids, sucking insects
which are born pregnant.
Unfortunately,
peppers
and aphids seem to go
hand-in-hand. The best
control is to start out with
a clean, weed-free growing
area. Secondly, during the
growing phase, spray with
Safers Soap or Trounce
every two weeks for a
constant control. Ensure
that you rinse the spray off
the plant the following day
or damage may occur over
time.
Q: My tomatoes and/or
peppers have a sunken
soft black spot on their bottom.
What is it?
A: Blossom end rot is the name of
this problem, brought on by one or a
combination of these factors:
-Insufficient calcuim in the soil
-Excess nitrogen, magnesium, potassium, or
sodium has been applied as a fertilizer. This interferes
with calcium absorption.
-Very wet or very dry conditions interfere with the
uptake of calcium.
To reduce the possibility of blossom end rot maintain soil pH
around 6.5. The lime in our soil adds calcium but it cannot
be absorbed by the plant unless the soil is less alkali.
Watering with rain water will help as it is neither alkali nor
acidic and adding sulphur to the soil will reduce alkalinity.
Avoid drought stress and wide fluctuations in soil moisture
by mulching or watering consistently. To avoid moisture
stress apply enough water to wet all the soil in the root
zone when the soil is dry several inches down, depending
on the pot size.
Q: What annuals bloom late in the season?
A: Good annuals for late summer flowering are zinnia,
cosmos, cleome,salvia, sunflower, and morning glory.
Q: My
plants are so leggy, long, and spindly. What
can I do?
A: Cut or pinch the soft tissue of the plant’s
main stem, removing up to 50% of the
overall plant’s height. Increase the light
availability if inside the house. Fertilize
the plant with an all-purpose fertilizer
following the instructions for that
particular fertilizer.
Q: I have what look like
little white flies covering the
underneath leaves of my fuchsia.
What are they?
A: As the description of the insect
implies, they are known as white
flies. From egg, larvae, pupae to
adult, they reside on the underneath
portion of the leaf. If a small
infestation is present, even a quick
manual wiping off will control the
problem. Total removal of the leaf
or leaves during the egg,
larvae and pupae stage is
the easiest. Yellow sticky
strips attract and catch the
adult. Use of the chemicals such as
Trounce or Safers Soap as per label
directions coupled with the above
manual control may
work. Many beneficial
insects like lacewings
and ladybugs feed on
whiteflies. Care must be taken
when applying pesticides so as
not to inadvertently destroy good
insects.
Q: I have a fuchsia that has little berrylike structures forming on the tips where
the flowers used to be.What are they?
A: The berry-like structures are the seed pods, which form
after the flowers were pollinated. It would be best to remove
the pods to send all the energy into more blooms. Pinching
or cutting off can be easily done.
Q: I planted my annuals yesterday during the day; today,
they are like limp little noodles. What’s happening?
A: This may be transplant shock. Transplanting on a cool
or overcast day, avoiding the hottest part of the day to do
Q: I woke up this morning to find white, droopy leaves
on my petunias. What’s wrong?
A: Frost may have touched them; typically a papery, thin,
white leaf structure is synonymous with frost damage. If the
whole plant has toppled over it may be too late to revive. If
it’s just the leaves it will regrow but protect the plant from
future frost damage by using a frost blanket. This sort of
damage may also be from too much heat or too little soil
moisture; be sure to evaluate the situation.
Q: How do I prepare my soil for planting annuals?
A: In the spring, before planting, turn the soil of your beds
to a depth of 6-12” (15-30 cm). Loosen heavy clay soil by
adding peat moss and/or compost and zeolite. You can
also add slow release fertilizer like Vigoro Pink (8-12-16).
Rake bed smooth and you’re done!
Q: How do I look after my plants before I plant them?
A: If you are unable to plant your bedding out plants the
day you purchase them make sure to water them well and
place in the shade. If frost is expected, keep indoors in a
well-lit location and water as needed. The ideal planting
time would be a cloudy evening but if you have to plant on
a sunny day water immediately after planting. Also, be sure
to use a rooting fertilizer like Plant-prod 10-52-10 or Plant
Start 5-15-5.
Q: How often should I water my hanging baskets?
A: There are a number of factors contributing to the rapid
drying of hanging baskets – size of the pot, the exposure
to wind, air, and sun, and the tendency of hanging plants
to get root bound. Because of this, hot days can be a
real problem; you may have to water 2-3 times per day.
Normally simply water when the soil is dry to the touch.
There are water-conserving soils available which can help
reduce the amount of watering. The addition of zeolite can
also help as it will lock in moisture. Both of these products
only help the soil conserve moisture; on hot days you will
still need to check the soil often.
Q: When is the best time to water plants?
A: Ideally watering should be done in the early morning.
This lets the plants soak up water thoroughly. Watering in
the afternoon, especially during hot weather, can cause
damage to the plant leaves. Water can sit in drops on the
leaves, effectively acting like little magnifying glasses and
burning the plant tissue. Watering late in the day allows
the water to sit over night and can promote disease and/or
fungus problems like powdery mildew.
Q: What is the best date to plant my annuals?
A: In the Calgary area we have a notoriously unpredictable
spring. Because of this we generally recommend that you
plant your annuals on the first weekend of June. If you
purchase them before this date please follow the above
instrucions regarding keeping bedding out plants alive in
their containers.
Q: How much fertilizer should I use on my flowers and
how often should I fertilize?
A: This depends on the type of fertilizer you are using. As
a general rule liquid/water soluble fertilizer can be applied
every 2-4 weeks. There are specific annual fertilizers
available that encourage blooming. Look for a high middle
number (15-30-15 or 10-52-10). You can also use Smartcote
slow-release granular fertilizers designed for annuals and
hanging baskets. Simply turn fertilizer into the soil when
you plant. Other granulated fertilizers are available and
can last up to 3 months, though occasional supplemental
fertilizing with a water-soluble fertilizer is recommended.
ANNUALS
the actual planting would be less stressful on the young
plants. Watering the plants thoroughly with a final soaking
in with a high phosphorous fertilizer would cushion the
roots protecting them from their new surroundings.
Q: What does deadheading mean and is it important?
A: Deadheading is the process of removing spent flower
heads from the plant to encourage further blooming. The
seeds would form where the dead flowers were if they were
pollinated and the plant would focus most of its energy
towards seed production instead of flowering. Removing
dead flowers also helps reduce the risk of diseases such
as Botrytis.
Q: What would be the best annuals for cut-flower
gardening?
A: The most popular flowers for cut-flower gardening are
as follows: snapdragon, calendula, cosmos, gypsophila,
sweet pea, zinnia, celosia, aster, sweet william, sunflower,
and bachelor’s button. Cut the flowers early in the morning
and immediately place in lukewarm water. Cut off all the
leaves below the waterline to reduce bacterial and odour
problems.
Q: I heard on the news that we are going to have a
frost and I have planted my annuals already. What can
I do?
A: The best defense against frost on tender annuals is
waiting to plant until either the May long weekend or the first
weekend of June. However, we do live in Calgary and the
weather can be quite unpredictable. Covering your annuals
with blankets or frost protection products like Remay fabric
will certainly help. Obviously, if it is in a container bring it
indoors for the night. Take care not to use plastic coverings
if you can help it. If it is unavoidable definitely keep the
plastic from touching the leaves of the plant.
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ANNUALS
annual favorites
We would like to share with you some of our favorite Impatiens
tried and true plants that work well or are very popular in The bright green, shiny leaves of this plant are attractive
Calgary every year.
indoors as a houseplant or outdoors as an easy to grow
annual. This 8-10 in.(20-25cm) tall annual produces an
Alyssum
This annual flowers from early spring until the first frost, abundance of salmon, pink, white, or red flowers. Plant
making it one of the most useful border plants. Masses of in partial or full shade, spacing the seedlings 18 in.(45cm)
dainty, fragrant blue, pink, or white flowers are produced on apart and keep the soil evenly moist.
2 in.(5cm) plants. This annual does well in sun or partial
shade. Space alyssum 6-8 in.(15-20cm) apart to create Lobelia
There are two basic varieties of lobelia: trailing and upright.
a carpet of color.
The trailing variety looks especially good cascading over
the edge of a planter box. This profusely blooming anColeus
This rapidly growing foliage plant can also be used as a nual grows 6 in.(15cm) upright and trailing 12 in.(30cm).
houseplant. Pinch back the terminal buds of a 12-14 in. Lobelia produces a mass of dainty blue, purple, white, or
(30-35cm) tall plant to produce a very full multicolored red colored flowers.
accent plant for shady areas.
Marigold
Available in numerous heights, each variety produces
These vase-shaped foliage plants have grass-like leaves a wide range of colors from bright yellow and orange to
that cascade as the plants mature. Dracaena makes a bronze and reddish-brown. Plant marigolds in full sun,
spacing the seedlings 12-14 in.(30-35cm) apart.
great centerpiece in containers or formal flowerbeds.
Dracaena Spike
Nasturtium
Fuchsia
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Fuchsias are weeping woody plants grown here as annuals. These attractive plants have large glossy leaves and
produce exquisite bell-shaped single or double-pink flowers
in purple, mauve, pink, or red. They are often bi-colored
with combinations of these colors with white centers.
Place these hanging baskets in partially shaded locations
and keep them consistently moist throughout the growing
season. These plants can be over-wintered indoors.
Alyssum
Dracaena Spike
Nasturtiums can be planted in either flower beds or hanging
containers. They grow in a mounded fashion with round,
smooth leaves. Dwarf varieties are 8-10 in.(15-25cm) tall
while taller varieties can grow to 24 in. (60cm) tall. The
2 in.(5cm) white blossoms come in white, salmon, yellow,
orange, or red colors and have a strong fragrance. Plant
this annual in full sun or partial shade, spacing the seedlings
8 in.(20cm) apart.
Fuchsia
Marigold
Impatiens
Nasturtium
Coleus
Lobelia
Osteospermum
Also known as African daisy, this tender plant produces
masses of large 4 in.(10cm) flowers which are excellent for cutting. White, yellow, salmon, and rose colored
flowers are produced on a 12 in.(30cm) tall plant. Plant
osteospermum in a sunny location in dry soil and space
6in.(15 cm) apart.
Portulaca
Portulaca grandiflora consists of bright flowers that look
like tiny roses. Portulaca oleracea is a single petal trailing plant on a woodier stem used for enhancing hanging
baskets and containers. Portulaca does require a hot and
sunny location.
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annual favorites
Snapdragon
Pansy
Pansies are a flexible annual/perennial that can be found
in a wide assortment of colors. Pansies are extremely frost
tolerant so they do well in the early spring and with attention can bloom well into the fall. They thrive in cool moist
soil. Sunnier locations will produce more flowers, although
hot positions are not recommended. Pansies are good for
borders, beds, edging, and container gardening. Do not
allow them to dry out in hot weather.
Petunia
Petunias are the most popular annual because they require
little care to produce masses of flowers all summer long.
Petunias produce 2-4 in.(5-10cm) wide, trumpet shaped
flowers and are available in an endless number of colors.
The large, showy flowers and the low maintenance required
to keep them growing and producing flowers makes the
Grandiflora petunias the most popular. Multiflora petunias
have smaller flowers but make up for it in the number of
flowers they produce. Multiflora petunias are available
in more colors and shapes than the Grandifloras – starshaped and striped varieties are available.
This familiar plant creates large masses of color in any
flower bed. Each flower is like a colorful butterfly, making
them excellent for cutting. Large heads of lightly fragrant
flowers are produced on tall, medium, or dwarf snapdragon
varieties. Tall varieties grow 24-30 in.(60-75cm) tall requiring support and produce white, red, yellow, orange,
bronze, cherry, pink, and rose flowers. Medium varieties
grow 18-24 in.(45-60cm) tall and produce scarlet, crimson,
yellow, orange, white, pink, cherry, or mixed colored flowers. Dwarf varieties grow 6-8 in.(15-20cm) tall and come
in mixed colors. Snapdragons are heat-tolerant and should
be planted in rich, well-drained soil.
21
Pansy
Petunia
Osteospermum
Snapdragon
Portulaca
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annuals
container gardening
In recent years container gardening has become very
popular mainly because this sort of gardening is both attractive and convenient. Containerized gardening is perfect
for those with little or no garden space such as people living
in apartments, condominiums, or small lots. This form of
gardening is appealing to anyone with little time to spend
cultivating, weeding, fertilizing, etc. Even though the same
or more attention must be paid to container gardens, it
takes less time and some jobs (like weeding) are greatly
reduced. Gardening this way is more economical in the
long run; you will require less water, less soil, less fertilizer,
and so on. Container gardening is ideally suited for those
with limited mobility like the elderly or disabled who wish
to grow a beautiful garden or their own vegetables but
are unable to do so in the conventional manner. Finally,
container gardens simply look good and many gardeners
use them to supplement their own garden beds.
Containers
22
There are a wide variety of container types available for
planting. What must be remembered is that they all require
decent drainage holes (if this is impossible then a layer of
rocks or Styrofoam peanuts at the bottom of the pot will
work if a layer of fiberglass screen or landscape fabric
is added on to prevent soil and plant roots from growing
amongst the rocks) or the soil may retain water and roots
can begin to rot. Drainage can be increased by raising
the pot off the ground an inch or so with 'feet', wedges, or
blocks. It is also important to keep in mind that the top of the
plant is usually proportionate to the roots. Therefore, large
tomatoes require a large pot otherwise they can become
root-bound and will require constant watering.
Wood is a very popular form of container because it is
attractive, fairly lightweight, and blends in well with most
homes. Woods like cedar provide some resistance to rot
and are usually the best to use. Try to stay away from pressure treated woods or railroad ties as they emit chemicals
that are harmful to plants.
Clay, terracotta, and ceramic containers are often used.
Indeed, few things look nicer than an herb garden or annual arrangement in a terracotta pot. The main drawback of
ceramic is that it wicks water away from the soil because it
is porous. As a result they may have to be watered more often. Always bring ceramic pots indoors or store somewhere
dry during in the fall; our winter weather with its cycles of
freezing and thawing can quickly destroy these pots.
Another commonly used type of container is plastic. These
are light, inexpensive, and usually have pre-drilled drainage holes (and if they don't it is easy to make your own).
Be careful not to use dark or black pots for sun-loving
plants. The dark color absorbs light and heats the soil,
increasing water evaporation.
If a permanent location has been selected, large containers
made of concrete, iron, or metal can be used but always
make sure they have proper drainage. A similar look can
be achieved with lightweight foam pots.
Soil
Generally, it is not a good idea to use garden soil or top soil
for containers planting. The high clay content of garden soil
DESIGN LAYOUT OF A MIXED PLANTER
Center Area
Middle Area
Edge Area
Center Area
Middle Area
Edge Area
Plant the tallest or largest
plants to act as the focal point
of your planter. Use one or
two plants here. You can try
canna lilies, tall marigolds,
or the traditional dracaena
spikes.
Use lots of colorful plants with
a ‘mounding’ growth habit to
fill your container and provide
early color. Try geraniums,
pansies, petunias or any number of things. Be creative!
Choose at least two differemt
trailing plants to add texture
and to soften the look of the
container. Try bacopa, trailing
lobelia or any plants with a
trailing habit.
Fertilizer
Container-grown plants require a lot of water over the
summer and this will flush out fertilizer quite quickly. This
can be counteracted by mixing a slow-release fertilizer into
the soil before planting. A consistent fertilizing program
every two to four weeks as per the fertilizer instructions
will keep the plants fed if a slow-release fertilizer is not an
option. Make sure you do not over-fertilize. The salts and
nitrogen in fertilizer can easily burn tender roots.
Water
Careful watering is perhaps the single-most important
aspect of container gardening. In a normal summer containers dry out faster than the ground (hanging baskets dry
out even faster) because they are exposed to the drying
effects of the wind and the sun. Containers will require
watering at least two to three times per week during a
normal season. In wet periods water less or the roots will
sit in water. In dry times water more often, up to twice a
day for some plants. To tell if watering is required watch for
HELPFUL DESIGN TIPS
Foliage plants provide colour, leaf shape and texture.
Use plenty of them.
Don’t be afraid to cutback or trim faster growing plants
that may ruin your original design.
wilting or test the top inch or so of the soil. If it is dry then
water until water flows out of the drainage holes. Some
containers need to be watched more closely like terracotta,
smaller pots, dark pots, and hanging baskets.
Planting
There are a few general tips for planting container gardens. For more specific information please refer to that
particular section in the guide. Do not crowd too many
plants together since they will require room to establish
themselves. Remove dead flowers and prune back leggy
plants to encourage bushy growth. Watch for insects
and diseases on your container plants as the plants are
stressed. Finally, be sure to stake climbing plants or rig
up a trellis. If this is done use a very heavy pot or anchor
the container to prevent it from blowing over.
Annuals
Annuals, lasting only a single season, are the most common plants found in containers. Flowers and foliage plants
can be mixed or all of the same type. It is important when
planting a mixed container that all plants have the same
light requirements. Growth habits must also be considered; place tall plants like dracaena or canna lilies near
the back or center and trailers and low-growing plants like
petunias or bacopa on the outside of the planter. The following is a list of light requirements for commonly grown
annuals. For further information on these plants refer to
the annuals tables. NOTE: for Supertunias it is vital that
they be watered daily.
Sun
Amaranthus
Asarina
Cobaea
Datura
Marigolds Use more plants than seem to be needed. Containers
will look better and bloom longer.
Start with flowers that are just about ready to flower.
Use a variety of plant sizes.
Shade
Water often! Containers tend to dry out quicker than
you might expect.
Use colourful foliage plants (like coleus) to ‘echo’ the
colours of the flowers in your container.
Add flowers of different shapes in your container to
add interest.
23
Geranium - Ivy
Gomphrena
Hyacinth Bean
Sunflower - Dwarf
Eccremocarpus
Sun / Part Shade
Alyssum
Bacopa
Calibrachoa
Dracaena
Fuchsia
Godetia
Phlox
Mix Zeolite into the soil when planting. Zeolite will help
the soil retain water.
ANNUALS
will not provide adequate drainage and is not conducive
to root growth. If allowed to dry out, garden soil separates
from the side of the pot and is hard to re-wet. Container
plants should be grown in a light, airy soil capable of holding water and nutrients while at the same time draining
easily. It is best to use a soil-less potting mix made up of
peat moss, perlite, and vermiculite. There are even some
mixes that are made specifically for container garden with
moisture-retaining crystals and/or wetting agents. Adding
charcoal will help to sweeten the soil. Finally, make sure
the soil is only filled up to within two inches of the top of
the pot to allow space for watering.
Coleus
Begonia
Browallia
Minalobata
Petunia
Snapdragons
Lavatera
Verbena
Rhodochiton Bush Lobelia
Nasturtium
Nemesia
Sweet Potato Vine
Petunias
Kennilworth Ivy
Lantana
Scaevola
Schizanthus
Stock
Nicotiana
Thunbergia
Vinca
Asparagus Fern
Impateins
Mimulus
Pansy
Viola
ANNUALS
annuals
container gardening
Vegetables
Planting vegetables in container gardens can be fairly
simple, convenient, and rewarding if a few steps are
followed, though productivity will vary depending on variety
and season. Vegetables require a sunny location and a
large container. Root vegetables need a lot of soil while
large plants like tomatoes require a lot of space for root
development and to ensure that the soil does not dry out
too quickly. The following is a list of vegetables that can
do well in containers arranged by growth habit. Further
information can be found in the vegetable section of this
guide.
Climbing / Trailing
Cucumber
Muskmelon
Summer Squash
Pole Beans
Peas
Root Vegetables
Beets
Carrots
Green Onions
Parsnips
Radishes
Turnips
Leaf Vegetables
Cabbage
Kale
Perennials, Shrubs, Bulbs, etc.
Lettuce
Swiss Chard
Others
Bush Beans
Bush Peas
24
Tomatoes (dwarf and determinate)
Eggplant
Peppers (hot and sweet)
Summer-Flowering Bulbs
Generally plants do not do well when left in containers over
the winter in Calgary. Our fluctuating winter temperatures
are the main problem; the soil freezes and thaws, either
encouraging growth and then killing it or destroying roots
and bulbs. Soil temperatures in the ground are much more
consistent, protecting roots from winter damage.
However, there are exceptions to this rule. Larger
containers with more soil will shelter plant roots. Adding an
insulating material like Styrofoam lining before planting will
also help. Only very hardy native species like potentillas
do well. It is important to water the plants in the containers
well before the ground freezes in the fall. This ensures
moisture during warm, dry winter periods. Even following
this method will not guarantee that plants will overwinter.
Herbs
A very popular container-grown crop, fresh herbs can be The end result is completely dependent on severity of the
grown close to the back door for convenient harvest as weather, the plants' location, the type of container used,
long as there is sufficent light. Please see the herb section the size of the plant, etc.
for details.
Spring-flowering bulbs like tulips and daffodils rarely
survive a winter in a container. However, summer-flowering
bulbs, corms, tubers, etc. do very well in large containers
for the growing season. Try dahlias (especially dwarf
varieties), begonias, glads and specialty bulbs such as
the climbing gloriosa lily.
Sun
Anise
Oregano
Feverfew
Rosemary
Horseradish
Sage
Hyssop
Savory
Lavender
Thyme - lemon
Verbena - Lemon
Basil
Borage
Chives
Dill
Fennel
Marjoram
Sun / Part Shade
Bay/Laurel
Caraway
Garlic
Chamomile
Cilantro
Comfrey
Catmint/Catnip
Thyme - Common
Rue
Sorrel
Tarragon
Lemon Balm
Shade
Chervil
Mint
Parsely
Sweet Woodruff
Geraniums are one of the most popular and commonly
used bedding out plants. Geraniums are available in a
wide range of colors from red, scarlet, pink, coral, salmon,
peach, orange, lavender, to white. Geraniums are used in
many areas in the yard, including flower beds, pots, planters, and hanging baskets.
Types
1.
2.
3.
Zonal - Pelargonium hortorum
Aptly named because of red zones on leaves.
Martha Washington - Pelargonium domesticum
Plant has fancy flowers.
Ivy - Pelargonium peltatum
Trailing plant is suitable for hanging baskets.
Care & Culture
1. It may be treated like an indoor house plant, giving it
as much light as possible in a south or west window. If the
plant gets stretched out or spindly in winter, prune it back
by pinching off the large, lanky leaves and long stems.
2. The second method involves lifting the plant out of the
pot, shaking off as much soil as possible, and storing it in
a cool, dark box. Keep the roots covered with a moist cloth
which maintains the plant’s life at a bare minimum.
3. Another method is also shaking the soil off the root
system and then storing the plant upside down in a garage
or other area where the temperature hovers just above
freezing. With the last two methods plant in pots in early
March and water with a high phosphorus fertilizer like
Plant-prod 10-52-10 to initiate root growth. With all of the
above three methods, plant the geraniums outside at the
end of May when the danger of frost is over.
ANNUALS
annuals
geraniums
Most geraniums prefer full sunlight in a west or south
location, needing approximately 6 hrs. of sun each day.
Martha Washington geraniums prefer partial shade in a
north or east orientation. For watering, keep the soil moist
until the roots are established, after which geraniums are
considered to be semi-drought tolerant. Fertilize every
week or two during the growing season with a complete
fertilizer such as 20-30-20.
Overwintering
Geraniums may be kept from year to year, as they are
technically perennials grown as annuals. There are 3
methods of overwintering geraniums:
25
annuals geranium cuttings
Preparation
Take cuttings, applying rooting hormone on unrooted
cuttings will aid in rooting uniformly. Even the smallest
excess of hormones may cause severe damage use
sparingly.
Air Temperature
Temperatures of 15-20 degrees Celsius should be
maintained during rooting. Ideally the cutting should receive
bottom heat to keep the planting media temperature at
20-22 degrees Celsius.
Watering Cuttings
Moisten just enough to prevent wilting. Excessive misting
can leach nutrients from the cuttings or create conditions for
Botrytis infections to develop. There is a fine line between
wet and dry. Change duration of misting. Short bursts are
better. Stop misting after six days. Shading for first couple
of weeks helps The cuttings can receive full sunlight as
soon as they develop roots.
Fertilizer
Can be applied two weeks after planting. Fertilize with 1052-10, and as always read the label.
Ventilation
To prevent Botrytis keep humid air moving using a
horizontal fan. Keep leaves dry at night.
Fungicides
Use No Damp two weeks after planting or when rooting
occurs. Cleaning off old leaves and dis-budding will also
control disease. When rooted out put into 4” or 6” pots in
professional planting mix.
ANNUALS
26
bedding out plants
all annuals listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
»
AFRICAN DAISY
12/8 in.
beds, borders,
orange, Dark eyed, daisy flowers;
Dimorphotheca species
30/20 cm mass planting
yellow
also called cape marigold
™
AGERATUM
6/10 in.
borders, beds
blue,red, Compact mound of
(Floss Flower)
15/25 cm mass planting
white
fluffy flower clusters
™–»
ALYSSUM, SWEET
8/10 in.
border,
purple,
Compact mound of dainty Lobularia maritima
20/25 cm edging plant
white
flowers, excellent edging plant
™
ASTER, CHINA
12/8 in.
beds, borders,
purple,
Late summer blooming; flower
Callistephus chinensis
30/20 cm mass planting
pink
forms are daisy and pompom
™
BABY’S BREATH
12/12 in. beds, borders,
white,
Profuse sprays of
Gysophila elegans
30/30 cm bouquets
pink
dainty delicate flowers
˜
BEGONIA, WAX
8/6 in.
beds, borders,
red, pink, Colorful clusters of flowers;
Begonia semperflorens
20/15 cm planters
white
fleshy leaves and fibrous roots
˜
BEGONIA, TUBEROUS 14/12 in. planters, pots,
red, pink, Large showy double flowers;
Begonia tuberhybrida
35/30 cm specimen
yellow
plant tuberous root after last frost
™
BELLS OF IRELAND
24/12 in. borders,
green, & Tiny white flowers in green bells;
Moluccella laevis
60/30 cm cut flowers
white
square stems, toothed leaves
™
BRACHYCOME
10/10 in. planters, pots,
purple,
Daisy-like flowers are
(Swan River Daisy)
25/25 cm hanging baskets
gold eye suitable in all containers
˜
BROWALLIA
14/12 in. planters, pots,
violet
Trumpet-shaped blossoms;
Browallia speciosa
35/30 cm hanging baskets
likes sheltered, shaded situation
™
CARNATION
12/8 in.
beds, borders,
various Strong stemmed,
Dianthus caryophyllus
30/20 cm cut flowers
mixed
fragrant flowers
™
CELOSIA
12/6 in.
beds, borders, various Feathery, plumed, or crested,
(Cockscomb)
30/15 cm planters
mixed
comb-like large flowers
™
CENTAUREA
18/10 in. beds, borders, true blue, True blue flowers readily reseed
(Bachelor’s Button)
45/25 cm mass planting
pink
also called cornflower
˜
COLEUS
18/10 in. beds, borders,
colored Combo. of multi-colored leaves,
Coleus x hybridus
45/25 cm planters
foliage also called flame nettle
™
COSMOS
36/24 in. background
pink
Tall plant with feathery foliage,
Cosmos bipinnatus
90/60 cm of border
easily grown from seed
™
DAHLIA
14/10 in. beds, pots,
various Late summer blooming;
Dahlia pinnata
35/25 cm borders
mixed
tuberous root
™
DATURA
4/2 ft.
back of border
white,
Exotic plant, large trumpet
Datura pinnata
1/.5 m
specimen in pot
yellow
flowers also called thorn apple
™
DIANTHUS-China Pink 12/8 in.
beds, borders,
red, pink, Fragrant fringed flowers similar
Dianthus chinensis
30/20 cm mass planting
white
to carnations or sweet william
™–»
DRACAENA SPIKES
24/24 in. planters, pots,
foliage
Rosette of sword shaped leaves;
Cordyline indivisa
60/60 cm specimen
plant
plant in center of container
Height/
Spread
Names
Uses
African Daisy
Flower
Color(s)
Features
Begonia
Dahlia
Cosmos
Dianthus
Celosia
Ageratum
Seed/
Indoor/
Outdoor TransSeed Date plant
Mar. 20-28 seed
May 1-10 trans.
Feb. 20-28 seed,
May 1-15 trans.
Mar. 15-30 seed,
May 1-10 trans.
Mar. 15-30 seed,
May 1-10 trans.
May 15-30 seed,
May 1-10 trans.
Feb. 1-28 seed,
n/a
trans.
n/a
trans-
n/a
plant
Mar. 1-15 seed
Apr. 20-30
Mar. 1-15 seed
May 1-15 trans.
Feb. 20-28 seed,
May 1-15 trans.
Jan. 1-15 trans-
n/a
plant
Apr. 20-30 trans-
n/a
plant
Feb. 15
seed
Apr. 15
Mar. 1-15 seed,
n/a
trans.
Apr. 1-10 seed,
May 10-20 trans.
Mar. 10-20 seed,
May 10-20 trans.
Mar. 10-20 seed,
n/a
trans.
Mar. 1-10 seed,
n/a
trans.
n/a
trans-
n/a
plant
Datura
Names
DUSTY MILLER
Centaurea cineraria
GAZANIA
Gazania splendens
GERANIUM-Pelargonium
hortor-domestic-paltatum
GODETIA/CLARKIA
Satin Flower
IMPATIENS
(Garden Balsam)
KALE-Ornamental
Brassica oleracea
LANTANA
Lantana camara
LAVATERA
Lavatera trimestris
LIVINGSTONE DAISY
Mesembryanthemum
LOBELIA
Lobelia erinus
MARIGOLD, AFRICAN
Tagetes erecta
MARIGOLD, FRENCH
Tagetes patula
MARIGOLD, POT
Calendula officinalis
MIMULUS
(Monkey Flower)
NASTURTIUM
Tropaeolum majus
NEMESIA
Nemesia strumosa
NICOTIANA
Nicotiana alata
PANSY
Viola tricolor
PETUNIA
Petunia hybrida
Height/
Spread
12/8 in.
30/20 cm
12/12 in.
30/30 cm
20/20 in.
50/50 cm
18/12 in.
45/30 cm
10/10 in.
25/25 cm
16/16 in.
40/40 cm
18/18 in.
45/45 cm
36/24 in.
90/60 cm
6/6 in.
15/15 cm
4/6 in.
10/15 cm
30/12 in.
75/30 cm
16/6 in.
40/15 cm
12/8 in.
30/20 cm
10/6 in.
25/15 cm
10/10 in.
25/25 cm
10/6 in.
25/15 cm
16/10 in.
40/25 cm
6/6 in.
15/15 cm
16/8 in.
40/20 cm
bedding out plants
Uses
border,
edging plant
beds, borders,
planters
planters, beds, pots
hanging baskets
beds, borders,
mass planting
planters, borders,
hanging baskets
beds, borders, specimen
specimen
in container
back of border,
pots
borders, planters,
hanging baskets
borders, planters,
hanging baskets
background of bed,
cut flowers
borders, beds, mass planting
beds, borders,
cut flowers
beds, borders,
mass planting
beds, borders,
planters
beds, borders,
mass planting
beds, borders,
cut flowers
border, beds,
edging plant
borders, beds,
planters, baskets
Flower
Color(s)
silvery foliage
yellow,
orange
red, pink,
white
red, pink,
white
red, pink,
white
pink &/or
white
orange,
yellow
pink,
white
pink, red,
lavender
true blue,
red,white
orange,
yellow
yellow,
orange
yellow,
orange
red &
yellow
yellow,
orange
various
mixed
red, wine,
rose
various
mixed
wide
range
Features
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Colored foliage plant
™
with hairy, divided leaves
Similar to African daisy;
™
also called treasure flower
4 types: zonal, ivy, seed
™–»
or Martha Washington
Showy, satiny,
™–»
cup-like blossoms
˜
Succulent stems, spur flowers;
for sheltered, shaded sites
Colorful rosette of foliage; edible, ™
color shows in cool temp. in Sept.
Place outside after last frost;
™–»
does well in hot, dry area
Large, showy, cup-like flowers;
™
resembles hibiscus & hollyhock
™
Daisy-like flowers; succulent;
good for windy, hot, dry area
Both trailing and compact forms
™–»
with delicate flowers for edging
Tall plants with lacy leaves and
™
large flowers that repel insects
Combos. of bicolor flowers;
™
includes Dwarf Boy Series
Similar looking to true marigolds;
™
flowers reseed readily
Suitable for moist shaded area;
˜
flowers mimic monkey faces
Dwarf plants with edible foliage
™–»
and round peltate leaves
Clusters of flowers with
™–»
lower bearded petals
Fragrant, star-shaped flowers; ™–»
also called flowering tobacco
Hardy, frost tolerant, short plants
˜
for shaded, moist areas
Most popular annual flowers;
™–»
spreading or cascading growth
Livingstone Daisy
Nicotiana
Gazania
Lavatera
Seed/
Indoor/
TransOutdoor
Seed Date plant
Feb. 1-10
n/a
Feb. 10-20
n/a
Jan. 10-15
n/a
Apr. 10-20
May 10-20
Feb 15-20
n/a
Apr. 10-20
May 1-10
n/a
n/a
Apr. 1-10
May 10-20
Mar. 15-30
May 1-10
Feb. 20-28
n/a
Apr. 1-15
May 15-30
Apr. 10-20
May 15-25
Apr. 10-20
May 15-25
Mar. 15
May 15-20
Apr 1-10
May 1-10
Mar. 10-20
May 10-20
Mar. 1-10
May 1-10
Feb. 1-10
n/a
Feb. 15-20
May 10-20
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
trans-
plant
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
trans-
plant
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
seed.
trans.
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
seed,
trans.
trans-
plant
ANNUALS
all annuals listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
27
Nemesia
ANNUALS
hanging baskets
Sun
™
Name
Features
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Flower
Color
BACOPA
»
Shade tolerant annual white
Satura cordata
BEGONIA,Tuberous
˜
Showy, large, double flowers;
pink, red,
Begonia tuberhybridashade
Illumination & Non-Stop series
orange
CALIBRACHOA
™–»–˜
Small pastel colored petunia-like
blue,pink
(Million bells)
blooms likes lots of water and food or white
COLEUS
»
Combo. of multi-colored leaves;
colored
Coleus hybridus
Minter Rainbow cultivar
foliage
FUCHSIA
»
Drooping bicolored flowers;
red, white
Fuchsia hybrida
bring woody shrub indoors in fall
& purple
GERANIUM, IVY
™
Hanging or climbing stems,
red, pink
Pelargonium peltatum
durable plant with divided leaves
or white
IMPATIENS
˜
Popular annual hangers;
wide
Garden Balsam
Accent and Rosebud series
range
SCAEVOLA
™–»–˜
Creeping herbaceous perennial;
blue
Scaevola aemula
Blue Wonder variety
SUPERTUNIAS
™–»–˜
Abundant pastel flowers;
wide
Petunia hybrida
lots of water and fertilizer each day!!!
range
VERBENA
™
Flower clusters; keep wet!;
various
Verbena hybrida
hairy, toothed, lanceolate leaves
Hanging Baskets
28
all annuals listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Frost Tolerant Annuals
Centaurea
Dianthus
Dracaena
Dusty Miller
Kale
Pansy
Petunia
Snapdragon
Viola
Frost Sensitive Annuals
Ageratum
Amaranthus
Begonia
Dahlia
Gazania
Geranium
Impateins
Lantana
Lavatera
Marigold
Mesembryanthemum
Portulaca
Statice
Strawflower
Verbena
Zinnia
all annuals listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Sun
™ Indoor Seed or
Names
Ht.
Use
Flower
Features
Seed TransPart Shade »
Color
Date
plant
Shade
˜
Asarina-
7 ft.
hangers, planters,
pink
Trailing vine with large,
™
Feb.
trans.
Mystic Pink
2 m.
trellis
trumpet-shaped flowers
15-28
Canary Bird Vine
7 ft.
vine coverage on
yellow
Annual climber with
™–»
May
seed,
Tropaeolum peregrinum
2 m.
fence or trellis
(with cut petals)
5-lobed leaves
10-20
COBAEA SCANDENS 12 ft.
trellis,
violet
Bell-shaped flowers
™
n/a
trans.
(Purple Climber)
4 m.
hanging basket
with green sepals
CREEPING JENNY
4 in.
planters,
yellow
Creeping perennial
™–»
n/a
trans.
Lysimachia nummularia
10 cm. hanging basket
or ground cover
Eccremocarpus
10 ft.
hangers, planters,
yellow, orange,
2 cm. tubular blooms
™
Mar.
trans.
(Chilean Glory Vine)
3 m.
trellis screening
red
1-15
Hyacinth Bean
10 ft.
hangers, planters,
Lilac flowers form Twining climber with
™
Mar. trans.
Dolichos lablab
3 m.
trellis
purple edible pods triangular leaves
1-15
KENILWORTH IVY-
24 in.
bed, border, planter, single, tiny pink
Profusion of small
™–»
Feb.
Cymbalaria muralis
60 cm. hanging basket, pot blooms
leafed foliage
15-20
trans.
MINA LOBATA
12 ft.
planters,
red, orange,
Twining climber;
™
Mar.
trans.
(Spanish Flag)
4 m.
hanging basket
yellow
3 flower colors same time
Moon Vine
10 ft.
trellis screening
white
Large 15 cm. fragrant
™
Mar.
trans.
Calonyction aculeatum
3 m.
flowers open at night
20-31
Morning Glory-
10 ft.
trellis screening
blue
Large 10-15 cm. trumpet- ™
Mar.
trans.
(Heavenly Blue)
3 m.
shaped flowers
20-31
PETUNIA -Super
4 ft.
planters, blues,pinks
6 cm. flower
™
n/a
trans.
cascadias, surfinia
1.2 m. hanging basket
RhOdochiton-
7 ft.
hanger, planter,
purple bell-shaped flowers
™–»
Mar.
trans.
Purple Bells
2 m.
houseplant
20-31
Scarlet Run. Bean 7 ft.
screens, trellis,
red
Vine with flower clusters; ™ n/a
seed
Phaseolus coccineus
2 m.
posts
edible beans
Sweet Pea
10 ft.
screens,
pink, white, blue,
Old-fashioned favorite
™–»
n/a
seed,
Lathyrus odoratus
3 m.
beds
red, cream, purple with fragrant flowers
trans.
Thunbergia ALATA 3 ft.
planters,
orange or yellow
Arrow shaped leaves;
™–»
April
seed,
Black Eyed Susan Vine
1 m.
hanging basket
with dark center
individually borne flowers
10-20
trans.
Vinca major
3 ft.
hanger accent,
blue
Variegated trailing foliage; ™–»
n/a
trans.
(Greater Periwinkle)
1 m.
planter
cousin to Vinca minor
ANNUALS
annualvines
29
ANNUALS
annuals herbs
Names
Annual,
Biennial,
Perennial
ANISE
annual
Pimpinella anisum
BASIL
Ocimum basilicum
BAY/LAUREL
annual
woody
Laurus nobilis
BORAGE
biennial
Borago officinalis
CARAWAY
biennial
Carum carvi
30
CATGRASS Oats
CATMINT/CATNIP
Nepeta cataria
CHAMOMILE, German
Matricaria recutita
CHERVIL
Anthriscus cerefolium
CHIVES
Allium schoenoprasum
CHIVES, Garlic
Allium tuberosum
CILANTRO/Coriander
Coriandrum sativum
COMFREY
Symphytum officinale
DILL, Fernleaf
Anethum graveolens
ECHINACEA
Echinacea angustifolia
FENNEL
Foeniculum vulgare
FEVERFEW
Matricaria parthenium
GARLIC
Allium sativum
GARLIC, Elephant
Allium ampeloprasum
HORSE RADISH
Armoracia rusticana
HYSSOP
Hyssopus officinalis
LAVENDER, English
Lavendula angustifolia
LAVENDER, French
Lavendula dentata
LEMON BALM
Melissa officinalis
LEMON VERBENA
Aloysia triphylla
MARJORAM, Sweet
Origanum majorana
MINT/Peppermint
Mentha piperita
perennial
perennial
annual
annual
perennial
perennial
annual
perennial
annual
perennial
annual
perennial
annual
annual
perennial
perennial
hardy
perennial
tender
perennial
perennial
tender
perennial
annual
perennial
Culinary Cuisine Uses
all herbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Licorice flavored seeds for Anisette liqueur,
™
baking and white meat
Pungent flavor for tomato sauces; 6 varieties
™
including Sweet, Purple and Lemon types
Bay leaves flavor soup and stew;
™–»
also available as indoor tropical plant
Leaves are used in salads;
™
edible blue flowers self seed
Seeds flavor bread and cheese;
™–»
resembles carrot or dill
Cat treat;
™–»
plant indoors in pot or outdoors
Cat treat or soothing tea;
™–»
in mint family with square stems
Relaxing, soothing tea;
™–»
white daisies readily re-seed
Gourmet parsley for salad garnish;
»–˜
one of the four fine French herbs
Mild, onion-like flavor to salad, sauce & soup;
™
attractive purple flowers
Mild garlic flavor to salad, sauce & soup;
™
attractive white flowers
Leaves are also called Chinese parsley;
™–»
seed is called coriander
Once used as a poultice on
™–»
cuts, bruises and broken bones
Tangy tasting pickles, salad, sauce & stew;
™
a dilly of an herb that self seeds!
Also called coneflower,
™
strengthens immune system
Mild anise/licorice flavor to
™
salad, sauce & fish
Put in salad or soup to
™
prevent migraine headaches
Popular sulphur flavoring to meat & veg. dishes
™–»
allegedly wards off evil vampires!
Nutty, milder garlic flavor;
™–»
good grilled or roasted veggie
Hot condiment on beef and pork;
™
tuberous roots
Bitter taste to salad, soup or stew;
™
blue flower spikes
Fragrant flowers for bouquets,
™
baths, potpourris and sachets
Fragrant flowers for bouquets,
™
baths, potpourris and sachets
Balmy lemon flavored tea,
™–»
salad garnish
Zesty lemon flavor to hot or cold
™
desserts, dishes or drinks
Strong flavor to meat and veggie dishes;
™
closely related to oregano
Strong, hot flavored tummy tea, lamb, jelly &
™
dessert; plant has square stems
Indoor/
Outdoor
seed date
Days From
Seed to
Harvest
Seed/
Transplant
May 15-30
70-75
seed
n/a
trans
May 15-30
80-85
seed
n/a
trans
n/a
n/a trans
May 15-30
80-85
seed
n/a
n/a
seed
May 15-30
2nd year
n/a
15-20
seed
May 10-20
May 10-20
75-80
seed
n/a
trans
May 10-20
20-30
seed
n/a
May 15-30
70-80
seed
n/a
May 15-30
80-85
seed
n/a trans
May 15-30
85-90
seed
n/a
trans
May 10-20
20-30
seed
n/a trans
n/a
60-90
May 10-30
trans
May 15-30
60-70
seed
n/a
trans
Apr. 1-15
120
seed
n/a
trans.
May 10-20
80-90
seed,
n/a
May 10-30
80-90
seed,
n/a
trans.
May 1-15
100-120
bulb
n/a
cloves
May 1-15
100-120 bulb
n/a
May 1-15
100-120
bulb,
n/a
May 10-30
30-60
seed,
n/a
Mar. 1-10
100-120
seed,
n/a
trans.
Mar. 1-10
100-120
n/a
trans.
Apr. 10-20
90-100
seed,
n/a
trans.
n/a
n/a
trans
Apr. 10-20
80-85
seed,
n/a
Apr. 1-10
80-85
seed,
May 1-10
Names
MINT/Spearmint
Mentha spicata
OREGANO
Origanum vulgare
PARSLEY, Curled
Annual,
Biennial,
Perennial
perennial
tender
perennial
biennial
Petroselinum crispum
PARSLEY, Italian
biennial
Petroselinum neopolitanum
ROSEMARY
tender
perennial
RUE
tender
Ruta graveolens
perennial
SAGE
perennial
Salvia officinalis
SAVORY, Summer
annual
Saturega hortensis
SAVORY, Winter
perennial
Saturega montana
SORREL, French
perennial
Rumex acetosa
SWEET WOODRUFF
Perennial
Galium odoratum
TARRAGON, French
Perennial
Artemesia dracunculus
TARRAGON, Russian
perennial
Artemesia dracunculus
THYME, Common
perennial
Thymus vulgaris
THYME, Lemon
perennial
Thymus citriodorus
Rosemarinus officinalis
Culinary Cuisine Uses
all herbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Cool, mild flavored Mint Julep and lamb;
»
square stems with pebbled, pointed leaves
Sharp flavor to Italian pizza & pasta sauce
»
or Mexican dishes; Greek & common types
Curled leaf garnish type;
™
replant every year
Plain leaf cooking type;
»
replant every year
Mediterranean herb in meat & veggie dishes;
»
blue flowers and evergreen, linear leaves
Bitter tasting herb to reputedly repel cats;
™–»
toxic to pregnant women
Strong flavor in stuffing, sausage & poultry;
™
4 varieties with purple flower spikes
Strong, peppery flavor to beans and meat;
™
use fresh or dry leaves
Strong, peppery flavor to beans and meat;
™
evergreen creeping plant
Sour lemon flavor to soup or salad;
™–»
also known as sour grass in Europe
Sweet scented tea or wine;
»
great ground cover with white flowers
Anise/licorice flavor to salad or fish;
™–»
another one of the four fine French herbs
Mildly bitter anise flavor to salad or fish;
™–»
less versatile variety lacks aromatic oils
Flavors soup, meat and veggie dishes;
™–»
good ground cover
Lemon fragrance to white meat dishes;
™
attractive green and gold variegated leaves
Indoor/
Outdoor
seed date
Days From
Seed to
Harvest
Apr. 1-10
80-85
May 1-10
Apr. 10-20
60-80
n/a
Apr. 1-15
70-90
May 15-30 Apr. 1-15
70-90
May 15-30 n/a
May 10-20
75-85 Apr. 15-30
70-90
n/a Apr. 10-20
80-85
n/a n/a May 10-20
60-65 n/a
May 10-20
60-65 May 1-15
60-90 May 15-30
n/a
n/a n/a
n/a May 10-30
60-90
n/a
Apr. 1-10
85-90 n/a Apr. 1-10
85-90
n/a Seed/
Transplant
seed
seed,
trans
seed,
trans
seed,
trans
seed,
trans
trans
seed,
trans
seed
trans
trans
seed
trans
trans
seed
seed,
trans
trans
Basil
TIPS FOR SAVING HERBS
Harvest herbs just before the flower buds appear since this
is when they are at their most flavorful. Using a sharp knife
or scissors, cut the stem leaving at least four inches below a
pair of leaves in order to ensure good regrowth. Wash herbs
in cold running water and drain on paper towels.
The easiest way to preserve your herbs is through air-drying
at room temperature. For plants with long stems such as
sage, parsley, and rosemary tie 6-8 stems together and
hang upside down in a warm, dark place for approximately
1-2 weeks. Use trays or screens for short-stemmed herbs
like thyme and large-leafed herbs like basil. Store in a warm
dark place until dry.
Once the herbs are succussfully preserved keep in an
airtight container in a cool, dark place as light and heat will
destroy their flavour and color.
Another method of preservation is freezing. This is
especially useful for herbs that do not dry well such as dill,
chives, and basil. Simply wash, chop, freeze, and thaw
when needed.
ANNUALS
annuals herbs
31
ANNUALS
water plantsyour questions
Q: How deep should I plant my water lily?
A: Your lily can survive with only one and a half inches of water
above the crown of the plant. It will be more susceptible to adverse
temperature swings in Calgary from day to night. The best location
is in a quiet portion of the pool, away from any waterfalls, to a
depth of eighteen inches from the bottom of the pot to the top of
the water. If you follow these directions your lily will be safe even
when there is a threat of frost.
Q: What is the difference between marginal and bog
plants?
A: There is not a major difference - marginal plants need high
humidity while bog plants need wet roots. The best place for
marginal plants is on the edge of the pond; bog plants should be
immersed in the water depending upon variety - follow instructions
for individual plants.
Q: Why can’t I get my water hyacinth to bloom?
A: The hyacinth is a “tropical” plant which loves the heat.
Unfortunately, the cool nights of Calgary are not conducive for
blooming. These plants do well in crowded conditions which may
help to encourage blooming.
Q: Do I need to fertilize my water plants?
A: Use pond tablets to feed your lilies at a rate of one tablet per
plant per growing month. This provides the minor elements which
are used up from your pond quite quickly. Nitrogen, phosphorous,
and potassium, are in ample supply from your water source so
there is no need to add any.
32
Q: What type of soil do I use for my water plants?
A: A rich clay loam, is preferred. “Top soil” by Homestead would
be the best choice for planting all your water plants into.
Q: Why are marginal / bog plants in such a small pot?
A: This benefits the customer. Small pots are a much more
economical altenative to the expensive larger potted plants.
Q: Can I put water plants in a half oak barrel?
A: Yes, but only a maximum of one lily, one floater, such as a
hyacinth, or lettuce, and one bog plant. Don’t forget to top up
water lost through evaporation.
Q: How many water plants should I put in my pond?
A: You can use one lily per 5 square feet of pond surface area,
one bog plant per one square foot, and one bundle of oxygenating
plants such as hornwort per 18 cubic feet (3’x3’x2’). Floaters,
including surface area covered by bog and lily, can equal up to
60% of the total surface area.
Q: What do I do with the plants when winter comes?
A: If the pond is to be drained at the end of the season and all the
bog plants and lilies are in their own containers make sure you
leave the plants in their own containers. Floaters and oxygenators
are not in containers so they’ll need to be treated differently.
A) Lilies- Lift the entire plant, pot and all, and place in a dark,
plastic bag. Store the lily in the bag in a cool location, with the bag
slightly draped closed not twist-tied shut. Place moist sphagnum
moss around the crown of the plant, on the soil surface. Keep this
moss wet, checking at least every two to three weeks. Once the
foliage has died back, remove. Keep in this location until March of
the following year. At this time place in bucket of water and cover
one and a half inches above the crown. Give the plant a pond
tablet. Bring into a higher light, warmer location. Place into pond
when frost is unlikely at a minimum depth 18”.
B) Bog plants once lifted out of the pond can be “heeled-in”,
which is digging a trench deep enough to cover the pot up to
four inches above the crown of the plant. Backfill the trench
after soaking the roots, leave the foliage on the plants until they
are totally brown and dead, then remove. In the spring dig up
once the soil has thawed and bring into a warmer and brighter
location. Water well, and keep them standing in a saucer, which
is constantly filled with water.
C) Marginal plants which can be planted along the edge of the
pond will need a four inch mulch layer after being well watered
before the big freeze of winter sets in. Their survival will depend
upon the plants’ hardiness zone.
D) Floaters, water hyacinth and lettuce, will need to be brought
in before they are touched by frost. To over-winter they will need
to have their free-floating root system planted into ‘top soil’,
and placed in a high ligh­t window, south preferred for the winter
months.
E) Hornwort- the best place for it to over winter if the pond is
to be drained is in an aquarium type setting with 12-14 hours of
flourescent light a day.
Q: How do I control the algae?
A: A little amount (a thin coating) is fine but when it gets to the
point where a film, or what is known as filamentous algae, has
grown it is time to scoop it out. Follow the 3’x3’x2’ cubic footage
space needs for the hornwort bundles in order to have enough
oxygenating plants for the area. Have the water pass through a
filter system, which is maintained, skim off the garbage from the
top to keep the surface as clean as possible, and if you have fish
don’t overfeed.
Water features, such as ponds and fountains, have recently become very popular . The sound of running water is soothing and
an attractively landscaped pool with some fish, water plants (even water lilies!), and a waterfall or fountain can be a beautiful addition to your garden. The most important first step is to decide where your pond is to be located, and how it is to be constructed.
Things to consider are:
Pond size should be as large as the site and your budget will allow. Larger volumes of water do not change temperature as
quickly. Depth is most practical at 18-23 inches. A pool 24 or more inches deep requires, by law, a lockable, 6 foot fence. If plants,
particularly water lilies, are to be included, at least 6 hours of sunlight daily is necessary. Locate your pond where it can be seen
and heard from both inside your home and seating areas of your garden. Try to avoid locating under decidous trees, as leaves
dropping into the pond are a nuisance. An electrical supply is necessary for a pump and possible lighting.
Choosing the Pond
Pre-formed ponds are the easiest to install but are limited in
size and shape. Heavy butyl liners are more of a challenge
to install, but give you unlimited flexibility and design. Poured
concrete is not practical in Alberta. With our fluctuations in
temperature, they crack too easily.
ANNUALS
Pond Basics
pondinstallation
HOW TO INSTALL
Installing a Pond
Choose site and outline area with garden hose to visualize
shape and orientation. Excavate area and line with old carpet,
or layers of newspaper, then add sand to cushion the liner.
Pre-formed ponds are set into the hole so that the lip is just
at soil level. Liners are draped into the hole and neatly folded
at curves to fit.
Add water as you shape the liner to help it settle into the
pond.
Be sure the pool is level. Use a board across it with a carpenter's level. If the pond is not level, the water will still be level, so
it will look unbalanced. Edge the pond with appropriate material
for your garden. It might look best with rock edging if rock is
used elsewhere in the area. If there are other wood features
such as a deck close by, it could look best with wood edging.
Water Garden Plants
Oxygenators help filter the water and utilize nutrients that algae
otherwise use, so their utilization cuts down on algae formation.
They float on the water surface. Floating plants, and potted
plants with floating leaves such as water lilies, cover a portion
of the water surface, so also cut down on algae production by
eliminating sunlight on the water. They also are very attractive
additions to the pond. Marginal plants, in pots on shelves or
upturned pots in the pool at the edges, grow in soil, and add a
natural appearance to the pond. Plants around a pond should
look appropriate, but often mimic what would normally grow in
a bog around a natural pond. The area surrounding an artificial
pond is usually dry, so bog plants do not do well.
Fish
Fish add a fascinating aspect to a pond, with their movement
and color. Goldfish do well in a pool over the summer, and are
inexpensive. Koi are more expensive, have beautiful coloration,
grow to be large fish and become somewhat tame. Fish also
eat mosquito larvae.
Overwintering
Once there has been a frost, water plants and fish should be
brought indoors. Neither can survive outdoors over the winter. Once foliage has died back remove and keep remainder in a loosely
tied plastic bag with a damp rootball, in a cold but frost-free place until spring. Check the rootball periodically to be sure it hasn't
dried out. Some tropical water plants may be kept in water under artificial lights for the winter. If an appropriate place is not available to store plants over the winter (we don't always have cold basements anymore), it is best to consider them as annuals and
replace them in the spring. Fish can be kept in an aquarium indoors for the winter. It will need a filter, but not a light or heater.
33
ANNUALS
34
annuals water plants
all water plants listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Floating Plants
Latin Name
Description
Hornwort
Water Hyacinth
Water Lettuce
Ceratophyllum
Eichornia
Pistia
Submerged feathery foliage; good oxygenator
Fleshy floater with occasional lavender flowers
Looks like small floating cabbage
Marginal Plants
Latin Name
Description
Arrowhead
Buttercup, Creeping
Cardinal Flower
Cattail, Miniature
Creeping Jenny
Iris, Blue or Yellow Flag
Marsh Marigold
Monkey Flower
Palm, Umbrella or Papyrus
Pickerel Weed
Rush
Sedge
Sagittaria
Ranunculus
Lobelia Typha Lysimachia
Iris
Caltha
Mimulus
Cyperus
Pontederia
Juncus
Carex
Arrow-shaped leaves, white flowers
Bright yellow flowers, creeping stems
Red or blue trumpet-shaped flowers
Miniature brown cattails, slender leaves
Bright yellow flowers, small round leaves, trailing stems
Blue or yellow flowers on these stunning specimens
Golden yellow flowers, serrated leaves
Yellow or pink, snapdragon-like flowers
Tall plant with umbrella-like foliage
Heart-shaped leaves, flower clusters
Narrow leaves, brown seed heads
Grass-like, arching leaves; brown seed heads
Water Lilies
Nymphaea
Colours: pink, red, white, yellow
STARTING SEEDS
starting seedsyour questions
Q: How deep should seeds be planted?
A: Most seed packages give depth and spacing directions
but a good rule of thumb is to plant at a depth of three
times the width of the seed. Very small seeds can simply
be pressed into the soil and not covered.
Q: What causes young seedlings to collapse?
A: The most common cause of this is lack of light or watering problems. If watering or lack of watering is not the
cause then “damping off” (a fungus) is a possible cause.
By using a sterile soil less mix and providing good air circulation, the risk is reduced. A fungicide called No Damp
used at the time of planting or with early waterings will also
protect the seedlings.
Q: Why do seedlings started indoors tend to get tall
and weak?
A: Light conditions and temperatures indoors are often
unsuitable for healthy growth. Young plants stretch toward
light and are less robust when kept too warm. By using
full spectrum fluorescent lights for 12-16 hours a day, kept
about 4-6 inches(10-15 cm) above the plants, they should
stay more compact. Temperatures should be kept at about
15 degrees C at night and 20 degrees C during the day.
36
Q: How often should seedlings be watered?
A: The soil should be kept slightly moist. Light, temperature, growth and size of plant will affect how often watering
should be done. High temperatures and strong sunlight
will dry soil very quickly as will larger plants in small containers.
Q: Should seedlings be fertilized?
A: Once the young plants have their second set of true
leaves they can be fed. Any fertilizer with a slightly higher
phosphorous ( second number) level is fine. Follow package directions for mixing and frequency of feedings.
Q: What is pricking out?
A: The transplanting of seedlings is referred to as pricking
out. When separating or moving small plants try to move
as much soil as possible with the plants. Use a pencil or
popsicle stick to lift plants and handle the plants by a leaf
rather then the stem. Replant into individual containers at
the same depth and form soil gently around plant.
Q: What does ‘pinching’ mean?
A: Pinching is a type of pruning. By removing the growth tip
of plants they are encouraged to branch out. Many plants
respond well to pinching but check on individual varieties
as some are best left alone.
Q: Can garden soil be used when starting seeds indoors?
A: Garden soil can be very heavy and dense and may
contain weed seeds or fungi. Generally it is best to use a
sterile soil-less mix. A soil-less mix is usually a mix of peat
moss, vermiculite, and perlite. This combination is light,
porous, and works well when starting seeds and growing
plants to maturity.
Q: What is hardening off?
A: This is the process of exposing plants to outdoor conditions gradually. About two weeks before placing plants
in their final location put plants out in a shady spot for an
hour or so. Each day increase time outside and exposure
to sun. Protect plants from frost.
Q: Why bother to grow things from seeds?
A: Although seed prices have increased it is still far less
expensive to grow plants from seed than to buy plants. The selections and varieties of seeds are much larger then
that of plants, particularly annuals and vegetables. Growing
plants from seed can be very rewarding.
Q: I planted runner beans and would like to save the
seeds for next year. How can I do this?
A: Cut the beans from the vine and store in a cool dry place.
When the pods have dried, remove the beans and store
them in a cool dry place as well. This method wil also work
for sweet peas and other legumes. For sweet peas lightly
cover the container the pods are in with a piece of paper
as the pods pop and you may have sweet pea seeds all
over your basement!
Q: What is ‘damping off’? How do I treat it?
A: Damping off is a fungal disease that causes the seedlings to wither at the soil line and fall over. Using a sterile
growing medium like soil-less mixes helps greatly to reduce
this problem. Make sure you wash containers well if you
plan to re-use them. Don’t overcrowd the seedlings and
leave the tops of any indoor greenhouses slightly ajar to
improve airflow. If this fails there are fungicides like No
Damp available.
Flower
Indoor Seeding
Time
African Daisy
Mar 20 - 28
Ageratum
Feb 20 - 28
Alyssum
Mar 15 - 30
Amaranthus
Feb 20 - 28
Aster
Mar 1 - 15
Aubretia
Mar 15 - 30
Baby’s Breath
Mar 15 - 30
Bachelor’s Button
Mar 15 - 30
Balsam
Mar 1 - 20
Begonia
Feb 1 - 28
Bells of Ireland
Mar 1 - 15
Canterbury Bells
-
Calendula
Mar 20 - 30
California Poppy
-
Candytuft
Mar 1 - 20
Carnation
Mar 1 - 10
Castor Bean
Mar 15 - 20
Celosia
Mar 10 - 20
Chinese Lantern
Feb 1 - 28
Christmas Pepper
Apr 1 - Jun 15
Cineraria
Mar 1 - 15
Chrysanthemum
Mar 1 - 10
Clarkia
-
Cleome
Mar 1 - 10
Coleus
Mar 1 - 15
Columbine
Mar 1 - 15
Cosmos
Apr 1 - 10
Cynoglossum
Mar 15 - 20
Dahlia
Mar 10 - 20
Delphinium
Mar 1 - 10
Dianthus
Mar 1 - 10
Digitalis
Mar 1 - 10
Dusty Miller
Feb 1 - 10
Euphorbia
Mar 1 - 10
Four O’Clock
-
Gaillardia
Mar 1 - 10
Geranium
Jan 10 - 25
Geum
Mar 1 - 10
Godetia
Apr 1 - 10
Hollyhock
May 1 - 10
Impatiens
Feb 15 - 20
Larkspur
Mar 1 - 10
Lathyrus(Sweet Pea)
Mar 1 - 10
Lavatera
-
Livingstone Daisy
Mar 15 - 30
Lobelia
Feb 20 - 28
Lupine
May Marigold
Mar 10 - 20
Money Plant
Mar 10 - 20
Mimosa
Mar 15 - 30
Morning Glory
Mar 15 - 30
Nasturtium
Apr 1 - 10
Outdoor Seeding
Time
May 1 - 10
May 1 - 15
May 1 - 10
-
May 1 - 10
May 10 - 20
May 1 - 10
May 1 - 10
May 1 - 15
-
-
May 15 - 30
May 1 - 10
May 1 - 10
May 1 - 15
May 1 - 15
May 10 - 20
May 15 - 20
May 1 - 20
-
May 10 - 20
May 15 - 20
May 10 - 20
May 1 - 10
-
-
May 10 - 20
May 20 - 30
May 10 - 20
May 1 - 10
May 1 - 10 May 1 - 10
-
May 1 - 10
June 1 - 10
May 1 - 10
-
Mar 15 - 30
May 10 - 20
May 10 - 20
-
May 1 - 10
May 1 - 10
May 1 - 10
May 1 - 10
-
July
May 15 - 25
May 1 - 10
May 30
May 20
May 1 - 10
Germination Temperature
(Celsius)
18 - 24
18 - 24
24 - 27
18 - 24
18 - 24
16 - 22
18 - 22
18 - 24
18 - 24
18 - 24
10 - 13
22 -24
17 - 23
18 - 24
18 - 24 18 - 24
22 - 26
18 - 24
18 - 24
23 - 27
18 - 24
16 - 18
18 - 24
13 - 27
23 - 27
18 - 24
18 - 24
22 - 24
18 - 24
13 - 18
18 - 24
18 - 24
19 - 23
18 - 24
18 - 24
18 - 24
22 - 24
22 - 24
16 - 22
15 - 18
21 - 24
12 - 15
18 - 24
18 - 24
21 - 22
18 -24
12 - 14
18 - 26
18 - 24
26 - 29
18 - 24
18 - 24
Germination
(days)
12 - 18
15 - 20
3 - 5
15 - 20
12 - 15
18 - 25
12 - 15
18 - 22
12 - 15
18 - 22
25 - 35
14 - 21
12 - 15
20 - 25
12 - 30
10 - 15
12 - 18
12 - 15
18 - 24
20 - 28
12 - 15
12 - 15
12 - 18
15 - 20
16 - 20
28 - 36
6 - 12
7 - 14
6 - 12
18 - 25
10 - 15
6 - 10
6 - 10
18 - 22
10 - 15
15 - 20
12 - 18
28 - 30
12 - 20
10 - 12
18 - 22
20 - 25
12 - 15 10 - 21
12 - 18
15 - 20
14 - 16
5 - 10
12 - 18
10 - 12
10 - 14
12 - 18
STARTING SEEDS
starting seedsflowers
37
STARTING SEEDS
starting seedsflowers
Flower
Nemesia
Nicotiana
Night Scented Stock
Ornamental Cabbage
Pansy
Petunia
Poppy Annual
Poppy Iceland
Portulaca
Salpiglossis
Salvia
Scabiosa
Schizanthus
Shasta Daisy
Snapdragon
Statice
Sunflower
Sweet Pea
Sweet William
Verbena
Vinca
Viola
Wallflower
Wildflower mix
Zinnia
Indoor Seeding
Time
Mar 1 - 10
Mar 1 - 10
Mar 20 - 30
-
Feb 1 - 10
Feb 15 - 25
-
Mar 20 - 30
Mar 1 - 10
Mar 15 - 25
Mar 1 - 10
Mar 10 - 20
Mar 1 - 10
Mar 15 - 30
Mar 1 - 15
Mar 10 - 20
-
-
Mar 1 - 10
Feb 20 - 28
Feb - Mar
Mar 1 - 10
Mar 10 - 20
-
Apr 1 - 10
Outdoor Seeding
Time
May 10 - 20
May 1 - 10
-
June 15
-
May 10 - 20
May 15 - 30
May 15 - 30
May 10 - 20
May 10 -20
-
May 10 - 20
May 10 - 20
June
May 10 - 20
May 10 - 20
May 10 - 20
Apr 15 - 20
May 10 - 20
May 10 - 20
-
May 10 - 20
May 10 - 20
May 10 - 20
May 20 - 30
Germination Temperature
(Celsius)
13 - 15
20 - 26
20 - 26
18 - 24
21 - 24
18 - 21
18 - 21
18 - 21
18 - 21
18 - 26
24 - 26
18 - 24
15 - 21
18 - 24
18 - 24
18 - 24
21 - 26
18 - 21
18 - 21
20 - 30
18 - 24
20 - 26
20 - 26
18 - 24
20 - 26
Germination
(days)
15 - 20
15 - 20
7 - 10 10 - 12
8 - 15
12 - 18
10 - 14
12 - 15
12 - 18
12 - 18
12 - 18
12 - 18
15 - 18
8 - 14
10 - 15
20 - 25
12 - 18
12 - 15
10 - 15
20 -25
15 - 25
10 - 12
10 - 14
varies
5 - 12
38
starting seedsherbs
Herb
Anise
Basil
Borage
Catnip
Chervil
Chives
Dill
Lavender
Lemon Balm
Oregano
Peppermint
Rosemary
Sage
Sweet Majoram
Summer Savory
Thyme
Indoor Seeding
Time
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Mar 1 - 10
Apr 10 - 20
Apr 10 - 20
Apr 1 - 10
-
Apr 10 - 20
Apr 10 - 20
-
Apr 1 - 10
Outdoor Seeding
Time
May 15 - 30
May 15 - 30
May 15 - 30
May 10 - 20
May 15 - 30
May 15 - 30
May 15 - 30
-
-
-
-
May 10 - 20
-
-
May 10 - 20
-
Approximate days
from seeding to harvest
70 - 75
80 - 85
80 - 85
75 - 80
70 - 80
80 - 85
70 - 75
100 - 120
90 - 100
60 - 80
80 - 85
75 - 85
80 - 85
80 - 85
60 - 65
85 - 90
Vegetable Beans
Beets
Brussel Sprouts
Cabbage
Chinese Cabbage
Carrot
Cauliflower
Cantaloupe
Celery
Corn
Cucumber
Chicory
Cress
Eggplant
Borecole Kale
Kohlrabi
Leek
Lettuce
Onion
Okra
Pak Choi
Parsley
Parsnip
Pea
Pepper
Pumpkin
Radish
Spinach
Squash
Swiss Chard
Swede Turnip
Strawberry
Tomato
Turnip
Vegetable Marrow
Watercress
Watermelon
Indoor Seeding
Time
-
-
Mar 15 - 30
Mar 20 - Apr 10
Mar 15 - 30
-
May 10 - 20
Mar 15 - 30
Mar 15 - 30
-
Mar 10 - 20
Apr 10 - 20
Anytime
May 10 - 20
-
-
Mar 20 - 30
-
Mar 10 - 20
Apr 30 - May 10
-
-
-
-
Mar 15 - 30
Apr 15 - 30
-
-
-
-
-
Feb 15 - May 15
Mar 15 - Apr 1
-
-
Anytime
Apr 1 - 10
Outdoor Seeding Time
May 20 - 30
May 10 - 20
-
May 15 - 30
May 15 - 30
May 1 - 10
May 15 - 30
-
-
May 10 - 20
May 20 - June 10
-
May 15 - July 31
-
May 20 - 30
May 10 - 20
May 10 - 20
May 10 - 30
May 10 - 30
May 20 - 30
Apr 20 - 30
Apr 30 - May 10
Apr 15 - 30
Apr 15 - 30
-
-
Apr 30 - July 15
Apr 30 - July 15
May 15 - June 1
May 1 - 15
May 20 - June 10
-
-
May 1 - 15
May 15 - 30
May 20 - 30
May 10 - 20
Approximate days from Seeding to harvest
50 - 80
50 - 60
90 - 100
70 - 100
70 - 80
65 - 80
55 - 75
110 - 120
120 - 130
68 - 80
55 - 65
130 - 140
10 - 2 0
80 - 100
60 - 75
60 - 70
60 - 90
50 - 70
90 - 110
55 - 65 45 - 55
70 - 90
120 - 130
60 - 75
65 - 75
90 - 100
20 - 30
45 - 60
50 - 100
55 - 65
70 - 90
140 - 150
80 - 110
55 - 60
85 - 100
60 - 70
75 - 90
FLUID SOWING
Starting vegetable seeds indoors is usually a good idea, especially in our
climate. It allows you to get a jump start on the season and reap the fruits of
your labour faster. If you don’t get a chance to start the seeds indoors, have
dry soil, or want to sow seeds in the summer months. Here’s a little trick you
can try:
Pre-germinate the seed on sheets of moist paper towel. When the roots are
just showing, before the leaves open, mix the seeds with a half-strength, fungicide-free wallpaper paste or a special sowing gel. Put the mix into a plastic
bag to prevent the paste oozing out, then squeeze out the mixture into the
prepared seed drill as if you were icing a cake. This helps speed up germination and keeps the seeds moist while they get established. But don’t forget
to keep them well watered. Most vegetables grow much better when there is
plenty of water available. Check the seed packages if you are not sure.
STARTING SEEDS
starting seedsvegetables
39
VEGETABLES
vegetablesgetting started
Planning a Vegetable Garden
The environmental requirements for growing vegetables are
quite simple. The best vegetable gardens are grown in sunny
locations where the soil is moist and nutritious.
In order to maximize the productivity of your garden plot you
should first consider which vegetables your family enjoys
most. It is senseless to waste valuable garden space on
vegetables that no one is going to eat. Plan the planting
order of your vegetable garden. Start with a sketch showing
approximately where you want to locate each vegetable crop.
Increase your gardens’ production potential by planting coolcrop vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage early in the
spring. Use these early vegetables when they are mature and
then re-plant the same spot with warm-weather, short-season
crops such as lettuce and radish. Leave only enough space for
development between low-growing vegetables such as radish,
lettuce, and onion. Space can also be conserved by growing
trailing vegetables such as cucumbers on trellises or other
supports. Plant newly developed, dwarf vegetable varieties
that require less space to grow than their larger, traditional
counterparts. If ground space for a garden plot is not available
vegetables can be grown in containers. Vegetables can also
be effectively grown in combination with annuals. Be sure to
organize the garden so that tall growing vegetables do not
shade low growing vegetables.
Planting Vegetables
40
Soil Preparation: Spade or rototill the garden soil deeply
to break the soil into small clods. Add 454 g (1 lb) of granular
all purpose fertilizer per 30 sq m (37.5 sq yd) and turn the
soil again. Rake the soil smooth and your garden is ready for
planting. Improve the texture of heavy, clay-loam soils with
additions of peat moss, compost, vermiculite, perlite, or sand.
Do not work garden soil when it is wet.
Pre-Planting Care: Due to the short length of our growing
season many vegetables are available as bedding-out plants.
Vegetable bedding-out plants that can not be planted the
same day they are purchased should be watered and stored
in a shady location to prevent excessive wilting.
Planting vegetables from seed or bedding out
plants: Sow vegetable seeds in moist soil, just dry enough
to be workable. Vegetable seeds are generally sown three
times as deep as their diameter. Cover the seeds with fine soil,
compost, vermiculite, or sand. Gently remove vegetable bedding-out plants from their packs or flats. Plant them in moist
soil deep enough to bury the root ball and a portion of the
lower stem. Plant vegetables started in peat pots or expandable peat pellets in the same way. In these cases also bury
the peat pot or pellet. When planting vegetable bedding-out
plants be sure to leave adequate room for development.
Watering: After sowing
your vegetable seeds
keep the garden soil
consistently moist until
the vegetable seedlings
are established. Water
freshly planted vegetable bedding-out plants
thoroughly to give them
a good start; use a starter fertilizer to establish a healthy
root system. Thereafter, water your garden whenever the
top 2.5-5 cm (1-2 in) of soil dries out. It is best to water early
in the day. Keep plant foliage as dry as possible by watering
at the soil level. Water droplets that remain on plant foliage
overnight encourage the development of plant diseases. Do
not rely on rain to water your vegetable garden sufficiently. It
is important to observe the condition of your garden often to
ensure continued growth and productivity.
Post-Planting Care: Keep your garden healthy by removing weeds as soon as they appear. Weeding is easier when
garden soil is moistened before you weed. This makes the
soil looser and more workable. Remove the weeds between
the rows by scraping a flat-bladed hoe over the top few centimeters of soil. Pull weeds from within the rows out by hand.
This reduces the chance of disturbing vegetable roots and
prevents weeds from competing with them.
Frost-free Days: Frost free days for a particular area are
the average number of days in a growing season with the
minimum temperature above 0 degrees Celsius. Freezing
temperatures may not necessarily kill all of your plants. This
means that the growing season may be longer than the number of frost free days. The length of a growing season may
vary within relatively close proximities. For example, the heat
island effect of cities such as Calgary and Edmonton extends
their growing seasons. The average number of frost free days
in Calgary is approximately 105, from May 24 to September
5. Edmonton has a longer growing season because of their
lower elevation and longer distance from the mountains. The
average number of frost free days in Edmonton is approximately 140, from May 7 to September 23. When you decide
to plant and to harvest, take these factors into consideration:
elevation and proximity to mountains, nearness to bodies of
water, wind exposure, personal observation, and whether the
garden is on a north or south slope of a valley.
Vegetables and Vitamins: Vegetables are high in various vitamins. Vitamins are classified as being fat soluble or
water soluble. Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble, which
means that they can be stored in the body's fat tissue. Vitamins B and C are water soluble, which means that they
must be taken into the body on a daily basis. Vitamin A is
known as retinal and is present in orange, yellow and green
vegetables. It is especially high in cantaloupe, carrots, peppers and squash. Vitamin A deficiency is characterized by
dry eyes and night blindness. Vitamin C is called ascorbic
acid and is contained in cantaloupe, peppers, potatoes and
tomatoes. Vitamin C deficiency is called scurvey. Vitamin E is
known as tocopherol and is found in vegetable oils. Vitamin
E deficiency allegedly causes sterility.
Seed Potato Planting
Tubers should never be exposed to hot sun or drying winds
before planting keep them in a cool place. Large tubers may
be cut into several pieces, as long as you are careful to leave
two or three eyes in each piece. Let cut surfaces dry before
planting. Soil should be loose and drain well. Dig as deeply
as possible before planting. DO NOT add lime or manure
– both encourage scab formation on potatoes. They are
planted 4-6” deep, and 15-18” apart, which requires 3-4 lbs
per 50-foot row. Fertilizer should not be high in nitrogen, as
this promotes excess top growth. Most vegetable fertilizers
would be appropriate. Consistent watering is essential as
potatoes that become too dry before watering are prone
to hollow heart and scab, and tubers will rot in very wet
soil. Weeds between rows can be hoed – be careful not to
damage roots of potatoes. After harvesting, store them in
the dark about 8 degrees C, with good air circulation, and
they will keep several months.
Seed Potato Varieties
Early
Norland: Red potato, oblong with smooth skin and shallow
eyes. Resistant to scab, a good eating potato.
Warba: White potato, earliest cultivar available. Round,
deep eyes, good yield, but susceptible to scab.
Purple Potato: Early bluish-purple skin, white flesh, uniform
shape; good yielder, hardy.
Mid Season
Kennebec: White potato, large with smooth skin. Stores
well, good for boiling, baking and frying.
Pontiac: Red potato, round heavy yield, drought resistant,
excellent for boiling and mashing, bruises easily.
Yukon Gold: Yellow potato, round, smooth skin, boils and
bakes well, good flavor.
Late Varieties
Bintje: Yellow potato, one of the most popular in Europe.
Good for good for boiling and baking, store well.
Russet Burbank: White potato, large oblong with shallow
eyes. Excellent for baking and frying; stores well.
Garlic
Is a member of the onion family but instead of producing
one bulb, it produces a group of small bulbs called cloves.
They are planted in early spring (or try fall planting, mulching over winter to protect bulbs). Break bulb apart and plant
cloves separately in rich soil. Garlic needs ample water
over the summer. Insects are not a problem with garlic it
is a natural insect repellent. Harvest bulbs when tops die
down, and hang to dry in bundles.
Onions
Can be planted from seed started early indoors, but planting “onion sets” (tiny onions from previous year, purchased
in packages) outdoors when ground can be worked, is
much simpler and more dependable. These are available
for multipliers (also called shallots or scallions) bunching
onions, cooking onions and spanish onions.
Multipliers (or scallions) from clusters of bulblets in the
ground. They are usually used as a green onion but can
be allowed to mature, to a larger bulb. If they are going to
be allowed to mature, thin out or space well.
Shallots are larger then multipliers but similar in growth
habit.
Cooking onions produce a large, single bulb, and are
available in yellow, white and red types. They keep well.
Spanish onions are mild flavored, often eaten raw but poor
keepers. They are available in yellow and white types.
Silverskin or pickling onions are started from seed in
March or early April.
VEGETABLES
vegetables potatoes, onions & garlic
Growing Onions
Onions need well-drained, cool soil. Onion sets are planted
in early spring, about the first of May, transplanted (either
purchased or your own grown from seed) are set out a little
later. Use an onion maggot killer when planting to prevent
damage from these pests. Do not plant too deep the bulb
should ½ - 1” below the ground. They must never be allowed to dry out. Keep the soil evenly moist. A fertilizer
lower in nitrogen (such as 3-11-0 or a bulb fertilizer) would
be suitable. As the days lengthen and the temperature rises
the tops stop growing and the bulb enlarges. Stop watering mid-August. The tops will wilt and fall over naturally,
indicating it is time to harvest. Store clean, dry onions in
a dry, cool place.
Chives
A hardy perennial that can be clipped continuously all
summer to provide an onion like flavor to salads, dips,
sauces, etc. Chives prefer rich, moist soil in full sun but
will tolerate partial shade. They can be used fresh, frozen
or dried. There are also “garlic chives” like regular chives
but tall with a garlic flavor. If not clipped regularly, chives
produce pom-poms of lavender flowers.
Leeks
Are a mild flavored member of the onion family. They do
not form bulbs as onions do. To get long, white stems,
plant in trenches 4-6 inches deep and hill up as the plant
grows. They take 80-90 days to grow from transplants and
140-150 days from seed, so seed must be started indoors
by the end of March.
41
VEGETABLES
vegetables
Asparagus
Asparagus is normally grown from roots or year-old crowns
since growing from seed is unreliable and it takes three
years until the plant is mature enough to harvest. Plant
between May 10 and 30, 15” apart in a trench with the
buds 6” below the ground level but with only a thin layer
of earth covering them. Fill in this trench as the growing
season progresses. Harvesting should begin in early to
mid-spring depending on the season and should last only
4 to 6 weeks. Harvest a very limited number of spears in
the first year after planting. Always allow a few spears to
develop into ferns. These ferns can be pruned occasionally
to keep them at bay but they must remain to feed the
root system throughout the summer; fertilize the plants
occasionally and water as normal.
Days to Harvest: 1 to 3 years
Beans
42
Plant beans in the spring after all danger of frost has
passed, usually between May 20 and 30. For bush beans
plant seeds about 1” deep and 2” apart in rows 2 to 3 feet
apart; thin seedlings to 3-4” apart. Growing pole beans
requires more space; rows should be 3 to 4 feet apart in
hills 3 feet apart along each row. Use a pole or other form
of support approximately 7 feet tall in the center of each
hill. Plant 3-4 seeds around this pole. Do not let the soil
dry out while the beans are blooming as this will cause the
flowers to drop, reducing your yield. Harvest beans when
they are around 5-6” long and the plant should continue
to produce for several weeks.
Days to Harvest: 48-70 depending on variety
Beets
Beets do best when planted in full sun and well-drained soil.
Seed in mid-May (10-20) outdoors about ½” deep and 1”
apart in rows. Thin as they grow to 3” apart. Take care to
keep weeds down, especially among young seedlings as
beets have difficulty competing at this stage. Harvest the
beets whenever they appear large enough for use; roots
any larger than 3” in diameter are usually too tough and
fibrous. Leave an inch or so of the top attached to the root
after harvest to prevent ‘bleeding’.
Days to Harvest: 45-65 from seed depending on type
Broccoli
The best time to start this member of the cabbage family
is indoors between March 15 and 30. Transplant to the
garden when all danger of frost has passed. Do not allow
plants to remain in potting trays for too long since they
may not mature properly. Plant seedlings 15” apart in rows
spaced up to three feet apart. It is important that broccoli
gets sufficient water, especially as the heads begin to
grow. To harvest cut off the central head along with 5-6”
of stem when it is fully developed but before it begins to
loosen or flower. Side shoots should grow after the central
head is removed.
Days to Harvest: 75 from transplant
Brussels Sprouts
This hardy, slow-growing, long-season vegetable is in the
cabbage family. It requires a long growing season maturing
in the cooler fall days. Seed indoors around March 1530 and transplant outside after all danger of frost has
passed. Transplant the seedlings when they reach 3” tall
approximately one foot apart. During dry summer periods
Broccoli
Beets
Asparagus
Brussels Sprouts
Beans
make sure you keep the plants watered and the area
weed-free. Pick or cut sprouts from the stem when they
are firm and around one inch in diameter. Lower sprouts
are the first to mature.
Days to Harvest: 90-100 from transplant depending on
variety.
Cabbage
One of the most popular and healthy vegetables, cabbage
comes in a variety of colors and types from green to
purple and from wrinkled to smooth. Start indoors between
March 20 and April 10 or plant seeds directly in the garden
between May 15 and 30. Seedlings can be hardened off
to allow for earlier planting. Transplants should be spaced
one to two feet apart. Harvest cabbage any time after the
heads form but before they split or become damaged.
Always removed damaged cabbage heads and cut stems
to reduce insect pests and diseases.
Days to Harvest: 65-100 depending on variety.
Carrot
Carrots can be seeded outdoors quite early (May 1-10)
because they can tolerate some frost. The soil should be
worked to a depth of 9” to allow good root growth. Plant
seeds ¼” to ½” deep in rows 1’ to 1½’ apart. Thin seedlings
when they reach an inch in height to 3 per inch for finger
carrots, one or two per inch for a young harvest, and one
per 1-2 inches for large varieties. Keep weeds under
control during the early stages. Harvest carrots when they
reach ½” in diameter for young or finger varieties. Others
should be allowed to grow ¾” in diameter.
Days to Harvest: 50 to 80 depending on variety
Cabbage
Califlower
Chard
Essentially chard is a beet that has been bred for its leaves
at the expense of root formation; there are red, white, or
yellow-veined varieties. Seed outside from May 1 to May
15, ½” to ¾” deep. Thin seeds as they grow to about 5”
apart. Chard tolerates heat better than spinach but an
adequate water supply is still important. To harvest cut
the outer leaves 1 to 2 inches above the ground when
they are around 8 to 12 inches in length. Take care not
to damage the terminal growth bud at the bottom centre
of the foliage.
Days to Harvest: 50-65 from seed.
VEGETABLES
vegetables
Cauliflower
Cauliflower is more difficult to grow than other members
of the cabbage family and takes a bit of experience and
a lot of patience. Start cauliflowers from seeds indoors
between April 1 and April 20; move them outside after all
danger of frost has passed since cauliflowers are more
sensitive to the cold than other crucifers. Ensure that
the plants are kept growing throughout the season. Any
interruption from heat, cold, drought, etc. can result in
no heads being formed. Because of this it is important to
water consistently. To blanch (or whiten) the head tie the
outer leaves over the centre of the plant. This prevents the
head from turning green or developing incorrectly. When
the head is mature (firm and white) it can be harvested by
cutting the main stem. Do not allow the heads to become
coarse in appearance as quality will be significantly
reduced.
Days to Harvest: 60 from transplant
43
Carrots
VEGETABLES
vegetables
Corn
Corn requires a lot of light and a long growing season. Sow
seeds outdoors between May 15 and 30 about 1” deep
and 9” to 12” apart. It is best to plant two or more rows of
the same variety to ensure good pollination. Sweet corn
should be protected from cross-pollination by starchy corn
like field or popcorn; pollination by starchy corn will result
in a loss of sweetness. Keep weeds down and ensure a
good water supply while the tassels are emerging through
to harvesting. Pick corn ears when they are full and plump,
usually 20 days after the appearance of the first silk
strands. Signs that the corn is ready to harvest include
drying and browning of the silks, fullness of tip kernels,
and firm-feeling ears.
Days to Harvest: 65-80 days depending on variety
Cucumbers
44
Cucumbers, as well as other curcurbits such as squash,
pumpkins, and melons, are large vines which grow best
during warm nights and warm days. These plants require a
lot of space in the garden but can be trained onto trellis in
order to save room. Seeds require warm soil to germinate
so it is best to start them indoors and transplant outside
at the end of May/beginning of June. Plant in the late
afternoon or early evening in hills up to 2 feet apart taking
care not to disturb the roots. Water deeply to make sure
the lower roots are wet. All curcurbits benefit from organic
mulches applied in the summer like peat moss, compost,
or herbicide-free lawn clippings to a depth of 3”.
Days to Harvest: 50-70 depending on variety
Corn
Eggplant
This vegetable is cold-sensitive and requires a long warm
season. Begin indoors between March 20 and 30 and
transplant after the soil has warmed and the danger of
frost has passed. Plants should be spaced one foot apart.
When the fruits are 6” to 8” long and glossy they are ready
to be harvested. Eggplants need full sun and a consistent
watering regime.
Days to Harvest: 58 from transplant
Kohlrabi
Though it looks similar to a turnip, kohlrabi is actually a
member of the cabbage family. Start the plants indoors
in early April and transplant when the danger of frost has
passed or sow seeds directly outdoors at the end of April.
Plant seeds ¼” to ½” deep and thin to 6” apart. It is best to
harvest kohlrabi when it is small (around 2” in diameter).
Days to Harvest: 55-60 from seed or transplant date
Lettuce
Lettuce does best in cooler temperatures and should be
planted in the early spring or late summer. Seed lettuce
outdoors around the end of May ¼” to ½” deep in rows 12”
to 18” apart. Thin to 4” apart for leaf lettuce or 8” to 10” for
Romaine and other large lettuce types. Cultivate carefully
to avoid disturbing shallow roots and water frequently yet
lightly for good quality leaves. Cut leaf lettuce whenever it
is large enough to be used.
Days to Harvest: 45-85 depending on variety
Cucumber
Eggplant
Lettuce
Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)
Refer to ‘Cucumbers’ for general growing instructions.
Start indoors to allow the plant adequate time to grow in
our short season. When the melons are ripe they should
easily separate from the vine and take on a tan or yellow
color. These plant require light, warmth, and shelter.
Days to Harvest: 70 from transplant
Onions
Plant onion bulbs in the spring as soon as the soil can be
worked; early planting generally results in larger onions.
Plant from sets to produce green onions or from bulbs for
larger onions. For green onions plant sets 1” apart and 1½”
deep. Dry onions should be planted 1” to 2” deep and 3”
to 4” apart. Green onions can be harvested whenever
they appear ready; if they are picked earlier the flavor is
milder. Bulb onions are usually ready in late August or early
September. When the tops are dry pull the onions and dry
in a shaded area for 2 to 4 weeks. When the plants have
dried cut off the tops an inch above the bulb and store
in a container (mesh bag or slatted crate) in a dry, wellventilated area. It is important that the necks are completely
dry to reduce the likelihood of disease or decay.
Days to Harvest: 60-120 depending on variety
Parsnip
Grow this root vegetable in full sun in deeply turned soil.
Seed between April 15 and 30, ½” deep in rows 18” to 24”
apart. Thin seedlings until they are 6” apart. Since rapid
growth is needed for good quality roots a fertilizer with high
phosphorous is recommended. Parsnips can be harvested
any time they reach a good size. If they are kept in cold
storage for a short period parsnips tend to sweeten and
Onion
Peppers
Peas
Three types of this frost-hardy cool-season vegetable are
grown in Calgary: garden or English peas, snap peas,
and snow or sugar peas. Garden peas are grown for their
seeds, while both snap and sugar peas are grown for
their pods. Plant peas outdoors near the end of April 1 to
1½” deep and 2” to 3” apart. Rows should be spaced 18”
to 24” apart. Treat small seedlings with care since overfertilizing or improper cultivation can damage them. Dwarf
and determinate peas are self-supporting. The taller, more
productive pea vines (indeterminate varieties) require poles
or stakes to climb. Harvest garden peas when the pods are
swollen and round, snap peas before the seeds get very
large, and snow peas when they are still flat.Pick snow
peas often to ensure sweet, fibre-free pods.
Days to Harvest: 55-70 from seed
VEGETABLES
vegetables
improve in flavor.
Days to Harvest: 120 from seed.
Peppers
Peppers are a tender warm-season vegetable which
require fairly high temperatures. It is best to start peppers
indoors between March 15 and 30 and then transplant
them into the garden when all danger of frost has passed
and the soil and air are warm. Place transplants 18” apart.
Ensure that the soil is well-drained and well-watered during
dry periods. Pick the fruits at any time they appear to be
ripe; green peppers are usually picked when they are 3”
to 4” long or left to ripen as red or yellow peppers. Hot
peppers can be picked at any stage.
Days to Harvest: 60-90 from transplant depending on
variety
45
Peas
VEGETABLES
vegetables
Potato
Potatoes are cool season vegetables that do best in
cooler soils. Plant seed potatoes between May 15 and 30
approximately 10” to 12” apart and cover to a depth of 1”
to 3”. Rows should be spaced two feet apart to allow the
foliage to shade the soil. After the plants have emerged
a mulch can be applied to keep weeds down, conserve
moisture, and cool the soil. After the potatoes break the
surface, build up a ridge
of loose soil around the
plant. This will reduce the
number of greened tubers.
Dig potatoes when they
are 1” to 2” in size for
‘new’ potatoes or allow the
tops to die down before
harvesting.
To avoid scab (rough,
raised corky lesions on
the potato surface) reduce
the application of organic
material; do not apply
manure in the spring.
Days to Harvest: varies depending on type (early, mid,
late)
Pumpkin
46
Follow ‘cucumber’ instructions for general information.
Start indoors between April 15 and 30 and plant outside
when the soil is warm in an area which receives a lot of
sun. Harvest when the rind is hard and of a deep, solid
color. Pumpkins can be covered during a light frost but
should be brought in if a heavy frost is expected to prevent
such damage as softening.
Days to Harvest: 110-120 from transplant
Radish
Radishes are among the
easiest of vegetables
to grow. Early varieties
usually do best in the spring
but some later-maturing
varieties can be planted
for summer harvest. Seed
directly outdoors any time
between May 1 and July
15 ¼” to ½” deep. Thin the
rows out, leaving ½” to 1”
between plants for spring varieties and 2” to 4” for winter
types like Daikon. Pull radishes when they are young
(around 1” in diameter); leaving them in the ground any
longer results in spongy, poor-tasting roots. Large winter
varieties can be kept in the ground much longer.
Days to Harvest: Spring: 20-30 from seed; Winter: 50
Squash
See ‘cucumber’ for general growing instructions. Many
types of squash are available from zucchini to yellow
crook-neck and other summer varieties to winter types
such as acorn or spaghetti squash. Harvest zucchini when
they are around 6” to 10” long and yellow crookneck at 4”
to 7” in length. Winter squash should be picked when the
stems are greyish and beginning to dry up. Cold weather
will increase the sugar content.
Days to Harvest: Summer: 50-60 depending on type
Winter: 90-100 depending on variety.
Tomato
There are two main types of tomatoes: determinate and
indeterminate. Determinate tomatoes eventually form a
flower cluster at the terminal growing point causing the
plant to stop growing in height. Indeterminate tomatoes
have only lateral or side-branching flower clusters and
grow indefinitely. Indeterminate varieties can be very
late in maturing but are generally more flavorful then
determinate types whose fruit is far quicker to mature
and, in general, easier to control. Start seeds indoors
early in mid to late-March and transplant outside when
all danger of frost has passed (usually the first weekend
in June). Spacing depends on the type of plant - dwarf
plants only need 12”, staked plants 15” to 24”, and some
indeterminates require up to 8 feet between plants. Apply
a mulch after the soil has warmed and ensure consistent
watering throughout the growing season. Pick tomatoes
when they are firm and
well-colored. If a heavy frost
is expected harvest all the green fruit and allow them to
continue ripening indoors in a cool, light area.
Days to Harvest: 45-80 depending on variety.
Turnips
These members of the cabbage family require the cool
temperatures of spring and fall as well as full sun for best
results. The leaves can be used for greens and the root
can be cooked like beets. Plant seeds outdoors between
May 1 and 15 and thin to 3” to 4” apart. The soil should
be loosened to 10” to 12” deep for adequate root growth
before the seeds are planted.
Days to Harvest: 55-60 depending on type
Watermelon
For basics regarding watermelons refer to ‘Cucumbers’.
When growing seedless varieties it is important that a few
normal seed types be planted to allow pollination. Start
seeds indoors at the beginning of April or outside at the
end of May at a depth of one inch. Transplant seedlings
when the soil is warm and allow considerable space (plants
should be 3 to 5 feet apart). Watermelons are ready for
harvest when the skin is rough and dull and when the
bottom of the melon turns from light green to yellow.
BULBS
bulb
favorites
Allium (Allium species)
These bulbs belong to the large onion family. They produce 6 in. - 5 ft. (15 cm - 1.5 m) tall plants, depending
on the variety, with typical hollow flat basal leaves. They
also produce few or many white, yellow or pink to purple
ball-shaped flower clusters on tall hollow stems. These
bulbs prefer sunny locations. Plant allium bulbs 4-6 in.
(10-15 cm) deep and 4-6 in. (10-15 cm) apart.
Crocus (Crocus species)
These corms produce dwarf 3-4 in. (7.5-10 cm) plants
with narrow grass-like leaves. They also produce attractive short-stemmed purple, yellow, white, or striped
cupped flowers during the early spring. There are a few
varieties that flower in fall. These corms can be naturalized in your lawn or planted under trees or shrubs. Plant
crocus corms in early Sept., 4-6 in.(10-15 cm ) deep and
2-6 in. (5-15 cm) apart.
Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
These bulbs produce 6-18 in. (15-45 cm) plants, depending on the variety, with flat rush-like basal leaves.
They also produce, in the very early spring, attractive
white, yellow, orange, or bicolored, nodding bell-shaped
single or double flowers.The Narcissus family contains
many types of daffodils, the most common being King
Alfred, a large bright yellow trumpet-like daffodil. However, there are several other varieties that grow well
here. Most varieties are suitable for forcing indoors.
Plant daffodils bulbs 8 in. (20 cm) deep and 6-8 in.
(15-20 cm) apart.
Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis)
These bulbs produce 18 in. (45 cm) tall plants with narrow grass-like basal leaves. They also produce fragrant
showy columnar clusters of yellow, white, pink, or bluepurple flowers. Plant 6 in. (15 cm) deep and
6 in. (15 cm) apart.
Grape Hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum)
These bulbs produce 4-6 in. (10-15 cm) tall plants with
long narrow leaves. They also produce clusters of blue,
white or mauve urn shaped and drooping flowers. These
bulbs are great for naturalizing, for rock gardens, or for
forcing indoors. Plant muscari bulbs 2 in. (5 cm) deep
and 4 in.(10 cm) apart.
Lily (Lilium species)
Garden lilies are one of the most under used bulbs. A
wide range of colors are now available, from the typical
‘Tiger’ orange to red, yellow, peach, rose, pink, purple,
maroon, cream, and white. Many varieties are attractively spotted. Lilies may planted in the spring or the
fall. Lilies bloom in the mid-summer rather than early
in spring. Plant lily bulbs 6-8 in. (15-20 cm) deep and
12 in. (30 cm) apart.
Striped Squill (Puschkinia scilloides)
These bulbs produce 6 in.(15 cm) tall plants with straplike leaves. They have pale blue, blue-green striped,
bell-shaped dense flower spikes. These hardy and longlived bulbs multiply each year. Plant puschkinia bulbs
4 in. (10 cm) deep and 2-4 in. (5-10 cm) apart.
Tulip (Tulipa species)
These bulbs produce 4-30 in. (10-75 cm) tall plants,
depending on the variety, with wide bluish-green basal
leaves. They have solitary flowers on thick upright stems
that arise from the basal leaves. The flower shape can
vary tremendously from slender and pointed to round
and open-faced. Their flowering time can vary from early
April to late May. The flowers are available in almost
every imaginable color including striped, mottled, and
different colored edges. No other spring bulb offers such
diversity as the tulip. Tulips are great for indoor forcing.
Plant tulips bulbs 8 in..(20 cm) deep and
6-8 in. (15-20 cm) apart.
47
BULBS
bulbsyour questions
Q: Can gladioli be started indoors to encourage
earlier flowering?
A: Gladioli can be given a head start by planting them
in April in pots. It is a good idea to dust bulbs with insecticide/fungicide dust before planting.
Q: What causes white streaks and distorted blossoms on gladioli?
A: A small insect called thrips can cause damage to both
the corm and the plant. Dust corms prior to storing and
planting and spray for exposed thrips on the plant itself
as soon as insects or damage appear.
Q: How can one prevent squirrels from digging up
bulbs?
A: There are no absolute remedies to this problem but
by planting bulbs at their maximum depths or sprinkling
blood meal onto the soil surface damage may be reduced. Squirrels do not eat daffodils so planting some
with other bulbs may also help. Some have had success
with putting out a feeder for the squirrels. The animals
feed on sunflower seeds and do not bother to look for
the harder to find bulbs.
48
Q: Can tulips and other spring flowering bulbs be
planted in outdoor pots in the fall for bloom the
next year?
A: Our climate is very harsh, with extremely cold temperatures and large fluctuations when our chinooks come
and go. Generally speaking, bulbs in pots tend to either
freeze or rot as a result of these conditions and do not
survive the winter. Container gardening with tulips can
be attempted if you protect the bulbs from the weather.
Containers should be a minimum 14 inches across. If
possible store in a garage or other unheated protected
area. If containers are too heavy to move wrap them
with burlap and cover with snow in the winter.
Q: When should I start my begonias?
A: Ideally, begonia tubers should be started indoors in
March 6-8 weeks before you plan on setting them out.
Plant tuber concave side up just below the surface of
the soil (ideally sterile mix). Place in a well-lit spot that
cools overnight to about 15 degrees C.
Q: When should the flower stem and leaves be cut
down after a bulb has flowered?
A: The flower stem can be cut as soon the flowers are
finished. The leaves should be allowed to die back
before being cut. By planting bulbs around perennials
the yellowing bulb foliage will be hidden.
Q: Which are the hardiest lilies for our area?
A: Tiger and Asiatic lilies are the hardiest. Trumpet and
Oriental can do well here with a good layer of mulch
applied after the ground has frozen.
Q: Which bulbs produce fragrant flowers?
A: Oriental and Trumpet lilies are very fragrant. Tuberose, acidanthera, hyacinth, some narcissus, tulips
and iris are also fragrant.
Q: Are tulips perennial?
A: Species tulip are quite good at coming back year after
year. Other tulips often act as short lived perennials and
do best when planted 6 to 8 inches deep in rich, well
drained soil, and fed in the spring and fall. Allow the
leaves to die back completely before removing them
since they feed the bulb.
Q: Can bulbs which have been forced be saved and
forced again?
A: Amaryllis can be kept to replant for next year. Hyacinth, tulip, daffodil, crocus, and paper whites should be
discarded after flowering. In some cases hyacinths can
be planted in the garden in the spring, however, it will
take at least two years for them to reflower.
Q. Why can’t I plant tulips in the Spring?
A. Spring-flowering bulbs such as tulips and daffodils
must be planted in the fall or early winter to bloom in
spring because they require a long period of cool temperatures. The exposure to low temperatures allows
the bulb to flower. Not only do they need to be planted
in fall but they need to be planted before the ground
freezes to develop roots.
Q. I forgot to plant my spring-flowering bulbs last
fall and I just found them in the garage. Should I wait
until next fall to plant?
A. No. If the bulbs are still firm plant them as soon as
you are able to in the spring. If you leave them too long
they will dry out. These bulbs still may survive and could
even flower this season if you are lucky. However, if you
leave them in the bag you may as well just throw them
out.
Q. Help! It’s the middle of March and my crocuses
have started to sprout but cold weather is forecast
for next week. Will this kill my bulbs?
A. Not usually. Spring-flowering bulbs are very tough. A
short spell of freezing weather will do little if any damage
to the leaves though it may burn the flowers. Warm snaps
during Chinooks can encourage growth but this should
not damage your bulbs either.
Q. Do tulips prefer a sunny or a shady spot in the
yard?
A. Tulips prefer sun but can do alright in the shade. When
planning your garden late in the season remember that
early spring gardens are much brighter as the leaves
have yet to come in on the trees.
Q. My tulip has finished blooming and the leaves
make my garden look ugly. Can I cut them down?
A. No. The leaves are vital in supplying the bulb with nutrients and energy through photosynthesis. If you remove
the leaves you will quickly exhaust the bulb. Letting the
leaves remain will increase your chances of having the
bulbs naturalize. Plan to plant perennials or annuals in
the area to disguise the fading leaves.
Q. What is a good bulb for shady areas?
A. Most bulbs like a decent amount of sunlight but there
are a few that can adapt to partial shade.
These are glory-of-the-snow (Chionodoxa),
Siberian squill (Puschkina), checkered lily
(Fritillaria melagris), and some hyacinth.
Planting bulbs in shady areas greatly reduces the chances of naturalizing and the
amount of blooms.
Q. Will my daffodils multiply like my
tulips?
A. In optimum conditions daffodils will
naturalize. They will split and form new
bulbs and thus new flowers. In less-than
top conditions (ie. Calgary) the bulbs will
split into smaller bulbs and thus smaller
flowers and in poor conditions only the
original bulb will continue to flower.
Q. What are species tulips?
A. These are varieties that have not been hybridized or
bred. They are basically as they can be found in nature.
As a result species tulips naturalize much more readily
than heavily hybridized bulbs. Though they are usually
smaller they are colorful and unique. Examples of species tulips are Tarda, Kaufmaniana, and Saxatilis
Q. Which fertilizer is best for my bulbs?
A. When planting spring-flowering bulbs you can use
either a sprinkle of bone meal or commercial fertilizer in
the bottom of the hole to get the roots started. After this,
fertilize with bulb fertilizer in the fall and once again when
the shoots appear in the spring.
BULBS
bulbsyour questions
Q. Why is it recommended to plant
bulbs in clusters?
A. Bulbs planted in groups of odd numbers
tend to look more natural than those planted in rows.
They will complement each other and appear to be more
or at least have a greater impact than a single bulb. Large
bulbs should be planted 3-6 inches apart and smaller
bulbs should be planted 1-2 inches apart to allow for bulb
growth.
49
BULBS
bulbsspring flowering information
50
Spring-flowering bulbs bloom in March, April, May
& June and must be planted in the fall. They are
popular because they are the first harbingers of spring
time, and provide the spring garden with color and
variety. There are so many different bulbs with as many
colors and heights that combinations are endless. Due
to the large variation in blossoming periods, one can
enjoy flowering bulbs for many months.
How Deep to Plant
Soil Requirements
Watering After Planting
Fertilizing
Covering Layer
All soil types are suitable for planting flower bulbs.
Only very wet soil presents problems. Before planting
loosen the soil thoroughly. Heavy clay soil is improved
by mixing gypsum, peat, or compost into topsoil.
Flower bulbs don’t require extra fertilizer since bulbous
plants have storage food of their own. If the flower bulbs
are to remain in the soil for many years, application
of a slow release fertilizer in fall is recommended. A
balanced complete fertilizer (such as bone meal) is
suitable for bulbs. Additional nourishment provides
sufficient strength for flowering the following spring.
Fertilizing must be repeated every year.
When to Plant
Spring flowering bulbs are planted from September
till November, provided the soil is not frozen and can
be worked easily. Planting before it becomes too cold
provides more time for root growth.
Where to Plant
Spring flowering bulbs can be planted everywhere in
the garden depending on their light requirement: in
sunlight, shade or part-shade; in borders, around a
fence or tree. Low-growing flower bulbs look their best
in an area where they are clearly visible. Tall varieties
are best planted in the back of borders.
The general rule of thumb for spring bulbs is that they
should be planted three times as deep as they are
high. More specifically, the underside of the bulb (the
flat side), should be 8 inches deep for large bulbs such
as the tulip, hyacinth and daffodil; and 4 inches deep
for smaller bulbs such as the anemone, scilla, and
muscari.
If nature itself does not provide sufficient water after
planting, the plants should be watered by hand. The
plants form roots quicker in moist soil, and this is
important for their further development.
Flower bulbs benefit from a mulch of leaves or straw. If
the winters are extremely severe and particularly if we
do not have adequate snow cover, a protective mulch
of about 4 inches will prevent alternate freezing and
thawing which can prevent flowering.
Good Combinations
Best results are obtained by taking into consideration
heights, color combinations and flowering periods. It
is preferable to plant the bulbs in small groups, but to
avoid circles or squares, in order to obtain as natural
an effect as possible. Gardens may be provided with
long periods of color by planting different bulbs together
which have varying flowering times. Examples to try
are combinations of low-growing crocuses with late
flowering tulips, scilla with early flowering tulips, or
saffodils with Darwin tulips.
Naturalizing
Many spring bulbs are ideally suited for naturalizing,
and they provide the garden with a "natural" look when
Among Ground Covers
Flower bulbs are well suited for planting among ground
covers. The roots of flower bulbs sit deeper and therefore don't rob the ground cover of food. Moreover, once
the flowers have finished blooming, the ground cover
ensures an attractive garden.
storage food to recharge the bulb underground. It will
then bloom again the following spring.
After the Flowering Period
After the flowering period, the choice is leaving the
bulbs in the ground or digging them up. By leaving
them in the ground a sort of naturalizing takes place.
Planting some additional bulbs in the area will create
a splendid effect. You can also dig up the flower bulbs
and plant something different the following season. To
be able to use these bulbs another time, they should
be dug up only when the leaves have completely died.
Remove the soil from the bulbs and save them until fall
in a dry, well ventilated place.
Cold Climate
Many kinds of spring bulbs are suitable for indoor forcing, enabling them to blossom in the winter. There are
special bulbs such as the amaryllis and the paperwhite
(Narcissus spp.) perfect for providing fragrance and
color during the long winter days. Species such as
hyacinth, tulip, daffodil and crocus will require a cold
period to bloom. Please refer to our Indoor Forcing of
Flower Bulbs section.
In a very cold climate, sprouting bulbs can be damaged by extreme weather and by sudden Chinooks. If
the bulbs are starting to sprout in December or January, it's wise to cover them with a layer of soil, peat
or leaves. Mulching bulbs in the fall with straw or dry
leaves helps prevent them from sprouting too early. If
it starts to get warmer more quickly than normal, the
bulbs' flowering time may also begin earlier; so you
should be prepared to cover them with sheets or burlap
if a frost is forecast.
Perennial Flowering
Problems
Indoors
By leaving the flower bulbs in the ground after they
blossom, most spring bulbs will bloom again the following year. It is important to cut the flowers off after they
have finished blooming, but leave as many leaves as
possible on the stem. The plant will receive sufficient
FRAGRANT TULIPS
If you plan on cutting tulips for indoor flower
arrangments, or want to add more fragrance
to your spring garden, here is a list of some of
the more fragrant varieties of tulips.
Angelique (Double Late)
Apricot Parrot (Parrot)
Apricot Beauty (Single Early)
Ballerina (Lily-flowered)
Christmas Marvel (Single Early)
Dillenburg (Single Late)
Keizerskroon (Single Early)
Princess Irene (Triumph)
T. tarda (Species)
BULBS
planted in the grass, around trees or under shrubs.
Species tulips, low-growing daffodils, crocuses, snowdrops, and scillas are very suitable for naturalizing.
Taller-growing bulbous plants (ie. Trumpet daffodils)
can best be combined with others. When planting near
trees or among rocks, always use at least six bulbs. If
planting bulbs in grass consideration should be given
to the fact that mowing should not be done until the
flowers and leaves have withered.
Bulb Dust is helpful in preventing either soil insects
or disease from damaging bulbs. Gopher or squirrel
problems ( they use garden bulbs as a food source)
can be deterred by sprinkling blood meal on top of the
soil where bulbs are planted.
Grape Hyacinth
51
BULBS
bulbsspring flowering
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Crocus
Variety
Color
Height
DUTCH HYBRID: very large, showy flowers
Flower Record
Golden Yellow
Jeanne d’Arc
Pickwick
strong purple
4”-6”
rich, buttercup
yellow
pure white
4”-6”
greyish white
with lilac stripes
4”-6”
4”-6”
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
Bloom
Time
3” deep/
2”-6” apart
3” deep/
2”-6” apart
3” deep/
2”-6” apart
3” deep/
2”-6” apart
early spring
large, showy flowers
early spring
Heirloom since 1600; fragrant
early spring
Heirloom: 1925
early spring
Heirloom: 1940
3” deep/
2”-6” apart
3” deep/
2”-6” apart
3” deep/
early spring
Orange stamens
early spring
Somewhat squirrel resistant
early spring
Bronze/burgundy stamens
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
Bloom
Time
SPECIES: hardiest crocus; produce small flowers very early in the spring
Advance
Ruby Giant
Tricolor
soft yellow inside,
violet outside
reddish
purple
orange, white,
lilac
4”
4”
4”
Features
Daffodils
Variety
52
Colour
Height
Features
ROCK GARDEN
Canaliculatus
white & yellow
4”
6” deep/
late spring
A true miniature
3”-6” apart
Jenny
ivory matures 12”
6” deep/
early spring
Reflexed petals
to white
3”-6” apart
Peeping Tom
pure yellow
12”
6” deep/
early spring
Long trumpet with back
3”-6” apart
curving petals Tete-a-tete
yellow with
8”
6” deep/
early spring
Long lasting; good for golden cup
3”-6” apart
forcing
Thalia
white 12”
6” deep/
mid spring
Three blossoms per stem 3”-6” apart
LARGE CUPPED
Accent
white petals with
16”
6”-8” deep/
early spring
Unusual color!
salmon cup
4”-6” apart
Carlton
all yellow
18”
6”-8” deep/
early spring
Vanilla scent
4”-6” apart
Kissproof
creamy yellow with
20”
6”-8” deep/
early spring
Unusual color!
large, flat brick red cup
4”-6” apart
TRUMPET
King Alfred
bright yellow
18”
6”-8” deep/
mid spring
Excellent in cooler climates
4”-6” apart
Mount Hood
creamy white
15”
6”-8” deep/
mid spring
Local favorite
4”-6” apart
PLANTING DEPTH
Bulbs are usually planted either too deep or too shallow.
For best results, bulbs should be planted THREE times as deep as their diameter.
Daffodils
Planting
Variety
BUNCH-FLOWERING
Geranium
Yellow Cheerfulness
DOUBLE-FLOWERING
Flower Drift
Ice King
Rosy Cloud
SMALL CUPPED
Actea
Barret Browning
Color
Height
white & orange
15”-17”
yellow
16”
white with
yellow-orange cup
white
16”
16”
Bloom
Depth/
Spacing
6”-8” deep/
4”-6” apart
6”-8” deep/
4”-6” apart
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Time
mid spring
BULBS
bulbsspring flowering
Features
late spring
3-5 flowers per stem;
heirloom 1930
Double flowers
6”-8” deep/
4”-6” apart
6”-8” deep/
4”-6” apart
6”-8” deep/
4”-6” apart
early spring
Beautiful, large daffodil
early spring
Very vigorous
mid spring
Cup is double
white petals with
pink cup
18”
pure white;
small yellow cup
has red band
white with
orange-red cup
18”
6”-8” deep/
4”-6” apart
mid spring
Heirloom 1927
16”
6”-8” deep/
4”-6” apart
mid spring
One pretty and small
flower on a tall stem.
53
Pickwick Crocus
Flower Drift Daffodil
Carlton Daffodil
Jeanne d’Arc Crocus
Golden Yellow Crocus
Daffodil
BULBS
54
bulbsspring flowering
Tulips
Variety
Color
Height
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Bloom
Time
Features
BOUQUET
Gypsy Love
Raspberry violet 18-20”
6” deep/
late spring
Great cut flower 4”-6” apart
Toronto
salmon rose
14”
6” deep/
mid spring
Multi-flowering.
4”-6” apart
DARWIN HYBRIDS: excellent perennializing tulip; one of the best in Calgary. Many more varieties available!
American Dream
yellow with
24”
6” deep/
mid spring
Very showy!
red edging
4”-6” apart
Daydream
apricot orange
22”
6” deep/
mid spring Unusual color.
4”-6” apart
Golden Oxford
golden yellow
22”
6” deep/
mid spring
Sometimes will have a red
with yellow center
4”-6” apart
edge or blush.
Pink Impression
deep pink with
24”
6” deep/
mid spring
Favorite pink.
black center
4”-6” apart
Parade
bright red with yellow base
22”
6” deep/
mid spring
Biggest red tulip.
& yellow edged black center
4”-6” apart
Silver Stream
creamy yellow;
20”
6” deep/
mid spring
Leaves edged with pink and
streaked red & pink
4”-6” apart
yellow.
DOUBLE EARLY
Abba
deep red 10”-16”
6” deep/
early spring
Red is a very popular tulip
4”-6” apart
color.
Monte Beau
lemon yellow with a
10”-12”
6” deep/
early spring
New Variety
broad white edging
4”-6” apart
Peach Blossom
deep rose
10”-16”
6” deep/
early spring
Heirloom 1890.
4”-6” apart
DOUBLE LATE
Angelique
soft shades of pink
14”-16”
6” deep/
late spring
Fragrant.
4”-6” apart
Blue Spectacle
reddish purple
14”-16”
6” deep/
late spring
Interesting variety
4”-6” apart
Lilac Perfection
lilac purple
16”-18”
6” deep/
late spring
A favorite!
4”-6” apart
Uncle Tom
dark mahogany
18”
6” deep/
late spring
Beautiful, deep color.
red
4”-6” apart
Golden Oxford Tulip
American Dream Tulip
Monte Beau Tulip
Silver Stream Tulip
Angelique Tulip
Blue Spectacle Tulip
Parade Tulip
Tulips
Variety
Color
Height
FOSTERIANNA/EMPEROR
Easter Parade
rose/yellow
16”
Flaming Purissima
pastel white with
18”
rose feathering
Red Emperor
lipstick red with
14”
black center
FRINGED
lavender, wine,
20”-26”
red, yellow
GREIGHII
red, pink,
8”-12”
red with white stripe
KAUFMANNIANA
red, lemon, salmon
6”-8”
pink, salmon variegated
LILY-FLOWERING: more available!
Mariette
deep rose
22”
Marilyn
peppermint
24”
West Point
golden yellow
20”
White Triumphator
opens ivory yellow
24”
and turns white
PARROT
Blue Parrot
lavender blue with
22”
violet hints
Estella Rynveldt
deep red with
20”
ivory flames
Fantasy
bright pink with green
22”
streaks and white flames
SINGLE EARLY
Apricot Beauty
shades of apricot
18”
tinged pink
Christmas Dream
fushia pink with 14”
large white base
Christmas Marvel
cherry pink
14”
Fringed Tulip
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Bloom
Time
Features
BULBS
bulbsspring flowering
6” deep/
early spring
Just in time for Easter
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
mid spring
Streaked blooms.
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
early spring
Other ‘Emperor” colors are 4”-6” apart
yellow, orange, and white.
6” deep/
mid to late spring Feathery, fringed petal edges
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
early spring
Very reliable; interesting
4”-6” apart
mottled leaves.
6” deep/
early spring
Striped, mottled leaves.
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
late spring
Great in south facing gardens!
late spring
Try with blue tulips for impact
late spring
late spring
Named after West Point
Academy
Lovely pure white
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
mid spring
Sport of ‘Blue Amiable’.
mid spring
Very good cut flower.
mid spring
Very strong fringed edges.
early spring
Strong stems, fragrant.
early spring
Good for forcing.
early spring
Good for forcing.
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
55
Apricot Beauty Tulip
Marilyn Tulip
Flaming Purissima Tulip
Christmas Dream Tulip
Blue Parrot Tulip
Mariette Tulip
BULBS
56
bulbsspring flowering
Tulips
Variety
SPECIES
T. clusiana
T. saxatilis
T. tarda
TRIUMPH
Attila
Blueberry Ripple
Calgary
Francoise
Negrita
Princess Irene
Rosalie
Sweet Love
VIRIDIFLORA
Deidre
Greenland
Nightrider
Color
Height
red & white
peppermint
lavender pink with
yellow center
yellow edged in
white
12”
reddish violet
10”
6”
20”
white with purple
18”
flames
snow white
8”-10”
creamy white with
ivory yellow flames
reddish purple
24”
18”
orange with pale
14”
purple flames
two-toned
20”-22”
lavender pink soft pink petals with
20”-22”
deep rose flames & pale pink edges
true green petals and
greenish white edge
soft to rich pink brushed
with yellow and green
blue-purple blooms with
grass green flames
18”-20”
18”-20”
18”-20”
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
Bloom
Time
4” deep/
4” apart
4” deep/
4” apart
4” deep/
4” apart
mid spring
Multiply and naturalize well.
mid spring
Small, delicate center.
mid spring
Star-shaped flowers!
late spring
Great with pansies.
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
6” deep/
4”-6” apart
Attila Tulip
Blueberry Ripple Tulip
Nightrider Tulip
Francoise Tulip
Princess Irene Tulip
Rosalie Tulip
early spring
early spring
Features
Exclusive to independent
garden centers.
White as spring snow.
mid spring
Large, long-lasting blossoms.
mid spring
One of the deepest tones.
mid spring
Fragrant.
mid spring
Dark purple stems.
mid spring
New variety.
early spring
New variety.
early spring
New variety. Good cut flower.
early spring
New variety. Good cut flower.
Queen of the Night Tulip
Variety
Color
Height
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Bloom
Time
Features
ALLIUM
A.christophii
lavender
14”
6”-8” deep/
early summer
6” apart
A. giganteum
purple-blue
48”
6”-8” deep/
early summer
6” apart
A. ‘Globemaster’
purple
36”
6”-8” deep/
early summer
6” apart
A. moly
yellow
11”
3” deep/
early summer
3” apart
A. ‘Mount Everest’
white
48”
6”-8” deep/
early summer
6” apart
A. ‘Purple Sensation’
purple
36”
6”-8” deep/
early summer
6” apart
A. sphaerocephalon
purple-red
25”
6”-8” deep/
early summer
6” apart
FRITILLARIA
Fritillaria meleagris
cream, purple and
8”
4” deep/
mid spring
‘Checkered Lily’
brown
4” apart
Fritilaria Imperialis
red or yellow
36”
6”-8” deep/
late spring
8” apart
GLORY OF THE SNOW
Chinodoxa
blue or pink with
5”-8”
3”-4” deep/
early spring
white centers
2”-4” apart
GRAPE HYACINTH
Muscari
white, blue, violet
4”-6”
2”-3” deep/
mid spring
4” apart
HYACINTH
Hyacinthus orientalis
white, pink, purple,
8”-12”
6” deep/
mid spring
blue, yellow, apricot
6” apart
IRIS - DWARF
Iris spp.
yellow, light blue, blue
6”
2”-3” deep/
early spring
4” apart
Fritillaria meleagris
Hyancinth
Prefers sunny location.
Globes of star-shaped flowers
Large globes.
BULBS
bulbsspring flowering
Ten inch flower heads.
Multiplies quickly.
Broad leaves; fluffy white
heads
Very reliable perennial.
Available in single & double
forms.
Delicate bell-shaped
checkered flowers.
Bulb gives off skunk-like
fragrance which may repel squirrels.
Tall plants with narrow grass
like leaves and nodding
flowers.
Double and single varieties
available. Naturalize well.
57
Suitable for forcing; many
varieties of pre-cooled
bulbs available.
Flowers appear before
leaves in spring. Good for
forcing or rock garden.
Allium giganteum
Allium moly
Dwarf Iris
BULBS
58
bulbsspring flowering
Variety
Color
Height
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
SNOWDROPS
Galanthus spp.
white
4”
3” deep/
2”-3” apart
SIBERIAN SQUILL
Scilla siberica
deep blue
5”
4” deep/
3” apart
STRIPED SQUILL
Puschkina libanotica
blue with dark
5”
4” deep/
blue stripe
3” apart
STAR OF BETHLEHEM
Ornithogallum spp.
white
7”
4” deep/
6” apart
WINTER ACONITE
yellow
3”
4” deep/
Eranthis hyemalis
6” apart/
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Bloom
Time
Features
early spring
Available in single & double
forms. Solitary, nodding
dainty white blooms.
early spring
Multiplies readily.
early spring
Hardy, long-lived bulb.
Good companion for tulips.
late spring
Large clusters of star-shaped
blooms. Plant under trees or shrubs.
Tuberous plants with rounded
leaves. Solitary, bright yellow flowers.
early spring
Bulbs that bloom in summer, rather than spring, are usually
not as winter hardy as spring-flowering bulbs and cannot survive the winter outdoors on the Prairies. This group includes
dahlias, gladioli, begonias, some lilies, and numerous small
bulbs. They are often started in pots indoors, in March or April,
and planted outdoors after the last spring frost. In fall they are
dug up, cleaned, allowed to dry,
dusted with Bulb Dust, and stored
in a cardboard box or paper bag
(not plastic) containing vermiculite, sawdust, or peatmoss in a
cold but frost-free place until next
spring. The inexpensive smaller
bulbs can be treated the same
way but are usually replaced
every year as their size makes
them hard to find once planted
and the cost is minimal.
Gladiolus
For top quality blooms, select
high crowned corms at least 1
½” in diameter. They will produce a single sturdy stalk with
large flowers. Wide, flat corms
with hollow centres are older,
and not as vigorous. In Calgary,
corms started in the house about
the end of April will have an earlier flowering season then those
planted directly outside. They
can be planted several to a large
shallow pot (ice cream pails with
holes punched in the bottom, or
large bulb pans work well) in a
mixture of 2/3 potting mix and 1/3
sand, just burying the corm. Keep
slightly moist, and in a bright light
once growth begins. Placing outdoors when weather permits can
harden them off. Bringing in or protecting if there is danger of
frost, and planted outdoors about the beginning of June. They
should be planted slightly deeper outdoors than they were in
pots. If preferred, corms can be planted directly into outdoor
beds about the end of May.
Gladiolus like a sunny spot, sheltered from wind. They are
planted about six inches apart. Fertilize with an all purpose
fertilizer (15-30-15) monthly. They will bloom in late July and
August, in a wide array of colors.
In fall, after a frost, dig up corms, and cut tops several inches
above the top of the corm. Keep in a warm, dry area for about
two weeks, until the tops are dry. Pull off the old corms, tops
and roots, dust with bulb dust (to prevent any problems with
insects or disease) and store in a frost-free cold, dry place in
vermiculite or peat moss in a cardboard or paper container.
The little “cormels” on the corms can be stored separately and
planted next year – they take about three years to bloom.
Thrips are a problem with gladiolas. They are tiny insects,
which leave long white streaks on leaves and distort blooms.
Dusting with bulb dust before storage and again before planting is essential. Planting in a different area the next season
is helpful if practical.
Tuberous Begonias
Start tubers indoors at the end of March. Plant the bulbs in a
shallow tray or pot in any well-drained planting medium, i.e.
Golden Acres Professional Mix. Set the tubers in this mix, with
the depression upward about an inch apart, do not cover tuber
with soil. Set the tray in an area where it will have at least 60
F temperature to break dormancy.
Keep rooting medium slightly damp.
Bright light is necessary, but keep
out of full sun and keep water out of
tuber’s depression (the hole in the
centre of the tuber).
As soon as the tubers are well rooted
and shoots are ½” or more long,
transplant into individual 6” pots. Use
the same planting medium as stated
above. Fill pots without disturbing
roots. Do not cover the tuber with
planting medium.
Keep the planted tubers in a warm
area in bright light but shaded from
the hot sun. Too much heat will produce long, weak growth. Feed weekly
with a flowering fertilizer diluted at
half strength, such as Plant-Prod 1530-15 or Plant-Prod 20-20-20. They
are both excellent fertilizers. Plant
the tubers outside after the threat
of frost has passed, where they will
be sheltered from wind and hot sun.
Tubers can be removed from pots and
placed in open soil, about 12” apart.
You can leave them in their pots and
plunge them into the flowerbed. This
is sometimes preferable in case of
early frost – it is easier to take them
indoors.
TIP: Stake tall plants or those heavy
with blooms.
In the fall, after a light frost, reduce
watering until the leaves die. Dig up, break stem close to tuber
and allow them to dry in an airy location. Dust tubers with bulb
dust to prevent insect and disease damage and store in dry
peat, perlite or vermiculite. Store in a cold frost-free room.
Dahlias
Similar care to a begonia. Mature plants can range from a
few inches high to several feet, so choose appropriate size
for that area where they are to be planted. They are usually
started in the house about the end of April, to be set outside
after any danger of frost is past. Dahlias are planted so that
the long fingers are spread out pointing down, with the top of
the root just below soil level, in a sunny spot sheltered from
the wind.
The larger types will need staking. If a stake is set in at planting time it will avoid possible root damage which could occur
if you tried to insert a stake into the ground later.
Fall care is the same as for tuberous begonias.
For more detailed information on summer flowering bulbs, please visit our bookstore.
BULBS
bulbs summer flowering information
59
BULBS
bulbsgrowing iris
When to Plant
For best results, iris should be planted in July, August or
September. It’s imperative that the roots of newly planted Iris
be well-established before the growing season ends. Iris are
also available as potted plants in the perennial lot, and these
can be planted in spring, summer or fall.
Where to Plant
Iris need at least a half-day of sun. In extremely hot climates
some shade is beneficial, but in most climates iris do best
in full sun. Be sure to provide your iris with good drainage,
planting either on a slope or in raised beds.
Soil Preparation
Iris will thrive in well-drained garden soil. Planting on a slope
or in raised beds helps ensure good drainage. If your soil is
heavy, coarse sand may be added to improve drainage. Gypsum is an excellent soil conditioner that can improve most clay
soils. The ideal pH is 6.8 (slightly acidic), but iris are tolerant
in this respect. To lower the pH of your soil, sulphur may be
added to alkaline soils.
Depth to Plant
Iris should be planted so the tops of the rhizomes are exposed and the roots are spread out facing downward in the
soil. In very light soils or in extremely hot climates, covering
the rhizome with 1 inch of soil may be desirable. Firm the soil
around each rhizome and then water to help settle the soil. A
common mistake is to plant iris too deeply.
Distance Apart
60
Iris are generally planted 12 to 24 inches apart. Close planting
gives an immediate effect, but closely planted iris will need to
be thinned often. Plants spaced further apart will need less
frequent thinning.
Watering
Newly set plants need moisture to help their root systems
become established. Specific watering information depends on
your climate and your soil, but keep in mind that deep watering
at long intervals is better than more frequent shallow watering. Once established, iris normally don’t need to be watered
except in arid areas. Over watering is a common error.
Fertilization
Specific fertilizer recommendations depend on your soil type,
but bone meal, superphosphate and10-52-10 are all effective.
A light application in the early spring and a second light application about a month after bloom will reward you with good
growth and bloom. Avoid using anything high in nitrogen, as
nitrogen encourages rot problems.
Thinning Old Clumps
Iris need to be thinned or divided before they become overcrowded, generally every 3-4 years. If iris are allowed to become too crowded the bloom will suffer. Some varieties may
crowd others out and disease problems may be aggravated.
Old clumps may be thinned by removing the old divisions
at the centers of the clumps and leaving new growth in the
ground, or you may dig up the entire clump and remove and
replant the large new rhizomes.
General Garden Care
Keep your iris beds clean and free of weeds and debris, allowing the tops of the rhizomes to bask in the sun. Bloom stems
should be cut off close to the ground after blooming. Healthy
green leaves should be left undisturbed, but diseased or brown
leaves should be removed.
TIPS FOR IRIS GROWERS
Divide clumps of bearded iris every 3 to 5 years
for best bloom; remember they like good drainage
and plenty of sun. Clean up and burn dead bearded
iris leaves in the fall or spring to help control iris
border. Plant plenty of yellows and blues for best
visual results. Lavenders add sparkle! There are
many shorter growing iris to choose from, including
early blooming dwarfs such as dwarf bearded (Iris
pumila), arctic (I. setosa), beardless Japanese (I.
ensata) and Siberian iris (I. sibirica). Irises do not
require frequent division; many beardless irises also
do well in moist spots
For storage, temperatures and moisture conditions vary
for each bulb species. The following list is compiled
from the Netherlands Flowerbulb Information Center
at www.bulb.com. Some of the directions refer to
container grown bulbs and other directions for bulbs
planted out in the ground.
Achimenes - Leave in container, dry out planting medium, and place at 16-21°C.
Agapanthus - Leave in container with slightly moist
planting medium and place at 2-13°C.
Amaryllis belladonna - Store in container at 13-21°C
Anemone coronaria (St. Brigid and De Caen) - Store
dry at 10-13°C. It is better to leave in the ground and
cover.
Begonia (Tuberous Hybrids) - Dig in fall, and store in
dry peat at 2-5°C.
Canna - Dig in fall, store in dry peat or vermiculite at
5-10°C
Crinum - Store in slightly moist sand at 2-7°C. If grown
indoors in a container, place in a bright room with cool
(13°C) night temperatures.
Crocosmia (Montbretia) - Store in peat or vermiculite
at 2-5°C.
Dahlia - Harvest tuberous roots in fall and store in vermiculite or dry sand at 2-7°C.
Eucomis - Store dry at 13-20°C.
Freesia - Store in containers dry at 25-30°C.
Galtonia - Store dry in vermiculite at 17-23°C.
Gladiolus - Harvest after foliage dies and before the
first frost. Store dry at 5-13 °C.
Gladiolus Callianthus (Acidanthera bicolor) - Harvest
in the fall before frost, dry, clean carefully, and store at
13-20°C.
Haemanthus - Bring containers indoors and either store
dry or continue growing at 13-18°C.
Hymenocallis - If container-grown, bring indoors and
grow at 13-18°C. To store bulbs, harvest them carefully
leaving soil around the roots, and store at 16-21°C.
Ixia - Store dry at 20-25°C.
Liatris - Store in moist peat at 2°C.
Lilium - Best left in the ground, but can be stored in
moist peat at 2°C.
Nerine - Store dry or in ventilated container at 2°C.
Ornithogalum - Store dry at 21-27°C.
Oxalis- Store in peat or vermiculite at 2-5°C.
Ranunculus - Store dry at 10-13°C.
Sandersonia aurantiaca - Store in peat or vermiculite
at 13°C.
Schizostylis - Place in moist peat at 7°C.
Sparaxis - Store dry at 20-25°C.
Sprekelia - Store dry in peat or vermiculite at 5-13°C.
Tigridia - Store in peat or vermiculite at -5°C.
Veltheimia - store dry at 25°C. When in containers, take
indoors for winter at 10-16°C.
Zantedeschia (Calla Lilies) - Store dry at 10- 16°C.
Take care not to injure the storage organs.
Zephyranthes - Store bulbs in peat or vermiculite at
10-16°C.
BULBS
bulbs storage
61
BULBS
bulbs summer flowering
Dahlias
Variety
Color
Bloom
Size
Height
DECORATIVE DAHLIAS: Good garden display; excellent cut flowers.
Arabian Night
Deep burgundy
5”
40”
Duet
Red with white tips
5”
40”
Mystery Day
Deep burgundy
5”
40”
with white tips
Blue Bell
Purple blue
5”
40”
Bonesta
White with rose veins 5”
40”
DINNERPLATE: The following is only a sample of our many varieties.
Babylon Purple Medium purple
up to 10”
40”
Big Wow
Wine red
up to 10”
40”
Fleur
Pure white
up to 10”
40”
Grand Prix
Yellow with
up to 10”
40”
white tips.
Café au Lait
Creamy mocha
up to 10”
40”
62
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart Features
Popular deep color; rounded petals.
Excellent color
Elegant, slightly pointed petals.
Nicely formed flower heads.
Best dahlia!
Stunning presentation
Large, well-formed blooms.
Clear green leaves; pointed petals.
White
Incurved petals give
interesting texture.
Beautiful in fall arrangements.
GALLERY: A shorter variety excellent for pot, container, and garden.
Art Fair
white; greenish yellow center3”
12”
3” deep/12” apart Cezanne
Yellow 3”
12”
3” deep/12” apart Singer
Deep red
3”
12”
3” deep/12” apart Excellent for fall pot displays.
Clear, vibrant yellow.
Good flower form;
GIANT BALL: Rounded, multi-headed flowers.
Babette
Lavender pink
5”-6”
Belinda Pink
Soft rose pink
5”-6”
Evelyn
White with 5”-6”
lavender tips.
Marble Ball
white with purple streaks 5”-6”
Deep color.
Charming in summer arrangements.
Bloom in abundance
over a long period.
Pristine.
12”
12”
12”
3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 12”
3” deep/12” apart CACTUS: Long narrow petals give a starburst cactus-like appearance.
Black Cat
Dark Maroon
5”-6”
20”-50”
3” deep/12” apart Fire Bird
Fiery red; gold center
5”-6”
20”-50”
3” deep/12” apart Mixed PeppermintWhite with rose streaks
5”-6”
20”-50”
3” deep/12” apart Red Pygmy
Blood Red
5”-6”
20”
3” deep/12” apart POWDER PUFF: A new class of Dahlias with soft, multi-petalled rounded center.
Blue Bayou
Double purple
6”-10”
24”-36”
3” deep/12” apart Lambada
Soft rose petals, 6”-10”
24”-36”
3” deep/12” apart creamy white center
River Dance
Red flowers
6”-10”
24”-36”
3” deep/12” apart
Excellent garden or border plant.
Tall, striking plant.
Extra large flower heads up to 8”.
Border type at around 1.5 feet tall.
Interesting color
Similar appearance to Scabiosa
Exclusive to independent garden centers.
Arabian Nights Dahlia
Duet Dahlia
Big Wow Dahlia
Lambada Dahlia
Cafe au Lait Dahlia
Babette Dahlia
Red Pygmy Dahlia
Blue Bayou Dahlia
Blue Bayou Dahlia
Bonesta Dahlia
Dahlias
Variety
Color
Bloom
Size
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
Height
WATERLILY: similar in appearance to waterlily flowers.
Le Castel
White
4”-5”
40”-45”
Sam Hughes
Dark maroon
4”-5”
40”-45”
Sympathy
Buttercup yellow
4”-5”
40”-45”
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Features
3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart 3” deep/12” apart Traditional color
Beautiful when paired with yellow.
Blends with summer color palettes
IMPRESSION: single blooms with a contrasting ruff.
Famoso
Sunny yellow
3”
24”
3” deep/12” apart Fantastico
Cherry red with
3”
24”
3” deep/12” apart white ruff
Festivo
Scarlet with gold
3”
24”
3” deep/12” apart Solid, strong yellow
Red and white compliment each
other
Nice impact
BORDER: shorter plants that grow without staking.
Bluesette
Purple and pink
4”-5”
24”
3” deep/12” apart Extase
Salmon and gold
4”-5”
24”
3” deep/12” apart Unusual color combination
Pink and yellow compliment each other
Begonias
Variety
ROSE FORM
HANGING
BASKET
NON-STOP
CRISPA
CAMELLIA
RUFFLED
CAMELIA
Color
Bloom
Size
Pink, scarlet, white, yellow, apricot, peach, rose, salmon
Picottee: Yellow with red edge,
white & pink, white & bright red
Copper, orange, pink, red, rose,
white, yellow, white/pink, yellow/red
Copper, pink, red, yellow, white
yellow/red, apricot
Height
4”-5”
14”-18”
3”-4”
na
2.5”
8”-12”
Red/white, red/yellow
3”
12”-18”
Scarlet, yellow, pink, white
3”
12”-18”
White, copper, pink, yellow, 3”
orange, red
Picottee:Cream/apricot, white/red,
white/pink, yellow/red
12”-18”
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
BULBS
bulbs summer flowering
Features
Concave side up just Double flowers similar in shape to
below the surface camelia or rose blossoms.
6”-12” apart
Concave side up just Fully double flowers
below the surface Bright non-fading colors
6”-12” apart
Plant in partial to full shade.
Concave side up just Continuous bloom; early flowerbelow the surface ing. Excellent for window boxes,
6”-12” apart
patios, and low borders.
Concave side up just Large single flowers with frilled,
below the surface ruffled edges of a different color.
6”-12” apart
Concave side up just Bright, clear colors.
below the surface Beautiful flower form.
6”-12” apart
Concave side up just Unusual fringed flower petals.
below the surface Large, even blooms.
6”-12” apart
63
Famoso Dahlia
Extase Dahlia
Sympathy Dahlia
Hanging Basket Begonia
Camellia Begonia
Bluesette Dahlia
Le Castel Dahlia
Rose Form Begonia
Non-Stop Begonia
Ruffled Camelia Begonia
BULBS
bulbs summer flowering
Planting
Variety
Height
Depth/
Spacing
Features
ORCHID
up to 24”
6”/6”
Smaller delicate blossoms; best planted in clumps.
Types available: Charm, Prins Klaus, Charming Beauty, and Elvira in shades from white to deep pink.
LANDSCAPE
36”-42”
6”/6”
Need no staking; perfect for small-scale gardens.
Types available: Coral Seas (soft coral); Award (pink); Florida (yellow with red blotch); High Seas (lavender)
Land O’ Lakes (magenta with white stripes); Norseman (brilliant red); Sunbold (golden yellow); White Wings (white)
POPULAR 48”-60”
6”/6”
Excellent cut flowers with large blossoms.
VARIETIES
Types available: Glowing Orange; Golden Yellow; Snow White; Vibrant Red; Deep Red; Light Yellow; Peach Parfait; Rosy Pink;
Lavender & White; Pink & Red; White & Red; Yellow & Red
DUTCH HYBRIDS
48”
6”/6”
Extra-large corms; unique colors.
Types available: Flevo Eyes (white with raspberry blotch); Don Juan (raspberry red with white throat);
Flevo Safari (Crimson with white brushmark); many more varieties available.
CALIFORNIA
48”
6”/6”
Large flowers in unusual colors.
NOVELTY
GLADS
Types available:
Airborne (rich royal purple); Cloud Nine (begonia pink); Great Lakes (light blue); Mr. Lincoln (rich dark red);
Green with Envy (green); Popcorn (pale yellow with cream edge).
Lilies
Variety
Height
64
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Gladioli
ASIATIC
Types available:
ASIATIC PIXIE
Types available:
ORIENTAL
Types available:
FAIRDALE HYBRID
DWARF ORIENTAL
LILIES
Types available:
Planting
Depth/Features
Spacing
36”-48”
6”-10”/12”
Reliably hardy; earliest of the lilies to come into bloom.
Pair of Giraffes ( orange with red spots); Chianti (vintage pink); La Toya (magenta purple);
Marseilles (pretty pink & white); many more varieties available!
12”
6”-10”/12”
Can be used as an annual when planted in pots
Great in perennial garden.
Butter Pixie (primrose yellow); Crimson Pixie (bright red); Denia (soft cherry pink); Orange Pixie (orange)
up to 48”
6”-10”/12”
Large, beautifully fragrant flowers; full sun to part shade.
Favorite of florists; usually the last to bloom.
Arena (Huge white flowers with yellow markings); Cascablanca (white); Tom Pounce (pink petals with white)
Starfighter (wine red edged in white with burgundy spotting); Stargazer ( bright red to pink with white margins)
18”
6”-10”/12”
Good for pot culture; very fragrant.
Gold Nymph: (white petals with yellow stripes and spots); Pink Nymph (pink with dark pink spots);
Red Nymph: (pink petals with white edges an dark pink stripes); Silver Nymph (bright silvery white)
Charm Gladiolus
Airborne Gladiolus
Flevo Eyes Gladiolus
Chianti Lily
Stargazer Lily
Elvira Gladiolus
Green With Envy Gladiolus
Popcorn Gladiolus
Acapulco Lily
Casablanca Lily
Variety
Height
TRUMPET
Types available
L.A. HYBRIDS
Types available:
TIGER
Types available:
OTHER
Lilium Citronella
Lilium Rubrum
lilium Tenufolium
36”-48”
Large trumpet shaped fragrant flowers.
Tolerates partial shade.
Regal’ does well in Calgary area.
Golden Splendour (yellow); Pink Perfection (pink); African Queen (yellow with garnet brown markings);
Regal (white with maroon)
40”
6”-10”/12’
Combine the best features of asiatics with longiflorums
Large waxy flowers; subtle fragrance.
Fangio (dark pink); Rodeo (clear pink with fuschia tips); Royal Perfume (deep fiery red)
36”
6”-10”/12”
Garden favorites since Victorian times; very easy to grow.
Broad, slightly recurved petals dotted with black spots.
Tigrinium Splendens (gleaming salmon orange); Tigrinium Rose (rich pink with black dots);
Yellow Star (buttery yellow with black dots); Sweet Surrender (white flowers with maroon dots)
36”-48”
36”-48”
36”-48”
Other
Variety
Planting
Depth/Features
Spacing
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Colors
6”-10”/12”
6”-10”/12”
6”-10”/12”
6”-10”/12”
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
ACIDANTHERA
White with purple
3” deep/
BICOLOR MURILAE
blotch at throat.
6” apart
ANEMONE
White, lavender, blue
3” deep/
pink, or purple
6” apart
BABIANA
Violet, blue, and red
2” deep/
2” apart
BLETILLA STRIATA
White, blue, pink, 1” deep/
amethyst red, purple
4” apart
BRODIAEA SPECIES
Lavender
4” apart
CALADIUM
No flowers but
2” deep/
brilliant leaf color
4” apart
CALLA LILY
White, pink, yellow, 4” deep/
(Zantedeschia species)
rust, various colors
16” apart
BULBS
Lilies
bulbs summer flowering
Lemon yellow with dark brown spots
White and pink
Red and orange
Features
Similar to gladioli, having sword-shaped leaves and flower spikes.
Originally from high mountain regions of East Africa.
Soak tubers overnight then plant in partially shaded moist area.
Many varieties
Flowers similar to freesias; leaves and stems are hairy.
Common name is ‘Baboon Root’.
Terrestrial orchid; grow outside in hanging baskets in summer
Originally from Asia; common name is ‘Chinese Ground Orchid’
Funnel-shaped flowers and narrow leaves; needs full sun.
Flowers after the leaves die down.
Leaf colors in shades of green, white, red, and pink with obvious
veins. Leaves hate wind - plant in a partially shaded, moist,
sheltered area.
Flower bract surrounds central spike covering small, true flowers.
Requires full sun, heavy watering, acid soil, and good drainage.
65
Regal Lily
Golden Splendour Lily
Yellow Star Lily
Tigrinium Splendens Lily
Calla Lily
African Queen Lily
Royal Perfume Lily
Sweet Surrender Lily
Acidanthera Bicolor Murilae
Caladium
BULBS
66
bulbs summer flowering
Other
Variety
Colors
Planting
Depth/
Spacing
all bulbs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Features
CANNA
Orange, red, pink,
3” deep/
Large, dramatic feature at the back of a perennial bed.
or yellow
18”-36” apart Canna will bloom longer if dead flowers are removed.
CHILDANTHUS
Yellow
1” deep/
Fragrant, lily-like flowers in a cluster at the top of a stem.
FRAGRANS
4” apart
Prefers full sun; long-lasting as a cut flower.
COLOCASIA
NA
2”-3” deep/ Grown as an ornamental for its large leaves.
(ELEPHANT EARS)
3’ apart
Plant in partial shade in moist or wet soil near ponds.
CROCOSMIA
Deep orange
2” deep/
Flowers on long branched stems with sword-shaped leaves.
CROCOSMIFLORA
4” apart
Flower spikes make attractive, long-lasting cut flowers.
EUCOMIS SPECIES
Greenish-white barely covered/ Common name is ‘Pineapple Lily’; two foot high flower spike with
6” apart
small star-shaped flowers topped with bracts resembling a pineapple.
GALTONIA CANDICANS
White
6” deep/
Tall spike with fragrant, bell-shaped flowers.
8” apart
Likes warm spots in the garden; common name: ‘Summer Hyacinth’
GLORIOSA
Red & yellow
2” deep/
Tuberous, climbing plant with tendrils on leaves for support.
ROTHSCHILDIANA
one per 6” pot Prefers cool roots and moist soil. Climbs up to 6 feet tall.
HOMERIA COLLINA
Yellow or peach
3” deep/
Two-inch, cup-shaped, fragrant flowers last only a day but stems
4” apart
have many buds opening in succession. Full sun is needed.
HYMENOCALLIS
Creamy white
barely covered/ Fragrant, spider-like flowers hence the common name ‘Spider Lily’.
8” apart
Best suited to a sunny spot - one plant per 5” pot.
IXIA HYBRIDA
Pink, yellow, red, 3” deep/
Long-lasting flowers make excellent cut flowers.
orange, cream, white 2-3” apart Needs full sun; also known as ‘African Corn Lily’.
NERINE
Pink barely covered/ Funnel-shaped flowers with six spreading segments at tips.
8” apart
Needs full sun and ample water.
POLIANTHES TUBEROS
White
barely covered/ Waxy tubular flowers have a powerful fragrance.
5”
Single and double forms available; full sun & good drainage.
RANUNCULUS
White, red, pink, gold, 1”-2” deep/ Requires full sun, and good drainage; several blooms on each stem.
ASIATICUS
range,bronze,picotte
3” apart
Soak corms for an hour before planting.
SPARAXIS TRICOLOR
Yellow, pink, purple
2” deep/
Small funnel-shaped flowers in spike-like clusters.
red, or white
2”-3” apart Full sun, good drainage, keep on the dry side.
SPREKELIA
Crimson
2” deep/
Spectacular 5” flowers resemble a waxy orchid.
FORMOSISSIMA
2”-3” apart Full sun, ample water, and good drainage required.
TIGRIDIA PAVONIA
Orange, yellow, rose, barely covered/ Many of the large cup-shaped flowers are bi-coloured with spots.
crimson, scarlet
6” apart
Leaves form a pleated fan; full sun & good drainage required.
ZEPHYRANTHES
Pink, white
4” deep/
Crocus-shaped flower with needle-like foliage.
CANDIDA
3” apart
Grows best in full sun.
Canna Lily
Colocasia
Nerine
Tigridia Pavonia
Crocosmia
Ranunculus Asiaticus
Zephyranthes Candida
Many fall planted, spring flowering bulbs may be grown
indoors to bloom during winter. Some of the most commonly forced indoor bulbs are small early tulip varieties,
crocuses, daffodils, narcissus, and hyacinths. Pot these
bulbs in a well-drained planting mix and containers with
drainage holes. Plant the bulbs so that they are only half
covered with potting soil. Allow for 1 in. (2.5 cm) or more
of soil below the bulbs. For best results plant bulbs with
the same flowering time in the same container.
Most hardy outdoor bulbs require a cool dormancy
period at 3-10 C (35-50 F) after they are potted. A cold
room or an extra refrigerator can be put into use for this
purpose. However, apples
or cabbages must not be in
the same area since they
release ethylene gas which
will damage the flower buds.
These bulbs require total
darkness during dormancy;
be sure to cover the bulb
pots if they are located in an
unheated porch or daylightexposed area.
The length the cool period
varies depending on the
type and variety of bulb. The
cooling requirements for some of the popular bulbs have
been listed below to help you with choosing compatible
bulbs.
During the cool period keep the soil barely moist; check
every week or so to make sure the soil does not dry out.
If the bulbs are kept too wet they can rot; dust bulbs with
Bulb Dust before planting to prevent such problems.
Hyacinths can be forced in special hyacinth glasses
which are filled with enough water to touch the base of
the bulb. They will still need to be cooled in water-filled
glasses for 10-12 weeks.
Amaryllis (Hippeastrum species)
Firmly pack the soil around the base of the bulb. Keep
the soil only slightly moist until the bulb starts to grow,
thereafter keep the soil evenly moist.
Keep potted amaryllis in a cool place until their roots
are well developed. If you want an early bloom increase
the temperature to 22-25 C (70-75 F) when the leaves
appear. After flower buds form feed these bulbs lightly
with a complete fertilizer every two weeks throughout
the blooming season. After the flowers fade cut them off.
Remove the stems after they die, leaving at least 2 inches
of stem on the bulbs. These plants will now produce
large strap-like leaves. During the summer they need a
sunny location; they may be
put outdoors. Sink the pots into
the ground up to the rim and
fertilize and water them like
you would any sun-loving annual or perennial. Bring them
indoors before the first hard
frost. Gradually reduce the
watering and place the bulbs
in a cool dark room. When the
leaves have withered cut them
off. Allow the bulbs to rest for
several months in a frost-free
dark place until the first signs
of growth appear then repot
the bulbs and repeat the whole process.
Paperwhites (Narcissus tazetta)
These bulbs produce fragrant white daffodil-like flowers with very little effort at all. They cannot be grown
outdoors but are popular indoor-flowering bulbs. They
do not require a cold dormancy period to encourage
blooming. Plant these bulbs in pebbles in a shallow
pan filled with water to just below the top of the pebbles
and they will bloom in a few weeks. Since they cannot
be forced twice they must be discarded after blooming.
Some varieties are:
CHINESE SACRED LILY: white and dark yellow
GRAND SOLEIL D’OR: yellow
ZIVA: white
These bulbs, usually associated with Christmas, can be
easily forced to flower indoors. They produce four to six
large flowers, 8-9 in. (20-22 cm) on thick, hollow stems
in colors of red, salmon, pink, coral, and white with pink
Name of Bulb
stripes.
Crocus
Amaryllis should be planted in August to October for Grape Hyacinth
flowering during the Christmas season. Before planting, Hyacinth
soak the base of the bulb in a shallow dish of lukewarm Iris (dwarf)
water for 12 hours. Pot the bulb in rich sandy soil to which Narcissus
bone meal (or a complete commercial fertilizer (5 ml or Paperwhites
1 tsp) to a 6 in. (15 cm) pot) has been added. Select a Siberian Squill
pot that allows for 1 in. (2.5 cm) of space between the Striped Squill
bulb and the edge of the pot. Set the bulb so that the Tulip
neck and one half of the bulb are above the soil surface.
Cooling Time
(@ 3-10 C)
5-8 weeks
8-10 weeks
10-12 weeks
5-8 weeks
10-12 weeks
See paragraph above
6-10 weeks
6-10 weeks
10-12 weeks
BULBS
bulbs forcing indoors
67
PERENNIALS
perennialsyour questions
Q: What is a perennial?
A: In garden centers perennials are herbaceous plants
that live for at least three years. There are however, some
evergreen perennials like bergenia.
Q: Will perennials flower the first year they are
planted?
A: Generally speaking perennials establish their roots
when first planted and flower the following year. Plants
that bloom early in the season are not likely to bloom in
the garden the year they are planted. Later blooming ones
will have more chance.
Q: When is the best time to plant my perennials?
A: Generally in Alberta we suggest planting after the May
long weekend. Planting before then increases the risk of
your new plants being killed by frost.
Q: How can I have flowers all summer long?
A: Make sure to include plants that flower in spring,
summer and fall as well as long bloomers like blanket
flowers (Gaillardia).
68
Q: Who decides what will be the perennial of the
year?
A: The Perennial Plant Association has a committee that
casts votes to choose one of four selected plants. Criteria
for the plants are: climate types, low maintenance, easy
to propagate, true to seed, and exhibits multiple seasonal
interest.
Q: Which perennials attract butterflies?
A: Asters, blanket flowers (Gaillardia), daylilies
(Hemerocallis), goldenrods (Solidago), and scabiosa
are a few of the many plants butterflies enjoy.
Q: What perennials grow under spruce trees?
A: Look for dry shade plants such as bergenia, goatsbeard
(Aruncus), lady’s mantle (Alchemilla), lamium, lily-ofthe-valley (Convallaria), and snow-on-the-mountain
(Aegopodium) and sweet woodruff (Galium).
Q: Am I limited to Zone 3 Plants?
A: No, zones are guidelines only. There are areas in your
yard that are warmer than Zone 3. You should also mulch
your plants in after the ground is frozen for the winter.
You will never know what you can grow in your garden
until you try.
Q: Why won’t my peony bloom?
A: Don’t expect flowers on a peony in an area that is too
dry or too shady. Newly planted peonies usually will not
bloom for one or two years. Peony crowns must be planted
no shallower than 1” deep and no deeper than 2” below
the surface, any deeper and they will never bloom.
Q: Why won’t my daylily bloom?
A: Plants must be established in good soil; the area must
not be too shady or too dry. Various weather conditions
can reduce blooming. Essentially, daylilies bloom better
some years than others.
Q: Are perennials considered low maintenance?
A: To some degree yes! Many should still be divided
every few years to maintain vigour. Others may be
short-lived but could be allowed to re-seed themselves.
Lower maintenance perennials include balloon flowers
(Platycodon), bleeding hearts (Dicentra), coneflowers
(Echinacea), and peonies (Paeonia).
Q: When can I transplant my iris?
A: Iris plants should be transplanted every 3 to 4 years
(2 to 3 blades per section) just after they finish blooming.
Cut away all soft and rotten pieces, divide into sections.
Replant as soon as possible, with the top of the rhizome
no more than one inch below the soil. Iris will push itself
above the soil.
Q: I have been told that my perennial needs dividing.
What does this mean and how can I do it?
A: Regular dividing of perennials every 3-4 years keeps
the plants healthy and blooming well. Crowding can often
reduce flowering. The best time to divide is early spring
just as the new growth begins to emerge if the plant
blooms in mid-summer or later. If it is spring-blooming
wait until the flowering is finished and then divide. To
divide the plant dig up as much of the root ball as possible
with a spade or a garden fork. Cut the root ball into
approximately 4 in.(10cm) pieces, depending on the size
of the clump. Plant the divided perennials at the same
depth as they were before you dug them up. Ensure that
they get constant moisture when transplanted. When
the top growth begins to show, fertilizer may be applied.
Generally the divided plant will take a year to recover
and eventually surpass its original state. However, if not
divided the plant will gradually fade over time.
Q: Is it a good idea to deadhead my perennials?
A: Removing the spent flowers or forming seed heads is
good practice for some plants as it can encourage further
flowering. If the seed heads have already formed then
scatter the seeds around your garden, some may take –
just be careful when weeding in the spring! For plants like
delphiniums, hollyhocks (Alcea), and foxglove (Digitalis),
leave the seeds to develop and soon you’ll have a thick
bed of flower spikes. These newly seeded perennials can
take over two years to become fully established.
PERENNIALS
perennialsfavorites
Bleeding Heart (Dicentra spectabilis)
These plants produce long, lacy, one-sided clusters of
heart-shaped, rose or red-colored flowers during May and
June. Prune back the ragged foliage after flowering. The
variety ‘Alba’ is a white flowering form. Dwarf bleeding
heart (Dicentra formosa) has feathery leaves and produces
heart-shaped pink flowers during May and June. Plant in
partially shaded or shady locations with some protection
from the wind.
Elephant Ears (Bergina cordifolia)
This is one of the first perennials to emerge in the spring. It
is noted for it’s large green leaves and dainty prink flower
clusters on long slender stems. In the fall, leaves turn an
attractive reddish-bronze. They add interest to the garden
through fall and winter since this plant is an evergreen.
Silver mound (Artemesia schmidtiana ‘Silver
70
and lobed leaves. Open flower spikes arise from the basal leaves to display tiny bell-shaped flowers all summer
long. Available with dark leaves. Plant these perennials
as rock garden or edging plants in partially shaded fertile
locations. The new varieties of coral bells can add stunning
color to your perennial beds; from the shiny black leaves
of ‘Obsidian’ to the striking bright yellow green foliage of
‘Lime Ricky’.
Daylily (Hemerocallis spp.)
These hardy, reliable plants have narrow, basal, and
arching sword-like leaves. They produce long stalked,
funnel-shaped flower clusters from July to September. The
flowers are available in a wide range of colors – cream,
yellow, orange, red, pink, purple, and maroon. Plant these
heat and drought tolerant perennials in sunny, well-drained
locations.
Mound’)
These plants have soft, fern-like silvery gray foliage that
forms a compact mound. This foliage creates a stunning
contrast in the landscape, especially next to evergreen
shrubs. They produce small, inconspicuous white or yellow flowers. Use silvermound as rock garden, accent,
or edging. Plant these perennials in sunny well-drained
locations.
Hostas (Hostas spp.)
Coral Bells (Heuchera spp.)
German or bearded irises have wide, sword-shaped, basal
leaves. They produce six-petalled blossoms (three upright
These plants have mostly basal, long-stalked, rounded,
These perennials are grown primarily for their foliage
value. They form attractive clumps of large, dark green
leaves edged with broad white bands. White or lilac tubular
short flower spikes arise from the compact foliage in late
summer. Plant these perennials in shaded or partially
shaded, moist locations.
Irises (Iris spp.)
and three descending) in early summer. The flowers are
available in a wide range of colors – blue, blue/white,
bronze, pink, purple, red, white, and yellow. Plant in sunny,
well-drained, low-fertile locations.
(2.5cm) below the soil surface. Peonies can be divided in
the spring or fall and are best left in the same location for
five years before dividing. Plant these popular perennials
in sunny, fertile locations.
Dwarf irises are miniature versions of german irises and
are good for rock or border plantings in sunny, well-drained
locations.
Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)
Siberian irises produce slender, delicate, blue or white
blossoms above a mass of grassy leaves in May or June
and are the most shade-tolerant iris.
Lilies (Lilium spp.)
These stately plants have narrow green leaves borne
along many thick, upright stems. They are available in a
wide variety of sizes and colors including orange, pink,
red, white, and yellow. The large flowers are produced on
strong stems, perfect for cutting. Plant these perennials
in sunny or partially shaded locations.
Peonies (Paeonia spp.)
These plants have glossy, dark green, lobed foliage that
remains attractive all summer long. During June, on the
tip of each of their many upright stems, they produce the
well-known, fragrant, double flowers in red, pink, or white.
These flowers make excellent old-fashioned cut flowers.
Plant the root so the eyes are face up and are exactly 1 in.
People are falling in love with the long blooming easy-care
echinacea. Most people know this plant for its health benefits, but it is also a very pretty plant! Similar to rudbeckia,
they have the dark brown centers. New varieties are being introduced faster than you can spell echinacea. Not
only are there the popular purple and white flowers we
all know, but now yellow, orange, pink and mango colors
are available. Echinacea is best planted in full sun and
will tolerate hot, dry areas. Great companion plants are
rudbeckia, salvia, and ornamental grasses.
PERENNIALS
perennialsfavorites
Sedum (Sedum spp.)
This large group of succulent plants are low-growing and
mat-forming. They feature and endless variety of foliage
types and produce star-like flowers in red, pink, purple,
yellow, or white. Plant these perennials as groundcovers in
hot, dry locations. Be sure to contain roots with edging.
71
PERENNIALS
72
Dianthus barbatus
Sweet William
Dicentra spectabilis
Bleeding Heart
Echinacea purpurea
Purple Coneflower
Erigeron speciosus
Fleabane
Gaillardia grandiflora
Blanket Flower
Gentiana acaulis
Gentian
Heliopsis helianthoides
False Sunflower
Hemerocallis ‘Chicago Ruby’
Daylily
Heuchera ‘Chocolate Ruffles’
Coral Bells
Heuchera ‘Palace Purple’
Coral Bells
Heuchera ‘Snowstorm’
Coral Bells
Hosta ‘Francee’
Hosta ‘Frances Williams’
Hosta ‘Golden Tiara’
Digitalis purpurea
Foxglove
Eryngium ‘Sapphire Blue’
Sea Holly
Geranium ‘Johnsons Blue’
Cranesbill
Dianthus delt. ‘Zing Rose’
Dianthus
Eupatorium ‘Chocolate’
Joe Pye Weed
Helictotrichon sempervirens
Blue Oat Grass
Iris germanica ‘China Dragon’
German Bearded Iris
Lavandula ‘Munstead’
Lavender
Leucanthemum ‘Becky’
Shasta Daisy
Lewisia cotyledon
Lewisia
Ligularia ‘The Rocket’
Ligularia
Lilium ‘Lollypop’
Asiatic Lily
Linum perenne
Perennial Flax
Lupinus ‘Russel Hybrid’
Lupine
Lysimachia nummularia
Creeping Jenny
Malva moschata
Musk Mallow
Monarda didyma
Beebalm
Nepeta faasenii
Catmint
Paeonia lactiflora
Peony
Papaver nudicuale
Iceland Poppy
Persicaria bistorta
Fleeceflower
Phlox paniculata
Tall Phlox
Phlox subulata ‘Candy Stripes’
Creeping Phlox
Platycodon grandiflorus
Balloon Flower
Primula auricula
Primrose
PERENNIALS
Hosta ‘Sum & Substance’
73
PERENNIALS
Rudbeckia f. ‘Goldsturm’
Black-Eyed Susan
Salvia nemerosa ‘Maynight’
Sage
Saponaria ocymoides
Soapwort
Scabiosa ‘Butterfly Blue’
Pincushion Flower
Sempervivum x hybrids
Hens & Chicks
Tanacetum coccineum
Painted Daisy
Thymus pseudolanuginosus
Wooly Thyme
Trollius x cultorum
Globeflower
Nepeta ‘Waker’s Low’
74
Veronica spicata
Spike Speedwell
Vinca minor
Periwinkle
PERENNIAL OF THE YEAR
2006 Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Firewitch)
2005 Helleborus x hybridus (Lenten Rose)
2004 Athyrium niponicum
2003 Leucanthemum x superbum ‘Becky’
2002 Phlox ‘David’
2001 Calamagrostis x
acutiflora ‘Karl
Foerster’
2000 Scabiosa columbaria ‘Butterfly Blue’
1999 Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’
1998 Echinacea purpurea ‘Magnus’
1997 Salvia ‘May Night’
Dianthus gratianopolitanus ‘Firewitch’
1996 Penstemon digitalis ‘Husker Red’
1995 Perovskia atriplicifolia
1994 Astilbe ‘Sprite’
1993 Veronica ‘Sunny
Heritage Perennial Profile
Border Blue’
1992 Coreopsis verticillata ‘Moonbeam’
1991 Heuchera micrantha Introduced in 1988 in Europe, Walker’s Low
Catmint has become increasingly popular with
‘Palace Purple’
each passing year due to its lovely blue-violet
1990 Phlox stolonifera
Perennial of the Year
2007
flowers and its long bloom time, attractive greygreen foliage, ease of propagation, lack of pest
or disease problems, and low maintenance
requirements.
This interesting group of landscape plants is finally being
seen and enjoyed in Alberta gardens. Ornamental grasses
are grown for their colorful or striped foliage and showy
seed heads. Grasses look their best when integrated into
the mixed border along with perennials, annuals, shrubs
and evergreens. Low maintenance designs may rely on
ornamental grasses to provide their backbone.
Blue Fescue (Festuca ovina glauca)
Cool season, ht. and spread to 1 ft., hardiness zone 3.
Clumps of fine blue grass; good color contrast plant.
Likes sun. ‘Elijah Blue’ and ‘Skinner’s Blue’ varieties are
available.
Blue Lyme Grass (Elymus glaucus/racemosus)
Warm-season, ht. and spread 3 ft., hardiness zone 3.
Outstanding bright blue foliage color. Fast spreading
clumps are aggressively invasive. Tan colored flower
spikes appear in summer. Bloom time: July - August.
Blue Oat Grass (Helictotrichon sempervirens)
Cool-season, ht.and spread 2-3 ft., hardiness zone 4.
Perfect rounded clumps of intensely blue leaves. This
non-spreader is the best blue grass for general purpose
border use. Tan spikes appear above on graceful arching
stems. Evergreen.
Karl Foerster Grass
(Calamagrostis x acutiflora ’Karl Foerster’)
Cool season, ht. 4-5 ft., spread to 2 ft., hardiness zone
3. Stiff, upright habit. Feathery greenish flower plumes
appear in summer, then change colors until maturing into
stiff wheat-colored spikes, which provide winter interest.
Excellent specimens in borders. 2001 Perennial of the
Year.
B u l b o u s O at G r a s s (Arrhenatherum elatius
bulbosum)
Cool-season, ht. and spread to 1 ft., hardiness zone 2.
Bushy, low clumps of cream and green striped leaves. Tan
color spikes in spring. Combines well with spring bulbs.
Drought tolerant when established.
PERENNIALS
perennialsornamental grasses
Hair Grass (Deschampsia caespitosa)
Cool-season, ht. to 3 ft., spread to 15 in., hardiness zone
4. Clump-forming evergreen grass. Tufts of delicate flowers
appear in early summer, gradually turning darker. Mass
planting for best effect. Bloom time: May - August.
Red Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum)
Warm-season, ht and spread to 3 ft., hardiness zone 3.
Airy clouds of flowers turn into red seed heads. Outstanding
orange fall foliage color. Bloom time: July - August.
Ribbon Grass (Phalaris arundinacea)
Cool-season; hardiness zone 2. Fast spreading
clumps of striped leaves; invasive; variegated varieties
require sunlight for coloration. Good ground cover
yet too aggressive for border or rockery. ‘Picta’
(Gardener’s Garters), ht. 3 ft., green and cream stripes.
‘Rosea’ (Feesey Form), ht. 2 ft., tricolor pink, cream and
green stripes.
75
PERENNIALS
perennialsfor special situations
ALPINE ROCKERY PLANTS
Anemone - Windflower
Arabis - Rock Cress
Armeria - Thrift
Aster - Alpine Aster
Aubrieta - Rock Cress
Campanula - Bellflower
Dianthus - Pink
Gentiana - Gentian
Geranium - Cranesbill
Gypsophila - Baby’s Breath
Heuchera - Coral Bells
Leontopodium - Edelweiss
Papaver - Alpine Poppy
Phlox - Creeping Phlox
Primula - Primrose
Saponaria - Rock Soapwort
Saxifraga - Rockfoil
GROUND COVERS
76
DRY SANDY SOIL
Achillea - Yarrow
Ajuga - Bugleweed
Artemisia - Silver Mound
Coreopsis - Tickseed
Echinops - Globe Thistle
Eupatorium - Joe Pye
Euphorbia - Cushion Spurge
Gaillardia - Blanket Flower
Geranium - Cranesbill
Gypsophila - Baby’s Breath
Linum - Perennial Flax
Lychnis - Maltese Cross
Paeonia - Peony
Papaver - Iceland Poppy
Penstemon - Beard Tongue
Persicaria - Fleeceflower
Rudbeckia - Rudbeckia
Salvia - Sage
Sedum - Stonecrop
Yucca - Yucca
PERENNIALS FOR BUTTERFLIES
Aegopodium - Snow-on-the-Mountain
AND HUMMINGBIRDS
Antennaria - Pussy Toe
Pachysandra - Japanese Spurge
Agastache - Anise-Hyssop
Hesperis - Dame’s Rocket
Arctostaphylos - Kinnikinnick
Paxistima - Cliff Green
Alcea - Hollyhock
Heuchera - Coral Bells
Bergenia - Elephant Ears
Polygonum - Fleece Flower
Allium
Flowering
Onion
Liatris - Blazing Star
Cerastium - Snow-in-Summer Potentilla - Cinquefoil
Anaphalis - Pearly Everlasting Lobelia - Cardinal Flower
Convallaria - Lily of the Valley Saxifraga - Saxifrage
Aquilegia - Columbine
Malva - Mallow
Cornus - Bunchberry
Sedum - Stonecrop
Asclepias - Milkweed
Monarda - Beebalm
Hosta - Plantain lily
Sempervivum -Hens & Chicks
Physostegia - Obedient Plant
Hypericum - St. John’s Wort
Vaccinium - Lingonberry
Aster - Fall Aster
Chelone - Turtlehead
Rudbeckia - Rudbeckia
Lysimachia - Creeping Jenny Vinca - Periwinkle
Coreopsis - Tickseed
Scabiosa - Pincushion Flwr.
Echinacea - Purple Coneflower Sedum - Stonecrop
SHADE OR PART SHADE
Echinops - Globe Thistle
Solidago - Goldenrod
Eupatorium - Joe Pye Weed
Aegopodium - Snow-on-the-Mountain
Shooting Star
Ajuga - Bugleweed
Hosta - Plantain Lily
Aquilegia - Columbine
Iris - Siberian
Astilbe - False Spirea
Lamium - Deadnetttle
Bergenia - Elephant Ears
Lobelia - Cardinal Flower
Brunerra - Bugloss
Myosotis - Forget-Me-Not
Campanula - Bellflower
Polemonium - Jacob’s Ladder
Convallaria - Lily of the Valley
Primula - Primrose
Dicentra - Bleeding Heart
Tradescantia - Spiderwort
Ferns
Vinca - Periwinkle
Geranium - Cranesbill
Viola - Violet
Galium - Sweet Woodruff
Heuchera - Coral Bells
Pachysandra - Japanese Spurge
Cimicifuga - Snakeroot
ACID SOIL
Caltha - Marsh Marigold
Cimicifuga - Snakeroot
Dicentra - Fringed Bleeding Heart
Digitalis - Foxglove
Epimedium - Barrenwort
Gentiana - Gentian
Heuchera - Coral Bells
Lupinus - Lupine
Phlox - Woodland Phlox
Primula - Primrose
Trillium
MOIST SOIL
Aruncus - Goatsbeard
Brunnera - Siberian forget-me-not
Hosta - Plantain Lily
Iris - Japanese; Blue Flag
Lobelia - Cardinal Flower
Lupinus - Lupine
Monarda - Beebalm
Phytostegia- Obiedient plant
Primula - Primrose
Trollius - Globeflower
PERENNIALS OR WEEDS?
Proper management will prevent certain perennials from
becoming a weed problem. Choose the right perennial for
the right place and use each plant’s characteristics to your
advantage whenever possible: ie. plant a self-seeding variety
in a natural or informal area. If you need to control self-seeding
plants, deadhead them regularly and keep your soil covered
with mulch. Periodic division of spreading plants will help slow
them down, as will barriers to stop invasive roots. To learn about
managing specific perennials please feel free to call or come
in and ask questions.
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Aconitum cammarum
48/24 in.
™–˜ 3 green purple July to moist
Bicolor purple and white flower combination.
MONKSHOOD BICOLOR
120/60 cm
white Aug.
soil
Useful for cut flowers or border.
Aconitum napellus
54/24 in.
™–˜ 2 green purple July to moist
Tall sturdy perennial looks good in large
MONKSHOOD
135/60 cm
Aug.
soil
border. Showy spikes of flowers good for cut flowers
Aegopodium podagraria
12/24 in
™–˜ 1 green green- July to moist
Vigorous ground cover with variegated
SNOW-ON-THE-MOUNTAIN 30/60 cm white white Aug.
soil
foliage. Too invasive for the rock garden or border.
Alchemilla mollis
12/24 in.
™–˜ 2 silver yellow June to well-
Scalloped leaves for edging border.
30/60 cm green green July
drained Sprays of flowers used in cut arrangements.
LADY’S MANTLE
Ajuga species
8/18 in.
»–˜
3 bronze purple May to moist
Low ground cover with colored, round leaves.
15/45 cm
June soil
Used for mass planting.
AJUGA-BUGLEWEED
Anemone sylvestris
18/24 in.
™–˜ 2 green white
May to well-
Spreading ground cover with nodding flowers.
ANEMONE-SNOWDROP
45/60 cm
June drained Good cover for spring bulbs.
Aquilegia x hybrida
varies
™–˜ 2 green various May to moist & Popular perennial available in various colors.
COLUMBINE-HYBRIDS
June
drained McKanna Giant has long spur flowers for
cutting
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
6/6 in.
™–˜ 2 green light
May to moist
Native evergreen ground cover.
KINNIKINNICK-BEARBERRY 15/15 cm
pink
June acidic
Low growing plant for acid area under spruce.
Aruncus dioicus
48/56 in.
»–˜
2 green creamy June to moist
Large plant, lacy leaves.
GOATSBEARD-GIANT
120/90 cm
white July Good at waterside.
Aruncus aethusifolius
12/12 in.
»–˜
2 green white June to moist
Beautiful beside a water garden.
GOATSBEARD-DWARF KOREAN 30/30 cm
July
soil
Shorter size for a smaller garden.
Astilbe species
36/30 in.
»–˜
3 green various June to moist
Large showy flower spikes on lacy foliage.
ASTILBE-FALSE SPIREA
90/75 cm
Aug.
soil
Must have moist soil.
Astrantia species
24/18 in.
»–˜
4 green pink, redJune to moist
Starry flowers look like Queen Anne’s lace.
ASTRANTIA-MASTERWORT 60/45 cm
white Aug.
soil
Use in shaded, moist area or as cut flower.
Bergenia cordifolia
18/24 in.
™–˜ 2 green pink
June to moist
Large glossy green leaves turn bronze in fall.
BERGENIA-HEARTLEAF
45/60 cm
white July
soil
Clusters of flowers rise above foliage in spring.
Brunnera macrophylla
18/18 in.
»–˜
2 green blue
May to moist
A true perennial forget-me-not.
FORGET-ME-NOT, SIBERIAN 45/45 cm
June Heart-shaped leaves.
Caltha palustris
12/12 in.
™–˜ 2 green yellow May moist
Buttercup flowers, heart-shaped leaves.
CALTHA-MARSH MARIGOLD 30/30 cm
soil
wonderful, wet, waterside plant.
Snow on the Mountain
Marsh Marigold
Bugleweed
PERENNIALS
perennialsshade & part sun
77
Columbine
Kinnikinnick
PERENNIALS
78
perennialsshade & part sun
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
Names
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Cimicifuga racemosa ‘Brunette’ 72/36 in.
»–˜
4 purple pale
Aug to moist
Lacy purple leaves and
BUGBANE-BRUNETTE
200/90 cm
pink
Sept.
fragrant pale pink flowers.
Cimicifuga simplex 48/36 in.
»–˜
3 light white Sept to moist
White flower in the fall.
BUGBANE-WHITE PEARL
120/90 cm
green Oct.
Convallaria majalis
6/12 in.
™– ˜
1 green white May to well-
Old fashioned, fragrant, bell-shaped flowers.
LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY
15/30 cm June drained Good ground cover for shady areas.
Cornus canadensis
6/8 in.
»–˜
2 green white May to moist
Native ground cover with glossy leaves.
BUNCHBERRY
15/20 cm
June acidicRed berries and fall foliage.
Corydalis flexuosa
12/12 in.
»–˜
4 green yellow June to moist & Long bloomer, self-seeds.
CORYDALIS
30/30 cm
Sept. drained Blue species not as hardy.
Dicentra formosa hybrids
18/12 in.
»–˜
3 green white June to well-
Compact mounds of ferny foliage.
BLEEDING HEART-FERNLEAF45/30 cm
red
Sept. drained Luxuriant red variety blooms all summer.
Dicentra spectabilis
36/24 in.
»–˜
2 green pink
May to well-
Drooping chains of heart-shaped flowers!
BLEEDING HEART
90/60 cm
white June drained Classic shade perennial/old-fashioned
favorite.
Doronicum cordatum
16/12 in.
»–˜
2 green yellow May to moist & Heart-shaped leaves are attractive.
LEOPARD’S BANE
40/30 cm
June drained Showy daisy-like flowers are good for cutting.
Epimedium species
12/12 in.
˜
4 bronzy yellow May to moist
Rare semi-evergreen foliage in various colors.
BARRENWORT 30/30 cm green pink
June soil
Slow spreading ground cover for shaded area.
Galium odoratum
8/24 in.
˜–»
3 green white May to moist
Whorled leaves with aromatic flower clusters.
SWEET WOODRUFF 20/60 cm
July
soil
Excellent ground cover for moist shady area.
Gaultheria procumbens
6/12 in.
»–˜
3 green light
July to moist
Shiny aromatic leaves on this ground cover.
WINTERGREEN
15/30 cm
pink
Aug.
acidic
Pink flowers followed by red edible berries.
Heuchera hybrid
24/18 in.
™– ˜
3dark white June moist-wellLeaves large and ruffled.
CORAL BELLS-Chocolate ruffles 60/45 cmbrown
July
drained Burgundy underneath
Heuchera hybrid
18/12 in.
™– ˜
2 green scarlet June moist-wellBred in Morden Manitoba.
CORAL BELLS-Northern Fire 45/30 cm mottledred
July
drained Flowers high over low foliage.
Heuchera hybrid
18/18 in.
™– ˜
3 deep white June moist-wellLeaves fade to bronze in Summer.
CORAL BELLS-Palace Purple 45/45 cm purple July
drained Plants vary from seed.
Heuchera hybrid
18/12 in.
™– ˜
3 white/ cerise June moist
Very bright, ruffled leaves
CORAL BELLS-SNOW STORM45/30 cm green pink
July
well drained
Elegans
30/48 in.
˜–»
2 blue white July
moist, The original and one of the best large-leafed
HOSTA - SEIBOLDIANA
75/120 cm green
well
true blue hostas; leaves are heavily
drained corrugated.
Hosta
Bleeding Heart
Lily of the Valley
Bunchberry
Sweet Woodruff
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
Hosta var.
24/36 in.
˜–»
2 green lilac
July
moist-well
HOSTA-FRANCEE 60/90 cm white edge
drained
Hosta var.
24/36 in.
˜–»
2 blue white July
moist-well
HOSTA-FRANCES WILLIAMS60/90 cm yellow edge
drained
Hosta var.
14/12 in.
˜–»
2 green purple July
moist-well
HOSTA-GOLDEN TIARA
35/30 cm yellow edge
drained
Hosta var.
24/48 cm ˜–»
2 light mauve August moist-well
HOSTA-HONEYBELLS
60/120 cm green
drained
Hosta var.
30/60 in
»–˜
2 golden lavenderAugust moist-well
HOSTA-SUM & SUBSTANCE 75/150 cm
drained
Iris pseudacorus
48/24 in.
™– ˜
2 green yellow May to moist
IRIS-YELLOW FLAG
120/60 cm
June soil
Lamium maculatum
12/12 in.
˜– ™
2 green pink
May to well-
LAMIUM-DEAD NETTLE
30/30 cm white white Sept. drained
Ligularia ‘Desdemona’
48/18 in.
»–˜
3 purple orange June to moist
Ligularia dentata ‘Othello’
120/45 cm July
soil
LIGULARIA-DESDEMONA
Ligularia stenocephala
6/3 ft.
»–˜
3 purple yellow June to moist
LIGULARIA-THE ROCKET
200/90 cm
July
soil
Lysimachia nummularia
4/18 in.
™– ˜
2 green/ gold
May to moist
CREEPING JENNY
10/45 cm yellow
Aug.
soil
Myosotis sylvatica
8/8 in.
™– ˜
3 green true blueMay to moist
FORGET-ME-NOT-Garden 20/20 cm
pink
June soil
Pachistima canbyi
12/18 in.
»
2 green
acidic
PACHISTIMA-CANBY
30/45 cm
Pachysandra terminalis
8/12 in.
˜
3 green white May
moist
JAPANESE SPURGE
20/30 cm
acidic
Polemonium caeruleum
36/12 in.
™– ˜
2 green bluish May to moist
JACOB’S LADDER
90/30 cm
white July
soil
Polygonatum species
24/12 in.
˜–»
3 green white May to moist
SOLOMON’S SEAL
60/30 cm
June soil
Forget Me Not
Jacob’s Ladder
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Slow Groundcover.
Specimen plant. Very showy.
Edging plant. Fast Grower.
Fragrant flowers. Vigorous
grower.
Slug resistant. Very large
leaves
Attractive at the waterside.
Similar to blue flag Iris.
Attractive ground cover with variegated
foliage.
Huge, rounded, purple leaves.
Tall spikes of orange flowers.
Useful for background of border.
Large, rounded, toothed leaves.
Tall background plant with yellow spikes.
Trailing stems quickly form thick carpet.
Used in hanging baskets or as ground cover.
Showy spring display by self seeding
biennial. Used as under-planting with spring bulbs.
Low growing, broadleaf evergreen.
Suitable ground cover for shady area.
Glossy evergreen foliage for a ground cover. Needs winter protection on the Prairies.
Ladder-like leaflets. Bell-like bluish flowers.
Tall perennial for a shady border.
Graceful stems add exotic touch to shady
area.Delicate bell flowers hang from stems.
Bugleweed
PERENNIALS
perennialsshade & part sun
79
Creeping Jenny
Japanese Spurge
PERENNIALS
80
perennialsshade & part sun
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Primula auricula
8/8 in.
™–˜ 3 green mixed April
moist
Felt-like strawberry shaped leaves.
PRIMROSE-AURICULA
20/20 cm
various to May soil
Wide range of flower colors with yellow eyes.
Good for rock gardens or edging borders.
Primula denticulata
12/10 in.
»–˜
3 green mixed April
moist
Ball shaped flowers in white and lavender
PRIMROSE-DRUMSTICK
30/25 cm
to May soil
shade. Needs snow cover or mulch for winter.
Primula vialii
24/12 in.
˜–»
3 green mauve- May to moist
Gorgeous rocket shaped spikes of flowers in
PRIMROSE-China Pagoda
60/30 cm
pink
July
soil
a dazzling mauve-pink combination.
Primula ‘Wanda’
6/12 in
»–˜
2 green purple April
moist
Double flowers for spectacular spring display.
PRIMROSE-WANDA
15/30 cm
pink
to May soil
Perhaps the hardiest Primrose.
Pulmonaria species
18/12 in.
»–˜
3 green various April
moist
Attractive spotted leaves
LUNGWORT
45/30 cm silver blue
to May soil
Good for mass plantings as ground cover
spots pink
Rodgersia species
4/3 ft.
»–˜
3 purple pink
July
moist
Tinted large leaves; good as tall waterside
RODGERSIA
120/90 cm bronze white
soil
plant. Misty plumes of flowers similar to astilbe.
Tiarella cordifolia
12/12 in.
˜–»
4 green pink
May to moist
Evergreen with bronzy winter color.
FOAMFLOWER
30/30 cm
July
soilLow clumps of foliage with flower sprays.
Trollius x cultorum
36/24 in.
˜–»
2 green orange May to moist
Large round, buttercup flowers and cut
TROLLIUS-Globeflower
90/60 cm
yellow June soil
leaves. Popular in shady border or as cut flowers.
Vinca minor
6/18 in.
˜–»
3 green violet May to well-
Evergreen ground cover with glossy leaves.
VINCA or PERIWINKLE
15/45 cm
white Sept. drained Needs mulch or snow for winter protection.
Viola cornuta
8/12 in.
™–˜ 2 green various May to moist
Excellent for bedding, edging or rock gardens.
VIOLA-Johnny Jump Up
20/30 cm
Sept. soil
Needs mulch or snow for winter protection.
Viola labradorica
6/6 in.
™–˜ 4 purple purple May to moist
Shorter rock garden violet.
VIOLA-Labrador Violet
15/15 cm
Sept. soil
Purple leaves and flowers.
FERNS:
Adiantum pedatum
24/24 in.
˜–»
2 light n/a
n/a
moist
Delicate fronds turn gold in fall.
FERN-Northern Maidenhair 60/60 cm green
Very beautiful.
Athyrium filix-femina
24/24 in.
˜–»
3 bright n/a
n/a
moist
Lacy-looking frond. Creeping rhizome.
FERN-LADY
60/60 cm green
Dryopteris filix-mas
24/24 in.
˜–»
2 dark n/a
n/a
moist
Easy, elegant fern.
FERN-MALE 60/60 cm green
Matteucia struthiopteris
4/2 ft.
˜–»
1 green n/a
n/a
moist
Native has deciduous fronds, edible fiddle
FERN-FIDDLEHEAD/Ostrich 120/60 cm
soil
heads. Good ground cover for shady moist areas.
Cactus
perennial guarantee
Perennial plants are guaranteed to start
growing the first season only.
This guarantee ends with the first fall frost.
No over winter guarantee applies to these
plants.
For more information on our guarantees
please see page 7.
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Achillea ptarmica Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
18/24 in. ™
2 green white
June to well-
45/60 cm
Sept. drained
Achillea hybrids
30/24 in. ™
2 green various June to well-
YARROW-HYBRIDS
70/60 cm
Sept. drained
Achillea tomentosa
8/12 in.
™
2 green yellow May to well-
YARROW-WOOLLY
20/30 cm
July
drained
Aconitum cammarum
48/24 in. ™–˜
3 green purple July to moist
MONKSHOOD-BICOLOR
120/60 cm
white
Aug.
soil
Aconitum napellus
54/24 in. ™–˜
2 green purple July to moist
MONKSHOOD
135/60 cm
pink
Aug.
soil
Aegopodium podagraria
12/24 in ™–˜
1 green green- July to moist
SNOW-on-the-MOUNTAIN
30/60 cm
white white
Aug.
soil
Alcea rosea
84/18 in. ™
2 green mixed July to well-
HOLLYHOCKS
200/45 cm
Aug.
drained
Alchemilla mollis
12/24 in. ™–˜
2 silver yellow June to well-
LADY’S MANTLE
30/60 cm
green green July
drained
Alyssum montanum
8/24 in.
™–»
3 silver yellow May to well- Aurinia saxatilis
20/60 cm
June
drained
ALYSSUM-Basket of Gold Anemone sylvestris
18/24 in. ™–˜
2 green white
May to well-
ANEMONE-SNOWDROP
45/60 cm
June
drained
Antennaria dioica
6/12 in.
™
1 silvery pink
May to well-
ANTENNARIA-Pussy Toes
15/30 cm
June
drained
Anthemis sancti-johannis
18/36 in. ™
2 green yellow June to well-
Anthemis tinctoria 45/90 cm
orange
Aug.
drained
ANTHEMIS-MARGUERITE Aquilegia x hybrida
36/24 in. ™–˜
2 green various May to moist &
COLUMBINE-HYBRIDS
90/60 cm
June
drained
Arabis species
8/24 in.
™
3 green red,pink May to well-
ARABIS-WALLCRESS
20/60 cm
white
June
drained
Armeria pseudarmeria
24/12 in. ™
2 green white
June to well-
ARMERIA-LARGE THRIFT
60/30 cm
red
Aug.
drained
Armeria juniperifolia
6/12 in.
™
3 green pink
May to well-
Armeria maritima ‘Alba’ 15/30 cm
red
July
drained
Armeria ‘Dusseldorf Pride’ white
ARMERIA-THRIFT Artemisia stelleriana
12/30 in. ™
2 silver
well-
ARTEMISIA-Silver Brocade
30/75 cm
drained
Artemisia ludoviciana
36/30 in. ™
3 silver
well-
ARTEMESIA-Valerie Finnis
90/75 cm
drained
Artemisia schmidtiana
12/18 in. ™
1 silver
well-
‘Silver Mound’ 30/45 cm
drained
ARTEMISIA-Silver Mound
Aster alpinus
12/12 in. ™
2 green pink
May to well-
ASTER-ALPINE
30/30 cm
purple June
drained
white
YARROW-Sneezewort
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Similar cut flowers to those of Baby’s
Breath. Inclined to spread so good for massing.
Good for cutting fresh or dried flowers.
Good for mass planting in the border.
Dwarf shorter, earlier blooming yarrow.
Useful rock garden plant.
Bicolor purple & white flower combination.
Useful for cut flowers or border.
Tall sturdy perennial looks good in large
border. Showy spikes of flowers good for cut flowers
Vigorous ground cover with variegated
foliage. Too invasive for the rock garden or border.
Old-fashioned favorite biennial reseeds
itself. Best in back of border because of their stature. Large blooms available in double or single.
Scalloped leaves for edging border.
Sprays of flowers used in cut arrangements.
Good spring blooming rockery plant.
Varying shades of yellow flowers.
Ideal for area where cascading plant is desired.
Spreading ground cover with nodding
flowers. Good cover for spring bulbs.
Forms dense carpet of silvery foliage.
Drought tolerant ground cover.
Hardy, showy members of the daisy family.
Excellent for cutting. Drought tolerant.
Kelwayi has deep yellow flowers.
Popular perennial available in various
colors. McKanna Giant has long spur flowers for cutting.
Spring flowering plant cascades over rocks.
Dead head flowers after blooming.
Taller border strain with various flower
shades. Good for cutting, fresh or dried.
Excellent evergreen with grassy leaves.
Flowers finally fade into papery
everlastings. Suitable rock garden plants.
Also called ‘sea pink’.
Low growing leaves similar to dusty miller.
Excellent for edging or as ground cover.
Silver aromatic foliage.
Drought tolerant plant for dry areas.
One of the most popular perennials!
Fine feathery foliage forms compact mound.
Good for color contrast. Soft to touch.
Short plants display star-shaped daisies.
Ideal for front of border or rockery.
PERENNIALS
perennialsshade & part sun
81
PERENNIALS
82
perennialsshade & part sun
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Aster-novae-angliae
Aster novi-belgi
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
48/36 in. ™
3 green red
Aug. to well-
Taller varieties are excellent for cut flowers.
120/90 cm
pink
Sept. drained New England Asters are best for cutting.
ASTER-FALL purple
Michaelmas Daisies are fall blooming.
Aubrieta hybrids
6/24 in.
™
4 gray- pink, redMay to well-
Popular rock garden plant.
AUBRIETA-ROCKCRESS
15/60 cm
green purple June
drained Foliage cascades over banks and walls.
Bergenia cordifolia
18/24 in. ™–˜ 2 green pink
June to moist
Large glossy green leaves turn bronze in
BERGENIA-HEARTLEAF
45/60 cm
white July
soil
fall. Clusters of flowers rise above foliage in spring.
Campanula medium
36/12 in. ™–»
2 green purple May to well-
Old fashioned favorite with big bellflowers.
BELLS-CANTERBURY
90/30cm
white July
drained Biennial, sometimes self-seeding.
Campanula carpatica
9/12 in.
™–»
2 green purple May to well-
Cup-shaped flowers on compact clumps.
BELLFLOWER-Carpathian
20/30 cm
white June
drained Blue Clips’ is one of our most popular
perennials.
Campanula cochlearifolia
4/12 in.
™–»
2 green purple June to well-
Alpine rockery plant with little bells.
BELLFLOWER-Fairy Thimble
10/30 cm
Aug.
drained Fast spreading plant.
Camp. rotundifolia‘Olympic’
12/12 in. ™–»
2 green lavenderJune to well-
Also called Blue Bell of Scotland.
BELLFLOWER-OLYMPIAN
30/30 cm
Aug.
drained Good in border or as cut flower.
Campanula persicifolia
36/18 in. ™–»
2 green purple June to well-
Showy, taller bellflower blooms longer.
BELLFLOWER-Peachleaf
90/45 cm
white Aug.
drained Strong stems good for cut flowers.
Catananche caerulea
24/12 in. ™
3 gray/ lavenderJuly to well-
Cut papery flower for everlasting dried
CUPID’S DART
60/30 cm
green Aug.
drained flower. Drought resistant plant for hot dry area.
Cerastium tomentosum
12/24 in. ™
2 gray white May to well-
Popular spreading plant. Drought tolerant.
SNOW-IN-SUMMER
30/60 cm
June
drained One of the best ground covers for full sun
light.
Centaurea dealbata
30/24 in. ™
3 gray/ pink- June to well-
Sturdy perennial for the border. Thistle-like
CORNFLOWER-PERSIAN
75/60 cm
green purple Aug.
drained blooms for long lasting cut flowers.
Centaurea macrocephala
4/2 ft
™
2 gray/ gold- June to well-
Good for the back of a border.
CORNFLOWER-GLOBE
120/60 cm
green yellow Aug.
drained Excellent for cutting, fresh or dried.
Centaurea montana
24/24 in. ™
2 gray/ bluish- June to well-
An old-fashioned favorite bluish flower.
BACHELOR’S BUTTON
60/60 cm
green purple Aug.
drained Also known as ‘Mountain Bluet’.
Chrysanthemum morifolium 12/8 in. ™–» 3 green yellow Aug. to well-
Hardier series of mums produces fall
MUMS-MORDEN
30/20 cm
bronze Sept.
drained flowers.
Chrysanthemum parthenium 24/12 in. ™–» 3 green white June to well-
Mum-like daisy flowers are good for cutting.
FEVERFEW
60/30 cm
yellow Sept.
drained Foliage is aromatic. Formerly called
matricaria.
Clematis integrifolia
36/24 in. ™–»
2 green indigo July-
moist-well Sprawls does not vine.
CLEMATIS SOLITARY
90/60 cm
blue
Aug.
drained Dies to ground in winter.
Coreopsis verticillata
36/12 in. ™
4 green yellow June to well-
Bright daisy-like flowers are good for
COREOPSIS-TICKSEED
90/30 cm
gold
Sept.
drained cutting. Varieties with various color shades available. Moonbeam was the 1992
Perennial of the Year.
Delphinium grandiflorum
12/12 in. ™
3 green bluish- June to well-
Dwarf bushy mounds.
DELPHINIUM-BLUE ELF
30/30 cm
purple Aug.
drained Excellent for edging or massing.
Delphinium x elatum
30/24 in. ™
3 green mix
June to well-
Colorful spikes of double flowers for cutting.
DELPHINIUM-Magic Fountain 75/60 cm
July
drained Remove old flowers to induce repeat
blooming.
Dephinium elatum
6/3 ft.
™
2 green bluish- June to well-
Tall colorful spikes of double flwers for
DELPHINIUM-Pacific Giants
1.8/.9 m
violet July
drained cutting. Remove old flowers to induce repeat blooming. Requires staking. Good background to border.
Dianthus gratianopolitanus
2/6 in.
™
3 green pink
May to well-
Dwarf rock garden plant.
DIANTHUS-TINY RUBIES
5/15 cm
June
drained Grassy clumps of foliage.
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Dianthus barbatus
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
24/12 in.
™–» 2 green red, pinkJune to well-
60/30 cm
white Aug.
drained
Dianthus deltoides
8/18 in.
™
2 green pink,red June to well-
DIANTHUS-MAIDEN PINK
20/45 cm
white Aug.
drained
Dianthus gratianopolitanus
12/12 in.
™
2 green pink
June to well-
DIANTHUS-CHEDDAR PINK
30/30 cm
white,redAug. drained
Dianthus plumarius
12/12 in.
™
3 blue/ pink
May to well-
DIANTHUS-CLOVE PINK
30/30 cm
green white
June drained
mix
Diactamnus
36/24 in.
™
2 green white, June to well-
GAS PLANT
90/60 cm
lavender July
drained
Digitalis purpurea
48/18 in.
™–» 4 green purple May to moist &
FOXGLOVE-COMMON
120/45 cm
pink, mixJuly
drained
Digitalis mertonensis
48/18 in.
™–»
4 green pink
June to moist &
FOXGLOVE-PINK
120/45 cm
Aug. drained
Digitalis grandiflora
36/18 in.
™–» 2 green yellow June to moist &
FOXGLOVE-YELLOW
90/45 cm
Aug. drained
Dodecatheon meadia
12/6 in.
»
2 green pink
May to moist
SHOOTING STAR
30/15 cm
June soil
Echinacea purpurea
48/24 in
™
3 green purple July to well-
CONEFLOWER
120/60 cm
white
Sept. drained
Echinops ritro
48/24 in.
™
2 green bluish- June to well-
GLOBE THISTLE
120/60 cm
purple Sept. drained
Erigeron speciosus
30/24 in.
™
2 silver pink
June to well-
FLEABANE
75/60 cm
blue
Aug. drained
Eryngium species
24/12 in.
™
2 green blue
June to well-
SEA HOLLY
60/30 cm
Aug. drained
Eupatorium maculatum
7/3 ft.
™–» 4 purple purple Aug. to moist
EUPATORIUM-Joe Pye Weed 2/1 m.
Sept. soil
Euphorbia polychroma
18/18 in.
™
3 green yellow May to well-
SPURGE-CUSHION
45/45 cm
June drained
Filipendula purpurea
48/24 in.
»
4 green white
Aug. to moist
MEADOWSWEET-Japan
120/60 cm
Sept. soil
Filipendula rubra ‘Venusta’
6/4 ft.
»
3 green pink
Aug. to moist
MEADOWSWEET
1.8/1.2 m
Sept. soil
Fragaria frel ‘Pink Panda’
6/12 in.
™–» 2 green bright May to well-
STRAWBERRY-Pink Panda
15/30 cm
pink
Sept. drained Gaillardia x grandiflora
36/12 in.
™
2 green red eye June to well-
GAILLARDIA-Blanket Flower
90/30 cm
gold tip Sept. drained
Gentiana septemfida
8/24 in.
»
2 green true July to moist
GENTIAN-SEVEN-LOBED
20/60 cm
blue
Sept. soil
Gentiana acaulis
4/12 in.
»™
2 green true May
moist
GENTIAN-STEMLESS
10/30 cm
blue
soil
Geranium sanguineum
18/18 in.
™–» 3 green white
June to well-
GERANIUM-Blood Cranesbill
45/45 cm
pink, red Aug. drained
Geranium dalmaticum
4/6 in.
™–» 3 green pink
May to well-
GERANIUM-DALMATIAN
10/15 cm
July
drained
SWEET WILLIAM
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Classic cottage, self-seeding, biennial plant.
Deadheading increases fragrant cut flowers.
Low spreading mat forming ground cover.
Varieties include popular Flashing Light.
Flowers are sweet scented & good for
cutting. Popular for edging and rockeries.
Bluish grassy-like foliage forms a wide
clump. Carnation type flower is strong clove scented.
Super plant for the sunny border.
Spike-like flowers rise above the foliage.
Large showy spikes of flowers for cutting.
Biennial but self seeds.
Compact foliage. Large tubular flowers.
Good for cutting. True perennial habit.
Wind proof spikes of tubular flowers.
True perennial habit. Good for cutting.
Delicate flowers from a flat rosette of
leaves. Mass planting in shady border.
Long-lasting daisies droop from brown
cone.
Globular blooms for cut & dried flowers.
Tall thistle-like plant for the back of the border.
Excellent cut flower or for summer border.
Pink Jewel is the prettiest variety.
Prickly flowers are good for cutting.
Drought tolerant of hot dry sites.
Large plant with purple flower heads.
Attracts butterflies.
Dome of leaves covered by colored bracts.
Drought-tolerant for hot, dry location.
Fragrant flower clusters have red stamens.
Elegant accent, specimen or waterside plant.
Large flowers on this bold accent plant.
Tall plumed perennial for the back of the border.
Excellent ground cover or in a hanging
basket. Cross of Fragaria and Potentilla has edible fruit.
Daisy-like flowers with contrasting center
eye. ‘Goblin’ & ‘Burgundy’ are two cultivars.
One of the easier gentians to grow.
Plants clump & are good for edging.
Low growing creeping mat is good for
rockery. Light blue flowers in springtime.
Low spreading mound of finely cut leaves.
Useful ground cover available in a few colors.
Alpine rock garden plant.
Dense mounding foliage turns red in fall.
PERENNIALS
perennialsshade & part sun
83
PERENNIALS
84
perennialsshade & part sun
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Geranium macrorrhizum
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
18/18 in.
™–» 2 green pink
June to well-
45/45 cm
July
drained
Geranium x Johnson Blue
24/24 in.
™–» 2 green blue-
June to well-
GERANIUM-Johnson Blue
60/60 cm
violet
Aug. drained
Geranium endressii
24/24 in.
™–» 3 green pink-
June to well-
GERANIUM-Wargrave Pink
60/60 cm
salmon Aug. drained
Geum x ‘Borisii’
12/12 in.
™–» 3 green orange May to well-
GEUM-DWARF AVENS
30/30 cm
June drained
Goniolimon tataricum
16/12 in. ™
2 green light
July to well-
STATICE-GERMAN
40/30 cm
pink
Aug.
drained
Gypsophila paniculata
36/24 in. ™–»
2 green white June to well-
BABY’S BREATH
90/60 cm
pink
July
drained
Gypsophila repens
6/24 in.
™–»
2 green white June to well-
BABY’S BREATH - Creeping 15/60 cm
pink
July
drained
Helenium autumnale 48/24 in. ™
3 green yellow July to well-
HELENIUM-SNEEZEWEED
120/60 cm
red
Aug.
drained
Heliopsis helianthoides
48/24 in. ™
2 green yellow July to well-
HELIOPSIS-False Sunflower
120/60 cm
Sept.
drained
Helianthemum nummularium 12/24 in. ™
4 gray- various June to well-
ROCK or SUN ROSE
30/60 cm
green
Sept.
drained
Hesperis matronalis
36/12 in. ™–»
2 green purple June to well-
SWEET ROCKET
90/30 cm
July
drained
Hemerocallis x hybrida
36/24 in. ™–»
2 green various July to well-
DAYLILY
90/60 cm Aug.
drained
Hemerocalis var.
16/16 in. ™–»
2 green canary June- well-
DAYLILLY-HAPPY RETURNS
40/40 cm
yellow Sept.
drained
Hemerocallis ‘Stella D’Oro’
18/18 in. ™–»
2 green yellow June to well-
DAYLILY-STELLA D’ORO
45/45 cm
Sept.
drained
Heuchera hybrid
24/18 in. ™–»
3 dark white June
moist-well
CORAL BELLS-Chocolate ruffles 60/45 cm
brown
July
drained
Heuchera hybrid
18/12 in. ™–»
2 green scarlet June
moist-well
CORAL BELLS-Northern Fire
45/30 cm
mottled red
July
drained
Heuchera hybrid
18/18 in. ™–»
3 deep white June
moist-well
CORAL BELLS-Palace Purple 45/45 cm
purple July
drained
Heuchera hybrid
18/12 in. ™–»
3 white/ cerise June
moist-well
CORAL BELLS-SNOW STORM
45/30 cm
green pink
July
drained
Iberis sempervirens
10/36 in. »–˜
3 green white May to well-
IBERIS-CANDY TUFT
25/90 cm
June
drained
Iris setosa
8/12 in.
™
2 green lavenderMay to well-
IRIS-ARCTIC
20/30 cm
June
drained
Iris pumila
8/12 in.
™
2 green purple May to well-
IRIS-DWARF BEARDED
20/30 cm
pink
June
drained
yellow
white
Iris germanica
30/18 in. ™
3 green purple May to well-
IRIS-GERMAN BEARDED
75/45 cm
pink
June
drained
yellow
bronze
GERANIUM-INGWERSEN
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Fragrant leaves form dense ground cover.
Heat tolerant. Good fall foliage color.
Popular geranium with large bluish flowers.
Good vigorous border plant type.
Good vigorous ground cover.
Shiny evergreen leaves.
Rare, bright orange flowers good for cutting.
Compact plant for edging or rockery.
Grown for cut or everlasting dried flowers.
Foliage forms basal rosette of leaves.
Bristol Ferry is a suggested variety.
Delicate flowers for fresh or dried bouquets.
Low creeping mat for edging or rock
gardens. Misty clouds of blooms.
Bright daisy-like flowers excellent for cutting
Moisture loving plant for the summer border.
Large, long blooming, daisy-like flowers.
Strong sturdy stems are good for cutting.
Available in single or double flowering
forms. Good for edging and rockery. Mulch in winter.
Fragrant flowers resemble Summer Phlox.
Old-fashioned garden plant for the border.
Plants form sturdy clumps of grassy foliage.
Lily shaped flowers bloom in long
succession.
Prolific repeat bloomer.
Flowers have slight fragrance
Popular compact dwarf.
Longer blooming period.
Leaves large and ruffled.
Burgundy underneath
Bred in Morden Manitoba.
Flowers high over low foliage.
Leaves fade to bronze in Summer.
Plants vary from seed.
Very bright, ruffled leaves
Evergreen foliage forms compact ground
cover. Good for rock gardens or front of border.
Compact clump with narrow leaves.
Hardy species for edging border.
Old-fashioned favorite flower in showy
display. Available in separate colors &
named varieties. Also varieties available as
bare root rhizome in the bulb department in August.
Old-fashioned favorite flower in showy
display. Available in separate colors &
named varieties. Also varieties available as
bare root rhizome in the bulb department in August.
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Iris ensata
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
48/18 in. ™–»
4 green various June to moist
120/45 cm
July
soil
Iris sibirica
36/24 in. ™
2 green purple May to well-
IRIS-SIBERIAN
90/60 cm
white June
drained
Iris pallida
24/12 in. ™
3 gold- lavenderJune to well-
IRIS-SWEET
60/30 cm
green
July
drained
Iris pseudacorus
48/24 in. ™–˜ 2 green yellow May to moist
IRIS-YELLOW FLAG
120/60 cm
June
soil
Lamium maculatum
12/12 in. ™
2 green pink
May to well-
LAMIUM-DEAD NETTLE 30/30 cm
white white Sept.
drained
silver
Lathyrus latifolius
8/1 ft.
™
3 green pink- June to well-
PEA-SWEET-Perennial
240/30 cm
purple Sept.
drained
Lavandula angustifolia
16/24 in.
™
4 gray pink
June to well-
LAVENDER-MUNSTEAD
40/60 cm
purple Aug. drained
Leontopodium alpinum
6/10 in.
™
3 gray white
June to well-
EDELWEISS
15/25 cm
July
drained
Leucanthemum X superbum 24/18 in.
™–» 3 green white
June to well-
SHASTA DAISY-’Alaska’
60/45 cm
Sept. drained
Lewisia cotyledon
12/6 in.
™–» 3 green pink
May to well-
LEWISIA
30/15 cm
July
drained
Liatrus spicata
36/18 in.
™
2 green white
July to well-
LIATRUS-BLAZING STAR
90/45 cm
purple Sept. drained
Lilium x hybrida
48/12 in.
»™
2 green wide
June to well -
LILY-ASIATIC
120/30 cm
range July
drained
Lilium x hybrids
72/18 in.
»™
4 green pink, red Aug. to well-
LILY-ORIENTAL
200/45 cm
white
Sept. drained
Lilium lancifolium
60/18 in.
»™
2 green orange June to well-
LILY-TIGER
150/45 cm
July
drained
Limonium latifolium
30/24 in.
™
2 green lavender June to well-
STATICE-Sea Lavender
75/60 cm
Aug. drained
Linum perenne
18/12 in.
™–»
2 green blue
May to well-
FLAX-PERENNIAL
45/30 cm
white
Aug. drained
Lupinus x ‘Russell Hybrid’ 36/24 in.
™–»
3 green purple June to well-
Lupinus x ‘Gallery Series’ 90/60 cm
pink
Aug. drained
LUPINE
yellow
Lysimachia clethroides
36/36 in.
»™
2 green white
July to moist
LOOSESTRIFE-Gooseneck
90/90 cm
Aug. soil
Lychnis species
15/12 in.
™
3 gray- pink
May to well-
CAMPION-Arctic, Moss, Rose 38/30 cm
green
Sept. drained
Lychnis chalcedonica
48/12 in.
™
2 green red
June to well-
MALTESE CROSS
120/30 cm
Aug. drained
Lysimachia punctata
36/24 in.
»™
2 green yellow June to well-
LOOSESTRIFE-YELLOW
90/60 cm
Aug. drained
Macleaya cordata
6/2 ft.
™–» 2 blue- cream July to moist
POPPY-PLUME
200/60 cm
green
Aug. soil
Malva moschata
36/18 in.
™–» 3 green pink
July to well-
MALLOW-MUSK
90/45 cm
Sept. drained
Monarda didyma
36/18 in.
™
3 green purple June to moist
BEEBALM-BERGAMOT
90/45 cm
pink, red July
soil
white
IRIS-JAPANESE
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Flowers appear on top of tall grassy clumps.
Suitable waterside plant.
Clumps of grassy leaves look good all
summer. Delicate looking flowers for cutting.
Grown for attractive striped foliage.
Edging border plant.
Attractive at the waterside.
Similar to blue flag Iris.
Attractive ground cover with variegated
foliage.
Native wildflower used as dried everlasting.
Good fresh cut flower.
Fragrant flower spikes & foliage.
Suitable for the herb garden.
Well known rockery plant from Swiss alps.
Woolly flowers used for dried arrangements.
Several cultivars available; not The Ox-eye Daisy. White Daisies with yellow centers good to cut.
Unique alpine rockery plant requires
drainage. Evergreen rosette of fleshy foliage.
Popular as cut flower for tall long lasting
spikes! Beautiful border plant.
Hardier & easier to grow than Oriental or
Tiger. Excellent long lasting cut flower.
Late blooming, fragrant, star-shaped
flowers. Mulching recommended for winter protection.
Old-fashioned favorite perennial.
Superb strong stemmed cut flower.
Grown for cut or everlasting dried flowers.
Drought-tolerant perennial border plant.
Linear leaves with continual blooms.
Sapphire Blue or Diamond White.
Tall spikes of flowers are good for cutting.
Old-fashioned favorite perennial. Dwarf
series available in mix of various colors.
Unique flower spikes bend like a
gooseneck. Foliage has good fall color.
Self-seeding alpine rockery plants. All
arctic, moss & rose species need drainage.
Old fashioned, long-lived, hardy tall plant.
Red flower clusters for cutting or in border.
Upright bushy clumps form a large patch.
Star shaped flowers appear in leafy spikes.
Colorful lobed leaves with cream flower
plumes. Giant unique background plant.
Satiny pink flowers like little Hollyhock.
Musky scented leaves for back of border.
Tall plants with aromatic mint-like foliage.
Thistle-flowers attract bees and butterflies.
Plants are good in border or for cutting.
PERENNIALS
perennialsshade & part sun
85
PERENNIALS
86
perennialsshade & part sun
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Myosotis sylvatica
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
8/8 in.
™–˜
3 green true blue May to moist
Showy spring display by self seeding
20/20 cm
pink
June soil
biennial. Used as under-planting with spring bulbs.
Oenothera missourensis
12/12 in. ™
3 green yellow June to well-
Papery flowers open during daytime.
Oenothera fruticosa 30/30 cm
Aug. drained
Drought tolerant of hot dry areas.
SUNDROPS/EVENING PRIMROSE
Fruticosa has red stems and buds.
Paeonia hybrids
36/36 in. ™
2 green pink
June well-
Old-fashioned favorite with double flowers.
PEONY-DOUBLE
90/90 cm
red
drained
Use rings or hoops to support large flowers.
white
Longest lived & largest flowering perennial!
Paeonia tenuifolia ‘Pena
18/12 in. ™
2 green red
June well-
Rare plant with finely cut leaves.
PEONY-FERNLEAF’
45/30 cm
drained
Delicate double flowers.
Papaver alpinum
8/6 in.
™
3 green mixed May to well-
Dainty poppies with lacy leaves for the
POPPY-ALPINE
20/15 cm
Aug.
drained rockery. Yellow, orange, pink & white
flowers shades.
Meconopsis sp.
48/24 in. »–˜
5 green blue
July
moist,well- Needs winter protection.
POPPY-BLUE HIMALAYAN
120/60 cm
drained,acid Prefers shelter from wind.
Papaver nudicaule
18/12 in. ™–˜ 2 green mixed May to well-
Papery yellow, orange, pink & white flowers!
POPPY-ICELAND
45/30 cm
Sept.
drained Short lived plants but they reseed readily.
Papaver orientale
36/24 in. ™
2 green pink, redMay to well-
Huge flowers and hairy foliage are showy.
POPPY-ORIENTAL
90/60 cm
orange July
drained Excellent border perennial or cut flower!
Penstemon hybrids
36/24 in. ™
4 green various May to well-
Showy tubular flower spikes like snapdragon PENSTEMON-Beard-tongue
90/60 cm
Aug.
drained Taller varieties make good cut flowers.
Persicaria affine
8/24 in.
™–»
3 green red-
June to well-
Low mat of leathery leaves turn red in fall.
FLEECEFLOWER-DWARF
20/60 cm
pink
Aug.
drained Short spikes of flowers fade to pink.
Physostegia virginiana
48/24 in. ™–»
2 green pink
July to moist
Tubular flower spikes make great cut
OBEDIENT PLANT
120/60 cm
white Sept.
soil
flowers. Useful background plant.
Platycodon grandiflorus
30/24 in. ™–»
3 green purple June to well-
Inflated buds pop into balloon-like flowers!
BALLOON FLOWER
75/60 cm
white Aug.
drained Similar to Campanula (Bellflower)
Phlox douglasii
5/18 in
™
2 green pink, redMay
well-
Exotic woody shrub with spectacular
Phlox subulata 12/45 cm
white
drained flowers. Excellent edging & rockery plant.
PHLOX-Creeping or Moss
lavenderCrackerjack is a very popular variety.
Phlox maculata
36/24 in. ™–»
3 green pink
June to moist & Evergreen ground cover with spring flowers.
PHLOX-MEADOW
90/60 cm
white Aug.
drained Flowers are fragrant and good for cutting.
Phlox paniculata
48/30 in. ™
3 green various July to moist & Showy clusters of spectacular flowers.
PHLOX-Tall or Garden
120/75 cm
Sept.
drained Wide range of colors for the border.
Excellent fragrant cut flowers.
Potentilla neum ‘Nana’
4/12 in.
™
3 green yellow May to well-
Low non-spreading alpine rockery plant.
POTENTILLA-ALPINE
10/30 cm
June
drained Buttercup flowers on compact mound.
Potentilla nepalensis
12/12 in. ™
2 green red-
June to well-
Melon red flowers with darker pink centre.
POTENTILLA-Miss Willmott
30/30 cm
pink
Sept.
drained Shear plants back after first flush of flowers.
Perovskia atriplicifolia
4/2 ft.
™
4 gray- blue- July to well-
Long bloomers with Black-eyed Susan
RUSSIAN SAGE
120/60 cm
green violet Sept.
drained flowers. Perennial Plant of the Year in 1995.
Pulsatilla vulgaris
12/12 in. ™–˜ 2 green purple April
well-
Early bloomer with a prairie crocus type
ANEMONE-Pasque Flower
30/30 cm
red
to May drained bloom.
Rheum X hybridum
3/3 ft.
™–»
2 green white May to well-
Hardy perennial vegetable with large leaves.
RHUBARB
1/1 m.
Sept.
drained Sour edible stalks for pies or wine.
Rudbeckia fulgida goldsturm 36/18 in. ™
3 green yellow/ July to well-
Long blooming flowers; Hirta hybrids
BLACK-EYED SUSAN
90/45 cm
orange Sept.
drained self-seed.
Rudbeckia nitida
6/3 ft.
™
2 green yellow July to well-
Enormous plant suitable for back of border.
RUDBECKIA-Gloriosa Daisy
200/90 cm
Sept.
drained Herbstonne has drooping daisies.
Sagina subulata
2/12 in.
»
4 green white May to moist & Creeping moss-like ground cover forms
Sagina subulata ‘Aurea’ 5/30 cm
gold
June
well-
carpet. Good between paving stones.
MOSS-IRISH & SCOTCH
drained Tiny white, star-like flowers. Mulch in winter.
FORGET-ME-NOT-Garden
all perennials listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
Names
Salvia nemerosa
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
24/24 in. ™
3 gray- pink
June to well-
Scented spikes of flowers.
60/60 cm
green violet Aug.
drained Drought tolerant.
Salvia nemerosa ‘May Night’ 24/24 in. ™
3 gray- indigo- May to well-
Perennial Plant of the Year 1997.
SALVIA-MAY NIGHT 60/60 cm
green violet July
drained Aromatic leaves and spike-like flowers.
Saponaria ocymoides
8/18 in.
™
2 green pink
May to well-
Most vigorous trailing rockery or edging
SOAPWORT-ROCK
20/45 cm
June
drained plant. Useful for cascading over rocks and slopes.
Saxifraga arendsii
8/12 in.
»
4 green red, pinkMay to moist & Cup shaped flowers on short stems.
SAXIFRAGE-MOSSY
20/30 cm
white June
drained Excellent evergreen rock garden plant.
Saxifraga urbium
6/12 in.
»
4 green light
May to moist & Low growing alpine rockery plant. Short
SAXIFRAGE-London Pride
15/30 cm
pink
June drained stems of small light pink flowers in spring.
Scabiosa caucasia
30/18 in. ™
2 green white June to well-
Ideal for edging along a shady border.
PINCUSHION FLOWER-DWARF 75/45 cm
Aug. drained
Strong stems for long lasting cut flowers.
Scabiosa columbaria
18/12 in. ™
3 green lavender June to well-
Large globe shaped continuous flowers.
PINCUSHION FLOWER
45/30 cm
blue
Aug. drained
Perennial of the Year 2000.
Sedum x species
6/18 in.
™
3 green various June to well-
Fleshy succulent plants with various colors.
SEDUM-Dwarf Stonecrop
15/45 cm purple yellow Aug. drained
Spreading, drought tolerant ground covers.
Sedum spectabile
24/24 in. ™
3 green pink
Aug. to well-
Succulent plants with upright growth habit.
SEDUM-Tall Stonecrop 60/60 cm
Sept. drained
Autumn Joy and Brilliant provide pink fall color.
Sedum spurium
6/18 in.
™
3 green various June to well-
Succulent evergreen ground cover.
SEDUM-Dragon’s Blood
15/45 cm
red
Aug. drained
Various colored flowers and foliage.
Sempervivum x Hybrids
6/12 in.
™–»
2 green pink
June to well-
Succulents with evergreen rosettes of
HENS AND CHICKS
15/30 cm purple red
Aug. drained
leaves. Useful for edging & rock gardens.
gray
Star shaped flowers rise up on stalks.
Sidalcea malviflora x cultorum 36/18 in. ™–»
4 green pink
June to well-
Elegant long spikes of satiny flowers for
MALLOW-Prairie/Checker
90/45 cm
Aug. drained
cutting. Party Girl is a mixture of various pink shades.
Solidago species
36/12 in. ™–»
2 green gold-
Aug. well-
Cultivated native wild flower.
GOLDENROD
90/30 cm
yellow
drained
Golden-yellow flower plumes.
Stachys byzantina
18/12 in. ™–»
3 silver pink
June well-
Spreading mat of silver woolly leaves.
LAMB’S EAR
45/30 cm
drained
Drought tolerant edging plant or ground cover.
Tanacetum coccineum
30/18 in. ™
2 green rose-
June to well-
Old-fashioned cut flower with ferny foliage.
PAINTED DAISY/Pyrethrum
75/45 cm
pink
July
drained
Deadhead regularly to increase flowering.
Thalictrum aquilegifolium
36/24 in. ™–»
3 green mauve May to moist
Cut leaves closely resemble Columbine.
MEADOW RUE
90/60 cm
white June soil
Fluffy flower sprays are used for cutting.
Thalictrum delavayi
60/24 in. ™–»
3 green purple June to moist
Airy sprays of double flowers & lacy foliage.
MEADOW RUE-Double
150/60 cm
Aug. soil
Tall background plant for cutting.
Thymus x citriodorus
6/12 in.
™
3 gold red
June to well-
Aromatic, excellent edging or rockery plants
Thymus praecox 15/30 cm silver lavender July
drained
Lemon thyme has lemon scented leaves.
Thymus pseudolanuginosus green white
Creeping thyme is a good ground cover.
Thymus serpyllum gray pink
Woolly thyme forms a vigorous mat.
THYMUS-THYME green purple
Mother-of-thyme is a much loved carpeter.
Tradescantia X andersoniana 24/24 in. ™–»
3 green various June to moist
Grassy foliage with showy triangular
SPIDERWORT
60/60 cm
Aug. soil
flowers.Plant in diagonal drifts in the border.
Verbascum phoeniceum
48/12 in. ™
4 silver mixed June to well-
Unique daisy flowers with red on the back.
MULLEIN-PURPLE
120/30 cm
Aug. drained
Suitable for grouping in the border.
Veronica allioni
6/12 in.
™–»
2 green blue-
June to well-
Attractive compact flower spikes.
VERONICA-Alpine
15/30 cm
violet Aug. drained
Excellent edging or alpine rockery plant.
Veronica repens
2/12 in.
™–»
2 gray- white May to well-
Low creeping carpet with spring flowers.
VERONICA-CREEPING
5/30 cm green
June drained
Good ground cover or rock garden plant.
Veronica spicata
24/12 in. ™
2 green blue
June to well-
Border plant with long-lasting flower spikes.
VERONICA-Spike Speedwell
60/30 cm
pink
Aug. drained
Red Fox is good for cut flowers.
SALVIA-SAGE
PERENNIALS
perennialsshade & part sun
87
PERENNIALS
perennialsshade & part sun
Names
Veronica spicata incana
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
18/18 in. ™
2 silver blue-
June to well-
45/45 cm
violet July
drained
Veronica ‘Sunny Border Blue’ 24/12 in. ™
3 green blue
June to well-
VERONICA-Sun. Border Blue 60/30 cm
Sept. drained
Yucca glauca 24/18 in. ™
3 green white July
well-
YUCCA
60/45 cm
drained
VERONICA-WOOLLY
perennialsgrasses
Names
Arrhenatherum bulbosum
‘Variegatus’ 88
Silver woolly foliage with flower spikes.
Excellent for edging or mass planting in border.
1993 Perennial Plant of the Year.
Long blooming spikes for cut flowers.
Succulent, evergreen, narrow, stiff leaves.
Native. Extremely drought tolerant in hot, dry, sun area.
Z
Height/ Light o Leaf Flower Bloom Soil
n Color Color Time Moisture Features/Uses
Spread
e
18/12 in. ™–» 3 cream tan
June
well-
45/30 cm
green
drained
GRASS-BULBOUS OAT
Calamagrostis ‘Karl Foerster’ 42/24 in. ™–» 3 white gold June to well-
GRASS - KARL FOERSTER
100/60 cm
green
Sept.
drained
Festuca glauca
12/12 in. ™–» 3 blue tan
May to well-
GRASS-BLUE FESCUE
30/30 cm
June
drained
Helictotrichon sempervirens 36/24 in. ™
3 blue tan
May to well-
GRASS-BLUE OAT
90/60 cm
July
drained
Panicum virgatum
36/24 in. ™
3 green white July to well-
GRASS-RED SWITCH
90/60 cm
Aug.
drained
Phalaris arundinacea
36/24 in. ™
2 white tan
June to moist &
GRASS-RIBBON
90/60 cm
green
July
drained
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Clumps of cream & green striped leaves.
Combines well with bulbs in spring.
Variegated form is a colorful variety.
Foliage is boldly striped in white and green.
Perennial Plant of the Year 2001
Clump forming with fine textured leaves.
Elijah Blue is the best & brightest selection.
Round clump of intense blue leaves.
Evergreen cool-season grass.
Airy flowers turn into red seed heads.
Outstanding orange fall foliage color.
Spreading clumps striped with various
colors. Useful, hardy ground cover.
Warsaw Nike
Alpine Odorata
PERENNIALS
perennialsclematis photos
Edvard Andre
Nelly Moser
Rouge Cardinal
89
Jackmanii
Tangutica
Ville de Lyon
Romantika
Zoin
PERENNIALS
perennials vines
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Names
Height Spread Light Zone Pruning Flower Features
Shade
˜
Group Color
Celastrus scandens
7 ft.
2 m.
3 ft.
™»
4
n/a
White
1 m.
Produces red seed capsules in fall if both male
(Hercules)and female(Diana) plants are planted.
Clematis alpina 'Odorata'
7ft
3ft
Mid to light blue, scented flowers
CLEMATIS - Odorata
2m
1m
7 ft
3ft
2m
1m
Blooms later in season; good for cut flowers
Clematis integrifolia 'Blueboy'
7 ft.
2 m.
3 ft.
™»
3
C
Blue
1 m.
Steel blue, nodding flowers in summer.
Clematis cross bred in Morden, Manitoba.
Clematis 'Jackmanii'
10 ft.
3 m.
9 ft
3 ft.
™»
3
C Purple Purple flowers in summer on current, new wood.
1 m.
Popular cultivar. Prune to ground level in spring.
3ft
™»
3
C
Dark Blue New variety from the Soviet Union
AMERICAN BITTERSWEET
Clematis Inspiration 'Zoin'
CLEMATIS - Zoin
CLEMATIS - Blueboy
CLEMATIS - Jackman
CLEMATIS - Romatika
Clematis jackmanii 'Romantika'
™»
™»
3
3
A
C
Blue
Dark Blue Dark blue variety of 'Inspiration'
3m
1m
Light foliage compliments dark blooms
Clematis macropetala 'Bluebird'
10 ft.
3 m.
3 ft.
™»
3
A
Blue
1 m.
Lavender blue flowers in May on one yr. old wood.
Big petal Clematis bred for Canadian Prairies.
Clematis 'Rouge Cardinal'
10 ft.
3 m.
3 ft.
™»
3
C
Red
1 m.
Cardinal crimson flowers in summer on new
wood.
Clematis tangutica
10 ft.
3 m.
3 ft.
™»
2
C
1 m.
Clematis 'Ville de Lyon'
10 ft.
3 m.
3 ft.
™»
3
C
Red
1 m.
Carmine red flowers in summer on current wood.
Clematis viticella
10 ft.
3 m.
3 ft.
™»
3
C
1 m.
Deep purple flowers in summer on new wood.
Humulus lupulus
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
™»
2
n/a
Green
2 m.
CLEMATIS - Bluebird
CLEMATIS - Rouge Cardinal
CLEMATIS - Golden
CLEMATIS - Ville de Lyon
CLEMATIS - Etoile Violette
HOPS
Golden Golden yellow, nodding flowers on new wood.
Yellow Tough, vigorous plant with fluffy seed heads.
Purple
Lonicera x ‘Dropmore Scarlet’
90
Flowers early in year; attractive seed heads
10 ft. 3 ft.
™»
2
n/a
Red
3 m.
1 m.
Dropmore Scarlet
HONEYSUCKLE- Fast growing, hardy vine grown for making beer.
Useful screening plant that requires support.
Scarlet tubular flowers attract hummingbirds.
Best summer flowering, woody vine for Alberta.
Rresistant to Honeysuckle aphid.
Lonicera x brownii 'Mandarin'
20 ft.
6 m.
7 ft.
™»
2
n/a
2 m.
Parthenocissus ‘Englemanii’
20 ft.
6 m.
3 ft.
™»
3
n/a
White
1 m.
Self-clinging variety that does not need support.
Attractive green leaves turn to brilliant red in fall.
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
20 ft.
6 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
3 ft.
™»
2
n/a
White
1 m.
3 ft.
™»
4
n/a
White 1 m. Requires trellis, fence or other support structure.
Attractive green leaves turn to brilliant red in fall.
Early red, seedless berries for juice, jelly or wine.
Self pollinating but 2 varieties produce more fruit.
Vitis x ‘Concord’
7 ft.
2 m.
3 ft.
™»
4
n/a
White
1 m.
Blue berries used primarily for fresh grape juice.
Most popular widely grown grape in north america.
Vitis x ‘Interlaken’
7 ft.
2 m.
3 ft.
™»
4
n/a
White
1 m.
Golden green, early ripening, seedless berries.
Cross of Thompson Seedless for white wine.
Vitis x ‘Steuben’ 7 ft.
2 m.
3 ft.
™»
4
n/a White
1 m.
Purplish-blue berries used for juice or jelly.
Good for table grape or making red wine.
Vitis x 'Valiant'
7 ft.
2 m.
3 ft.
™»
3
n/a
White
1 m.
Early blue berries on a vigorous annual producer.
Hardier grape for the Prairies; used for jelly.
HONEYSUCKLE - Mandarin
ENGLEMAN IVY
VIRGINIA CREEPER
GRAPE - Canadice
Vitis x ‘Canadice’ GRAPE - Concord
GRAPE - Interlaken
GRAPE - Steuben
GRAPE - Valiant
Orange Orange tubular flowers attract hummingbirds.
Resistant to honeysuckle aphids.
Group A
Flowers in spring on woody stems produced the previous season. Prune out weak or dead stems just after blooming is
finished, usually in June. Choose hardy cultivars of Clematis alpina & Clematis macropetala.
Group B
Clematis in the B1 pruning group are generally not hardy in zone 3. For group B2, most blooming usually occurs on
new growth. Use pruning method for Group C.
Group C
Blooms on current season’s growth. Many hardy varieties are available. Prune back in spring to about 1 ft. (30cm).
Leave 2 strong sets of buds per stem. This produces more flowers along the full length of the plant. Prune out weak or
dead stems when you see them.
PERENNIALS
perennialsplanting a clematis
91
Q: Which houseplants should I choose for a hot, sunny
area in my house?
A: Direct sunlight can cause damage to many house
plants. Choose thick-leaved plants such as jade plants,
aloe vera, and a wide variety of cacti all of which tolerate
sun.
through fall.
Q: Which plants “clean the air”?
A: Not only do plants create atmosphere in our homes,
they also help purify the air. Some plants that are proven to
be effective are: spider plant, pot mum, peace lily, dragon
tree and gerbera daisy.
Q: Which houseplants should I choose for an area
with low light?
A: Low light is referred as an area that receives little or no
sunlight, such as north facing windows. Many plants such
as peace lily and chinese evergreen will do well.
Q: Can I take cuttings from my plants?
A: There are several ways to start new plants from your
existing ones. Taking cuttings, root division and air layering
can all be tried depending on the type of plant.
Q: How do I get my hibiscus to re-flower?
A: From spring to fall provide direct sunlight and feed with
a fertilizer such as 15-30-15.
Q: When and how should I repot my houseplants?
A: Spring is the best time to repot as plants are starting
to grow. Choose a container up to 1 in. (5 cm) in diameter
larger (with drainage holes). Use a good all purpose
potting soil.
Q: Small black flies appear to be around my plants.
What are they? How should I treat them?
A: The fungus gnat larvae begins its life in the top layer of
soil, feeding on dead organic matter, and then develop into
a small black fly. Gnats prefer moist conditions, so keeping
soil on the dry side is a good preventive messure. If this
does not work apply predatory mites (Hypoapsis Mites
- more info in the Pests and Problems section) to your
plants. Be sure to follow the instructions on the label.
Q: What fertilizer should I use for my plants?
A: An all-purpose fertilizer such as 20-20-20 or 15-3015 is appropriate for all indoor plants. The best time to
fertilize is during the active growing season which is spring
Q: How often should I water my plants? What are the
best ways to water my plants?
A: Many factors influence the water needs of plants,
including light, temperature, size of pot and type of
plant. Make sure to know your plants’ needs and water
thoroughly then allow the soil to become as dry as that
type of plant can tolerate.
Q: What are the common pests I should watch for on
my plants?
A: Some common indoor pests include spider mite, aphids,
scale and whitefly which are generally located on leaves
and stems. A thorough inspection when watering your
plants will keep problems to a minimum.
Q: Which common tropicals are poisonous?
A: The main poisonous houseplants are anthurium,
cyclamen tubers, dieffenbachia, english ivy, hydrangea,
mistletoe, and oleander among others. For further
information check the Canadian poisonous plants
information system website at:
(http://sis.Agr.Gc.Ca/pls/pp/poison?P_x=px)
Or call the 24 hour Calgary emergency poison control
hotline at 670-1414.
HOUSEPLANTS
houseplantsyour questions
93
HOUSEPLANTS
houseplants light
Lighting is a crucial consideration in the choice of plant
material for either indoor or outdoor locations. Adequate
light is required for photosynthesis. Flowering plants
that need a high light level to flower such as outdoor
roses or peonies; or indoor hibiscus or oleander, won't
flower in low light conditions. Plants that prefer partial
shade such as bleeding heart, cedar, and cranberry will
not perform as well in full sunlight.
Aspects of Light:
1. Intensity - brightness or level of light
2. Duration - day length or photoperiod
3. Quality - color of light
Light Intensity:
Light intensity, the brightness or light level, is accurately
measured with a light meter. The units of measurement
are either foot-candles (British system) or lux (metric
system). Light intensity is the limiting factor in growing
plants indoors. Plants with variegated or colored leaves
generally need more light because photosynthesis does
not occur in these leaf surface areas. Artificial light may
provide the necessary additional light for these plants.
94
Light Duration:
Light duration, the length of daylight or photoperiod,
affects the flowering capability of certain plants. There
are three types of plants according to their flowering
response to day length: Short Day, Long Day and Indeterminate.
Short Day Plants:
These indoor plants require less than twelve hours of
light per day in order to initiate flower buds. If inadvertently given more light the flower buds will not develop.
They all flower in the winter months around Christmas
time.
Christmas Cactus
Chrysanthemum
Kalanchoe
Poinsettia
Light Quality:
Light quality refers to the color of light. White light,
which is actually a combination of all of the colors, is
best for plants. Red light is important for photosynthesis
and photoperiodism. Plants absorb red light and reflect
green light which is why most plants have a green leaf
color.
Orientation Toward Sunlight:
Orientation toward south or west sunlight either inside
or outdoors provides high light or full sunlight conditions. Conversely, plants situated in east or north
windows or on the east or north side of a house receive
lower levels of sunlight. The angle of sunlight during different seasons of the year is also a consideration for the
light requirement of plants.
High Light Houseplants:
These house plants require high light levels. They prefer
the bright direct sunlight of south or west windows.
Aloe, Agave, etc. - succulents
Cereus, Euphorbia, etc. - cacti
Citrus - calamondin orange, etc.
Codiaeum - croton
Crassula - jade plant
Hibiscus - rose of China
Hoya - wax plant
Kalanchoe - flaming Katy
Nerium - oleander
Yucca - spineless yucca
Low Light Houseplants:
Certain house plants, usually ones with larger leaves to
trap more light, tolerate lower light levels than others.
They may be situated in a north or east window and
include:
Aglaonema - Chinese evergreen
Aspidistra - cast iron plant
Homalomena - emerald gem
Monstera - split-leaf philodendron
Philodendron - heart- leaf, selloum or Xanadu
Sansevieria - snake plant
Spathiphyllum - peace lily
Houseplants for Children:
These indoor house plants offer unique or interesting
features or characteristics to children:
Chlorophytum - spider plant - has hanging plantlets
Kalanchoe tomentosa - panda plant - has fuzzy leaves
all houseplants listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
NAMES
LIGHT
WATER
FLOWERS/FOLIAGE FEATURES/CULTURE
AIR PLANT
Bright filtered sunlight Mist frequently to
Colored, long lived
Plant absorbs moisture from air!
Tillandsia species
increase humidity.
flowers. Rosette of Epiphytic bromeliad in wild grows on narrow leaves.
trees.
Aloe-medicine
Bright direct sunlight Allow soil to dry out
Narrow fleshy, Medicinally used to treat burns.
Aloe vera
thoroughly before watering.succulent leaves.
Useful plant to have in your home.
Aralia-Balfour
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry outVariegated round leaves.Foliage plant.
Polyscias balfouriana
slightly before watering. Extra humidity is beneficial.
Aralia-False
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry out Compound leaves with Delicate elegant slender foliage.
Dizygotheca elegantissimaslightly before watering. dark slender leaflets.
Unique leaf shape & color.
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil moist in summer. Compound glossy
Prefers cool well ventilated area in
Aralia-Japanese
Fatsia japonica
Reduce watering in winter. lobed leaflets.
winter. Keep leaves free of dust.
Aralia-Ming
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry out
Named after Ming dynasty in China.
Polyscias fruticosa elegans
slightly before watering.
Delicate elegant foliage Extra humidity is beneficial.
Aralia-PARSLEY
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry outDelicate, dark
Shrub with aromatic, lacy leaves.
Polyscias fruticosa 'Parsley'
slightly before watering.
green leaves.
Extra humidity is beneficial.
Begonia-Rex
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry outDecorative leaves.
Colorful foliage plant.
Begonia rex
before watering. Keep
Many interesting varieties.
leaves dry.
Bird of Paradise Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry out Orange & blue bird-like Flowers after plants are 7 years old.
Strelitzia reginae
before watering.
flower occurs in spring! Prefers to be root-bound.
Reduce watering in winter. Lg. leaves on long stalk. Keep cooler in winter.
Bonsai
According to species Frequent watering.
Foliage pruned to form. Outdoor varieties require cold
Buxus, Ficus, etc.Stunted growth because
treatment. Tropicals are easier to
of restricted rooting.
care for. Examples are fig, boxwood & natal plum.
Bougainvillea
Direct sunlight
Allow soil surface to dry outColored bracts on Excellent climber for direct sunlight
Bougainvillea buttiana
before watering. Reduce in paperyflowers. locations. Woody, climbing shrub.
the winter.
Climbing leaves.
Bromeliads
Bright filtered sunlight Keep cup-like reservoir
Colorful flowers and
Prefer warm temperatures & high
Aechmea, Neoregalia
filled with water.
bracts.Various humidity. To propagate remove and
Stemless rosette of leaves.variegated leaves.
plant offsets.
Aloe vera
Japanese Aralia
Bougainvillea
HOUSEPLANTS
houseplants standing
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Bird of Paradise
HOUSEPLANTS
96
houseplantsstanding
all houseplants listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
NAMES
LIGHT
WATER
FLOWERS/FOLIAGE FEATURES/CULTURE
Bunya Bunya
Bright indirect sunlight Moderately dry Sharp pointed needles. Unique, coniferous evergreen tree.
Araucaria bidwillii
between waterings Shiny foliage.
Cacti
Bright direct sunlight Allow soil to dry out
Various colored flowers. Spines are actually modified leaves.
Cereus, Euphorbia, etc.
thoroughly before watering.
Peruvian tree cactus and milk tree.
Reduce watering in winter.
Well-drained, sandy soil.
Caladium Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist Heart-shaped, paper-thinGrown from tubers.
Caladium x hortulanum
in summer.
leaves ornamented Foliage dies down in fall and goes
Stop watering in fall.
with various colors.
dormant. Commonly called elephant ears
CALATHEA
Medium sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Ornate leaves.
Intricately patterned, colorful foliage.
Calathea makoyana
Benefits from extra humidity.
Similar looking & culture as Prayer Plant.
Cast Iron Plant
Medium to low light Allow soil surface to dry out
Tough-as-nails plant for low light and
Aspidistra elatior
thoroughly before watering.Lance-shaped leaves. temp. Requires least care of house
Reduce watering in winter.
plants. Keep leaves free of dust. Avoid wet feet.
China Doll
Bright indirect sunlightKeep soil uniformly moist. Compound leaves with This plant is as pretty as a China doll.
Radermachera sinicaglossy leaflets.
Delicate exquisite foliage.
Chinese EvergreenMedium to low light Allow soil surface to dry out Lance- shaped leaves Several varieties including Silver
Aglaonema commutatum
before watering.
with many variegations Queen. Easy to grow; for home or office.
Citrus
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry outFragrant white flowers. No fertilizer in winter; allow to dry out
Citrus species
before watering.
Glossy green leaves. in winter. Prefers cooler night & winter temperatures.
Croton
Bright direct sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Various leaf colors
Variegated leaves provide indoor
Codiaeum variegatum Extra humidity is beneficial.and shapes
contrast. Keep leaves clean of dust.
DUMB CANE
Medium sunlight Allow soil to dry out
Variegated oblong
Decorative foliage plant.
Dieffenbachia species
before watering.
leaves.
Low maintenance plant tolerates low light Dracaena
Medium sunlight Allow soil to dry out Green or striped,
Janet Craig/warnecki/corn cane/
Dracaena species
before watering.
lance-shaped leaves. marginata. Accent plants used for interior landscapes.
Ferns
Filtered sunlight
Keep soil uniformly moist. Various shaped fronds! Shade tolerant, moisture loving plants.
Asplenium, Pellaea, etc.
Calathea
Croton
Fern
China Doll
Chinese Evergreen
Caladium
all houseplants listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
NAMES
LIGHT
WATER
FLOWERS/FOLIAGE FEATURES/CULTURE
Fig-Weeping
Medium sunlight
Keep soil uniformly moist. Wavy oval leaves.
Ficus benjamina
Flamingo flower Bright filtered sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Red or pink spathes.
Anthurium species
Extra humidity is beneficial. Ovate leathery leaves.
homalomena
Low to med. sunlight Allow soil surface to dry outHeart-shaped leaves.
Homalomena speciesthoroughly before watering. Jade Plant
Bright direct sunlight Allow soil to dry out
Delicate white flowers.
Crassula argentea
thoroughly before watering.Succulent leaves.
Jasmine
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. White fragrant flowers.
Jasminum species
Extra humidity is beneficial.Small leaflets.
Kaffir Lily
Bright filtered sunlightKeep soil uniformly moist Orange funnel-like Clivia miniata
during spring & summer. flowers. Long narrow, glossy leaves.
MONEY TREE
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil to dry out
Elongated leaves.
Pachira
moderatly before watering. 5 per stem.
Palms
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Feathery fronds.
Chamaedorea, Phoenix,
Extra humidity is beneficial.
Chamaerops, Rhapis, etc.Require good drainage.
Palm-PONYTAIL
Bright direct sunlight Allow soil to dry out Arching narrow leaves.
Beaucarnea recurvata
thoroughly before watering.
Passion Flower Bright direct sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Intricate flowers.
Passiflora species
Extra humidity is beneficial.Lobed leaves. Peace Lily
Med to low sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. White spathe on long Spathiphyllum 'Mauna Loa'
stem. Lance-shaped leaves.
Peperomia
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry
Round fleshy leaves. Peperomia species
out thoroughly before
watering.
Philodendron
Low to med sunlight Allow soil surface to dry
Heart-shaped,
Philodendron species
out before watering.
large leaves.
Philodendron-SPLITLow to med sunlight Allow soil surface to dry
Large perforated,
Monstera deliciosa LEAF
out before watering.
split leaves.
Weeping Fig
Jade Plant
Graceful weeping tree. Favorite
foliage plant for interior landscapers.
Long-lasting cut flower of Hawaii.
Similar to Philodendron.
Em gem cultivar is available.
Popular succulent with jade green
leaves. Jades like to be pot-bound.
Several climbing varieties available.
Use on trellis or as a hanging plant.
Prefers to be root bound.
Needs 2 months cool dry, winter rest period.
5 leaves symbolize 5 elements of Feng
shui.
Graceful exotic, tropical foliage plants.
areca, bamboo, date, fan, kentia, & lady.
Many varieties with several leaf shapes.
Swollen stem base stores water.
Not a true palm; actually a succulent.
Unusual flowers.
Beautiful exotic varieties.
Easiest flowering plant for low light
area. Interior landscape plant. Called white flag.
Several species are semi-succulent such
as watermelon, emerald ripple, pepper face.
Many varieties including Selloum and
Xanadu. Easy to grow plants that
tolerate low light.
Plant sends out aerial roots.
Money Tree
HOUSEPLANTS
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Peace Lily
Homalomena
HOUSEPLANTS
98
houseplantsstanding
all houseplants listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
NAMES
LIGHT
WATER
FLOWERS/FOLIAGE FEATURES/CULTURE
Pine-Buddhist
Bright filtered sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Large linear leaves.
Coniferous evergreen tree.
Podocarpus macrophyllus
Requires staking and cool winter temp.
PINE-FERN
Bright filtered sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Linear leaves.
Graceful coniferous evergreen tree.
Podocarpus gracilior
Drooping foliage.
Pine-Norfolk IslandBright indirect sunlightKeep soil uniformly
Soft needles.
Coniferous evergreen with tiered
Araucaria excelsa
branches. Can be decorated as indoor Christmas tree.
Polka Dot PLANT
Bright filtered sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Lavender flowers.
Adds a splash of color to the home or
Hypoestes phyllostachya Pink spots on leaves. office. Prune to retain bushiness.
Rubber Plant
Medium sunlight
Allow soil to dry out Thick oval leaves.
Old-fashioned, sturdy house plant.
Ficus elastica
before watering.
Good drainage. Keep leaves clean.
Schefflera Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry Compound leaves.
Popular foliage plant for interior
Schefflera actinophylla
out before watering. landscapes. Two species are umbrella Schefflera arboricola
tree and Hawaiian. Small tree or large shrub for home or office.
Sensitive Plant
Bright direct sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Compound lacy leaflets. Unique feature of folding leaves if Mimosa pudica
touched. Popular plant with kids to show plants move.
SNAKE PLANT
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry outErect, lance-shaped,
One of the hardiest of all indoor plants.
Sansevieria trifasciata Tolerates mid-low light.thoroughly before watering.variegated rosette
Semi-succulent plants such as bird's Sansevieria zeylanica
Provide good drainage.
of leaves.
nest. Easy to care for, popular plants.
Succulents
Bright direct sunlight Allow soil to dry out
Various colored flowers. Various species of varying forms and
Agave, Aloe,
thoroughly before watering. Fleshy succulent leaves.hangers. Needs cool dry, dormancy Haworthia, etc.
Provide good drainage.
period in winter. Needs well-drained sandy soil. Easy to grow.
TI PLANT
Medium sunlight
Allow soil surface to dry
Variegated,
Hawaiian or Polynesian plant.
Cordyline terminalis
out before watering.
lance-shaped leaves. Similar culture to Dracaena.
Venus Fly Trap Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Rosette of leaves.
Novelty carnivorous plant feeds on
Dionaea muscipula
Extra humidity is required.
insects. 'Mouths' do not reopen once closed.
Yucca
Bright direct sunlight Allow soil surface to dry Lance-shaped leaves. Durable plant tolerates adverse
Yucca elephantipes
out thoroughly before conditions. Evergreen accent or
watering.
specimen shrub.
Snake Plant
Rubber Plant
Schefflera
Norfolk Island Pine
Ti Plant
Venus Fly Trap
all houseplants listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
NAMES
LIGHT
WATER
FLOWERS/FOLIAGE
African Violet
Bright filtered sunlight Allow to partially dry. Available in many colors,
Saintpaulia ionantha
Do not get leaves wet. continuous blooming.
Azalea Bright filtered sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Pink, red or white,
Rhododendron species
continual flowers.
Begonia-Reiger
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to
Yellow, pink, orange, Begonia hiemalis
dry before watering.
salmon, white and red.
Chenille Plant Bright filtered sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Long red, fuzzy,
Acalypha hispida
fabric-like tassels.
CINERARIA
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Daisy-like flowers with
Senecio cruentes
various colored petal tips.
Cyclamen
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Purple, pink, red, or white
Cyclamen persicum
stunning flowers.
FLOWERING MAPLE
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Red, pink, yellow or white.
Abutilon hybridum
Maple-like leaves.
Gardenia
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Fragrant white semi-
Gardenia jasminoides
Needs extra humidity. double or double flowers.
Gerbera Daisy
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to
White, red, yellow,
Gerbera jamesonii
dry before watering.
orange, or hot pink
daisies on long stems.
Gloxinia
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Velvety blooms in purple,
Sinningia speciosa
Do not get leaves wet. white, pink, or red.
Hibiscus
Bright direct sunlight
Keep soil evenly moist. Large red, pink, white,
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Likes extra humidity.
yellow or orange
ephemeral flowers.
HYDRANGEA
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Large pink or blue
Hydrangea macrophylla
flower clusters.
Kalanchoe
Bright direct sunlight
Allow soil surface to
Clusters of long-lasting
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana
dry before watering.
red or pink flowers.
LILY, CALLA
Bright filtered sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Pure white spathes.
Zantedeschia aethiopica
Needs extra humidity.
LILY, KAFFIR
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Orange, trumpet-shaped.
Clivia miniata
Reduce water in fall.
Strap-shaped leaves.
Hydrangea
Kalanchoe
FEATURES/CULTURE
Fertilize with African Violet fertilizer
or one with a higher middle number.
Popular, reliable flowering houseplant.
Woody shrub with oval leaves.
Prefers cool, humid area & acidic soil.
Avoid getting water on leaves. Pinch to keep shape.
Avoid draft or sudden temp. change.
Unique colorful fuzzy blossoms.
Winter blooming, short day plant.
Triangular toothed leaves.
Winter blooming and can be reforced.
Gorgeous plant for gift giving.
Evergreen woody shrub.
Also called 'Chinese Lantern'.
Glossy ovate leaves.
Needs cool nights: 60-65 F (15-18 C)
Spectacular blooms in vivid colors.
Likes outdoor cool temp. in summer.
Also known as 'Transvaal Daisy'.
Dry rest period for 3 mo., then repot.
Old-fashioned favorite.
Woody shrub with toothed leaves.
Spectacular continuous blooms.
Fertilizer with high last numbers.
Flower color is determined by
alkalinity or acidity of soil.
Succulent plant with fleshy leaves.
Xmas flower plant called 'Flaming Katy'.
Attractive leaves.
Requires dry rest period.
Requires cool, dry, winter rest period.
Fabulous flowering plant.
HOUSEPLANTS
houseplantsflowering
99
Hibiscus
African Violet
Gardenia
Cyclamen
HOUSEPLANTS
houseplantsflowering
all houseplants listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
NAMES
LIGHT
WATER
FLOWERS/FOLIAGE FEATURES/CULTURE
MUM, POT
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Various colored daisies in
Chrysanthemum morifolium
forms such as pompom.
OrchidS:
Bright filtered sunlight Allow potting media to Various colors of
Epiphytic & Terrestrial
dry before watering.
exquisite flowers.
Phalaenopsis, etc.
Needs extra humidity.
Persian Violet Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Purple or white
Exacum affine
fragrant flowers.
Poinsettia
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to
Colorful bracts in
Euphorbia pulcherrima
dry before watering.
red, pink, or white.
PrimRoseS
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil evenly moist. Clusters of bright, fragrant
Primula species
flowers in pink, purple,
red, white & yellow.
PrimRose-CAPE
Bright filtered sunlight Allow soil surface to
Purple, pink or white
Streptocarpus species
dry between waterings tubular flowers.
Rose, Miniature
Bright direct sunlight
Keep soil evenly moist. Mini fragrant flowers.
Rosa chinensis
Likes extra humidity.
Available in various colors. Florists' mums are long-lived blooms.
Popular gift plant for moms!
Keep away from heat registers.
Care & culture depends on variety.
Moth orchid is the easiest to bloom.
See our Orchid page for more info.
Native to Persia. Avoid drafts.
Traditional Xmas plant.
Group together as a show piece.
Adds a festive touch to any decor.
See our Chrismas section of the
guide for information on reblooming.
Primroses are a prelude to spring.
Available species are Fairy, German,
Chinese & polyanthus.
Same family as African Violet.
Fertilize for long-lived blossoms.
Great gift for loved ones!
Remove spent flowers for reblooming.
100
house plant guarantee
We guarantee
to provide our
customers
with plant
material of
excellent quality.
All indoor, standing and
hanging house plants
are guaranteed for thirty
(30) days.
You will receive a credit
towards a replacement
plant.
Seasonal flowering
house plants are not
guaranteed because of
their perishable nature.
Bonsai plants and orchids are also not guaranteed.
Store Phone Numbers:
Calgary: 274-4286
Medicine Hat: 526-2378
all houseplants listed subject to
seasonal and supplier availability
NAMES
LIGHT
WATER
FLOWERS/FOLIAGE FEATURES/CULTURE
Arrowhead VINE
Bright filtered sunlight Allow soil surface to dry Arrow-shaped,
Easy to grow hanging houseplant.
Syngonium podophyllum out before watering. variegated leaves.
Suitable for lower light area.
Baby’s Tears Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Tear-sized,
Creeping ground cover with trailing
Soleirolia soleirolii
Extra humidity is required. tiny round leaves.
stems. Great for gound cover in
terrarium or hanger.
Burro’s Tail
Bright direct sunlight Allow soil to dry out Fleshy succulent Hanging leaves look like donkey tail.
Sedum morganianum
before watering.
leaves.
Withstands low humidity of houses.
Bridal Veil
Bright direct sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Small white flowers.
Trailing plant.
Gibasis geniculata
Delicate foliage and flowers.
CREEPING CHARLIE Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Circular crinkled leaves.Creeping ground cover plant.
Pilea nummulariifolia
Easily propagated by stem/leaf cuttings.
Ferns
Bright filtered sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Distinctive, dissected, Suitable for hanging basket or plant
Nephrolepis, Adiantum Extra humidity is required. delicate, lacy fronds. stand. Includes traditional Boston and
unique staghorn.
FiG-Creeping
Medium sunlight
Keep soil uniformly moist. Heart-shaped,
Self-clinging, climbing or hanging plant.
Ficus pumila
small leaves.
Suitable for use as a ground cover or on pole.
Glory Bower
Bright filtered sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. White sepals and red Tall twining shrub with trailing stems. Clerodendron thompsonae
petals. Ovate leaves. Requires cool, dry, winter rest period.
Also called bleeding heart vine!
Goldfish Plant Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Orange pouch flowers. Blooms resemble goldfish!
Hypocyrta glabra
Glossy green leaves. Trailing vine is outstanding flowering hanger.
Ivy-ENGLISH
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry Green or variegated
Trailing, climbing vine with several
Hedera helix
out before watering. lobed leaves.
varieties. Good hanging plant for bright location.
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry Compound leaves with Fast growing, climbing, trailing vine.
Ivy-Grape
Cissus rhombifolia
out before watering.
3 toothed leaflets.
Member of the true grape vine family.
IVY-KANGAROO
Bright indirect sunlight Allow soil surface to dry Toothed ovate,
Member of the grape ivy family.
Cissus antarctica
out before watering.
glossy leaves.
Bright indirect sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Aromatic, square stems.Trailing, fast growing, hanging
Ivy-Swedish
Plectrantus australis
Small oval leaves.
houseplant. Easy to prune & propagate.
Lipstick PLANT
Bright direct sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Red tube-like flowers. Trailing stems suitable in a hanging
Aeschynanthus species Elliptic leaves.
basket. Blossoms resemble lipstick tubes!
NERVE PLANT
Medium sunlight
Keep soil uniformly moist. Small oval,
Creeping ground cover plant.
Fittonia verschaffeltii
Extra humidity is required. veined leaves.
Variegated veins look like nerves.
Pothos-GOLDEN
Medium sunlight Allow soil surface to dry Heart-shaped,
Easy to grow climbing or hanging plant.
Scindapsus aureus
out before watering. variegated leaves.
Also called devil's ivy. Also marble queen.
Prayer Plant
Medium sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Ornate oblong leaves. Suitable plant for trellis or hanger.
Maranta leuconeura
Extra humidity is required. Leaves bend up at night to pray!
PURPLE PASSION VINEBright indirect sunlight Keep soil uniformly moist. Velvety, purple
Pinch off any flower buds as flowers
Gynura sarmentosa
Avoid getting foliage wet. hairy leaves
smell bad. Also called velvet plant.
Spider Plant Medium sunlight
Keep soil uniformly moist. Arching, variegated,
Small spider-shaped, hanging plantlets.
Chlorophytum comosum
linear leaves.
Colorful foliage that also cleans the air.
String of Pearls Bright direct sunlight Allow soil to dry out Pea-shaped, Pearly unique, dangling leaves on a
Senecio rowleyanus
before watering.
succulent leaves.
string. Withstands low humidity of houses.
Wandering Jew Medium sunlight Allow soil surface to dry Purple and green,
Colorful foliage.
Zebrina pendula
out before watering.
ovate leaves.
Beautiful hanging houseplant.
wax plant
Bright direct sunlight Allow soil to dry out Waxy scented flowers. Semi-succulent, climbing foliage.
Hoya carnosa
before watering.
Fleshy leaves.
Prefers to be root bound.
HOUSEPLANTS
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HOUSEPLANTS
102
houseplantsbonsai
Bonsai does not refer to a type of plant, but rather
describes a method of pruning and shaping to create
an illusion of a very old, miniature tree. A dwarf plant is
created by restricting the root zone in a shallow pot. A
bonsai can be created from any plant which develops
a woody trunk and tolerates pruning well. Bonsai are
classified into tropical plants, deciduous shrubs or
evergreens. There are several forms, such as formal
upright, informal upright, cascade and windswept.
The easiest bonsai to care for, if you are a
beginning novice, is a tropical plant. A fig, for example,
grows well in our indoor living conditions, so continues
to do so after it is pruned and repotted. Also suitable
are boxwood (Buxus), Fukien Tea (Carmona), Myrtle
(Myrtus), Natal Plum (Carissa), and Tree of a Thousand
Stars (Serissa).
Deciduous shrubs and trees need a cold,
dormant period in the winter, just as if they were
growing outdoors. Plants such as Young's Weeping
Birch, Siberian Elm, Cotoneaster damneri, and Pygmy
Caragana form attractive bonsai. During the winter
they need to be kept in a cool but frost-free area and
need little light once they have lost their leaves. Close
to but not touching a window in a cool room is suitable.
They can't be kept outside in their pots above ground
during the winter, as the soil temperature fluctuates
dramatically during our weather changes. A garage
heated to just above freezing is suitable, or the plant
may be buried in the ground to just above the pot rim,
then mulched well over the winter.
Evergreens are the most challenging. Because
they need high humidity in the winter, and a temperature
just above freezing, they cannot be grown successfully
in your living room. They will tolerate a windowsill if
kept close enough to the glass to be quite cool, as long
as the needles don't touch the glass if it is very cold
outside. Keep warm air away from the pot and ensure
there is no hot air register under them. To increase
humidity, set the pot on pebbles in a large tray with the
water level just below the top of the pebbles. Water
evaporates from the tray and creates higher humidity
around the plant.
The amount of light a bonsai needs depends
on the type of plant. Figs, for example, need medium
sunlight while azaleas require bright filtered light and
citrus needs bright direct sunlight. Deciduous trees need
no light when they have lost their leaves in the winter,
and a bright, sunny spot when in leaf. When evergreens
are cold in the winter, they go semi-dormant so need
little light, but need a bright light when warm enough to
grow. Many bonsai are grown under fluorescent lights,
usually using one cool white and one warm white bulb.
The lights must be quite close to the plants, and the
length of the day depends on the type.
Because bonsai are in small pots, with their
roots confined, watering is critical. Soil mixtures should
encourage good drainage, and will vary depending
on the type of plant. Inserting a finger into the soil
will tell you if the soil is damp, or dry enough to need
water. No bonsai soil surface should be covered with
any material that prevents water from evaporating from
the surface, or does not allow you to feel the soil. In hot
weather, most bonsai will need checking for water daily,
as once a plant dries out, the roots may not be able to
absorb water and it could die. After many years of care,
that may be devastating! Bonsai do not need a great
deal of fertilizer, as you not want to encourage rapid
growth. The type of fertilizer used depends on the type
of plant, but is generally a balanced one, such as 2020-20, for deciduous trees or tropicals, and 30-10-10 for
evergreens. Use half the recommended strength only,
and do not fertilize in the winter unless it is a tropical that
is activley growing under fluorescent lights.
There are specific rules for pruning, wiring, etc.,
and many good books are available in our book stores to
help you. Remember that if the book suggests growing
outside, it may be referring to Japan! We encourage you
to ask for our assistance to help you enjoy your Bonsai!
The orchid family includes 25,000
species, with a large variety in
size, shape and color. Most of
these, the house plant grower
never sees. Many of these are
very difficult to grow but there
are also orchids which can be
grown very successfully indoors
by anyone who can grow
houseplants. Orchids have
the longest lasting flowers
of all houseplants, up to 4
months. For convenience,
orchids are classified into
two basic types by growth
habit. Epiphytic orchids grow
on trees for support, such as
Oncidium or Phalaenopsis.
Terrestrial orchids grow with
their roots in soil. Care is slightly
different for each type. There is also
two types of growth. Those with
a monopodial type become taller
each year, growing only at the
tip of the stem. Leaves are in
two rows on opposite sides
of the stem, alternating from
side to side. An example is
Dendrobium. The second,
and more common type is
sympodial. In this case, the
upward growth of the plant stops
after one growing season, and the
next year’s growth comes from the
base. Blooms come from the tips
of recent growth or from the sides
or bases of it. Cymbidiums are
sympodial orchids. Sympodial
orchids have pseudobulbs,
thickened stems that store food
and water and enable the plant to
survive periods of drought.
Cymbidium - Kit Ho
to 50-55 F (10-13C) at night. This group
includes Cymbidium. Intermediate
temperatures of 65-75 F (18-24 C)
during the day and 55-60 F (13-16 C)
at night are suitable for Cattlyea and
Dendrobium. Daytime temperatures of
75-85 F (24-29 C) dropping to 65-75 F
(18-24 C) at night, are best for warmgrowing orchids such as Phalaenopsis.
This does not mean that you need
separate rooms for each type of orchid;
the cool growing one will be okay closest
to a window and the warm growing one
in a warmer area of your room.
Orchids do need higher humidity than
is usual in our homes, particularly in
the winter. Pebble trays (large saucers
or pans filled with pebbles or marbles),
with the level of water just below the top
of the pebbles and the plant sitting on
the pebbles, so that water can’t get into
the pot from the bottom but evaporates
around it; or saucers of water with plastic
egg crating, wire mesh or cake racks on
top help to increase the humidity in the
immediate vicinity of the plants.
The amount of light orchids need varies
considerably, depending on the type of
orchid. It is important to identify your
orchid and choose plants best suited for
your growing area. Many may be grown
on window sills and others thrive under
florescent or high-intensity lights.
Orchid leaves are usually thick and
leathery and the vast majority are
evergreen. The flowers always
contain three sepals and three
petals, but the variety is
remarkable.
Most orchids are potted into fir bark
although there are other suitable
potting media. Choose appropriate size
pieces for the pot size, ensuring so by
buying only that packaged specifically
for orchids. Any container with a
drainage hole can be used. Typically,
clay pots are used, but ceramic pots
may be successful. Because they are
not porous, care must be taken not to
over water. Some orchids are fastened
to slabs of bark or logs, and hung from
the ceiling or on walls, duplicating their
natural environment.
Orchids may be grouped
into three general categories,
according to the temperature
they prefer for their best growth.
Cool-growing orchids prefer
daytime temperatures of 60-70
F(15-21 C) during the day, dropping
Watering frequency depends on the
size and type of container. Orchids in
small pots need watering more often
than ones in a larger pots; plants
growing in clay pots or on bark dry out
more quickly than those in plastic pots.
Orchids won't tolerate stagnant water
HOUSEPLANTS
houseplantsorchids
103
HOUSEPLANTS
104
houseplantsorchids
around their roots or bark that is constantly wet. Allow the
bark to become dry before watering again.
Orchid fertilizer or 20-20-20 fertilizer is suitable. Use more
frequently when plants are actively growing and less in winter
when light levels are lower and plants are in a semi-dormant
stage. Orchids need a cycle of growth and dormancy, so if
they are being grown under artificial lights, the length
of day will indicate how long lights
should be on.
Orchids are prone to fungal
disease and root rot, caused
usually
by poor drainage or too
f r e q u e n t w a t e ring.
Insect problems are
rare but sometimes
mealybugs
appear. If this
happens,
check with our
staff for help
with a suitable
control.
Of the many types
of orchids available,
Phalaenopsis, dwarf
Cattleya and Dendrobium are the
easiest to grow and bloom successfully.
For the
beginner, these are definitely worth a try and require no unusual
growing conditions. For more detailed information on growing
orchids see our bookstore.
Cattleya: Cattleyas become large plants, but there are also
dwarf varieties which are more suitable for our homes. They
need a warm, sunny spot; and should become dry before
watering. They will produce one or two flower spikes
each year.
Cymbidium: Keep these orchids in bright light.
They need cool evening temperatures to ensure
blooming. Place plants outside in late May and leave
them out until early September or until threat of frost.
During the summer water freely and fertilize with a
well-balanced plant food. This will ensure healthy,
strong new growth. In August stop feeding and decrease
water. This will put the plant into a stress situation which
is essential to force it to initiate flower spike production. At
this time, night temperatures must be considerably colder
than daytime temperatures.The starting spike will appear at
the base of mature new growth. At this time start fertilizing
with a high potassium plant food. Watering should be resumed
to a normal amount. Cool evening temperatures must be
maintained if possible or the spike will wither or buds may
drop. If all goes well your plant will reward you with as many
as thirty blooms on a single spike that lasts up to 3 months
on the plant or several weeks if cut.
Dendrobium: Dendrobiums are epiphytic orchids that come
in a variety of vivid colors and sizes. They have several stalks
with flower clusters in rows along them. Dendrobiums flower
in spring or summer and each bloom lasts approximately 2
months, ensuring continuous enjoyment. These orchids have
similar cultural requirements as Phalaenopsis. Dendrobiums
need bright filtered sunlight, high phosphorus fertilizer and
high humidity.
Phalaenopsis(Moth orchid): These plants are native
primarily to Southeast Asia where the climate is warm and
moist. They are well suited to home culture. The Moth Orchid
(the common name for Phalaenopsis), needs bright light,
good air circulation, regular watering as necessary
and average to slightly cool temperature. Bloom
spikes are produced sporadically throughout the
year. After blooms fade do not cut off the spike.
The spike tip may continue to produce buds or
branches may form from nodes lower down the
spike. Flowering lasts 3-4 months on the spike
in the pot, or 1 - 2 weeks if cut and floating in
a bowl.
Orchids such as the above mentioned are relatively easy
to grow. They will reward attentive growers with exotic
and beautiful color and variety. In a well-planned collection
blooming is possible every season of the year.
House plants may be repotted for two reasons; either
the plant has outgrown its pot and needs a larger one,
or the potting mix needs replacing but the plant can be
returned into the same pot. Young plants in small pots
need repotting more often than older, larger ones. If
water runs quickly through the soil into the saucer and
the plant needs watering more often because the soil
isn't retaining moisture, it could need a larger pot.
Early spring, just as new growth begins, is an ideal time
to repot, but a plant that needs repotting should be done
anytime of the year, except when actively flowering.
Choose a pot one size larger than before (e.g. an eightinch pot if the plant has outgrown a six-inch one). A plant
in a pot too large cannot absorb moisture from the soil
quickly enough to allow air into the soil and root damage
may result.
Most plants do well in ceramic, clay or plastic pots.
Unglazed clay pots allow the soil to dry out more quickly,
which is preferable for cacti and succulents, and allow
gaseous exchange. Soil in plastic or glazed ceramic pots
stays moist longer, which is appropriate for ferns and
ivies. With careful watering, a plant will do well in any
type of pot. Choose a pot with drainage holes to allow
excess water to drain from the soil. If you use rocks in
the bottom of the pot, be sure a rock isn't plugging the
drainage hole, and cover the rock layer with a piece of
landscape fabric or fiberglass screening to prevent soil
and roots from entering the space between the rocks. Be
sure water doesn't remain standing in drainage saucers.
Most potting mixes are combinations of peat moss,
vermiculite, perlite and/or sand. Cacti and succulents
need extra sand added to improve drainage (one part
sand to one part potting mix is suitable). Other house
plants such as dracaenas, palms, or citrus that need
well drained soil should have about one part sand added
to three parts potting mix. When repotting remove what
soil comes off easily, without damaging the roots; and
add new soil in the bottom and the sides, placing the
plant at the same depth it was previously. Leave 1/2
inch between soil level and the rim of the pot to make
watering easier.
Water house plants when the soil in the pot is as dry
as it should be for that plant. Some need to become
completely dry (e.g. cactus), some must always be moist
(e.g. azalea), and most should allow the soil surface
to partially dry before watering. Water thoroughly, so
that a small amount trickles through the drainage hole,
indicating that the whole root ball has been moistened,
and remove any water remaining in the saucer. Water
again when the soil has become as dry as it should be
for that plant. Inserting a finger into the soil will indicate
if the plant requires watering. Soil pulling away from the
side of the pot also indicates a need for water. Watering
too often is a very common problem, and can cause root
rot, so it is important to check each plant, and not water
them all because one plant needs a drink! Do not fertilize
until the plant has shown some sign of new growth. At
that point, your plant has settled nicely into its new pot
and should continue to thrive.
houseplantspropagation
You may want to propagate a plant because you want more
plants, such as an African violet you wish to share with a
friend. You may be concerned if the plant has a long stem
and want to reroot it at a more suitable place (such as a
dieffenbachia), or you may want to grow a plant from seed
you saved or found or take cuttings from a plant.
Leaf Cuttings: This method is used most often with
African violets. Choose a leaf that is not the newest or the
oldest, cutting it cleanly with 1 inch of stem. It can be rooted
in water, but the roots are very fragile and more difficult
to plant. A better choice is vermiculite, in a small pot (or
styrofoam drinking cup), kept slightly moist. If you put clear
plastic wrap over the cup of vermiculite and poke a hole in
it with a pencil, you can insert the stem through the hole
and it will support the leaf and also keep the vermiculite
from drying out. A rooting hormone such as Stimroot will
encourage root development. Simply dip the cut stem in the
powder before it is inserted in the rooting material. When
bushy little roots have developed, the plant is potted into a
small pot in potting soil. Several little plants will be clumped
together. They can be pulled apart and planted separately
when still small.
Stem Cuttings: Tropical plants such as ivy, creeping
charley, wandering Jew, and geranium are easily
propagated by cutting a piece off the end of a stem, with
about five leaves on it. Cut just below a leaf, and cut that
leaf off. It is rooted the same way as an African violet leaf.
If the plant is one that needs high humidity, enclosing the
cutting & pot in a plastic bag with an air hole punched in it
will keep the humidity higher around the leaves until they
root. Geranium cuttings should be left for the cut surface
to dry before being inserted into the rooting material. Cacti
and succulents should also be left to dry, and are best
rooted in moist sand.
Air Layering: Plants such as a dieffenbachia or rubber
plant often lose lower leaves so that a tuft of leaves is at
the top of a long stalk. By air layering you can form a root
system just below the leaves to create a shorter, bushy
plant. First, stake the plant, tying above and below where
you want the roots to be. Choose a spot where you want
the roots to be, just below where a leaf was. Cut a narrow
wedge half way into the stalk, taking care not to cut all the
way through! Rooting hormone inserted into the cut area
with the knife blade will encourage rooting. Wrap moist
sphagnum moss around the cut area, then cover with clear
plastic, tying above and below the moss.
Roots will take about 4 - 6 weeks — check periodically
to be sure moss is damp. When a good root system has
developed, cut stalk below roots and plant in a small pot.
The stalk can be cut off a few inches above the soil and
new leaves will form at that point. Pieces of stalk can also
be rooted, by placing them horizontally in damp soil.
Starting Plants from Seed: Many tropical plants will
develop seeds if dead flowers are allowed to remain on the
plant. African violets, weeping fig, palms and cactus are
some examples. Leave the seed pod on the plant until it
is starting to dry, then remove it and place in a warm, dry
place until dry. Scatter seeds on moist soil in a shallow
container and cover with clear plastic. Once seedlings
emerge, keep in bright sun or under florescent lights,
checking frequently to be sure soil doesn't dry. Repot when
several leaves have grown, into separate small pots.
HOUSEPLANTS
houseplants transplanting
105
TREES and SHrUBS
deciduous
favorites
Ash (Fraxinus spp.)
106
These fast-growing, large trees have long, compound
leaves. They leaf out late in the spring and lose their
leaves early in the fall after a short period of a brilliant
yellow show. All ash varieties make excellent shade
or street trees. Common types are Fallgold Black Ash
which have a pyramidal form, Green Ash which have a
dense, oval canopy, and Patmore Ash which is a male
non-seeding clone of Green Ash.
Birch (Betula spp.)
The white bark of these trees peels off making them especially attractive in the winter months. White birch are
often sold in an attractive multi-stemmed format. These
stately trees make an excellent shade tree. Birches
require a good supply of water in our dry summers to
keep up their strength in order to fight off leaf miner
and to prevent winter dieback, two major problems of
birch. Good varieties are White Birch, Cut-leaf Weeping
Birch, and Paper Birch.
Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)
These medium textured small trees grow in an upright
oval fashion. The glossy, dark green, coarsely toothed
leaves form a dense, low-headed canopy. Branches of
Hawthorn are covered with long, sharp thorns. These
trees make excellent small shade trees and can easily
be combined with shrubs and perennials. Snowbird
Hawthorns feature bright white, long lasting double
flowers in late spring. Toba Hawthorn has bright pink
flowers in spring followed by clusters of dark red berries.
Mountain Ash (Sorbus spp.)
The compound fern-like dark green leaves of this
tree turn orange and red in the fall and form a dense,
low-headed canopy. Large clusters of scarlet colored
berries follow the large clusters of white flowers. These
berries are retained all winter long and attract birds.
The dark reddish-brown bark is especially attractive in
the winter months. All Mountain Ash trees make excellent, medium-sized shade trees and can be combined
with shrubs and perennials. Good drainage for roots
is necessary.
Mayday (Prunus padus commutata)
These coarse textured trees grow in an upright, spreading fashion. The oval-shaped green leaves, turning
yellow in the fall, form an open, high-headed canopy.
The large, fragrant clusters of white flowers, produced
in May, are followed by small, black chokecherries.
Maydays make excellent shade trees.
Poplar (Populus spp.)
Poplars are coarse-textured trees that rapidly grow
into a large, broad specimen. The glossy green leaves,
turning yellow in the fall, form a dense canopy. Two
new and highly popular forms of Populus species are
Swedish Columnar Aspen which has a very compact
habit with small leaves similar to Trembling Aspen and
Tower Poplar (pictured above) which bears larger, more
triangular leaves and has a slightly more pyramidal
form.
Russian Olive (Eleagnus angustifolia)
These fine textured trees grow in an upright oval
fashion. The silvery, linear leaves form an open, lowheaded canopy. Dry, silvery seed follows the yellow,
very fragrant flowers. The silvery color of this species
contrasts well with evergreens. These trees perform
best in sheltered locations.
your questions
Q: What can I do to give us some privacy on our
back deck? There is about 8 feet from my back deck
to my fence, and the neighbour’s deck is right on
the other side of the fence.
A. You have two options you could go with:
1. You could add a lattice screen onto your deck.
2. Plant narrow growing trees such as Swedish
Columnar Aspens, or Tower Poplars. This would still
allow a small walkway between your trees and your
deck. They look best when planted in odd numbers
such as three or five depending on the distance you
need to cover.
Q: My front yard is very small because I have a pie
shaped lot. I was wondering if a spruce tree might
be too overwhelming?
A. Because the winter months outnumber the summer
months it is recommended that you should plant 50%
of your front yard with evergreens. Spruce are larger
at the bottom which takes up a lot of space in your
yard. You can substitute for an ornamental deciduous
tree to minimize the ground area used. You can also
complement the tree and the foundation of your house
by planting junipers, dwarf pines, or cedars, to give you
year round greenery.
Q: I am looking for a fruit tree and I am wondering
what will give me the best production and quality
of fruit?
A: There are many fruit trees available and they are
very popular as new yards are smaller. Apples and
crabapples give you the best quality and the highest
consistent yields of fruit. Apricots, pears, and plums are
also very hardy in Calgary, but fruit can be inconsistent
due to late spring frosts which damage flower buds.
Because of our short season early fall frosts can
hamper fruit formation. More information in the fruit
tree section.
Q: When should I prune my tree?
A: The rule of thumb for most trees is they should be
pruned before leaves start to emerge in the spring. There are however some exceptions. Birch and
maples should be pruned in late summer to prevent
heavy bleeding (loss of sap). This is when the plant is
starting to slow down its growth and the cut has the
best chance of healing over. Diseased, damaged, or
dead wood should be removed on sight regardless of
season. Good books on pruning are available for the
do it yourselfer.
Q: My trees seem to be doing fine, but aren’t
growing as fast as some of my neighbours’ trees.
Is it necessary to fertilize my trees?
A: Our body needs a whole spectrum of nutrients
and micronutrients, and trees are no different. Your
trees may be doing fine, but could be doing better.
Fertilize in early spring with granular, water soluble,
or slow-release tree stakes for established trees. You
should stop in August as you want the trees to start
the hardening off process in the fall. Different trees
have different needs so please feel free to ask a staff
member. Take care not to over-fertilize because it
may contribute to polluting lakes and rivers. Overfertilization can also increase the likelihood of some
plant diseases.
Q. I have just cut down my poplar. How can I
prevent it from suckering?
A. Suckers, shoots of the tree that come up from the
roots, are essentially the tree’s way of replacing the
upper growth that has been removed. Nearly half
of the tree exists underground in the form of roots.
These roots need to survive so they send up suckers
to allow the tree to photosynthesize and thus continue
to survive. In this situation the worst thing you can do is
grind the stump; you will be left with many independent
roots. Leave the stump and drill holes at 45 degree
angles near the top edge. Pour in a mixture of one part
concentrate Killex to four parts water - any stronger
will burn the plant tissue and the solution will not
travel through the whole system. This will indtroduce
a herbicide into the tree and should spread throughout
the root system. You can help this process by applying
regular strength Killex to any suckers that may come
up.
TREES and SHRUBS
deciduous trees
107
TREES and SHrUBS
Brandon Elm
Plum
Columnar Aspen
108
Snowbird Hawthorn
Dolgo Crabapple
Mayday
Cutleaf Weeping Birch
Apples (Malus spp.)
There are a number of quite hardy apples that can be
grown on the prairies. Apple trees are very decorative,
provide the benefit of edible fruit, and are an appropriate
size for small yard landscaping. All edible-fruited apple
trees have white blossoms and require cross-pollination
from other local apples or crabapple trees to produce
fruit. Some varieties are Fall Red, Goodland, Harcourt,
Norland, North Battleford, and September Ruby.
Apple-crabs are fruit trees developed by crossing
standard apples with crabapples. The fruit is generally
smaller (less than 5 cm or 2” in diameter) but the trees
are hardier than standard apples. Two varieties are
Kerr and Rescue.
Crabapples are very hardy and wide-spreading producing small, tart crabapples with a high pectin content
making them exceptionally good for jelly making. A
good variety is Dolgo with tart, juicy, and crisp fruit that
ripens in late August.
Apricots (Prunus armeniaca)
Because apricot trees bloom so early in the spring late
frosts often damage the flowers and prevent fruit from
forming. Stop apricots from flowering early by heavily
mulching the soil around the base of the trees. This will
keep the soil temperature low. Remove the mulch in
mid-May, allow the soil to warm and the blossoms to
form after the danger of frost has passed. Since apricots
are cross-pollinators two trees of different varieties are
required to set fruit. All apricot varieties hardy enough
for the prairies like Brookcot were developed from the
Manchurian Apricot.
Pears (Pyrus x spp.)
As ornamental trees, the hardy pears are worth growing
for their abundant, white flower clusters produced early
in the spring and for their bright yellow to red autumn
colors. The dense foliage is also an attractive glossy
green color. The fruit, good for making jams or cooked
desserts in most cases, is small and hard with gritty
flesh. Since pears are cross-pollinators two varieties
of trees are required to set fruit.
TREES and SHRUBS
deciduous trees
fruit trees
Plums (Prunus spp.)
Like apricots, plum trees bloom early in the spring.
Follow the directions for apricots regarding the slowing of blossoming. Plums also require another variety
for pollination. Good varieties are Brookgold, a yellow,
sweet variety good for eating fresh, and Brookred, a
red, sweet plum good for canning.
109
TREES and SHrUBS
110
deciduous trees
Names
Summer Fall
Height Spread Zone Foliage Foliage Flower
Color Color Color
all trees listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Features
AMUR CHERRY
30 ft.
15 ft.
3 Green Yellow White
Black fruit follow flowers.
Prunus maacki
9 m.
5 m.
Colorful flaking bronze bark for winter color.
AMUR MAPLE
16 ft.
10 ft.
3 Green Scarlet Samara Small graceful tree or large shrub.
Acer ginnala
5 m.
3 m.
Red
Excellent fall color leaves and 2-winged seeds.
APPLE - Malus
BATTLEFORD
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Lg green/red striped fruit. Ripens Sept; fresh/cook
COMBINATION
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow Lt Pink
Minimum of 3 cultivars grafted onto 1 tree; unique
FALL RED
15'/5m 12'/4m. 3 Green Yellow White
Lg red fruit; Ripens in Sept; eat fresh; stores well
GOODLAND
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Lg red/green fruit. Ripens mid Sept; fresh/cook/store
HARALSON
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Lg green/red striped fruit. Ripe late Sept; fresh/store
HARCOURT
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Fruit is red. Ripens late Sept; Good for eating fresh.
HARDI-MAC
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow Lt Pink
Bright red crisp fruit. Ripe late Sept. MacIntosh var.
HEYER#12
16'/5.3m 13'/4.3m 3 Green Yellow Lt. Pink
Early Ripening; good for eating fresh and cooking
NORLAND
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Medium green fruit w/ red stripes; Ripe August; fresh
NORKENT
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Lg green fruit w/ red stripes; like Golden Delicious
PARKLAND
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Med. red fruit. Ripe August; fresh/cook/store
PATTERSON
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Med. yellow fruit. Ripe mid Sept; fresh/cooking
RED SPARKLE 15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Med red/green fruit with nutty/fruity taste
SEPTEMBER RUBY
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Med. red fruit. Ripe mid Sept; fresh/juice/store
APPLECRAB - Malus - Cross of apple and crabapple
KERR
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Green Yellow White
Med. dark red fruit; ripe Sept; eat fresh
RESCUE
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Green Yellow White
Med. green/red striped fruit; Ripe Sept.
APRICOT - Prunus
BROOKCOT
16'/5m 13'/4m 4 Green Amber White
2 var. needed for pollination; better for flowers only
MANCHURIAN
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Amber White
Sm. fast-growing ; Rounded; winter hardy; xeriscape
SCOUT
16'/5m 13'/4m 4 Green Amber White
Similar to Brookcot; freestone fruit; canning & jams
WESTCOT
16'/5m 13'/4m 4 Green Amber White
As above; Freestone good for canning, jam making.
ASH - Fraxinus
FALLGOLD BLACK
30'/9m 15'/5m 3 Green Yellow n/a
More uniform shape than green ash; seedless
FOOTHILLS
12'/4m 7'/2.5m 3 Green Yellow n/a
Uniform shape; seedless; good fall color
MANCHURIAN
30'/9m 15'/5m 3 Green Yellow n/a
Compact uniform street/ shade tree; exotic look
NORTHERN GEM
40'/13m 40'/13m 3 Green Yellow n/a
Glossy green leaves; orange-yellow fall color
NORTHERN TREASURE
30'/9m 15'/5m 3 Green Yellow n/a
Hybrid with upright growth; Excellent cold tolerance.
PATMORE GREEN
30'/9m 15'/5m 3 Green Yellow n/a
Seedless;leafs out earlier & holds leaves longer
PRAIRIE SPIRE
12'/4m 6'/2m 3 Green Yello
n/a
Seedless; narrow pyramidal form
ASPEN - Populus
QUAKING/TREMBLING
30'/9m 15'/5m 2 Green Yellow Catkins
Native tree; leaves tremble in wind; DOES have fluff
SWEDISH COLUMNAR
30'/9m 5'/2m 3 Green Yellow Catkins
Narrow columnar tree; vertical accent for small area.
BIRCH - Betula
CUTLEAF WEEPING
30'/10m 20'/6m 3 Green Yellow Catkins
Likes lots of water. Bark whitens with age; graceful
EUROPEAN WHITE
30'/10m 20'/6m 3 Green Yellow Catkins
As above with round leaves; clump avail; likes water
PAPER
30'/10m 20'/6m 3 Green Yellow Catkins
Whitest papery bark of all; clump avail; likes water
RIVER
30'/10m 20'/6m 4 Green Yellow Cones
One of the best and fastest-growing birches for shade
TROST'S DWARF
3'/1m 3'/1m 3 Green Yellow Catkins
Mounding lace-leaf form; likes full sun
BIRCH-YOUNG’S WEEPING10'/3m 12'/4m 3 Green Yellow Catkins
Small weeping tree; White bark; Likes lots of water.
CARAGANA - SUTHERLAND 13 ft 5 ft
2 Green Yellow Yellow
Tall, columnar accent plant
Caragana arborescens 'Sutherland' 4m1.5 m
Attractive in row plantings as a tall hedge
CHERRY - Prunus
EVANS SOUR
12'/4m 10'/3m 3 Green Yellow White
Self-pollinating; excellent for eating, jams ,etc
NANKING (tree)
9'/3m 9'/3m 3 Green Yellow Pink
Red fruit mid-July; eating; jellies, etc; loved by birds
NORTH STAR
16'/5m 13'/4m 3 Green Yellow White
Self pollinating tree with red sour cherries.
CHERRY-PLUM - Prunus - cross between cherry and a plum
COMPASS 12'/4m 10'/3m 2 Green Yellow White
Self pollinating; good to pollinate other prunus spp.
SAPALTA
12'/4m 10'/3m 3 Green Yellow White
Small purple fruit (1") ripe mid-August
CRABAPPLE - Malus
ALMEY
25'/8m 15'/5m 3 Purple Bronze Rose Pink Red Fruit; upright growth habit
COLUMNAR DOLGO
20'/6m 4'/1m 3 Green Yellow White
Columnar form of popular Dolgo variety
COLUMNAR ROSTHERN 20'/6m 4'/1m 3 Green Yellow White
Suitable for small yard; Fragrant flowers; small fruit.
DREAMWEAVER
10’/3m 3’/1m 3 Purple Purple Bright Pink Columnar crabapple perfect for today’s smaller yards
DOLGO
25'/8m 15'/5m 3 Green Yellow White
Wide branching; makes delicious jelly.
ECHTERMEYER WEEPING 15'/5m 6'/3m 3 Reddish Red Purple
Requires staking 1st few years; large fruit & blooms
Names
Summer Fall
Height Spread Zone Foliage Foliage Flower
Color Color Color
all trees listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Features
FUCHSIA GIRL
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Purple Purple Red/Pink Fireblight resistant; Good alternative to 'Royalty'
HOPA
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Green Yellow Rose
Prolific bloomer; Upright growth widens with age.
KELSEY
15'/5m 15'/5m 4 Bronze Orange Red/Purple Bronze foliage. Only double flowering crab.
MAKAMIK
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Bronze Orange Rose
Vigorous growing crab with profuse flowers.
MORNING PRINCESS
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Purple Bronze Pink
Beautiful deep purple leaves with pink blooms
PINK SPIRE
15'/5m 6'/1.5m 3 Red-purpleBronze Rose-pink Small reddish-purple fruit; narrow habit
PRAIRIE FIRE
15'/5m 15'/5m 4 Green Yellow Red/Purple Very resistant to disease; prolific flowering
RADIANT
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Red-GreenOrange Rose
New leaves emerge red then turn to green.
ROSY GLO
6'/2m 6'/2m 3 Purple Bronze purple-pink Weeping growth habit; purple-black fruit
ROYAL BEAUTY
12'/4m 8'/2.5m 3 Red-BronzePurple Red-Pink Dark red fruit does not fall; birds love fruit
ROYALTY
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Purple Orange Red
Spectacular purple leaves; dark red flowers in spring
RUDOLPH
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Bronze Orange Red
Small tree with very attractive spring growth.
SELKIRK
20'/6m 20'/6m 3 Bronze Orange Pink
Red leaves turns bronze-green over summer; hardy
SNOWCAP 20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Green Orange White
No fruit; very fragrant spring flowers
SPRING SNOW
20'/6m 20'/6m 3 Green Orange White
Does not bear fruit; Tolerates heat well
STRATHMORE
20'/6m 13'/4m 3 Bronze Orange Pink
Uniform upright pyramidal grower; Profuse blooms.
THUNDERCHILD
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Purple Orange Pink
More uniform than Royalty; fire blight resistant
TINA - TOPGRAFT
5'/1.5m 5'/1.5m 4 Green Yellow White
Dwarf shrub grafted on standard; slow-growing
ELM - Ulmus
AMERICAN
50'/15m 30'/9m 3 Green Yellow Samara Umbrella or vase-shaped street or shade tree.
BRANDON
40'/12m 25'/8m 3 Green Yellow Samara Same as American elm but small and compact.
SIBERIAN
25'/8m 20'/6m 2 Green Yellow Samara Quick growing; resistant to Dutch elm disease.
HAWTHORN - Crataegus
SNOWBIRD
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Green White
Glossy serrated leaves. Clusters of red fruit.
TOBA
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Green Pink
Upright tree with double pink flowers in spring.
LILAC - Syringa
JAPANESE TREE
20'/6m 12'/4m 3 Green Orange Cream-wht Flowers in summer; Deep brown bark color.
IVORY SILK
20'/6m 12'/4m 3 Green Orange Cream-wht Compact selection of Japanese Tree Lilac.
GOLDEN ECLIPSE
15'/5m 10'/3m 2 Green-goldYellow Cream-wht Leaves edged with gold; resists sunburn
LINDEN- DROPMORE
20'/6m 12'/4m 4 Green Yellow Cream
Very fragrant flowers in June; pyramidal form
Tilia flavescens 'Dropmore'
borderline species in Calgary
MAPLE
MANITOBA
30'/9m 20'/6m 2 Green Yellow Samara Has furrowed bark and is also called box elder.
KOREAN
15'/5m 10'/3m 4 Green Orange Purple
Good replacement for Japanese Maple; beautiful
SENSATION
30'/9m 20'/6m 3 Green Red
Male clone so no seeds; slow-growing
MAYDAY
MAYDAY
30'/9m 25'/8m 3 Green Yellow White
Showy fragrant flower clusters in May.
Prunus padus commutata
Black bitter fruit attracts birds.
MAYDAY - ADVANCE
30 ft
10 ft
3 Green Yellow White
Columnar form of Mayday
Punus padus commutata 'Advance'
9m
25m
Flowers bloom earlier than standard Maydays
ETHEL MAYDAY
30'/9m 25'/8m 3 Green Yellow Pink
Pink flowers for unique spring show
MOUNTAIN ASH - Sorbus
AMERICAN americana
25'/8m 20'/6m 3 Green Orange White
Fruit attracts birds; lacy leaves; good fall color
DWARF reducta 1'/30cm 3'/1m 3 Green Orange White
Very-low growing; pink berries
COLUMNAR auc. 'Fastigiata 25'/8m 9'/3m 3 Green Orange White
Orange-red berries on narrow tree.
EUROPEAN aucuparia
30'/9m 20'/6m 3 Green Orange White
Similar to American but larger; Rowan Tree
KOEHNE'S/CHINESE
7'/2m 3'/1m 4 Green Orng/red White
White berries; striking fall color
OAKLEAF hybrida
30'/9m 20'/6m 3 Green Yellow White
Leaves shaped like oak leaves; red-orange berries
RUSSIAN aucuparia ‘Rossica25'/8m 12'/4m 3 Green Orange White
Selection of European ; Upright columnar growth.
SHOWY decora
20'/6m 15'/5m 2 Green Orange White
Hardiest mt. ash with lacy compound leaves.
OAK-BURR
30 ft.
20 ft.
3 Green Yellow Acorns
Rare, slow growing, hardy oak for the prairies.
Quercus macrocarpa
9 m.
6 m.
Produces acorns. Lobed leaves. Corky bark.
OHIO BUCKEYE
20 ft.
15 ft.
3 Green Yellow Light
Large compound leaves.
Aesculus glabra 6 m.
5 m.
Yellow Interesting prickly nuts follow flowers.
PEAR Pyrus spp.
Two varieties required for cross pollination.
EARLY GOLD
20'/6m 15'/5m 2 Green Amber White
Very hardy, disease resistant, fruit like Ure
GOLDEN SPICE
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Green Amber White
Showy spring flowers; fruit good for cook or can
MICHENER
20'/6m 15'/5m 4 Green Amber White
Showy spring flowers; mid-sized fruit
URE
20'/6m 15'/5m 3 Green Amber White
Sm. sweet, green fruit for canning; showy blooms
PIN CHERRY
16 ft.
10 ft.
3 Green Orange White Small ornamental tree with fragrant flowers.
Prunus pensylvanica 5 m.
3 m.
Red cherries in fall attract birds. Reddish bark.
TREES and SHRUBS
deciduous trees
111
TREES and SHrUBS
112
deciduous trees
Names
Summer Fall
Height Spread Zone Foliage Foliage Flower
Color Color Color
PIN CHERRY
15 ft
10 ft
3 Green Red
White
JUMPING POUND
5 m
3 m
PLUM
BROOKGOLD
15'
12'
3 Green Amber White Prunus ‘Brookgold’
5 m.
4 m.
BROOKRED
15 ft.
12 ft.
3 Green Amber White
Prunus ‘Brookred’
5 m.
4 m.
BOUNTY
15 ft.
12 ft.
3 Green Amber White
Prunus 'Bounty'
5 m.
4 m.
OPATA 15ft.
12 ft.
3 Green Amber White
Prunus ‘Opata’
5 m.
4 m.
PEMBINA
15 ft.
12 ft.
3 Green Amber White
Prunus 'Pembina'
5 m.
4 m.
TECUMSEH
15 ft.
12 ft.
3 Green Amber White
Prunus 'Tecumseh'
5 m.
4 m.
Plum - Canadian Wild Prunus nigra
PRINCESS KAY
15'/5m 12'/4m 3 Green Amber white
POPLAR Populus spp.
BROOKS #6
50'/15m 40'/12m 2 Green Yellow Catkins
BYLAND GREEN
50'/15m 25'/10m 3 Green Yellow Catkins
NORTHWEST
65'/20m 50'/15m 2 Green Yellow Catkins
TOWER canescens ‘Tower’ 30'/9m 7'/2m 3 Green Yellow Catkins TRISTIS
40'/12m 30'/9m 3 Green Yellow Catkins
RUSSIAN OLIVE
20 ft.
12 ft.
4 Silver Yellow Yellow
Elaeagnus angustifolia
6 m.
4 m.
CHOKECHERRY Prunus virginiana
SCHUBERT 30'/9m 15'/5m 3 Purple Purple White
BAILEY SELECT
21'/7m 12'/4m 3 Maroon Dk. PurpleWhite
SPUR SCHUBERT
15'/5m 10'/3m 3 Maroon Dk. PurpleWhite
WESTERN CHOKECHERRY16 ft.
13 ft.
2 Green Yellow White
Prunus virginiana melanocarpa 5 m. 4 m.
WILLOW - Salix
GOLDEN alba vitellina
30'/9m 25'/8m 4 Green Yellow Catkins
LAUREL LEAF pentandra 30'/9m 25'/8m 3 Green Green Catkins
SILVER/WHITE alba sericea 35'/10m 20'/6m 3 Silver Silver
Catkins
all trees listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Features
Large weeping shrub - can be trained to tree form
Small bright red berries in mid-summer
Gold skinned, tasty fruit.
Ripens in August. Good fresh or canned.
Cross pollinate with Nanking or Sandcherry.
Red skinned and orange fleshed, larger fruit.
Ripens in August. Good for canning.
Cross pollinate with Pembina or Opata.
Hardy and productive tree
Sour fruit very good for preserves
Greenish-purple skinned and green fleshed fruit.
Ripens in August. Good for eating fresh and jelly.
Pollinates with Brookred or Pembina.
Purple skinned,orange fleshed, larger fruit.
Ripens in Sept. Good for eating fresh.
Pollinates with Brookred or Opata.
Bears heavy crops of red plums with yellow flesh
One of the earliest to ripen.
Double-flowering; very fragrant
Large hardy fast-growing; good for large area
Fast growing tree for acreage or large area.
Largest and fastest growing poplar tree.
Narrow columnar tree for smaller yards.
Rapid growing round headed tree.
Small tree with attractive silver leaves.
Fragrant flowers. Drought tolerant.
Black cherries; new leaves green but mature purple
Spring foliage matures maroon; black berries
Compact Schubert; purple berries
Multi-stemmed, native tree that attract birds.
Black cherries follow fragrant spring flowers.
Fast growing; attractive golden stems
Fast growing; glossy leaves; water-loving
Fast growing ; silver summer foliage; likes water
Azalea/Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.)
These compact shrubs grow in an open, upright fashion. The leathery, glossy leaves are dark green in color.
The fully double clusters of flowers, produced in late
May or early June, are available in a number of colors,
depending on variety. Azaleas and Rhododendrons require a partially shaded, sheltered location and damp,
acidic soil. Winter protection is recommended. Look for
the University of Finland varieties of Rhododendrons
like Helsinki, Haaga, and Mikelli. Good azaleas are the
Northern Lights and Orchid Lights series.
Caragana (Caragana spp.)
These fine-textured, drought-resistant shrubs come in
many forms from upright pyramidal to grafted weeping
and dwarf compact. They all produce bright yellow
pea-like flowers in June followed by pea-like pods
which ‘explode’ when ripe. Common caragana is good
mainly for tall hedges or windbreaks. Fern leaf varieties
grow in an upright, weeping fashion with very narrow
light green leaves. Globe and pygmy caraganas are
compact, upright, and spreading and occasionally are
grafted to upright forms for specimen or accent shrubs.
Also grafted are Walker’s Weeping Caraganas which
are formal, fine textured, and highly weeping. Very
alkaline tolerant.
Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster spp.)
These vigorously growing, upright, and spreading
shrubs are dense and full in their growth habit. The
glossy, dark green leaves form right to the base of the
plant and turn a bright orange-red color in the early fall
in Peking Cotoneasters. Purple-black berries follow the
inconspicuous white flowers. These very hardy shrubs
are widely used as a hedge plant. European Cotoneasters have dark green leaves with wooly undersides and
duller fall color but do well in shadier locations.
Dogwood (Cornus spp.)
The dogwood varieties that do well in Southern Alberta
are grown primarily for foliage in the summer and as a
winter color specimen due to their attractive bark. Most
grow in rounded upright fashion with inconspicuous
flowers followed by colored berries in fall. Variegated
forms, those bearing leaves with white or yellow mixed
with green, are Golden Variegated, Siberian Variegated, and Silver-Leafed. Dogwood good for winter color
are Isanti, Kesselring, Red Osier, and Yellow-Twigged.
Varieties that have prominent berries are Isanti, Red
Osier, and Siberian Coral.
Double Flowering Plum (Prunus triloba ‘Multiplex’)
These attractive shrubs grow in an upright spreading fashion. The three-lobed leaves are dark green
and create a dense, full shrub. The fully double, pale
pink flowers are produced in clusters along the stems
before the leaves form in the spring. These shrubs
are one of the most popular large flowering shrubs
available. These shrubs will adapt to shady spots
but flower and grow best in bright, sunny locations.
(Pictured above)
Hydrangea (Hydrangea spp.)
These coarse textured shrubs grow in an upright balllike fashion. The large oval leaves are green in color.
Annabelle Hydrangea bears large, flat clusters of white
flowers that are showy and long lasting. Pee Gee Hydrangeas are more open in form and produces pinkish
flowers in large, pyramidal clusters. Hydrangea Endless Summer, is the first Hydrangea macrophylla that
blooms on both old and new wood, for large colorful
flower mops, virtually all season long. Endless Summer can flower repeatedly on new wood, so you can
be confident that regardless of whether the plant dies
back to the crown or is trimmed at the wrong time, you’ll
still get wonderful flowers that grow all season. Plant
hydrangea in heavy soil in shady or partially shady,
sheltered locations.
Potentilla (Potentilla spp.)
These fine textured shrubs grow in an upright, compact, naturally rounded form. The compound leaves
are a light green color. The bright single yellow, white,
pink, or red flowers vary in shade and intensity depending on the variety. These hardy native shrubs
are popular since they produce flowers throughout
the growing season. Plant potentillas in a sunny or
partially shaded location. Varieties commonly available
are Abbotswood, Coronation Triumph, Goldfinger, Pink
Beauty, and Red Robin.
Spirea (Spiraea spp.)
There are a wide variety of these popular accent
shrubs. Most grow in a low, mounding or spreading
fashion. Additionally, many produce beautiful flowers
in the early summer. Bridal Wreath spirea feature white
blossoms cascading along arched branches. Frobelli
and Anthony Waterer both sport light red flowers in
flat-topped clusters. Goldmound spireas have coarsely
toothed leaves in a lime-green color with small lightpink flowers. Please see our shrub tables for further
varieties. Plant in sun or partial sun.
TREES and SHRUBS
shrubfavorites
113
TREES and SHrUBS
114
shrubs
your questions
the problem becomes out of control pruning of infected
leaves is useful.
Q: I enjoy growing and harvesting fruit. What can I grow
other than raspberries, strawberries, and saskatoon
berries?
A: There are many bush fruits that do quite well in our area.
These include gooseberry, currant, sour cherry, nanking
cherry, cranberry, and grape. Plant in well-drained rich
clay loam and mulch with grass clippings, bark chips,
or chopped straw to conserve moisture and maintain a
cool soil temperature. Grapes should be planted in a very
sheltered south-facing location in order for them to get the
necessary sunlight and make it through the winter. Ensure
that your plants are well watered before going into winter
as this will help them survive the cold weather.
Q: Why do my lilacs only have a few flowers each
year? I water, fertilize, and shape them every year,
and the foliage looks nice and healthy.
A:Lilacs are often pruned too late, and this will remove
the flower buds for next years crop of flowers. The
proper time to prune lilacs, forsythia, double flowering
plum, nanking cherries, and any other shrubs that
flower on old wood is right after flowering. You do this
because these shrubs set the next years flower buds
soon after they are finished flowering.
Q: What are the best shrubs to use for a hedge
between houses?
A: The most consistent and true hedge plant in the
Calgary area is the cotoneaster. It’s not only very dense
it will also provide a fall colour, and a great screen for
a hedge up to 6-7’. If you are looking for something
taller caragana is the best shrub to use for hedges 7’or
more. You can also use most other types of shrubs,
but they will not give you a manicured look like
cotoneasters.
Q: I have a bad time with powdery mildew on my
shrubs...
A: This is a problem for many gardeners, especially for
plants that get more shade. The best ways to combat
this problem is to maintain proper pruning practices
to allow more air movement and sunlight within and
between plants. Watering is also best done in the
morning to ensure that leaves do not stay wet for a
long period of time. It is best if possible to keep the
water off the leaves altogether. Most fungicides do
work if applied in the early stages of the disease. If
Q: Do plants such as azaleas, rhododendrons, and
hydrangeas grow in this area?
A: Yes they do grow in this area, however they cannot just
be planted and left alone as many of the hardier plants
such as potentilla. Due to our extreme low and fluctuating
temperatures in winter these plants must be protected.
Take advantage of the insulating properties of snow by
planting them in an area of your garden that will get a lot of
snow. If this is not feasible mulch with dry leaves or straw
and always water before winter to help with cold weather
survival. East exposure is the best location for these plants
if you are going to try them. That protects them from the
southwest chinook winds or the burning north winds in
the winter.
Fruit on American Cranberry
Cranberry Dwarf American
Azalea
Wayfaring Tree
Forsythia
Waterton Mockorange
Abbotswood Potentilla
Nanking Cherry
Goldflame Spirea
TREES and SHRUBS
shrubs
pictures
115
cherry bomb
sunsation
emerald carousel ruby carousel
golden nugget
rose glow
TREES and SHrUBS
116
shrubsbarberry
Berberis thunbergii
After a 30-year absence Barberry has finally returned
to Canada! This beautiful plant makes an excellent
low hedge, barrier planting, single shrub accent, or
contrast plant. When first planted water well until
the shrub is well established. Do not let barberries
dry out in the first few weeks following transplanting.
Once the barberry is established begin to water as
required.
Cherry Bomb
• compact branches with deep crimsonfoliage
• bright red berries in fall and winter
• grows approximately 3 feet tall and 3 feet wide
Sunsation
• compact dwarf golden barberry
• good for colour contrast
• keep out of full sun - morning or filtered sun only
• grows approximately 3-4 feet tall and wide
Rose Glow
• graceful arching branch rose-red glow over mottled white and
green spring foliage
• bright red berries in fall and winter
• grow approximately 4 feet tall and 4 feet wide
Golden Nugget
• compact dwarf golden barberry
• keep out of full sun - filtered or morning sunlight only
• grows approximately 12 inches tall and 18 inches wide
Ruby Carousel
• excellent hedge, accent or barrier plant with thorny stems
• superb red colour and uniform habit
• prefers moist, well-drained soil
• grows approximately 4 feet tall and 4 feet wide
Emerald Carousel
• excellent hedge, accent or barrier plant with arching thorny stems
• The foliage is green but turns dark red to purple in the fall
• prefers moist, well-drained soil
• grows approximately 5 feet tall and 5 feet wide
Names
all shrubs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Height Spread Sunlight Zone Foliage Flower
Color Color
Features
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
AMUR MAPLE - RED RHAPSODY
Acer ginalla 'Red Rhapsody'
15 ft
5m
15 ft
™–»
3
Green Red
5m
Brilliant red fall colour; very hardy
Small, fragrant yellowish flowers in spring
ARROWOOD
Viburnum dentatum
7 ft.
2 m.
5 ft.
™–»
4
Green White
1.5 m.
Showy umbrella-shaped flower clusters in
spring. Attractive autumn red leaf color.
ASHLEAF or FALSE SPIREA
7 ft.
7 ft.
™– ˜
2
Green Cream
Sorbaria sorbifolia 2 m.
2 m.
White
Spreading shrub which will grow in any
landscape. Lacy foliage produces plumes of
flowers.
AZALEA
3 ft.
3 ft.
™–»
Rhododendron Lights Varieties
1 m.
1 m.
LEMON LIGHTS
3'/1m 3'/1m
4
Green Red/OR
GOLDEN LIGHTS
3'/1m 3'/1m
4
Green Gold
MANDARIN LIGHTS
3'/1m 3'/1m
4
Green Orange
ORCHID LIGHTS
3'/1m 3'/1m
4
Green Purple
ROSY LIGHTS
3'/1m 3'/1m
4
Green Pink
WHITE LIGHTS
3'/1m 3'/1m
4
Green White
BARBERRY Berberis thunbergii
4
Purple Yellow
BURGUNDY CAROUSEL
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
4
Red/Purp Yellow
CHERRY BOMB
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
4
Green Yellow
EMERALD CAROUSEL
5'/1.6m 5'/1.6m ™–»
4
Gold
Yellow
GOLDEN NUGGET
1'/0.3m 1.5'/0.5m™–»
4
Rose-pinkYellow
ROSE GLOW
4'/1.3m 4'/1.3m ™–»
4
Purple Yellow
ROYAL BURGUNDY
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
4
Rose-pinkYellow
RUBY CAROUSEL
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
4
Gold
Yellow
SUNSATION
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
BLUEBERRIES - see our bush fruit section
BROOM
DWARF -Genista lydia 2'/0.6m 3'/1m ™
4
Green Yellow
ROYAL GOLD - Genista tinctoria
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
4
Green Yellow
BUFFALOBERRY - RUSSET
10 ft
7 ft
™
2
Green Yellow
Sheperdia canadensis
3m
2m
BUFFALOBERRY-SILVER
10 ft.
7 ft.
™
2
Silver
Yellow
Sheperdia argentea
3 m.
2 m.
BURNING BUSH - DWARF WINGED 6 ft.
10 ft.
™–»
4
Green
Euonymous alata compacta
2 m.
3 m.
BURNING BUSH -TURKESTAN
1.5 ft. 3 ft.
™–»
2
Green Pink
Euonymus nanus 'Turkestanica'
0.5 m. 1 m.
CARAGANA
™–»
2
Green Yellow
Caragana arborescens var.
COMMON
13'/4m 7'/2m
2
FERNLEAF - 'Lorbergii'
13'/4m 10'/3m
2
Green Yellow
SUTHERLAND
13'/4m 5'/1.5m
2
Green Yellow
WALKER'S WEEPING
5'/1.5m 3'/1m
2
Green Yellow
WEEPING - 'Pendula'
7'/2m 3'/1m
2
Green Yellow
CARAGANA-GLOBE
3 ft.
3 ft.
™– » 2
Green Yellow
Caragana frutex 'Globosa'
1 m.
1 m.
CARAGANA-PYGMY
3 ft.
5 ft.
™– » 2
Green Yellow
Caragana pygmaea
1 m.
1.5 m.
CHERRY - EVANS
12'/4m 9'/3m ™
3
Green White
Prunus cerasus
CHERRY-MONGOLIAN
3 ft.
3 ft.
™
3
Green White
Prunus fruticosa
1 m.
1 m.
CHERRY-NANKING
10 ft.
7 ft.
™
2
Green Light
Prunus tomentosa
3 m.
2 m.
Pink
Plant in sheltered area in moist peaty soil
Red-orange flowers with a delicate fragrance
Gold double flower clusters in late spring.
Orange double flower clusters in late spring.
Purple double flower clusters in late spring.
Pink double flower clusters in late spring.
White double flower clusters in late spring.
TREES and SHRUBS
shrubs
Spreadng variety with drooping foliage
Compact variety; slow growing
Arching foliage; red berries; bright fall color
Compact, slow-growing; orange fall cololr
Mottled rose-pink foliage matures deep red-purple
Dwarf rounded form; black-red in fall
Mottled rose-pink foliage matures deep red-purple
Compact; new growth green-gold matures gold
Fine textured sprawling shrub. Flowers in June.
Flowers in tall conical panicles on new growth
Hardy native, nitrogen-fixing shrub; drought
tolerant. Sour yellow-orange fruit popular with birds
Hardy native, drought resistant, spiny shrub.
Red berries on female plants.
Flaming red fall color
Excellent for small shrub beds and hedges
Low sprawling shrub with linear leaves.
Rose fall foliage color appears to be burning.
Siberian pea-shrub. Drought tolerant.
Excellent hedge, shelterbelt or windbreak.
Lacy leaves on this graceful plant.
Tall, columnar, accent plant.
Fine lacy foliage hangs from weeping branches.
Weeping, grafted variety with oval leaflets.
Globe-shaped shrub that requires no pruning.
One of the woody plants of yr. in 1996, 97 & 98.
Spiny shrub with spring flowers.
Useful armed hedge plant for dry area.
Excellent fruiting type; fruit bright red
Rose Cherry a dark brown variety also available.
White flowers and glossy green leaves.
Red sour cherries for jelly.
Red edible cherries are great for jelly.
Our most popular large flowering shrub.
117
TREES and SHrUBS
shrubs
118
Names
all shrubs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Height Spread Sunlight Zone Foliage Flower
Color Color
CHERRY - NANKING 'Alba'
10 ft
7 ft
™
2
Green Light
Prunus tomentosa 'Alba'
3 m
2 m
pink
CHERRY - NANKING 'Lee's Black'
10 ft
7 ft
™
2
Green light
Prunus tomentosa 'Lee's Black'
3 m
2m
pink
CHERRY PRINSEPIA
5 ft.
3 ft.
™
2
Green Yellow
Prinsepia sinensis
1.5 m. 1 m.
CHERRY-WESTERN SAND
3 ft.
3 ft.
™
3
Green White
Prunus besseyi
1 m.
1 m.
CHOKECHERRY - AUTMUN MAGIC 5 ft.
3 ft.
™
3
Green White
Aronia melanocarpa
1.5 m. 1 m.
COTONEASTER
Hedge or Peking - acutifolia
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™
2
Green pink
CENTENNIAL - integerrimus
8'/2.5m 8'/2.5m ™–»
3
Green pink
CRANBERRY - Viburnum opulus varieties
COMPACT EUROPEAN
8'/2.5m 8'/2.5m ™–»
2
Green White
European Dwarf
2'/.6m 2'/.6m ™–»
3
Green Sterile
CRANBERRY - Viburnum trilobum varieties
AMERICAN HIGHBUSH
10'/3m 7'/2m ™–»
2
Green White
BAILEY COMPACT
5'/1.5m 2'/1m ™–»
2
Green White
DWARF AMERICAN
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
2
Green White
CRANBERRY - WENTWORTH
10 ft.
7 ft.
™–»
3
Green White
Viburnum spp.
3 m.
2 m.
CURRANT-ALPINE
5 ft.
5 ft.
™–»
2
Green Green
Ribes alpinum
1.5 m. 1.5 m.
CURRANT- BUSH FRUIT VARIETIES - see our bush fruit section
CURRANT-GOLDEN
5 ft.
5 ft.
™–»
3
Green Gold-
Ribes aureum
1.5 m. 1 m.
Yellow
DOGWOOD - Cornus alba varieties
BUD'S YELLOW
7'/2m 7'/2m ™–»
3
Green wht/ylw
GOLDEN Variegated - 'Gouchaultii' 7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Green White
GREY
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Green White
IVORY HALO
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Green White
KESSELRING
5'/1.5m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Green White
PRAIRIE FIRE
6'/2m 4'/1.6m ™–»
2
Gold
White
SIBERIAN
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Green White
SIBERIAN VARIEGATED
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Grn/Wht White
SILVER Variegated
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Grn/Wht White
DOGWOOD - Cornus sericea varieties
ISANTI
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
3
Green White KELSEY
2'/0.6m 2'/0.6m ™–»
3
Green White
RED OSIER
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Green White
ELDER
BLACK BEAUTY
6'/2m 6'/2m ™
4
Black
Pink
BLACK LACE
7’/2m 6’/2m ™
4
Black
Pink
GOLDEN
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™
3
Gold
White
GOLDEN PLUME- 'Plumosa Aurea'
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™
3
Gold
Cream
GUINCHO PURPLE
10'/3m 7'/2m ™
3
purple Cream
MADONNA
10'/3m 7'/2m ™
3
white and Cream
RED
10'/3m 7'/2m ™
3
Green Cream
SUTHERLAND CUTLEAF
7'/2m 7'/2m ™
3
Golden Cream
FORSYTHIA-NORTHERN GOLD
5 ft.
3 ft.
™–»
3
Green Yellow
Forsythia ovata 'Northern Gold'
1.5 m. 1 m.
Features
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
White-fruiting variety
Fruit excellent for jelly; popular with birds
Black-fruiting variety
Good for jellies; popular with birds
Spiny hardy shrub for the Prairies with red fruit.
Useful as an armed barrier plant.
Olive-green leaves and black sour cherries.
Sprawling shrub is used as late plum pollinator.
Abundant edible black cherrries attract birds in fall
Red fall color
Hedge plant; leaves turn red in fall, very popular
Arching branches; prefers moist areas
Standard cultivar; red fruit; Densely flower & fruit
Dwarf shrub for shaded, moist area; purple fall color
Suitable for shaded moist areas.
Green lobed leaves turn red in the fall.
Compact shrub with colorful red fall foliage.
Edible red berries in summer; red fall foliage
Prolific bloomer and heavy fruit producer
Red fall color
Small green flowers and lobed leaves.
Used for mass planting.
Fragrant flowers in spring; good for hedging
Dark berries are good for jelly.
Beautiful yellow twigs for winter colour
Variegated green and gold leaves on red stems.
Smooth light-grey bark; moist, well-drained soil
Bright red stems and silver variegated leaves
Deep purple stems are outstanding in winter.
Beautiful red foliage in fall.
Vivid red stems in winter; white berries attract birds
Foliage has red fall color. Bluish berries.
Very popular foliage plant for color contrast.
Compact selection of Red Osier dogwood.
Dwarf selection of Red Osier dogwood.
Red stems for winter color; shrub spreads by stolons.
Striking new variety - black foliage & pink blooms!
Japanese Maple-like leaves, New Product!
Golden yellow foliage color in summer and fall.
Golden yellow, deeply serrated leaves.
Foliage is especially striking when grown in full sun
Compact plant with white and dark green foliage
Serrated green leaflets; fruit used for jelly/wine.
Golden yellow dissected leaves; good contrast
Profusion of yellow flowers early in spring.
shrubs
Height Spread Sunlight Zone Foliage Flower
Color Color
Features
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
GOOSEBERRY- see our bush fruit section
HONEYSUCKLE
3
Blu/Grn Purple Fragrant flowers then blue berries; narrow leaves
ALBERT REGAL
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
ARNOLD RED
10'/3m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Green Dark RedDark red fruit follow dark red fragrant flowers.
SWEETBERRY
5'/1.5m 3'/1m ™
3
Green White Compact shrub with shredding bark; fruit edible.
DWARF BUSH - Diervilla lonicera
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
3
Green Yellow Compact native North American shrub
HYDRANGEA
3-4
Green White Large, white, flat flower clusters; shady moist area
ANNABELLE
3'/1m 3'/1m » BLUSHING BRIDE
5’/1.5m 5’/1.5m »
4-5
Green White Blooms fade to pink/blue as they age
3-4
Green Blue/PinkBlooms all summer, good cutflower
ENDLESS SUMMER
5’/1.5m 5’/1.5m »
3-4
Green Lt/Pink Showy, large, pinkish pyramidal flower clusters.
PEE GEE
3'/1m 3'/1m » TARDIVA
7'/2m 7'/2m »
3-4
Green Lt/Pink Blooms later than other panicle hydrangeas
MOCKORANGE - Philadelphus spp.
4
Dk Grn White Fragrant single blooms; rounded form
GALAHAD
5'/1.5m 5'/1.5m ™–»
4
Green White Fragrant double blooms; compact rounded form.
MINIATURE SNOWFLAKE
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
MINNESOTA SNOWFLAKE 5'/1.5m 3'/1m
™–»
3
Green
White
Fragrant flowering shrub; Double white in summer.
SNOWBELLE
4'/1.3m 4'/1.3m ™
4
Green White Fragrant double white blooms; very adaptable.
4
Green White Double, white very fragrant flowers; needs pruning
VIRGINAL
8'/3m 4'/1.5m ™–»
2
Green White Hardy Mockorange from Waterton Park in AB.
WATERTON
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™–»
NANNYBERRY
10 ft.
7 ft.
™–»
3
Green White Glossy green foliage turns bright red in fall.
Viburnum lentago
3 m.
2 m. Flowers turn into clusters of black berries.
NINEBARK - Physocarpus spp.
3
Golden White Deep pink fruit in late summer; Compact shrub
DART'S GOLD
3'/1m 3'/1m ™ 3
Purple White Flowers in summer; Strong, upright growth.
DIABOLO
7'/2m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Golden White Golden yellow colorful foliage.
GOLDEN
5'/1.5m 3'/1m ™
3
Golden White Foliage turns lime green as season progresses
NUGGET
5'/1.5m 4/1.3m ™
3
Bronze White New compact form;good for contrast w/gold shrub
SUMMER WINE
4'/1.3m 6'/1.6m ™
PLUM-DOUBLE FLOWERING
7 ft.
5 ft.
™
3
Green Pink
Emergence of flowers signifies spring arrival.
Prunus triloba 'Multiplex'
2 m.
1.5 m.
Spectacular pink double flowers before leaves.
POTENTILLA
2
Green White Most popular white flowering potentilla.
ABBOTSWOOD
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
CORONATION TRIUMPH
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
2
Green
Yellow
Longest blooming period of all potentilla.
GOLD DROP
2'/0.6m 3'/1m ™
2
Green Yellow Larger yellow flowers on this compact shrub.
2
Green Yellow Popular and largest yellow flowering potentilla.
GOLDFINGER
5'/1.5m 3'/1m ™
2
Green Golden Golden yellow flowers on this dwarf shrub.
GOLD STAR
2'/0.6m 3'/1m ™
JACKMAN
3'/1m
3'/1m
™
2
Green
Yellow
Very durable; good for xeriscaping
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
2
Green
Yellow Creamy yellow flowers on this old standby.
KATHERINE DYKES
MANGO TANGO
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
2
Green Golden Golden yellow blooms; New variety!
2
Green Yellow Light yellow flowers with woolly foliage.
MOONLIGHT
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
ORANGE WHISPER
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
2
Green
Orange Orange flowers on this uniform mounded shrub.
PINK BEAUTY
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
2
Green Pink
Double pink flowers on this mounding shrub.
2
Green Pink
Very light pink flowers
PINK QUEEN
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
3
Green Red
Red-yellow flowers on this compact shrub.
RED ACE
2'/0.6m 2'/0.6m ™
3
Green Red-
Hardier selection of Red Ace retains color better.
RED ROBIN
2'/0.6m 2'/0.6m ™
SNOWBIRD
2'/0.6m 2'/0.6m ™
3
Green White 80% of the flowers double; hardy, compact
2
Green White Beautiful white blooms
SNOWFLAKE
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
2
Green Orange Brick orange flowers simulate sunset.
SUNSET
2'/0.6m 3'/1m ™
3
Green Yellow Large creamy yellow flowers
SUTTER'S GOLD
2'/0.6m 2'/0.6m ™ 2
Green Amber Amber flowers on this spreading shrub.
TANGERINE
3'/1m 3'/1m ™
2
Green Yellow Bright yellow flowers on this compact shrub.
YELLOW BIRD
2'/0.6m 3'/1m ™
YELLOW GEM
1.5'/0.5m3'/1m ™
2
Green Yellow Bright yellow flowers on this spreading shrub.
RASPBERRY - please see our bush fruit section
RHODODENDRON
ALBUM
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
3
EvergreenWhite White flowers early spring; Very hardy
TREES and SHRUBS
Names
all shrubs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
119
TREES and SHrUBS
shrubs
120
Names
all shrubs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Height Spread Sunlight Zone Foliage Flower
Color Color
Features
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
Boursalt
3'/1m 3'/1m ™–»
3
EvergreenPurple light purple flower in early spring; Compact growth
CLOUDLAND
2'/0.6m 2'/0.6m ™–»
4
EvergreenPurple Funnel-shaped blooms; tiny, aromatic leaves
RHODODENDRON - FINNISH VAR. 5'/1.5m 5'/1.5m ™–»
3
Evergreenvaries Very hardy Finnish cultivars
'Haaga'
pink
Round crowns; upright habit
'Hellikki'
purple purple-red flowers fade; buds covered in down
'Helsinki University'
pink
upright growth habit; red-tinged new growth
'Mikkeli'
white
dark-green foliage; blooms midsummer
''Peter Tigerstedt'
white
flowers have dark patches
'Pohjola's Daughter'
pink
violet-red flower buds; white, blotched flowers
4-5
EvergreenPink
Ruffled blooms with yellowish center
NORTHERN STARBURST
3’/1m 3’/1m 
4
EvergreenPink
Trumpet shaped blooms early in spring; hardiest
PJM
3’/1m 3’/1m 
4
EvergreenPink
Compact version of above plant; Likes acidic soil.
PJM COMPACT
3’/1m 3’/1m 
4
EvergreenLavenderVery hardy variety with lavender -red blooms
NOVA ZEMBLA
5’/1.5m 5’/1.5m 
4-5
EvergreenBlue
Pale violet-blue flowers;New growth is blue-green
RAMAPO
2’/0.6m 2’/0.6m 
4-5
EvergreenPink
Rosy-lilac flowers fade to pink;large green leaves
ROSEUM
3’/1m 3’/1m 
ROSE DAPHNE - Daphne cneorum
4
Green/creamPink Beautiful variegated leaves; Excellent for rock CAROL MACKI
2’/0.6m 3’/1m 
gardens
4
EvergreenPink
Flowers early spring; good for areas insulated by ROSE DAPHNE
1’/0.3m 2’/0.6m 
snow.

3
Green Pink
Plum-like, fuzzy almonds.
RUSSIAN ALMOND
5 ft.
5 ft.
Prunus tenella
1.5 m. 1.5 m.
Small shrub for mass planting.

3-4
Silver Yellow Outstanding silvery foliage and fragrant flowers.
RUSSIAN OLIVE
16 ft.
13 ft.
Eleagnus angustifolia
5 m.
4 m.
Large multi-stemmed shrub small specimen tree.
3
silver-greypurple- Deep penetrating roots; tolerates saline soils
SALTBUSH (Russian Salt Tree)
6’/2m 6’/2m 
Halimodendron halodendron
white
Reproduces from seeds and from roots.
SASKATOON - see our bush fruit section

3
Purple Light
Spectacular purple foliage on this accent plant.
SANDCHERRY - PURPLE-LEAF
7 ft.
5 ft.
Prunus cistena
2 m.
1.5 m.
Pink
Most popular shrub for color contrast.

2
Silver Yellow Thorny shrub with silver linear leaves,orange
SEA BUCKTHORN
13 ft.
10 ft.
Hippophae rhamnoides
4 m.
3 m.
berries. Drought tolerant and hardier than Russian olive.

3
Green White Showy snowball-shaped flower clusters in spring.
SNOWBALL
7 ft.
5 ft.
Viburnum opulus roseum/sterilis
2 m. 1.5 m.
Suitable shrub for shaded moist area.

2
Green Pink
Native hardy, small shrub.
SNOWBERRY
3 ft.
3 ft.
Symphoricarpos albus
1 m.
1 m.
White berries in winter attract wildlife.
4
Green Yellow Green branches have corky strips like Burning
SPINDLE TREE
10’/3m 10’/3m 
Euonymous europaeus
Green Bush. Red fall color; flower clusters; showy orange seeds
SPIRAEA
3
Green Pink Low growing with long blooming season
ANTHONY WATERER
2’/0.6m. 3’/1m 
3
Green Pink
Large deep-pink flower spikes; Summer blooming
BILLARDI TRIUMPHANS
5’/1.5m 5’/1.5m 
3
Green White Arching branches veiled with white flowers in June.
BRIDAL WREATH
7’/2m. 5’/1.5m 
3
Grn-Brnz Pink
Deeply serated, crinkled leaves;continous blooms
CRISPA
2’/0.6m 2.5’/0.8m
4
Green Red
Similar to Anthony Waterer but with darker blooms
DART’S RED
3’/1m 3’/1m 
3
Green White Low sprawling shrub with white flowers in June.
FAIRY QUEEN
2’/0.6m 2’/0.6m 
3
Green Pink
Similar to Little Princess but smaller with larger FLOWERING CHOICE
1’/30cm 1’/30cm 
flowers
2
Green Pink
Similar to Anthony Waterer but hardier and taller.
FROEBELLII
3’/1m 3’/1m 
3
Green White Spring blooms; garlands of flowers; fine-textured GARLAND
3’/1m 3’/1m 
foliage
3
Green Tri-color White, pink, and red flowers on this compact shrub
GOLDEN CARPET
3’/1m 3’/1m 
3
Green Pink
Foliage turns red-purple in the fall
GREEN CARPET
8”/20cm 1’/30cm 
3
Gold
Pink
Compact shrub for color contrast in the landscape.
GOLDFLAME
3’/1m 3’/1m 
3-4
Gold
Pink
Compact substitute for Goldflame spirea.
GOLDMOUND
2’/0.6m 3’/1m 
shrubs
Height Spread Sunlight Zone Foliage Flower
Color Color
Features
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
GUMBALL
3’/1m 3’/1m 
4
Green Pink
Compact form of Froebellii; very adaptable
3
Green White Compact selection of nipponica species
HALWARD’S SILVER
3’/1m 3’/1m 
4
Green White Mounding shrub covered with blooms
KOREAN
3’/1m 3’/1m 
4
Green Pink
Dwarf compact mound shape; Foliage turns dark LITTLE PRINCESS
2’/0.6m 3’/1m 
red in fall.
4
Gold, RedPink
Forms a miniature compact mound
MAGIC CARPET
1’/30 cm 3’/1m 
3
Gold
Pink
Dense dwarf similar to Goldmound
MINI SUNGLO
1’/30 cm 2’/0.6cm 
3
Green Pink
Similar to Anthony Waterer with darker blooms
NEON FLASH
3’/1m 3’/1m 
3
Green White Graceful arching display of white flowers in spring
RENAISSANCE
4’/1.3m 4’/1.3m 
4
Green Pnk/Wht Serrated lacy foliage with pink, red&white flowers.
SHIROBANA
3’/1m 3’/1m 
3
Green White Small, blue-green leaves; fine white flowers in SNOWMOUND
4’/1.3m 4’/1.3m 
mid-summer
2
Green Pink
Abundant flowers along arching branches in June.
SNOWHITE
5’/1.5m 3’/1m 
3
Lime/GoldPink
Fine spreading shrub; nice fall color; few blooms
SPARKLING CARPET
10”/25cm16”/40cm
4
Green White Deep green, leaves different from other spiraeas
THOR
3’/1m 3’/1m 
2
Green White Graceful arching branches; three-lobed leaves
THREE-LOBED
3’/1m 3’/1m 
3
Green White Ball-shaped shrub with pure white flowers in June.
WHITE SWAN
3’/1m 3’/1m 
SUMAC - Rhus spp.
3
Green Yellow Bright fall coloration; flower panicles last all winter
CUTLEAF
7’/2m. 7’/2m. 
3
Green Yellow Smooth bark and divided, lacy leaves;Red fallfruit.
CUTLEAF SMOOTH
7’/2m. 7’/2m. 
4
Green Yellow Stems aromatic when bruised
GRO-LOW
1’/ 0.6m 7’/2m 
3
Green Yellow Shiny green, oak leaf-shaped foliage; orange-red THREE-LEAF
5’/1.5m 5’/1.5m 
berry
3
Green Green Fern-like foliage. Red fall fruit and foliage.
STAGHORN
10’/3m 5’/1.5m 
Xeriscape plant.
4
Yellow White Golden cutleaf variety; new for 2005.
TIGER EYES
7’/2m. 7’/2m. 

3
Gray-
White Olive-green, leathery leaves.
WAYFARING TREE
7 ft.
7 ft.
Viburnum lantana
2 m.
2 m.
Green
Fruit turns from red to black.

3
Gray-
White Olive-green, leathery leaves. Red to black fruit.
WAYFARING TREE - MOHICAN 5 ft.
5 ft.
Viburnum lantana ‘Mohican’
1.5 m. 1.5 m.
Green
Compact selection of Wayfaring Tree.
WEIGELA - Weigela florida
4
Purple Pink
new variety; Leaves are a deep wine purple
ALEXANDRIA/WINE & ROSES
4’/1.3m 4’/1.3m 
3
Green Pink
Pink tubular flowers in June, reblooms again later.
CENTENNIAL
5’/1.5m 5’/1.5m 
4
Green Pink/RedRose tubular flowers in June/reblooms again later.
MINUET
3’/1m 3’/1m 
4
Green Red
Red tubular flowers throughout the summer.
RED PRINCE
5’/1.5m 5’/1.5m 
4
reddish Pink
Reddish-burgundy foliage; very popular in Europe
RUBY QUEEN
3’/1m 3’/1m 
WILLOW - Salix spp.
3
Gray-Grn Mound-shaped with linear leaves and purple ARCTIC
3’/1m 3’/1m 
stems.
3
Gray-Grn Catkins Large multi-stemmed shrub or small tree
BEBB
10’/3m 10’/3m  3
Bluish-
Upright globe-shaped shrub; Colorful blue-gray BLUE FOX
3’/1m 3’/1m 
foliage.
3
Blue-gray Catkins Good in moist areas; good for riverside planting
COYOTE
12’/4m 12’/4m 
3
Green Catkins Spreading form good for ground cover
CREEPING
2’/0.6m 6’/2m 
4
Pnk/Wht
Tricolor pink, white and green leaves.
HAKURA NISHIKI
3’/1m 3’/1m 
3
Green
Flaming red-orange bark for winter color.
FLAME
16’/5m. 10’/3m 
2
Green Catkins Hairy silvery blue foliage, hardy variety.
POLAR BEAR
16’/5m. 6’/2m 
2
Green Catkins Silvery catkins appear in spring; llikes moist areas
PUSSY WILLOW - FRENCH
16’/5m 10’/3m 
3
Silver
Catkins Creeping shrub with silver-grey foliage
SILVER CREEPING
2’/0.6m 7’/2m 
2
Green Catkins Native species; good for wet areas
YELLOW
12’/4m 12’/4m 

2
Silver
Yellow Hardy, native shrub with silvery foliage.
WOLF WILLOW
7 ft.
7 ft.
Elaeagnus commutata
2 m.
2 m.
Scented spring flowers. Drought tolerant.
TREES and SHRUBS
Names
all shrubs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
121
LArGe CALiPer treeS
AVAiLABLe in Store noW
Located west creek side of the store.
Names
Fruit Color
all small fruit listed subject to seasonal and supplier availability
Size
Height/
Sun/
Fruit Features/Uses
Spread
Shade
BLUEBERRIES:
sun/part shade
BLUECROP
dark blue
4/4ft
most widely planted blueberry on earth
BLUEJAY
medium blue 4/4ft
large, firm berries with moderate to high yield
BLUERAY
powder blue 4/4ft
mid-season, large berries
CHIPPEWA
light blue
4/4ft
medium, very light blue, mid-season berries
NORTHBLUE
dark blue
3/3 ft.
dark blue, sweet flavored fruit
NORTHCOUNTRY
sky blue
3/3 ft.
mild, sweet, sky blue fruit
NORTHLAND
dark blue
4/4 ft.
wild berry tasting, dark blue fruit
NORTHSKY
sky blue
2/2 ft.
hardiest blueberry with sweet, sky blue fruit
PATRIOT
medium blue 3/3ft
large berries with high yield, excellent flavour
POLARIS
light blue 3/3ft
best ripening in northern gardens; new variety
CHERRIES:
MONGOLIAN
red
3/3 ft.
NANKING
red
10/10 ft.
full sun
sun
sun
sour cherries for jelly
edible cherries great for jelly
TREES and SHRUBS
small fruit
CRANBERRY: please see our shrub section
sun/partshade
CURRANTS:
BLACK
black
3/3 ft.
GOLDEN
gold
5/5 ft.
JOSTA
dark red
6/3 ft.
RED LAKE
red
3/3 ft.
WHITE
white
3/3 ft.
abundant black fruit for preserves
ornamental golden fragrant flowers
cross between black currant and gooseberry
plentiful fruit produced for jelly
mild flavored fruit for preserves
GOOSEBERRIES:
sun/part shade
HINNONMAEKI RED
red
3/3 ft.
tart red, juicy fruit for preserves
HINNONMAEKI YELLOW
green-gold
3/3 ft.
tart green, juicy fruit for preserves
PIXWELL
green
3/3 ft.
productive fruit producer for preserves
GRAPES:
sun or part shade
CANADICE
red
red seedless early variety for all uses
CONCORD
blue
popular blue variety used for fresh grape juice
INTERLAKEN
green
golden green seedless grapes to eat fresh
STEUBEN
purple
bluish-purple fruit used for jelly, juice or wine
VALIANT
blue
hardiest grape for the prairies used for jelly
RASPBERRIES:
full sun
BLACK JEWEL
dark purple
5/5 ft.
hardy, heavy producer of purple, juicy fruit
BOYNE RED
red
5/5 ft.
hardy, heavy producer of sweet red berries
CHESTER
black
5/5
vigorous, hardy variety; shiny black fruit
HERITAGE RED
red
5/5 ft.
everbearing producer in September
MEEKER
red
5/5ft
summer-bearing; medium to large berries
RED KILLARNEY
red
5/5ft
summer-bearing; deep red sweet fruit
SK RED MAMMOTH
red
5/5 ft. hardy, very sweet red berry new from the UofS
SK RED BOUNTY
red
5/5 ft.
hardy, large red berry new from UofS
YELLOW-FALL GOLD
gold-yellow
5/5 ft.
new everbearing variety with unique gold fruit
SASKATOONS:
full sun
ALTAGLOW
white
10/5 ft.
HONEYWOOD
purple
7/5 ft.
NORTHLINE
purple
7/5 ft.
PEMBINA
purple
10/7 ft.
REGENT
purple
7/5 ft
SMOKEY
purple
10/7 ft.
THEISSEN
purple
10/5 ft.
new variety with unique white fruit
later large fruit for eating fresh or pies
productive fruit producer to eat fresh or pies
well-known variety with large fruit to eat
sweet fruit is good for eating fresh or pies
high yielding variety with mild sweet fruit
large fruit is good for eating fresh or pies
123
TREES and SHrUBS
lilac
photos
Golden Acre Is Proud to be able to Supply you with over 25 varieties of Lilacs including
the following sub-categorys: French Hybrid, Hyacinth, Preston, and Treeform.
For best results plant in a full sun area, fertilize regularly, dead-head old blooms, and don’t
prune till just after flowering. This should ensure lots of blooms,and lots of enjoyment.
Aucuba Leaf
Congo
Dark Knight
Dwarf Korean
Forrest K. Smith
Ludwig Spaeth
Madame Lemoine
Michael Buchner
Miss Kim
Montainge
Persian
Pink French Hybrid
President Grevy
President Lincoln
Sarah Sands
Victor Lemoine
124
all lilacs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Names
Height Spread Sunlight Zone Foliage Flower
Color Color
LILAC - BEAUTY OF MOSCOW
Syringa sp.
LILAC-COMMON
Syringa vulgaris
LILAC - CONGO
Syringa sp.
LILAC-DWARF KOREAN
Syringa meyeri ‘Palibin’
10 ft.
3m.
10 ft.
3 m.
10 ft.
3 m.
3 ft.
1 m.
LILAC - MISS ELLEN WILLMOTT
10 ft.
Syringa sp.
3 m.
LILAC-FRENCH-CHARM
10 ft.
Syringa vulgaris ‘Charm’
3 m.
LILAC-FRENCH-CHARLES JOLY
10 ft.
Syringa vulgaris ‘Charles Joly’
3 m.
LILAC-FRENCH-KATHY HAVEMEYER
10 ft.
Syringa vulgaris ‘Katherine Havemeyer’
3 m.
LILAC-FRENCH-LUDWIG SPAETH
10 ft.
Syringa vulgaris ‘Ludwig Spaeth’
3 m.
LILAC-FRENCH-MADAME LEMOINE
10 ft.
Syringa vulgaris ‘Madame Lemoine’
3 m.
LILAC - FRENCH - MONTAIGNE
10 ft.
Syringa sp.
3 m.
LILAC-FRENCH-PRESIDENT GREVY
10 ft.
Syringa vulgaris ‘President Grevy’
3 m.
LILAC - FRENCH - PRESIDENT LINCOLN 10 ft.
Syringa sp.
3 m.
LILAC-FRENCH-SENSATION
10 ft.
Syringa vulgaris ‘Sensation’
3 m.
LILAC-HYACINTH-ASESSIPPI
10 ft.
Syringa hyacinthiflora ‘Asessipi’
3 m.
LILAC-HYACINTH-MOUNT BAKER
10 ft.
Syringa hyacinthiflora ‘Mount Baker’
3 m.
LILAC-HYACINTH-POCAHONTAS
10 ft.
Syringa hyacinthiflora ‘Pocahontas’
3 m.
LILAC-MISS KIM
5 ft.
Syringa patula ‘Miss Kim’
1.5 m.
LILAC - PRESTON - CORAL
7 ft.
Syringa prestonia ‘Coral’
2 m.
LILAC-PRESTON-MISS CANADA 10 ft.
Syringa prestoniae ‘Miss Canada’ 3 m.
LILAC-PRESTON-RED WINE
10 ft.
Syringa prestoniae ‘Red Wine’
3 m.
LILAC-PRESTON-ROYALTY
10 ft.
Syringa prestoniae ‘Royalty’
3 m.
LILAC - TINKERBELLE
5-6 ft.
Syringa sp.
1.5 m.
LILAC-VILLOSA or LATE
10 ft.
Syringa villosa
3 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft. 2 m.
3 ft.
1 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
3 ft.
1 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
5-6 ft.
1.5 m.
7 ft.
2 m.
sun or
2
Green Pink
part shade
sun or
2
Green Purple
part shade
sun or
2
Green Reddish
part shade
sun or
3
Green Lavender part shade
sun or
2
Green White
part shade
sun or
3
Green Deep
part shade
Pink
sun or
3
Green Reddish
part shade
Purple
sun or
3
Green Bluish-
part shade
Pink
sun or
3
Green Reddish
part shade
Purple
sun or
3
Green White
part shade
sun or
3
Green lavender
part shade
sun or
3
Green Blue
part shade
sun or
3
Green Blue
part shade
sun or
3
Green Purple
part shade
& White
sun or
3
Green Lavender
part shade
sun or
3
Green White
part shade
sun or
3
Green Deep
part shade
Purple sun or
3
Green Lavender
part shade
sun or
2
Green Pink
part shade
sun or
3
Green Pink part shade
sun or
3
Green Pink
part shade
sun or
3
Green Purple
part shade
sun or
3
Green Reddish
part shade
sun or
2
Green Lavender
part shade
Features/Uses
Very heavy bloomer; double pink flowers
Good screening plant or feature
Old fashioned favorite with fragrant flowers.
Has suckering habit but good windbreaks.
Single, dark red flowers
Miniature leaves and flowers good for small
yards.
Double white flowers
Grafted roots to control suckering.
Charming single pink fragrant flowers.
Grafted roots to control suckering.
Reddish purple, double fragrant flowers.
Grafted roots to control suckering.
Pink double fragrant flowers.
Grafted roots to control suckering.
Purple single fragrant flowers.
Grafted roots to control suckering.
White double fragrant flowers.
Double, pale, fragrant flowers
Good bloomer
Grafted roots to control suckering.
Blue double fragrant flowers.
Single blue flowers with a lavender tint
Heavy bloomer but clusters are small
Grafted roots to control suckering.
Sensational purple flowers with white edges.
Earlier and more fragrant blooms than French lilac
Lavender single flower.
Earlier and more fragrant blooms than French lilac
White single flowers.
Earlier and more fragrant blooms than French lilac.
Deep purple, single flowers.
Larger leaves and later flowering than
Korean. Purplish fall foliage.
Blooms later than most lilacs
Coral pink flowers
Vigorous non-suckering shrub.
Pink single flowers later than French Lilac.
Vigorous non-suckering shrub.
Pink single flowers later than French Lilac
Vigorous non-suckering shrub.
Purple single flowers
Wine-red flower buds open in late spring
Similar to dwarf Korean lilac
Hardy, drought tolerant hedge or windbreak. Purple single flowers later than French Lilac.
TREES and SHRUBS
lilacs
125
TREES and SHrUBS
126
evergreen
favorites
Cedars (Arborvitae)
This group of globe-shaped and pyramidal evergreen
shrubs has smooth flat foliage. The color of cedar
foliage is a rich, soft, light green; some varieties have
golden yellow tipped foliage. Globe-shaped cedars
like Brandon or Globe can be used in the landscape
as foundation plants, in groupings to form a mass,
or in combination with other shrubs, trees, perennials, or annuals. Tall, upright, pyramidal cedars like
DeGroot’s Spire or Emerald can be used as large
foundation, specimen, or accent plants. All cedars
perform best in locations that are sheltered from the
wind and bright winter sun. All cedars require consistently moist soil conditions to survive.
Junipers
This large group of evergreen shrubs grows in a
low-spreading or upright pyramidal fashion. Juniper
foliage may be scale-like and soft or needle-like
and prickly. Junipers are available in various colors
– shades of yellow, gray, blue, and/or green. Spreading junipers like Blue Star, Calgary Carpet, or Buffalo can be very low growing, mounding, arching, or
even vase-shaped (Mint Julep). Spreading junipers
can be used in the landscape as foundation plants
in groupings to form a mass or in combination with
other shrubs, trees, perennials, and/or annuals. Upright junipers like Cologreen, Scopulorum, or Wichita
Blue grow in a tall, pyramidal form and can be used as
large foundation, specimen, or accent plants. Several
varieties of junipers are available in grafted, staked,
and/or sculptured forms. Most grafted junipers grow
downward to create a weeping, pyramidal form.
Staked junipers are low growing forms in which one
branch has been staked to grow upward in a upright
form; they require constant staking. Sculptured forms
are most often pompon (balls of foliage on the end of
many stems) and are used as specimen plants.
Larch
This group of very hardy, deciduous coniferous trees
form soft green needles in the spring and summer.
In the fall these needles turn golden yellow before
they fall off. These trees prefer moist soil conditions.
The most commonly available variety is the Siberian
Larch (Larix sibirica).
Pines
This large group of evergreen coniferous shrubs and
trees has long needles in bundles of two or five spirally arranged along the scaly branches. Every few
years in the fall pines lose the needles close to their
trunks and from their lower branches. To keep pine
shrubs and trees compact prune the new growth or
candles back by half each year during the month of
June. Good varieties for Alberta are Scotch, Mugho,
and Bristlecone.
Spruce
This large group of evergreen coniferous shrubs and
trees has short square needles that are borne singly
on scaly branches. Spruce usually have a pyramidal
shape but dwarf rounded forms are also available.
The foliage color varies from dark blue to green. Many
spruce varieties provide a good contrast in the landscape and are especially attractive during the winter
months. To keep spruce shrubs and trees compact
prune the new growth or candles back by half each
year during June or when growth is fresh.
TREES and SHRUBS
evergreen
photos
Columnar Spruce
Daub’s Frosted Juniper
127
Mugho Pine
Globe Blue Spruce
Calgary Carpet Juniper
Blue Spruce
Emerald Green Cedar
Moonglow Juniper
TREES and SHrUBS
128
evergreens
Names
Height Spread Sunlight Zone Foliage Flower
Color Color
all shrubs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Features
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
CEDAR/ARBORVITAE Thuja occidentalis

3-4
Green
Columnar conifer used as a vertical accent; from Brandon,MB.
BRANDON
13’/4m
5’/1.5m

4
Green
Slow-growing, compact; prefers moist areas; keep out of wind.
DANICA
3’/1m
3’/1m

4
Green
Narrow, upright, plant. Suitable as a specimen for a small spot.
DEGROOT’S SPIRE
7’/2m
2’/0.5m

4
Emerald Popular emerald green foliage; Pyramidal plant used as a specimen.
EMERALD
13’/4m
5’/1.5m

3-4
Dk Green Large, globe-shaped evergreen. Rotund, rounded form.
GLOBE
7’/2m
7’/2m

4
Green
Upright, compact, conical conifer. Slow-growing shorter variety
HOLMSTRUP
7’/2m
3’/1m

4
Green
Crumpled foliage holds color in winter; very compact
LITTLE GEM
3’/1m
4’/1.3m

4
Green
Popular globe-shaped evergreen.
LITTLE GIANT
3’/1m
3’/1m

3
Dark
Hardiest cedar for the chinook area. Narrow pyramidal shape.
TECHNY
13’/4m
5’/1.5m

3-4
Green
Broader upright cedar. Robust rugged plant.
WAREANA or SIBERIAN
10’/3m
7’/2m
FIR

3-4
Green
Does best in areas with abundant air moisture
DOUGLAS - Pseudotsuga meniesii
40’/14m 18’/6m

3
Green
Needs protection from summer sun; provide ample water
DWARF BALSAM Abies balsamea ‘Nana’ 1’/0.3m 3’/1m
JUNIPER - SPREADING - Juniperus var.

4
Green
Good groundcover with dense, soft-textured foliage
ALPINE CARPET
8”/20cm 3’/1m

4
Blue-GreenGray-green foliage turns a lovely purple in winter
ANDORRA - YOUNGSTOWN
2’/0.6m 4’/1.3m

2
Med. GreenAll-purpose; soft foliage.
ARCADIA
24”/0.5m 3’/1m

3
Blue-GreenFoliage turns purple in winter; center can open with age
BAR HARBOR
1’/0.3m 7’/2m

3
Blue
Bright blue foliage is retained in winter; popular ground cover.
BLUE CHIP
1’/0.3m 7’/2m

3
Blue-GreenAquamarine bluish-green foliage; spreading selection of Savin.
BLUE DANUBE
3’/1m
7’/2m

3
Blue-GreenProvide snowcover in winter for protection; Excellent blue color.
BLUE PRINCE
1’/0.3m 3’/1m

4
Blue
Bright blue, star-shaped needles used for color contrast.
BLUE STAR
1.5’/0.5m 5’/1.5m

4
Bllue-Gold Variegated blue star from Oregon; may burn in full sun.
BOYKO STARDUST
1.5’/0.5m 5’/1.5m

3
Green
Bright green foliage. Dense, low, wide, spreading juniper
BROADMOOR
1’/0.3m 7’/2m

3
Green
Bright green feathery foliage on this spreader.
BUFFALO
1’/0.3m 7’/2m

3
Green
Bright foliage and dense branches. Excellent spreading juniper.
CALGARY CARPET
1’/0.3m 5’/1.5m

4
Gold-blue Bluish foliage tipped with gold in good light; needs shelter
DAUB’S FROSTED
1.5’/0.5m 4’/1.3m

3
Green
New foliage soft-brown matures green; circular spreader
EFFUSA
1’/30cm 6’/2m

4
Gold tip Golden foliage on arching branches. Good for color contrast.
GOLDCOAST/OLD GOLD
3 ‘/1m
5’/1.5m

4
Lt. Green Light green foliage on gold branches; sun needed for color
GOLD STAR
4’/1.3m 6’/2m

4
Gold/Blue Compact spreader ; gold tipped blue foliage provides good HOLGER
1.5’/0.5m 5’/1.5m
contrast.

3
silver-blue Graceful, arhcing branches; retains foliage colour through the
HUGHES
1’/0.3m 6-8’/2m
winter

3
Blue
Impressive icy blue foliage from Illinois.
ICEE BLUE
1’/0.3m 5’1/5m

4
lime-green New variety from Iseli Nursery; bright foliage holds colour well
LIMEGLOW
1.5’/0.3m 4’/1.3m

4
Green
Dark green foliage; fountain-like form. Best in semi-shaded location.
MINT JULEP/SEA GREEN
3’/1m
7’/2m

3
Green
Selection of Broadmoor juniper with denser and darker green MOOR-DENSE
1’/0.3m 5’/1.5m
needles.

4
Gold
Golden yellow sport of Wiltonii. New variety from Iseli Nursery
MOTHERLODE
0.5’/0.1m 4’/1.3m

3
Blue
Symmetrical mound shaped spreader. Contrasting blue foliage color.
NEW BLUE TAM
2’/0.6m 5’/1.5m

3
Green
Lowest growing green spreading juniper from Waterton,Alberta.
PRINCE OF WALES
1’/0.3m 7’/2m

3
Green
Original species with scale-like, green foliage. Vase-shaped form
SAVIN
3’/1m
7’/2m

3
Green
Sister to Arcadia juniper but smaller and lower growing.
SCANDIA
1’/0.3m 5’/1.5m

3
Blue
Unique upright, flat topped variety. Use as a specimen plant.
TABLE TOP BLUE
5’/1.5m 7’/2m

3
Green
Symmetrical mound-shaped spreader.
TAMARISCIFOLIA
2’/0.6m 7’/2m

3
Blue
Lowest growing spreading juniper. Useful as a ground cover.
WILTONI - BLUE RUG
6”/0.15m 7’/2m

2
Green
Broad spreading and very hardy; good accent
YUKON BELLE
10”/25cm 4’/1.3m
JUNIPER - UPRIGHT - Juniperus var.

3
Green
Bright foliage on upright juniper.Compact branches and conical form.
COLOGREEN
10’/3m
5’/1.5m

3
Blue-GreenRare weeping variety of Rocky Mountain juniper
GHOST PLANT - ‘Candelabrum’
9’/3m
6’/2m

4
Green
Upright dark-green foliage; good as a single specimen or for a hedge
IDYLLWILD
6’/2m
3’/1m

3
Blue-GreenUpright columnar form. Bluish-green foliage.
MEDORA
10’/3m
3’/1m

3
Blue
Popular upright blue Juniper; similar to Wichita Blue
MOONGLOW
10’/3m
5’/1.5m

3
Blue-greenNative upright variety; good drought tolerance; Dense growth habit.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN
9’/3m
6’/2m

4
Blue-GreenSmall tree with weeping, graceful branches. Unique specimen plant
TOLLESON’S WEEPING
10’/3m
5’/1.5m

3
Blue
Similar to moonglow but finer foliage. Most popular upright WICHITA BLUE
10’/3m
5’/1.5m
juniper.
Names
Height Spread
all shrubs listed subject to seasonal
and supplier availability
Sunlight Zone Foliage
Color
Features
Sun
™
Part Shade »
Shade
˜
LARCH-SIBERIAN - Larix sibirica
25’/8m
12’/3.5m 
2
Green
Unique deciduous conifer sheds needles in winter. Gold fall foliage.
PINE - Pinus

4
Green
Dark green stiff needles; compact growth habit
AUSTRIAN - P. nigra
40’/12m 20’/6m

2
Green-WhiteSlow growing, unique rugged plant with 5 needles in cluster
BRISTLECONE - P. aristata
13’/4m
7’/2m

3
Green-BlueNative to foothills; slow grower; dense flexible branching
LIMBER - P. flexilis
20’/6m
10’/3m

4
Green
Tall, slender tree with narrow loose crown; native forest tree.
LODGEPOLE - P. contorta latifolia
35’/10m 10’/3m

3
Green
Large pyramidal pine; beautiful long needles and cones
PONDEROSA - Pinus ponderosa
30’/10m 10’/3m

3
Green
Columnar conical conifer. Picturesque pine tree.
SWISS STONE - Pinus cembra
20’/6m
10’/3m
PINE - MUGO - Pinus mugo var.

3
Green
More compact than freefrom; prune to keep shape
DWARF - P. mugo pumilio
6’/2m
6’/2m

3
Green
Compact form of mugo; very slow-growing
MOPS
3’/1m
3’/1m

1
Green
Popular shrubby pine; Hardiest coniferous evergreen in Calgary.
MUGO - FREEFORM - P. mugo mughus15’/5m
15’’/5m

2
Green
Forms dense mound; slow-growing; good for rock gardens
SLOWMOUND
3’/1m
3’/1m

3
Green
Coniferous tree similar to Mugho Pine. Pollution tolerant.
SWISS MOUNTAIN - P. uncinata
20’/6m
10’/3m

3
Green
Compact pyramidal pine; new interesting variety
TANNENBAUM
10’/3m
6’/2m

3
Green
Uniform compact mounding growth; a Tru-Dwarf variety
VALLEY CUSHION
3’/1m
3’/1m

3
Green/WhiteWhite resin in buds in late winter; a Tru-Dwarf variety
WHITE BUD
3’/1m
3’/1m
PINE - SCOTS - Pinus sylvestris var.

3
Green
Spreading Scots pine; holds color in winter.
ALBYN PROSTRATA
2’/60cm 8’/2.6m

3
Blue-GreenUnique orange-brown bark on upper trunk and branches
SCOTS
40’/13m 30’/10m

3
Blue-GreenNarrow upright form; keep snow off during winter
COLUMNAR - ‘Fastigiata’
15’/3m
7’/1m

3
Green
Low-growing ground-huggging ScotS Pine
HILLSIDE CREEPER
1’/30cm 8’/2.6m

3
Green
Rare evergreen with bright green foliage used as RUSSIAN CYPRESS - Microbiota decussata 1’/0.3m 5’/1.5m
ground cover.
SPRUCE - COLORADO - Picea pungens var.

2
Deep Blue Long, dark blue needles. Conical conifer.
BAKERI
13’/4m
10’/3m

2
Blue
Selected for blue needle color. Used as a screen, shade, street tree.
BLUE - ‘Glauca’
35’/10m 13’/4m

3
Blue
New creeping variety of Colorado spruce
BLUE CREEPING - P. pungens procumbens 3’/1m
vaires

3
Blue
Irregular growing sport of Colorado Blue; good for specimen.
BOYKO MYSTIQUE
varies
varies

3
Blue
Popular hardy, columnar narrow, spruce instead of upright juniper
COLUMNAR BLUE - ‘Fastigiata’
15’/3m
7’/1m
3
Blue
Beautiful bright blue spruce. Broader based than Colorado Spruce.
FAT ALBERT
25’/8m
12’/3.5m 

2
Blue-GreenCompact, dwarf, slow growing, globe-shaped. Avail. as standard
GLOBE BLUE/GREEN - ‘Globosa’
5’/1.5m 5’/1.5m

2
Green
Long, rigid needles on pyramidal shape.Use for screening or shelter.
GREEN
35’/10m 13’/4m
3
Green
Green form of Fat Albert; dense pyramidal form
GREEN SPIRE
25’/8m
12’/3.5m 

2
Blue
Brightest bluest spruce. Narrow pyramidal shape.
HOOPSII
30’/10m 10’/3m

3
Blue
New very blue, almost silver, variety
JIMMY JAMES
13’/4m
10’/3m

3
Green
Very hardy nest form of spruce; better than Nest Spruce in Alberta
MESA VERDE
3’/1m
6’/2m

3
Blue
Compact globe blue spruce that forms leader as matures
MONTGOMERY
4’/1.3m 6’/2m

3
Green
Bright green mounding spruce; light green bud break
MRS. CESSARINI
3’/1m
3’/1m

3
Blue
Weeping tree needs staking when young; can be used as groundcover
WEEPING - ‘Pendula’
varies
varies
SPRUCE- SPRUCE - NORWAY - Picea abies var.

3
Green
Compact, slow-growing, irregular; has red cones on branch tips
ACROCONA
6’/2m
6’/2m

4
Dk-Green Flat-topped, low growing, coniferous shrub. Use in place of juniper.
BIRD’S NEST - ‘Nidiformis’
3’/1m
5’/1.5m

4
Green
Very narrow Norway Spruce; better with snow loads than others
COLUMNAR - ‘Cupressina’
15’/5m
3’/1m

4
Green
Compact nest form; early bud break may not be good in Calgary
DWARF NORWAY - ‘Pumila’
3’/1m
3’/1m

4
Green
Very dense nest spruce with small needles; good for rock gardens
LITTLE GEM 3’1/m
3’/1m

3
Green
Grows slowly from a rounded shrub to a small conical tree
OHLENDORFII
8’/2.5m 5’/1.5m

4
Green
Weeping spruce requires staking to grow upright.
WEEPING NORWAY - ‘Pendula’
7’/2m
variable
SPRUCE - WHITE - Picea glauca

3
Blue-GreenSuperior to white spruce. Symmetrical, compact growth habit.
BLACK HILLS 20’/6m
10’/3m

2
Blue-GreenPyramidal native spruce; highly adaptable
WHITE
20’/6m
10’/3m

4
Green
Very narrow weeping form; stiff, downward hanging branches
WEEPING WHITE - ‘Pendula’
10’/3m
3’/1m
TREES and SHRUBS
evergreens
129
TREES and SHrUBS
130
planting guide
Spring planting is preferable for most roses, vines, shrubs,
trees and evergreens. However, the advent of the containerized nursery stock has extended the planting season to
match the growing season. With proper care these plants
can be planted any time during the growing season, from
spring thaw to fall freeze-up. By following a number of
simple steps you will be able to successfully plant containerized nursery stock. Remember that containers of all
types and wraps other than burlap should be removed from
the root ball before or during planting.
hold the soil around the roots. As you pull the topsoil in
around the root ball to fill in the hole, tamp the topsoil
down firmly with your shoe. This eliminates air pockets and
ensures good contact between the topsoil and the root system. Create a tree well, which will hold water, around the
base of the plant. Water the plant thoroughly by filling the
depression with a solution of water and a plant starter such
as Schultz 10-60-10. Water the plant deeply whenever the
soil surface dries out, generally biweekly, during the first
growing season to ensure the plant's survival.
Pre-planting Instructions: Take care to prevent wind
burn to plants during transport by covering them well. Keep
plants cool, in a shady area, and well watered until they are
planted. Cover the root ball of balled and burlapped trees
to prevent root drying.
Containerized Stock: Dig a hole 15 cm. deeper and 30
cm. wider in diameter than the container in which the plant
is growing. With the container on, set the plant in the hole
to ensure that the ground level is even with the top of the
root ball. Remove the plant from the hole and carefully, so
as not to disturb the soil around the root system, remove the
root ball from the container. Place the root ball back into the
hole. As you pull topsoil in around the plant to fill the hole,
tamp the topsoil down firmly with the sole of your shoe.
This eliminates air pockets and ensures good contact
between the topsoil and the root system. Create a
tree well or indentation, which will hold water, around
the base of the plant. Water the plant thoroughly by
filling this indentation with a solution of water and
a root starter such as Schultz 10-60-10. Water the
plant deeply whenever the soil surface dries out,
generally biweekly, during the first growing season
to ensure the plant’s survival.
Soil Preparation: All trees, shrubs, and roses should
be planted in well-drained topsoil. If there is less than
20 cm. of topsoil in the planting area additional
topsoil should be added. As you dig a hole
separate the topsoil from the heavy subsoil.
Discard the subsoil and replace it with rich
topsoil. Do not pull heavy subsoil in around
a plant as backfill. Add one part peat moss
or prepared soil mix to three parts soil that
you have dug from the planting hole. If,
after digging a hole, you find the subsoil to
be excessively heavy, having a high clay
content; dig the hole down an additional
15-30 cm. (6-12 in.). Fill this space with
clean sand or gravel to enhance the subsoil
drainage conditions.
Bare Root Stock: The most commonly
available bare root shrub is Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster lucida) which is use as a
hedging material. Caragana and Lilac
are also available. Until planted keep
the root system of bare root plants
moist. Protect bare root plants from drying out
in the sun and wind by storing them in a shaded
location with the roots wrapped in plastic or
submerged in a bucket of water. Dig holes, or a
trench, large enough to accommodate the plant's entire root
system without crowding. Set the plants in the holes so that
the ground level is even with or slightly higher than the top
of the root system. Pull the topsoil in around the plant’s root
system to fill the hole. Tamp the topsoil in firmly around the
base of the plant with the sole of your shoe. This eliminates
air pockets and ensures good contact between the topsoil
and the root system. Create a tree well or indentation, which
will hold water, around the base of the plant. Water the plant
thoroughly by filling this indentation with a solution of water
and a plant starter such as Schultz 10-60-10. Water the plant
whenever the soil surface dries out, usually bi-weekly, during
the first growing season to ensure the plant’s survival.
Balled and Burlapped Stock: Dig a hole 15 cm.
deeper and 30 cm. wider in diameter than the root ball.
Place the plant in the hole and check to ensure that ground
level is even with the top of the root ball. Cut and loosen
the burlap wrap on the root ball, removing the burlap from
the top of the root ball, and leave it around the sides, to
Staking a Tree: Due to the windy conditions in the Calgary area all but the smallest
of trees require staking. Staking keeps trees
straight while they are rooting and prevents
uprooting during wind storms. There are two
methods of staking trees: using guy wires,
or metal posts or wooden stakes. When
staked, a tree should be able to move
a few inches, as this will encourage
strong root and trunk development.
Guy Wires: Attach 3 guy wires to the tree,
2/3 the way up the tree. Protect the tree’s bark
by wrapping the portion of the wire contacting
the tree trunk with a section of garden hose. Run one wire
toward the northwest, directly into the prevailing winds,
and attach it to a small stake, 40 cm. long, driven into the
ground about two meters away from the base of the tree.
Run the other two wires out from the tree ensuring even
spacing between the three guy wires. Attach these wires to
similar small stakes. Make sure that each of the 3 wires are
evenly tightened.
Metal or Wooden Stakes: Select a metal or wooden
stake that is about one meter taller than the tree you are
staking. Locate the stake on the NW side of the tree as
this is the origin of most prevailing winds in Calgary. Drive
the stake into the ground next to the tree making sure that
the stake passes on the outside of the root ball. Pound the
stake in deep enough to secure it, about one meter. Attach
the tree to the stake using plastic tree ties or wire. Cover
the wire with a section of garden hose where it contacts the
tree trunk so as not to damage the bark.
General Pruning Tips:
The basic objectives of pruning are to maintain the plant's
natural shape, to maintain its health and vigor, and to keep
it a manageable size. There are a number of general rules
that should be followed no matter what type of pruning
you are doing. Pruning cuts should be made with a sharp
and clean pruning tool such as pruning shears. Disease
organisms can be spread from branch to branch or from
tree to tree if your pruning tools are not kept clean. Clean
your pruning tools by dipping them in bleach (1 part bleach
& 10 parts water) or alcohol between cuts, on disease
infected plants or between plants, on disease-free plants.
So as not to leave any stubs that will inevitably die, pruning
cuts should be made cleanly and on the outside of the
collar (wrinkled area between trunk and branch). Pruning
cuts on small stems are always made just above a leaf
or branch joint or node. Large pruning wounds can be
painted with pruning paint to prevent the entry of disease
organisms. Damaged, dead or diseased wood should
be removed as soon as it is noticed. Branches which are
crossing should be removed before they enlarge and start
rubbing together. Try to maintain the natural shape of the
tree or shrub. Carefully select which branches should be
removed or headed back so as not to spoil the shape of
the plant.
Hedges:
Newly planted hedges such as cotoneaster, caragana, Lilac,
and cranberry; should be pruned back to encourage lateral
branching which creates a fuller hedge more rapidly. As your
hedge develops trim it so that the base is wider than the
top. This allows sufficient sunlight to reach all leaf surfaces,
preventing the base of the hedge from becoming open and
sparse. Hedge shearing can be carried out at any time during
the growing season. Older hedges in need of rejuvenation
are more easily thinned out during the dormant season, in
the early spring before new growth appears or in the fall after
the leaves have fallen.
Shrubs That Flower on Old Wood:
Shrubs that flower on old wood in the spring such as
forsythia, double flowering plum, nanking cherry, or lilac,
for example, should be pruned as soon as flowering is
finished. Pruning at any other time of the year will remove
the dormant flower buds. Flower buds for most shrubs
are formed on previous year's growth. White spireas such
as bridal wreath, garland, and three-lobed also flower on old
wood. Any other shrub that flowers in the summer on old wood
should be pruned immediately after flowering. To prune older
shrubs, usually requiring thinning, occasionally remove entire
large branches by cutting them out at base.
Shrubs That Flower on New Wood:
Shrubs that bloom on new wood, such as elders,
hydrangea, dwarf pink spireas (S. bumalda and japonica
cultivars), Group C clematis, and most roses including hybrid
teas and parkland series, may be pruned in the spring to
remove old wood. Flower buds are formed on current year's
growth. All other shrubs not listed above bloom on old wood.
Suckers which emerge from below ground are removed during
the summer, as they originate from the root stock.
Shade Trees:
Shade trees should be trained when they are still young.
By shaping shade trees early, unwanted lower branches,
crossing or rubbing branches, and branches growing in the
wrong location or direction are eliminated. Most shade or
ornamental trees prefer to be pruned during the dormant
season, in early spring. Birch and maple (which are called
"bleeders"), are exceptions, however. These species should
be pruned in mid-summer, usually in July or August. Pruning
cuts on birch and maple do not heal quickly because they
bleed sap if pruned before their leaves are fully expanded.
Most shade trees, if properly located and pruned when
young, may require less pruning when mature. If you do have
large trees requiring pruning, we recommend you consult a
professional pruning service.
Fruit Trees:
Fruit trees such as apple, plum, or pear, are pruned during
the dormant season in early spring to encourage vigorous
growth and to create a better producing tree. Prune fruit
trees so that all parts of the tree receive adequate sunlight.
Unwanted lower branches, crossing or rubbing branches, and
branches growing in the wrong direction or location should be
removed when the tree is young. Any suckers growing from
the roots or water sprouts growing from the trunk should also
be removed. To prevent fruit from overloading and breaking
permanent branches the smaller, outside branches should
be also be thinned.
Evergreens:
The new growth on pines, called "candles", should be
cut in half in June, after the new growth has hardened,
to encourage a compact shape. Cedars and junipers
may be shaped at any time. The long soft, new growth
on spruce may be shortened to shape it, or minimize
growth, in June. If the leader of a spruce is damaged or
removed, a new one may be formed by tying a sturdy
stick to the trunk, extending it above the top of the tree,
and bending and tying one top branch up to the stick.
You can avoid having to keep evergreens smaller than
their natural size by choosing varieties that have an
appropriate mature size.
TREES and SHRUBS
pruning guide
131
TREES and SHrUBS
132
pruning equipment & uses
Pruning Equipment: The use of proper pruning the hedge should be kept wider than the top of the
equipment, to complete the job at hand is very important.
It will not only save you time, but also money. One
problem that we see at the garden centre is people
bringing in broken pruning equipment, wanting to know
why this happened. It happens because we try to save
time by doing the job with one tool. Small hand pruners
should only be used to cut branches the thickness of
your little finger. The next tool would be the lopper. The
longer the handle the more leverage you will get, but
cuts larger than 1 in (2.5 cm) should not be made. This
size of cut can also be made with a long handled pole
pruner, but the more the pole is extended the harder it is
to prune. Whenever possible use a ladder with the pole
pruner, this will enable you to get higher up into the tree
without extending the handle all the way. When the cut
is larger than one inch in diameter, a saw should be
used. For very large branches, a chainsaw would be
the tool of choice, but must be used with extreme
caution, and proper safety equipment.
Both the small one handed pruner, and the lopper
come in two different styles. The first is the anvil
pruner, where the blade comes down onto a
chopping block. We however do not recommend
this type of pruner, because it tends to crush
the branch, and tear the cambium layer, which
slows the healing process, and can cause health
problems later on, such as rotting as well as insect
and fungus entry. These anvil type pruners are
great when removing a tree completely, because
it allows you to use more pressure without causing
more damage to the pruner. The second type and
most practical, is the hooked or curved blade. It
is frequently called a by-pass pruner, where the
blade passes by the cutting block, similar to a
pair of scissors. This allows a nice clean cut to
occur,which helps the healing process. There are
many styles available so it is important to find one
that is comfortable and practical for the amount
and type of use.
If pruning hedges there are manual, gas, and
electric hedge shears available. For small jobs
manual hedge shears work great and are much
easier to sharpen. For larger jobs, electric or gas
shears will save you time. Gas shears are much
more powerful and versatile, however are not as
easy to service or sharpen. One thing to keep in
mind when pruning a hedge is that the bottom of
hedge, as this enables sunlight to reach all the
leaves, and to prevent die-back and thinning from
lack of light and air circulation.
Safety Equipment: Basic protection for all
pruning jobs includes: gloves, sturdy footwear, long
sleeved shirt, pants, a hat, but most important is a
good pair of eye protectors, to keep pruning cuttings,
and debris out of your eyes. If using electric or gas
hedge shears, or chainsaws, ear protection should
be mandatory. With chainsaws you should also have
protective legwear, such as chainsaw pants, and steel
toed work boots. Proper knowledge on using a chainsaw
is should be obtained before using this equipment.
Trees, Shrubs And Evergreens:
Several types of winter plant damage occur in the Calgary area. The most obvious type, referred to as tip-kill
or die-back, is a result of the local conditions - mainly
warm, dry Chinook winds, bright sun, and low relative
humidity. These conditions accelerate the normally slow
loss of water from plant tissues and result in dry twigs,
damaged buds, desiccated evergreen foliage, and the
death of certain plants.
Warm Chinook winds also cause plant injury
by inducing premature spring. This occurs when plants
break dormancy and begin growing during extended periods of warm winter weather. Subsequent cold periods
damage developing leaves, crack sap-filled bark; and, on
occasion, damage root systems. Frost damage, caused
by rapid temperature fluctuations, is a condition we should
therefore be aware of and attempt to prevent.
Since evergreens retain their foliage year round, the
needles are constantly losing moisture through a process
known as transpiration. This moisture must be constantly
replaced in order to prevent Chinook damage. Therefore,
evergreen trees and shrubs require additional moisture
and protection to ensure their survival under local conditions.
Sheltered gardens have a better chance of standing up to
the warm, dry winds of Calgary. Shelter may be provided
by houses, walls, fences, or even by other trees. The most
sheltered spots in your yard are located where the snow
drifts the deepest. Snow protects plants by insulating
them from winter temperature extremes. But snow often
doesn’t accumulate in this area, and many new gardens
lack shelter entirely. We have to offer a helping hand when
it comes to winter protection.
You can not control the weather but you can reduce the
damage caused by Chinook winds and bright winter sun.
In the late fall, apply an anti-desiccant such as Wilt-Proof
to sensitive evergreens. Rather than wrapping them with
burlap, create a windbreak or sun screen by placing two
or three stakes into the ground 12-18" from the tree on
the sunny or windy side, and stretching burlap between
the stakes. Water all trees (especially evergreens and
birch), and shrubs thoroughly in the fall, before freeze-up,
to ensure they have sufficient water. During Chinooks,
evergreens planted close to the house foundation, particularly on the sunny side, may require watering if the
soil is dry. Hose down foliage, too, as some moisture can
be taken into needles. Mulch the soil surface around the
base of less hardy plants to ensure consistent, cold soil
temperature throughout the winter. Pile straw, dry leaves,
or dry plant material around the base.
Tea Roses:
Since tea roses are grafted onto hardier root stock, the
most important aspect of winter protection is keeping the
plant alive above the graft. The bush should be planted
so that the graft is 4 - 5" below ground level, where the
temperature is much more consistent. Soil is then used
to further protect the plant. In the fall, after light frost,
water the plant well, and cut back to about 8 - 10". Place
a rose cone, a large tree pot with the bottom removed,
or a heavy, waxed cardboard box over top of it; and fill
the box with soil, vermiculite, peat moss, straw, sawdust,
or dry leaves. Cover the top with cloth, not plastic, and
don’t remove the covering until early May. You may have
to cover again temporarily if frost is expected. While this
method is no guarantee that every tea rose will survive,
it is quite successful most of the time, and means that
tea roses can be grown successfully in Calgary. It can
also be used to protect other less hardy shrubs, such as
azalea, blueberry, clematis, rose daphne, rhododendron
and weigela.
TREES and SHRUBS
winter protection
Climbing Roses:
Since most climbing shrub roses bloom most heavily on
previous year’s growth, it is important that the bushes
survive well above ground, in order to have maximum
number of flowers. Non-hardy climbing roses are not
recommended for Calgary gardens because they are
not reliable. Some Explorer series roses such as William
Baffin and John Cabot are much hardier and will bloom
reliably. Rambling roses such as John Davis and Henry
Kelsey may also be trained as climbers.
133
TREES and SHrUBS
tree cankers
134
A canker is defined as a diseased, sunken lesion on woody
tissue. There are three types of cankers; fungal, bacteria
or frost. Frost cankers, actually physiological disorders, are
cracks on the bark caused by freezing and thawing. Fungal
and bacterial pathogens usually gain
entry through frost cracks, pruning
wounds, wind damage, or sun scald.
Sun scald is another physiological
condition that occurs on the south
west side of tree trunks exposed to
bright winter sunlight, most often
affecting mayday and mountain ash
trees. Fungi are in fact microscopic
plants which do not invade healthy
plant tissue. Once inside the plant the
fungi move into the sap system and
eventually decrease or stop water
from moving upward from the roots to
the branches. If you look closely at the
trunk where the branch is attached,
you may see cracks in the bark with
the bark peeled back from the crack,
elongated oval, sunken or darkened
areas in the bark or places where sap
is oozing from broken areas in the
bark. One common fungus causes
Cytospora canker in Cotoneasters,
particularly inside older hedges where
there is little light or air circulation; a
perfect place for fungi to grow. The
commonly observed orange Nectria canker on cotoneaster
is actually a secondary rot organism that does not harm the
plants itself. Some of these cankers are incorrectly diagnosed
as fireblight, in which the leaves die because the bacteria kill
them, and then the cankers come afterwards. While possible
on most trees, fungal Cytospora
cankers are most prevalent on
mountain ash, poplar, spruce, and
willow. Bacterial cankers, also
called slime flux or wetwood, are
most freqently observed on poplar
trees. There is no chemical control
for fungal or bacterial cankers.
The only way to control them is
to prune the branches back well
into healthy wood. In the case of
hedges; remove the inside, affected
branches and then the remaining
branches will grow into the center
because of the available light and
air circulation. This is not a cure as
the fungi or bacteria could spread
within the sap of the plant and
cause more cankers. Eventually, if
it invades the main trunk, the tree
may have to be removed. Be careful
to clean pruning tools with a 10%
bleach solution between each cut,
as fungi or bacteria spread on tools.
It is difficult to diagnose cankers by
describing them on the phone so
bring in a branch to customer service for easier identification.
Roses, the “Queen of Flowers,” are available in a va-
riety of sizes, colours and fragrances. All roses require
a sunny location and well-drained, slightly acidic soil.
See the Planting Guide on p. for information on planting containerized plants. All roses, especially tea roses,
respond to adequate watering and fertilizing by an
increase in flower size, abundance, and color intensity.
When watering, avoid getting the foliage wet while
keeping the soil evenly moist. Fertilize once in spring
with a slow-release rose food or apply a water soluble
rose fertilizer about once a month from May to mid-August.Roses are generally divided into two groups: Hardy
Roses and Tender Roses.
Hardy roses include: Explorer, Parkland, Rugosa, etc.
Tender Roses include: Floribunda, Grandiflora, Hybrid Tea, Miniature, etc. Roses come in various forms:
groundcover, shrub, hedging and rambling or climbing,
etc. with much variation in color, fragrance, shape and
size of flowers. The majority of roses bloom on new
growth and rebloom or flower continuously throughout
the growing season. Blooms may be small - less than
2"(5cm), medium - 2-4"(5-10cm) or large - more than
4"(10cm).
Hardy Roses include a One Full Year Guarantee!
Hardy Shrub Roses
World-wide,tea roses are the most popular rose. However,
here in Calgary, hardy roses are more popular. Their ease
of cultivation, disease resistance, and winter hardiness
earns them high points in Calgary gardens.
Planting and Care
Hardy roses require a sunny location and well-drained,
slightly acidic soil. See the Planting Guide on p. for
information on planting containerized plants. Hardy roses
respond well to adequate watering and fertilizing. Fertilize
once in spring with a slow-release product like Smartcote
Rose Food. If using a water-soluble fertilizer like Shultz
Rose Food, supply four, evenly spaced applications from
May to no later than mid-August. Ask about Myke Tree
and Shrub growth supplement. It builds root systems to
create healthier rose plants.
Pruning
It is important to prune out any damaged, dead, or diseased
stems. Light pruning can be carried on throughout the
growing season. Prune out dead blooms (deadhead) and
prune back to just above 5-leaflet leaves to encourage
more flowers on re-blooming types of roses.
Winter Protection
Some hardy roses may suffer Chinook or winter damage,
but almost all bloom on new wood and will recover in the
spring. Cover the soil with 3-4 in.(7-10cm) of mulch at
least out to the drip line.This will help protect and maintain
healthier roots in any season.
Most of our hardy roses are grown on their own roots.
This makes them much hardier than grafted plants.
ROSES
roseshardy roses
Categories of hardy roses include Explorer, Parkland
(Morden), Hybrid Rugosa, and Species types. Different
forms include climbers, groundcovers, shrub and hedging
roses. Besides abundant flowers during the growing
season, many hardy roses can also be enjoyed for their
colorful rose hips in winter.
Explorer Roses
Developed through Agriculture Canada and named after
early Canadian explorers, these are some of the hardiest
roses ever developed and include climbing, groundcover,
shrub and hedging types.
Parkland Roses (Morden Roses)
Developed by Agriculture Canada in Morden, Manitoba,
many are direct descendents of floribunda and hybrid tea
roses crossed with various native roses. They tend to
have beautifully formed flowers that re-bloom and grow
on medium-sized plants.
Hybrid Rugosa Roses
These are vigorous, reliable roses with repeat blooms
all season. Many Explorer Roses owe their hardiness to
breeding with Rugosa Roses. Some Rugosa favorites
are: Hansa Rose, Blanc de Coubert, Theresa Bugnet and
Topaz Jewel. Also see (and smell) our Pavement Roses:
low-growing, salt-tolerant roses with very fragrant white,
pink or purple blooms.
Species Roses
A few favorite roses in this category:
Red Leaf rose is a popular rose with year-round interest
Persian Yellow rose is a tall, vigorous plant that produces
an abundance of deep yellow flowers in June.
Austrian Copper rose, related to Persian Yellow rose,
grown since the 1500's; vivid orange-red blooms with
yellow centers.
135
ROSES
roses
your question
Q. Can I grow roses in the shade?
A. In general, roses need at least six hours of direct sun
a day to be happy. Roses grown in the shade bloom less,
are leggy and prone to insects and diseases.
Q. What do you suggest for climbing roses?
A. We recommend hardy roses which can be trained to
climb such as Capt. Samuel Holland, Henry Kelsey, John
Cabot, John Davis, William Baffin and others.
136
Q. There are black spots on my rose leaves. What is
wrong with this plant?
A. This is a fungus simply called 'Black Spot'. Infected
leaves form black spots that are about 1/16 -1/2 in.
diameter. The infected leaves can turn yellow and in
severe cases may eventually fall off if not treated. Wet
leaves and warm temperatures encourage this fungus.
To fight and/or prevent Black Spot, water the soil not the
leaves. Prevent splashing on the foliage by using a slow
trickle or a soaker hose. Water early in the morning to
allow leaves to dry during the day. Spray the upper and
lower leaf surfaces with a fungicide such as Funginex
may help to slow down the spread of Black Spot. Water
in the morning and ground level can help solve this
problem too.
Q. My rose has a white powdery buildup on the leaves.
What is it and what can I do about it?
A. This is a fungus called powdery mildew. It coats the
leaves and can destroy them. One way to reduce this
problem is to improve air flow around the plant. Prune
out crossing canes and do not plant too close to a wall or
fence. Applying a fungicide like Funginex on both infected
and uninfected leaves may also help prevent the spread
of powdery mildew.
Q. There are some semi-circular holes in the leaves of
my roses. I can't find any insects causing the damage.
what could it be?
A. This sounds like leaf-cutter bees. The bees, which are
commonly used for pollinating alfalfa crops, use the small
pieces of leaf to line their larval chambers. They cause
no real damage to the rose and should not be treated.
Q. My rose won't flower or it flowers poorly. What
could be the problem? Do I need to fertilize more?
A. Your rose may need more light: at least 6 hours of
direct sun per day, preferably morning sun. It may need
more regular watering, especially suring our dry summers.
Roses like slightly acid conditions and will benefit when
peat moss, compost and garden sulphur is mixed into the
soil. Another cause of poor flowering could be too much
nitrogen which may cause your plant to produce more
leaves and less flowers. To encourage flowering, use a
balanced rose fertilizer. (See next question.)
Q. How do I fertilize my roses?
A. Roses are happy in a sunny, well-drained, slightly
acidic location. In addition, roses respond well to
regular watering and feeding. Many gardeners feed
their roses by regularly mixing in compost and bone
meal around the roots. Others have had success with
Alaska MorBloom, a soluble fish fertilizer. Another well
balanced soluble fertilizer is Schultz Rose Food (1012-12) which can be applied about once a month from
May until mid-August. Alternatively apply a slow-release
formulation like Smartcote Rose Food (14-12-12) once
in spring. Provide adequate watering with every feeding
and throughout the growing season. Ask about Myke Tree
and Shrub growth supplement. It builds root systems to create
healthier rose plants.
Q. When and how do I prune my roses?
A. Damaged, dead, or diseased stems should be
removed as soon as you notice them. To encourage more
flowers on all types of re-blooming roses, prune out dead
blooms (deadhead) and prune back to just above 5-leaflet
leaves. In general, hardy roses require only light pruning
during the growing season. Tender roses need additional
care. Remember to trim out one third of the grey stems
in the fall and prune back remaining stems to about 810" (20-25cm) and cover these with a winter mulch. The
following spring trim out any dead stem tips.
Q. How do I protect tender roses (including tea roses)
for winter ?
A. Please refer to Winter Protection for Tender Roses
on page 133.
Variety
Color
Adelaide Hoodless r
Parkland
Alexander McKenzie
Explorer
Austrian Copper
c
Rosa foetida bicolor Bloom Petal Height Frag- Features
Size
Count (approx.) rance
bright
medium semi-
red
double
reddish- medium double
pink
red-
medium single
orange
Blanc de Coubert r white
medium double
Hybrid Rugosa
Cpt. Samuel Holland c reddish- medium double
Explorer pink
Carefree Beauty Shrub
c - May be trained as climber
r - Attractive rosehips in winter
r pink
small
4 ft.
light
1.2 m 6 ft.
medium
1.8 m 6 ft.
medium
1.8 m
Clusters of bright red continual flowers.
Old-fashioned favorite rose.
Tall rose with continual fragrant blooms.
Flowers and foliage similar to Tea Roses.
Unique flower show in June. Grown since 1500's.
Red-orange petals with copper centers & reverse.
5 ft.
1.5 m
6 ft.
1.8 m
strong
light
Continual white fragrant flowers all season. Red rosehips in fall & winter.
Trailing growth habit; continual blooming
Resistant to powdery mildew & black spot.
light
Spreading growth habit; continual blooming
Blooms from spring until fall.
semi- 3 ft.
double 1 m
Champlain r
Explorer
dark
medium double 3 ft.
red
1 m
Charles Albanel r
Explorer
Chuckles
Shrub Cuthbert Grant
Parkland
medium medium
pink
deep
medium
pink
purplish- large
red
Dart's Dash r
Hybrid Rugosa
David Thompson
Explorer
De Montarville
Explorer
F. J. Grootendorst
Hybrid Rugosa
Frontenac
Explorer
mauve- medium semi-
red
double
deep
medium double
pink
medium medium double
pink
medium small
double
red
deep
medium double
pink
George Vancouver r
Explorer
soft
medium double 3 ft.
medium Abundance of soft red flowers in clusters.
red
1 m
Repeat blooms all season. Disease resistant.
Golden Wings r
Shrub golden large
single
yellow
4 ft.
light
1.2m
Golden yellow, lightly scented flowers. Repeat blooming through growing season.
Hansa -
r
Hybrid Rugosa
Harrison Yellow
Hybrid foetida
reddish- medium double
purple
sulphur medium double
yellow
1.5 m strong
5 ft.
5 ft
light
1.5 m
Hardy popular fragrant rose; repeat blooms.
Unique reddish-violet flowers.
One-time mass of yellow blooms.
Substitute for Persian Yellow rose.
semi-
double
single
semi-
double
ROSES
roseshardy roses
medium Most red of the Explorer Roses. Disease resistant.
Continual blooming from summer to frost.
1.5 ft. strong
0.5 m 2 ft.
light
0.6 m 3 ft.
light
1 m
Hardier groundcover rose than Flower Carpet.
Repeat blooming from summer to frost.
Continual blooms. Deep pink with yellow center.
Glossy green foliage on a compact plant.
Largest flower of any Parkland or Explorer rose.
Old-fashioned favorite rose; repeat blooms.
3 ft.
strong
1 m
3 ft.
strong
1 m
3 ft.
medium
1 m
light
5 ft.
light
1.5 m
3 ft.
light
1 m
Fragrant blooms repeat all season.
Disease resistant plant; colorful rosehips in winter.
Similar to Hansa Rose but more compact.
Continual fragrant blooms. No rose hips.
Tight red buds open to a medium pink.
Continual blooming. Disease resistant.
Carnation-like red flowers.
Wrinkled foliage; continual blooming.
Continually flowering in clusters of up to eight.
Resistant to powdery mildew & black spot.
Henry Hudson r pinkish- medium double 2 ft.
medium Pink flower buds open up into white flowers.
Explorer white
0.6 m
Repeat blooming from summer to frost.
Henry Kelsey c medium medium semi- 7 ft.
medium Tall trailing rose may be trained as a climber.
Explorer
r
Hope for Humanity
Parkland Hunter
Hybrid Rugosa
J. P. Connell
Explorer
red
double
blood-
small
double
red
crimson medium double
red cream- medium double
yellow
Jens Munk -
r
Explorer
medium medium semi- 3 ft.
strong
pink
double 1 m
2 m
2 ft.
light
0.6 m
4 ft.
light
1.2 m
4 ft.
light
1.2 m
Glossy foliage. Repeat bloomer all season.
Deep red blooms repeat all season.
Commemorates Canadian Red Cross 100th anniv.
Brilliant red flowers repeat until frost.
Tidy shrub form with dark green foliage. Repeating cream-yellow flowers all season.
Flower color is stronger on established plants
Continual fragrant blooms; attractive rosehips
in fall/winter; very hardy shrub/hedging rose.
137
ROSES
rosespictures
hardy
roses
Adelaide Hoodless
Alexander McKenzie
Blanc de Coubert
Cpt. Samuel Holland
Champlain
Charles Albanel
Chuckles
Cuthbert Grant
David Thompson
F.J. Grootendoorst
Frontenac
George Vancouver
Hansa
Henry Hudson
Henry Kelsey
Hunter
J.P. Connell
Jens Munk
John Cabot
138
Variety
Color
c - May be trained as climber
r - Attractive rosehips in winter
Bloom Petal Height Frag- Features
Size
Count (approx.) rance
John Cabot - c reddish- medium double 7 ft.
light
Tall climbing fragrant rose.
Explorer
r
2 m
Fully double blooms repeat all season.
John Davis -
c
Explorer
John Franklin
Explorer
Lambert Closse
Explorer
Linda Campbell
Hybrid Rugosa
medium medium double
pink
medium medium double
red
pale
medium double
pink
ruby
medium double
red
7 ft.
2 m
4 ft.
1.2 m
3 ft.
1 m
5 ft.
1.5 m
medium
light
light
light
Tall rambling rose may be trained as a climber.
Continual blooms all season.
Continual blooms all season.
Disease-resistant foliage.
Full, double flowers; disease resistant shrub.
Blooms similar to tea roses; repeat blooms.
Heavy blooming specimen or hedge rose.
Repeat blooms. Almost thornless, arching canes.
Lois Jolliet - c
Explorer
Martin Frobisher
Explorer
Morden Amorette
Parkland
Morden Blush
Parkland
Morden Cardinette
Parkland
medium medium double
pink
light
medium double
pink
deep
medium double
pink
soft
small
double
pink
cardinal medium double
red
4-5 ft. light
1.5 m 5 ft.
strong
1.5 m 2 ft.
light
0.6 m
3 ft.
light
1 m
2 ft.
light
0.6 m
Continuous bloom from summer to frost
Trailing growth habit; disease resistant.
First introduced Explorer Series rose.
Continual fragrant blooms.
Continuous blooms from summer to frost
on a very compact plant.
Repeat hybrid tea type flowers; low growing rose.
Longest blooming period of any shrub rose.
Deep red flowers on a low growing rose.
Ever blooming from June until frost.
Morden Centennial - r
Parkland
Morden Fireglow
Parkland
Morden Ruby
Parkland
Morden Sunrise
Parkland
medium medium double
pink
orange- medium double
red
ruby
medium double
red
orange small
semi-
blend
double
3 ft.
medium
1 m
2 ft.
light
0.6 m
3 ft.
light
1 m
3 ft.
medium
1 m
Plentiful hot pink flowers; glossy green foliage.
Repeat blooms; all season.
Unique orange-red flowers repeat all season.
Low growing, disease resistant rose.
Clusters of ruby red flowers repeat all season.
A real jewel in the Morden series.
Continuous orange-peach blooms with citrus
fragrance. Disease resistant, compact shrub.
Nearly Wild -
r
Shrub
medium small
single
pink
3 ft.
medium Pink flowers with light center; everblooming
1 m
Proven all-weather performer.
Persian Yellow - pink
c deep
medium double 6 ft.
light
ROSES
roseshardy roses
139
Tall popular rose with deep yellow flowers.
Rosa foetida persiana r
Pink Grootendorst
Hybrid Rugosa
yellow
1.8 m
medium small
double 5 ft.
light
pink
1.5 m
One time profusion of blooms.
Carnation-like, pink flowers.
Wrinkled foliage.
Pavement Roses -
r
Hybrid Rugosa Prairie Dawn
Shrub
white
medium single, 3 ft.
medium
pink, red
semi-db.1 m
red-purple double
medium small
double 5 ft.
light
pink
1.5 m
Fragrant blooms repeat all season; orange
rosehips. Tolerate temperature extremes and salt.
Good for borders and low hedges.
Continual double pink blooms all season.
Glossy foliage.
Prairie Joy -
r
Shrub
medium small
double 4 ft.
light
pink
1.2 m
Hedge type rose for screening; repeat all season
Dense foliage is disease resistant.
Quadra - c deep
medium double 5 ft.
light
Explorer red
1.5 m
Clusters of deep red blooms repeat all season.
Arching stems can be trained to climb.
Red Leaf -
r
Rosa glauca/rubrifolia
Rosarie de l’Hay
Hybrid Rugosa
Royal Edward
Explorer
Reddish-purple foliage; pink flowers in June.
Red hips and purple branches for winter color.
Continual deep magenta blooms all season.
Extremely vigorous plants.
Repeat blooms all season.
Low growing, groundcover rose.
light
small
single
pink
magenta medium semi-
red double
deep
medium single
pink
5 ft.
medium
1.5 m
7 ft.
strong
2 m
1.5 ft. medium
0.5 m
ROSES
rosespictures
John Davis
John Franklin
L.D. Braithwaite
Lambert Closse
Linda Campbell
Louis Jolliet
Martin Frobisher
Morden Blush
Morden Centennial
Morden Fireglow
Morden Ruby
Nearly Wild
Persian Yellow
Pink Grootendoorst
Prairie Dawn
Rosa Rubrifolia
Theresa Bugnet
Topaz Jewel
William Baffin
140
Winnipeg Parks
Variety
Color
Bloom Petal Height Frag- Features
Size
Count (approx.) rance
Samuel Holland c
Explorer
Simon Fraser
Explorer
Sir Thomas Lipton
Hybrid Rugosa
reddish medium
pink
medium medium
pink
pure
medium
white
Theresa Bugnet r
Hybrid Rugosa
Topaz Jewel
Hybrid Rugosa
medium medium double
pink
butter
medium double
yellow
double
semi-
double
semi-
double
Wild Rose of Alberta r medium small
single
Rosa spp. pink
William Baffin c medium medium semi-
6 ft.
light
1.8 m 2 ft.
light
0.6 m 7 ft.
strong
2 m
Continual blooming pillar type rose.
May be trained as a climber. Continually covered in blooms all season.
Low growing compact plant.
Tall rose with pure white, large fragrant flowers.
Leathery foliage; repeat blooms all season
6 ft.
medium
1.8 m
5 ft.
medium
1.5 m
Tall shrub with full flowers; repeats all season.
Orange-scarlet fall foliage; orange rose hips.
Butter to cream yellow flowers.
First ever blooming yellow rugosa rose.
3 ft.
medium Floral emblem of Alberta; repeats all season.
1 m
Native plant is also called Prickly Rose.
7 ft.
light
Popular climbing rose. Prolific bloomer that
Explorer
r pink
double 2 m
William Booth c pink
medium single 5 ft.
light
Explorer 1.5 m
Winnipeg Parks r
Parkland
ROSES
roseshardy roses
repeats from June until frost.
Continuous blooms from summer to frost.
Trailing growth habit.; disease resistant.
deep
medium double 2 ft.
medium Popular hardy, low growing rose.
pink
0.6 m
Everblooming.
141
ROSES
roses tender roses
of rose survival, it has been an effective overwintering
method for many tender roses in Calgary.
Tender roses are placed into different categories or
classes which include Hybrid Tea, Floribunda, Grandiflora,
Miniature, Climbing, Old Fashioned, English and Dream
types.
All Tender Roses, Hybrid Tea, Floribunda, Grandiflora, Miniature, and Climbing Roses, etc. carry a seasonal guarantee only. Tender Roses are not guaranteed
to overwinter.
Hybrid Teas are the most popular worldwide. They
have long pointed buds with straight stems. These roses
are typically seen at florist shops. They will require winter
protection.
Floribunda Roses are bred by crossing hybrid teas and
Polyanthas (typically a single-flowered rose type). Floribundas are ever-blooming, flower in clusters, and are generally
shorter plants than hybrid teas. They are a little hardier than
Tender roses, are very popular and add beauty, colour, hybrid teas but still require winter protection.
and fragrance to gardens. They can basically be grown
like an annual in the open garden or on patios in pots. If Grandiflora Roses are hybrids bred from floribundas
you choose to use them as a patio plant make sure you and hybrid teas. Their blossoms are larger than floribundas
sink the pots in the ground in the winter to give the roses and slightly smaller than hybrid teas. Again, they flower
a chance of winter survival.
in clusters and resemble hybrid teas in form with longer
stems than floribundas. Suitable for cutting.
Planting and Care:
142
Tender roses require a sunny location and well-drained,
slightly acidic soil and respond well to adequate watering
and fertilizing. For information on planting please see the
Planting Guide on p. . If your plant is a grafted rose then
plant the graft union about 4 in. (10cm) below ground
level. Plant non-grafted roses with the top of the root ball
at ground level. To reduce foliage diseases keep the soil
evenly moist without wetting the leaves. Fertilize with one
spring application of Smartcote Rose Food or use a liquid
concentrate like Schultz Rose Food applied once a month
from May to mid-August.
Pruning:
Remember to trim out one third of the grey stems in the
fall. Trim out the dead stem tips in the spring as well. Cut
out all damaged, dead, and diseased wood. To encourage
re-bloom , prune back spent flower stems to just above
the ‘five-leaflet’ leaf. Remember, some tender roses are
seasonal and do not re-bloom.
Winter Protection for Tender Roses:
To protect against Chinook and cold damage, help tender roses prepare for winter. Reduce watering in fall to
allow plant growth to slow down and harden off. In late
fall, just before ground freezes, water the plant generously. After the ground has frozen, cut back to about
8-10" (20-25cm), place a rose cone, a large tree pot with
the bottom removed, or a heavy, waxed cardboard box
over top of it; and fill the box with vermiculite, peat moss,
straw, sawdust, or dry leaves. Cover the top with cloth,
not plastic, until early May. In spring cover temporarily
if frost is expected. While this method is no guarantee
Miniature Roses are ever-blooming with small flowers
that look Similar in form to hybrid teas. They are usually
quite short - 6-18 in.(15-45cm). Due to their short height
they are easier to overwinter than other non-hardy roses.
There are not that many miniatures noted for their fragrance. They can make good houseplants as well if given
bright light and cool conditions.
Climbing Roses can have parents that are floribundas
or hybrid teas. They normally bloom on last year’s growth
which will need protection over the winter. You can try to
bend the stems over into a trench and cover them with a
mulch. Even with extra protection, tender climbing roses
can be quite a challenge to over-winter in our area.,
therefore most Calgary gardeners prefer to plant hardy
climbing or rambling roses. Explorer roses such as John
Cabot, John Cabot, Henry Kelsey, or William Baffin, are
much hardier, will bloom reliably and can easily be trained
as climbers.
Old Fashioned or Old Garden include various
species and cultivars that generally bloom early in the
season. They were quite popular before hybrid teas
were developed in the late 1800’s.
English or David Austin have become quite popular.
Hybrids between old fashioned and hybrid tea roses, they
are mostly fragrant with repeat blooms.
Dream Roses were a new introduction in 2001. They are
very disease resistant and vigorous with repeating hybrid
tea type flowers.
ROSES
Pan Am
exclusives
Gemini
Golden Cascade
Lady Di
Prince Charles
Knock Out
99’ Kaleidoscope
First Light
david
austin
roses
95’ Brass Bands
Graham Thomas
Heritage
143
Abraham Darby
Golden Celebration
L.D. Braithwaite
Wenlock
Bonica
Carefree Wonder
landscape
roses
Winchester
Cathedral
ROSES
internationaly
patented
hybrid tea
& grandiflora
Anastasia
Belami
Brandy
Caribbean
Gold Medal
Heirloom
Just Joey
Love
Midas Touch
Paradise
Rio Samba
144
internationaly
patented
floribunda
Secret
Touch of Class
White Lightnin’
Amber Queen
Charisma
French Lace
Intrigue
ROSES
hybrid tea
roses
Double Delight
Blue Girl
Caribia
Chrysler Imperial
Irish Gold
John F. Kennedy
Lady X
145
Mister Lincoln
Peace
Oldtimer
Whiskey Mac
Angel Face
Circus
Iceberg
Classic Sunblaze
Debut Sunblaze
floribunda
roses
miniature
sunblaze
roses
Spanish Sun
LAWNS
lawns
your questions
Q: How do I get rid of dog spots?
A: Dog spots are brown or yellow patches edged with dark
green and are a very common lawn problem. The main
reason for the dead grass is the high nitrogen and salt
content in the dog’s urine. This creates a burn exactly like
over-fertilizing. As the nitrogen dilutes towards the edge
of the spot it actually feeds the grass, resulting in the
green areas. The best way to deal with this is to heavily
water the area to flush out the excess nitrogen and salt.
Gypsum, lime, or top-dressing may be applied in order to
increase drainage. If this is a recurring problem in your
lawn, planting a resistant grass like fescue will reduce the
appearance of damage.
Q: The grass under my evergreen is dead or dying.
What can I do?
A: Grass will not grow under spruce and other evergreens
for a number of reasons. The tree blocks both the sunlight
and the rain resulting in a dark, dry area. The best way to
deal with this is to allow the spruce branches to grow to the ground as they would naturally. Pruning off the lower
limbs will not encourage the grass to grow, instead it simply
emphasizes the problem. If this pruning has already been
done there are a few things that you can try: seed with
a drought and shade-tolerant grass like a fescue, apply
lime to reduce any accumulated acidity from the needles,
water more often, or use perennials like Aegopodium or
Lily-of-the-Valley as ground covers. The easiest thing to do
in the long run is to lay down landscape fabric and apply
mulch or decorative stone beneath the tree.
Q: I have heard that a lawn needs to be dethatched?
What does this mean and how do I do it?
A: Thatch is a layer of undecomposed grass stems and
roots that accumulates near the soil surface. This is a
natural part of lawn growth and is only harmful if the
thatch is thicker than 1/2 inch (1cm). If it is too thick the
grass will root into the thatch, which does not have the
water holding capabilities of soil, causing the grass to dry
out quickly in hot weather. The best ways to control thatch
are: a spring power raking, aerating with a coring machine
(removes plugs of earth, allowing air and moisture to help
decompose the thatch), or top dressing with a thin layer of
soil to help break down the thatch. Spray on products and
micro-organisms are available to assist in dethatching by
accelerating the decomposing process.
Q: What can you tell me about aerating my lawn?
A: Aerating allows oxygen into the soil; oxygen is important for healthy root growth which in turn is important for
a healthy lawn. It also improves compacted soil, thatch
problems, and clay soils. Aerating breaks up the thatch
and loosens the soil, encouraging new deeper root growth,
making the lawn more heat and drought tolerant. The lawn
should be aerated in early spring and fall if using a coring
aerator (a machine that removes plugs of soil) or anytime
of the year if the spiking method is used (punching holes in
the ground with a spike or metal tine). It is best to consult
a professional if a coring method is required.
Q: What is the difference between granular and liquid
fertilizer?
A: A good quality slow-release granular fertilizer will feed
the lawn for around two months, depending on the weather
and the brand purchased. Liquid fertilizer has a faster effect but it only lasts in the soil for approximately a month,
again depending on the weather.
147
LAWNS
lawnsplanting & care
148
SEEDING AND SODDING NEW LAWNS
Preparation for a New Lawn: Prior to sowing lawn seed
or laying sod you must first establish a desirable slope and grade
in your yard. In order to prevent basement water problems slope
the soil away from your house. Remember that gentle slopes
are easier to maintain than steep slopes and that the installation
of poured sidewalks, patios, and large trees is best done before
planting a lawn. It is also a good idea to leave shrub and flower
beds unsodded. This will eliminate unnecessary sod removal
when you are ready to landscape.
If you have less than 15-20 cm. of good quality topsoil in your yard you
need additional soil. Purchase screened loam and spread it evenly over
the previously graded subsoil. It is important to level and pack the soil
surface before planting a lawn. Use a landscape rake to level the soil
surface evenly smooth. Then, pack the soil with a lawn roller until the
soil is firm. Finally, apply Root Grow (10-30-10) fertilizer at a rate of five
kilograms per 100 square meters. At this point you are ready to seed
or sod your new lawn.
Seeding:Almost all lawns in the prairies consist of various mixtures of
Kentucky Bluegrass and Creeping Red Fescue. Some lawn mixes also
contain Ryegrass; this grass germinates quickly to stabilize the area,
but dies out after the first season. As a general rule, a blend or mixture,
under average growing conditions will prove the most successful, and
withstand the widest range of conditions. GoldenAcres supplies several
types of excellent quality grass mix. We also carry individual cultivars
for specific locations.
Kentucky Bluegrass - Easy to grow in a sunny location, but suffers
from summer heat if mowed too close. It is disease prone and requires
more fertilizer and dethatching and does not tolerate drought. Kentucky
Bluegrass is coarser textured than fescue, stands up better to high traffic,
and requires more fertilizer at least twice a year.
Creeping Red Fescue - Mixes well with other seed species such as
Kentucky Bluegrass. It is a quick germinating, fine textured, deep green
grass. It grows well in shade and has a medium fertilizer requirement.
Creeping Red Fescue does not hold up as well to high traffic. Best
results are achieved if lawns are seeded in the spring or fall following
the directions listed below. When seeding, make sure an adequate
supply of water is supplied.
How Much Seed is Required: To determine how much seed
you will need, measure the length and width of the plot to be seeded
and multiply one measurement by the other; to calculate the area. If
for example, the plot to be seeded is 10 m. (38 ft.) long by 8 m. (26 ft.)
wide the area of the plot to be seeded equals 80 sq. m. (858 sq. ft.).
Check the package of lawn seed to determine how much seed will be
required to cover the plot in question. Do not try to spread lawn seed
further than suggested on the package. If you skimp on lawn seed
your lawn will look bare and unattractive. Likewise do not over seed in
attempt to create a more dense lawn.
1. Use a drop seeder to evenly spread 2.5 kg. of seed over 100
square meters. It is best to set the spreader at half this rate and apply
the seed in two passes at right angles to each other.
3.
Lay sod, usually purchased in 50 centimeter by 2 meter rolls, so
that the end seams are staggered. Be sure to fit the seams together tightly.
Trim the sod with a sharp knife where it meets sidewalks or other objects
and fill in any gaps with soil or peat moss. Roll the sod with a lawn roller
to ensure good contact between the grass roots and the soil. Water the
newly sodded area thoroughly, two to three hours per area, three to four
times per week. Keep the sod consistently moist until there are significant
signs of new growth.
CARING FOR ESTABLISHED LAWNS:
Spring Clean-Up:Oncethesnowhasmelted,thegroundhasthawed,
and the soil has dried enough to cultivate, it is time to prepare your lawn
for spring.
1. Removedeadgrass,thatch,leaves,anddebrisfromyourlawnwith
a hand or power rake. For best results rake your lawn twice in directions
that are at right angles to each other.
2. Applyahighnitrogen,slowreleasefertilizer;spreadingitevenlyover
the entire lawn. Consult Golden Acre staff for information on the various
types of lawn fertilizer we sell and the recommended fertilizer application
rates. Weed and Feed fertilizers and weed sprays such as Killex are most
effective when applied during warm weather when weeds are actively
growing.
3. Water the entire lawn thoroughly so that the water penetrates to
a depth of 10 to 15 cm. This encourages the development of a deep
root system which is capable of maintaining the grass during dry spells.
Lawns become green when soil warms up; south exposures will green
up more quickly than north exposures. To maintain this spring green
appearance continue to fertilize and water your lawn throughout the
summer months.
Fertilizing: For best results fertilize your lawn four times a year: early
spring (April-May), early summer (June-July), late summer (AugustSeptember),andearlyfall(September-October).Fallfertilizerapplications
are important. The slow release, low nitrogen fertilizer you apply in the fall
develops strong roots which enables the grass to over winter well. Fall
fertilizersarestoredintherootsystemoverthewinterandprovidenutrients
for early spring growth. For this reason the fall is also a good time to control
perennial weeds. As nutrients are being stored in the root system of your
lawn, herbicides can likewise be moved into the extensive root systems
of perennial weeds. Spring and summer fertilizer applications replace
the nitrogen you remove constantly, every time you mow your lawn. A
constant source of suitable nutrients and adequate moisture is all your
lawn requires to remain green and actively growing.
Watering:Allgardenplants,includingyourlawn,requireregularirrigation.
Less frequent, deep watering is better than light, frequent waterings.
Except during rainy periods, water your lawn once a week for 1-2 hours
per area.
Mowing: In the spring, once your lawn has grown to about 5 cm tall, it is
time to start mowing. Set the mower to cut at a height of 4-6 cm and mow
the lawn. It is a good practice to cut the lawn before the mower has to cut
off more than 2 cm. Don’t mow your lawn in the same direction every time
you mow. By mowing in the opposite direction to your last mow you can
obtain a more even cut and prevent lines form forming in your lawn. If you
aremeticulousaboutyourlawnmowittwice.Bymowingtwice,inopposite
directions, you can attain an evenly cut, manicured lawn.
Preparing Your Lawn for Winter: A little preparation in the fall
encourages early spring growth in your lawn. As the days get shorter
and the temperatures drop your lawn will stop growing. Now is the time
to mow your lawn for one last time. Set your mower to cut 1-2 cm lower
than normal, mow the entire lawn, apply a slow release nitrogen winter
formulation fertilizer, and then water the entire lawn thoroughly. This will
ensureanamplesupplyofnutrientsandmoistureforearlyspringgrowth.If
fall turns into an Indian Summer and the lawn dries out, continue watering
your lawn until freeze up. Remember to drain outside taps or any items
that are stored outside; for example, sprinklers, nozzles, or hoses. These
articles can be seriously damaged by freezing water.
LAWNS
2.
After seeding apply a thin layer of peat moss over the entire
area. This helps retain moisture and holds the seed to ensure a quality
product.
Renovating Old Lawns: Older, poorly cared for lawns will eventually
require renovation. To renovate such lawns, aerate the entire lawn using
a plug removing core aerator; rather than one that simply slices holes.
This enables air, water, and nutrients to penetrate the soil surface to reach
the root zone. Over the surface of the area, evenly spread a thin (1-2 cm
thick) coat of peat moss, topsoil or Soil Booster. Using a grass seeder,
spread lawn seed at a rate of 1.5 kg per 100 square meters over the
entire area. Now fertilizer the area with a high nitrogen lawn food following
the manufacturer’s recommended application rate. Finally water the area
thoroughly; allowing 2-3 hours per area. The combined growth of the old
grass and the newly seeded grass will produce a quality lawn you can
be proud of.
Turfgrass Terms:
SPECIES - a group of plants that are able to interbreed such as Kentucky
Bluegrass (Poa pratensis), or Creeping Red Fescue (Festuca rubra).
CULTIVARS-cultivatedvarietiesincludingBaron,Fylking,Glade,Nugget
or Regent of Kentucky Bluegrass
BLEND-acombinationofseedsof2ormorecultivarsofasingleturfgrass
species such as Kentucky bluegrass
MIXTURE - a combination of seeds of 2 or more species such as
Kentucky Bluegrass and Creeping Red Fescue
Lawn Rollers
&
Fertilizer Spreaders
are available
for rent at our store.
Ask at Customer
Service for more
details.
149
LANDSCAPING
150
landscapingdesign tips
The general principles for good yard and garden design remain
the same no matter where in the world you are landscaping.
Landscaping involves the creation of an attractive plant display in
such a way that the available space is used economically. Listed
below are the general considerations or basic rules necessary to
design a landscape that suits your particular needs.
1. Organize yourself by preparing a working design on paper
first. It is much easier to move trees and shrubs around on
paper than to transplant misplaced plants later.
2. Consider the requirements for maintenance-free landscaping
in the planning stage. Weeding and watering can be reduced
considerably if you plan ahead. By using landscape
fabrics, lawn edgings, and ground covers weeding is much
less and easier. Installed soaker lines or underground
sprinkler systems not only reduce watering requirements
but also considerably reduce water wastage. The result of
planning ahead and installing these labor saving devices
is a more attractive landscape with reduced maintenance
requirements.
3. Use natural angles and curves in construction and planting
rather than straight lines. Straight lines are monotonous in
flat, regular, rectangular yards.
4. Use plant material to cover unattractive foundations, corners
and fences. Planting in this way creates a natural looking
landscape.
5. Avoid overplanting, one of the biggest problems in home
landscaping. Overplanting leads to the need for extensive
pruning or even the removal of some plants once the
landscape matures. Overplanting occurs when fast results
are desired, when you compensate for an initial lack of color,
and when you fail to foresee the ultimate size and shape of
small, young plants.
6.Create interesting landscapes by grouping similar plants
into compact groups or by grouping unlike plants into
complementary arrangements. In the latter case space the
plants further apart, allowing room for each plant to develop
individually. Avoid planting single specimens in a haphazard
manner.
7. Arrange plants so that their colors contrast or complement
one another. Plan for color during the dormant season
by using at least one-third evergreen material. Use plant
material which has attractive fall leaf color or winter stem
color. Burning Bush and Red Osier Dogwood are respective
examples.
8. Use perennial and annual flowers, in combination with
trees and shrubs, to add color during the growing season.
Do not attempt to replace trees and shrubs with perennial
and annual flowers.
9. Consider the different microclimates within your yard. Select
site specific plants tolerant of the various conditions in
your yard. The Golden Acre staff will be glad to assist you
in selecting plant material for the sunny, shady, or windy
location in your yard.
XERISCAPING
xeriscaping
In spite of the unusually wet spring of 2005, Southern Alberta
remains very dry. We need several years of above normal
precipitation spread throughout the year to replenish ground
moisture. Intelligent and responsible water usage is required if we
wish to have beautiful and productive gardens and landscapes.
This section is a brief guide on gardening in our generally dry
conditions.
Lawns
Dry weather can take its toll on lawns in particular, or at least on
the person caring for the lawn. Nobody likes to see his or her lush
green grass slowly become sparse and brown. There are ways of
coping with this problem instead of simply giving up. In order to
conserve water the following steps can be followed.
Know Your Irrigation System
Maintain your irrigation system and use it effectively. Make sure
sprinkler heads are working properly and not leaking or wasting
water. Avoid having heads spray onto the pavement or road. To
find out exactly how much water you are putting down place empty
margarine containers on the lawn to catch the water. Time how long
it takes to fill the containers with ½ inch of water. Irrigate twice as
long to provide sufficient moisture: about 1 in. of water. If surface
run-off occurs, stop irrigating that area until water soaks in then
water again until the area has received about 1 in. and is soaked
to a depth of about 4-6 in. (10-15cm). Reduce evaporation; water
at night or in the early morning.
Strengthen Your Grass
Even when there are no watering restrictions, infrequent deep
waterings are recommended in order to help create stronger,
deeper root systems. Most lawns can easily wait 7 days or longer
between waterings. Avoid a set schedule and prevent the lawn
from ‘expecting’ water at a certain time. Wait until you footprints
are easily visible in the grass and/or the lawn takes on a blue-green
color. If there are no water restrictions apply about 1 inch of water
across the entire lawn, moving your sprinkler as necessary. Wait
until you see signs of water stress again (footprints, blue-gray color)
before re-watering. If only small areas are dry then hand water with
a hose or watering can. Another way to help your grass prepare
for drought situations is to avoid heavy nitrogen fertilization. Lush,
fast-growing grass requires more water and fares poorly in dry
weather. Apply nitrogen fertilizer once in the spring, once in midsummer, and once in the fall. Water thoroughly after fertilizing. It
also helps to let your lawn grow to about 3 in. The longer grass
blades create more food and build stronger grass plants. Finally,
and this may be the hardest task of all, try to accept the fact that
you lawn may be less than perfect.
Preparing the Lawn for Water Restrictions
If water restrictions are expected avoid planting new lawns by seed
or with sod and reduce or cease any planned nitrogen applications.
To help conserve moisture keep your grass as long as your mower
will allow. Do not keep the soil moist in anticipation of a drought;
instead water deeply as infrequently as possible; your lawn will be
stronger going into any drought situation.
151
What to do During a Drought
Don’t Panic! If you have prepared your grass by following the
above instructions it should make it through the dry spell. The
lawn may not appear as attractive as you would like but it is still
alive. In order to help the grass through this stressful period
restrict foot traffic as this can easily damage the plants. Do not
apply chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, or fungicides) and stop
mowing once the grass stops growing. In a worst case scenario
(total water restrictions) the grass will begin to go dormant. Again,
don’t panic! Kentucky Bluegrass can and does survive a whole
summer without irrigation. Naturally, the lawn will be brown but
it is not dead. Fine fescue lawns will also survive in a dormant
state but tall fescue and perennial rye grass do not fare as well.
Once the drought is over and watering goes back to normal the
grass will begin to return to its original state, greening up quite
quickly in the case of Kentucky Bluegrass.
XERISCAPING
xeriscapinggardens
Vegetable Gardening in Dry Weather
Unfortunately vegetables, unlike your lawn, do not go dormant
when water supplies run low. However, there are a number of
methods you can employ to reduce the water requirements.
Amend the Soil
Adding soil amendments such as compost or manure will increase
the quality of the soil along with water retention. If you plan on
applying manure use a composted not raw form in the fall, allowing it to break down further over the winter. Zeolite’s open
structure is especially effective in retaining water and breaking
down clay soils.
Irrigation
The best form of irrigation for vegetable gardens is drip or trickle
irrigation that can reduce water usage by about 50%. The soaker
hose, not to be confused with the sprinkler hose, is the best
method of drip irrigation, allowing water to seep out the length
of the hose at a slow and constant rate. To ensure that you do
not overwater check the soil regularly. If it holds together when
you squeeze it in your hand it is moist and watering should be
delayed.
152
There are a few other methods that can be applied to save water.
Plant in blocks instead of rows; this creates shade for the roots
and reduces evaporation. Be vigilant with the weeding since
weeds compete with your vegetables for water. Finally, a layer
of mulch can help conserve moisture. Place organic material on
the garden to a depth of 2 to 3 inches (the larger the particle of
mulch the deeper the layer) in late spring. The best mulch is a
thin layer of grass clippings with no herbicide or weed and feed
or pesticides or even fertilizer recently applied. Allow each
layer to dry before adding more.
Flowers
The most important element in growing flowers in a dry area or
in practicing water conservation is the soil. Most flowers perform
poorly on heavy clay as oxygen levels are lower around their
roots. On the other hand, sandy soils do not hold water well.
If either is the case you can begin to improve your soil through
the addition of compost and/or peat moss and zeolite. If this is
your first year amending either an old, uncared for bed or a new
poor garden, plant annuals the first season. It will be easier to
cultivate and incorporate organic material after the plants are
killed by frost.
In addition to having a good growing medium it is important to
know your plants. Make sure you plant flowers that are appropriate for the place you want them to grow. For example, plant
shade-tolerant plants like canterbury bells or columbines in shady
areas or plant yarrow or baby’s breath in dry, sunny areas. This
way you won’t be fighting to keep a plant that likes it moist alive
in a dry area and vice versa.
Annuals & Bulbs
Most annuals will do well in dry gardens that have decent soil,
needing only one to two inches of water per week. The best
bedding out plants for hot areas are marigolds, zinnias, alyssum,
and bachelor’s button. Spring-flowering bulbs do most of their
growing when the season is moister and cooler.
Know Your Plants
If you know when your vegetables need the most water
you can target them at that time, shifting focus from one
in favor of another if necessary. The following is a partial
list of crops and when they require water the most:
Broccoli, Cabbage, and Cauliflower
- Generally need water most of the season. Water use
is highest when the heads are forming.
Beans
- need a constant supply of water. These plants uses
the most water of any garden vegetable. On dry windy
days blossoms can easily fall. To tell if your beans
are experiencing water stress look at the leaves. If
they are grayish then apply water.
Carrots, Radishes, Etc.
- need a constant supply of water otherwise they will
crack, get knobby, and/or take on hot flavor.
Lettuce, Spinach, and other Leafy Vegetables
- water use is most during head development but for
quality they need a constant supply of water.
Onion, Garlic
- need plenty of moisture.
Peas
- need lots of water especially during pod growth
Potatoes
- dry conditions cause tubers to become knobby
- supply adequate moisture during and after
flowering
Tomatoes and Peppers
- tomatoes and peppers actually have a lower watering
requirement than many vegetables and tend to get
overwatered. Too much watering can lead to blossom end rot where the bottom of the fruit turns black
and sunken. Consistent watering is best for these
plants.
Of all our garden plants trees and shrubs are perhaps the most
neglected. We are not normally aware that they face the same
sorts of troubles that our showier garden plants face. A tree under
drought stress, and many of them
are in Calgary, is not as obvious Leaf Curl
as a dried up petunia. It can take
up to two years for the full impact
of drought to become noticeable
in a tree. Some things you should
look for are wilting, leaf curl, and
yellowing. Deciduous trees may
develop leaf scorch, brown-edged
leaves, and/or browning between
leaf veins. Evergreen needles may
turn yellow, red, or even purple and
browning may be seen throughout
the needle. Drought stress may not Leaf Browning
kill the tree but can severely weaken
it, leaving it open to insect infestations or disease as in the case of
birch leaf miners.
Planting Trees in Dry Periods
Plant trees during dry periods as you would during normal
weather - just be careful not to let them dry out. Plant smaller
trees (2 in. caliper or less for deciduous or 5-6
ft. tall for evergreens). This helps reduce financial risk if any are lost. This size of tree usually
adapts better to dry weather than a larger one.
Use Myke Tree & Shrub growth supplement to
help establish vigorous root systems that will
stand up to drought in the future.
XERISCAPING
xeriscaping trees & shrubs
Needle Browning
Watering
Most trees in Calgary are underwatered but following these steps will
help to give your tree the moisture it
needs. Water to a depth of 12 inches
by saturating the soil from the trunk
or main stems out to and beyond dripline, (the outer edge of the
branches). In the case of evergreens, water three to five feet
beyond the dripline. Slow, long watering encourages deep roots
which leads to better drought tolerance. If or when there are
dry periods trees should take precedence over your lawn.
A 25-year old tree takes 25 years to replace – a lawn takes
a few months. Move the sprinkler/soaker hose around during
watering to ensure total coverage. To water the entire root area
at once, use a long soaker hose coiled several times around the
tree and out towards the dripline and beyond. Trees generally
need two to three deep waterings per month following the above
guidelines to receive adequate moisture.
Winter Watering and Mulching
As a result of our warm dry winters and lack of snow cover our
trees and shrubs need periodic watering during the winter. Generally, water one to two times per month October though April
on a warm day when the ground is not frozen but when freezing
temperatures are forecast. Follow the above summer watering
method. As water freezes in the soil, it will keep roots from drying out and stabilize winter soil temperatures, improving winter
survival. It also helps to mulch the root area of plants that are
exposed to warm winter sun and Chinook winds. Mulch protects
shallow roots from winter damage and prevents premature spring
growth.
Trees & Shrubs That Perform
Well in Dry Areas
Deciduous Trees
Bur Oak – Quercus macrocarpa
Chokecherry - Prunus virginiana var.
Elm - Ulmus americana ‘Brandon’
Green Ash - Fraxinus pennslyvanica
Russian Olive - Elaeagnus angustifolia
Snowbird Hawthorn - Crataegus mordensis
Evergreen Trees and Shrubs
Junipers – Juniperus spp. - especially blue upright and
blue spreading types
Pine - Pinus spp. ie. Bristlecone, Mugo, Ponderosa, Scots
Spruce - Colorado Blue (Picea pungens ‘Glauca’)
Deciduous Shrubs
Caragana – Caragana spp.
Golden Currant – Ribes aureum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera spp., Diervilla lonicera
Pavement Roses - Rosa rugosa hybrids
Preston Lilac and Late Lilac – Syringa spp.
Sea Buckthorn - Hippophae ramnoides
Silver Buffaloberry – Shepherdia argentea
Snowberry - Symphoricarpos albus
Wolf Willow - Elaeagnus commutata
153
SOIL
soilyour questions
Q: What is the difference between vermiculite and
perlite?
A: Perlite is a naturally occurring volcanic rock that
expands when heated. Vermiculite is also a mineral and it
too expands when heated. The finished expanded product
is what you buy from the store. Both provide aeration and
drainage and both retain water for release later. Perlite
has a neutral pH and lasts longer than vermiculite which
holds more water than perlite.
Q: Why should I use manure? What is the best
kind?
A: Manure contains the primary nutrients (nitrogen,
phosphorous, and potassium) but in small amounts and
should be supplemented with fertilizer. Manures are,
however, usually an excellent source of vital secondary
elements like sulphur, calcium, and magnesium and
micronutrients such as zinc, boron, iron, and copper.
Manure’s most important use is as a soil conditioner; it
retains moisture in sandy soil and helps aerate clay soil.
The best manure for a spring application is pre-composted
mushroom manure. It is better to apply steer and sheep
manure in the fall, allowing it to compost during the
winter.
154
containing a mix of fine and coarse particles which allow for drainage and air circulation. Loam, though excellent in
the garden and in farmers’ fields, holds too much water and
not enough air for successful container gardening. Most
potting soils are made up of peat moss, vermiculite, and
perlite but some will also have earthworm castings, water
retaining crystals for hanging baskets, and fertilizer.
Q: What are the benefits of adding compost to my
garden?
A: The most important thing compost adds is organic
material. This improves the way water interacts with the
soil. For example, in sandy soils compost helps retain
water while in clay soils it actually improves drainage.
Compost also innoculates the soil which means that it
adds large quantities of beneficial microbes like bacteria
and fungi. These microbes extract nutrients from the
mineral part of the soil and eventually pass the nutrients
on to plants. For further information, particularly on how
to start and maintain your own compost, please see our
composting section.
Q: What is the best mulch to use and why? How
do I apply it?
A: Putting down a layer of shredded wood, wood
chips, or bark on your garden beds is good for a
number of reasons. Mulch helps keep the soil an
even temperature in summer and winter, it aids in
moisture retention, it inhibits weed growth, and it
makes your garden look more attractive. The best
time to apply or top up your mulch is in the fall after
the first hard frost but it can be put down any time
at a depth of 2-4 inches. Shredded wood/bark is
probably the best choice as it holds moisture better
than wood chips and the lower layers decay more
readily, adding composted material directly to the
garden beds.
Q: What is the difference between loam and topsoil?
A: The word ‘topsoil’ actually means whatever soil is found
on the surface of the land in any particular region. This ‘soil’
can range from mostly sand to mostly clay. Loam falls in the
middle, containing clay, silt, sand, and organic materials.
This is what is usually meant by ‘topsoil’. Commercial
topsoil is usually loam.
Q: Why is there no soil in potting soil?
A: Technically ‘soil’ refers to any growing medium which
means that potting soil can be considered a ‘soil’. What
most people mean to ask is “Why is there no loam in
potting soil?” Potting soil is specifically formulated for
growing plants in containers. It is much lighter in texture,
Q: What is Zeolite soil conditioner?
A: Zeolite is a natural volcanic mineral that does not break
down like organic material. Once you work it into the soil it
will remain active for years. The sharp edges of the zeolite
break down clay and allow air and moisture to both reach
and leave the soil. When zeolite is turned into the soil its
open structure interacts with other minerals to improve
the soil. It also balances soil pH by locking away alkali
contaminants, allowing nutrients such as nitrogen, calcium,
iron, and magnesium to reach the plants. Zeolite will lock
away water, releasing it during dry spells as well.
What is composting?
Composting is a natural biochemical process of decay in which
bacteria, fungi, worms, and other small organisms in the soil
decompose organic matter. This breakdown of kitchen and
yard waste results in a dark, earth-smelling, nutrient-rich, soil
conditioner known as humus or compost.
Why compost?
Composting is an easy way to return organic material to the soil.
It conditions soil and improves plant growth. Another reason
for composting is to reduce the amount of organic matter going
to landfill sites. Kitchen and yard waste makes up about 33%
of residential solid waste. If you compost, and also recycle
newspapers, bottles and cans; it will help reduce the amount of
household garbage going to landfill sites.
Compost Enclosures
In the city, most people want a compost pile enclosed, to keep it
tidy and inconspicuous. This can be as simple as wooden slats,
with spaces between for air circulation, or chicken wire, supported
by wooden fence posts at the corners. There are also plastic
compost bins, made from recycled
plastic, which are unobtrusive, tidy, and
retain heat and moisture. Ideal size for
a compost pile is about a metre (yard)
cube. Many people have two bins
side-by-side, so that they can add to
one while the other full one is finishing
the composting process. It should be
in an area with good air circulation,
and a sunny, warm spot will enable
it to work faster, but is not absolutely
necessary. In a cool, shady spot it will
just take longer.
What You Can Compost
Kitchen food wastes such as vegetable trimmings, fruit peels,
tea bags, grass clippings, dead plants, pruning clippings and
sawdust.
What You Can Not Compost
Meat, fat or bones. Weeds with seeds present that could
germinate where you don't want them. Grass clippings that have
been sprayed with weed killer.
Using the Compost
Usually a compost pile is started in the spring, when there is a
great deal of refuse to clean up. Organic matter is added until
the pile contains as much as it can and still have room to turn.
By fall this is a crumbly, dark, earthy soil - like material that is
very useful to condition flower and vegetable beds, to use as a
mulch for winter protection or moisture preservation, or improve
the soil for new beds. When you have used the compost you have
made, fall clean-up material can be used to start a new batch. It
will decompose until the weather becomes too cold, then begin
again in the spring and become the basis of the pile for the next
155
Starting a Compost Pile
Start with a layer of brush cuttings
from pruning, or coarse vegetable
matter. Add layers of grass clippings
and other fresh, green material, then
layers of dry, brown material, such
as sawdust, tea bags, coffee grounds
or dry leaves. Manures, fertilizers,
compost activators or soil will speed
up decomposing assuming the pile is
kept damp but not wet.
Maintaining a Compost Pile
Composting requires good air circulation, the material must be
damp but not wet, and there must be a layer of green, damp
material and dry, brown material. The pile must be turned
periodically to enable oxygen to reach the material in the centre.
It should be covered if there is a lot of rain. If the compost pile
has an unpleasant odor, then it is too wet. Be sure it has good
drainage at the bottom, add more dry material, cover to protect
from rain, and turn more frequently. You may also need to sprinkle
it with water if the weather is hot and dry. The heat developing
in the pile kills bacteria, and also indicates that decomposition
is taking place. Cover kitchen wastes with soil or other material
to avoid attracting pets and rodents. Plastic containers with lids
prevent this problem.
COMPOSTING
composting
year. For further information, there are several good books on
composting in the bookstore.
• lawns • flowergarden • vegetable gardens • evergreens • trees • shrubs
• planters • indoor tropical plants • deck planters • lawn patch • fridge odors
• odor control in cat litter and dog runs • compost pile • chemical spill clean-up
use anywhere in the garden and beyond
Benefits
- overall soil characteristics
- water holding capability
- absorbs toxins from the soil
- loosens and aerates hard clay soils
- reduces amounts of fertilizer used
- naturally adjusts the pH of the soil
- remains stable and does not break down
- odor absorbing qualities
- accelerates established root zones
- lowers nutrient leachate loss
- 100% natural and ecologically safe
Results
- stronger, deeper more robust root zones
- maintainance in hot weather is easier with less
watering time
- reduced fertilizing costs
- healthier and more productive plants
- greatly improved water retention in soils
- reduced salts and toxic metals in soil
- controls odors in your compost bin
Zeolite has many different uses in and around
your home and garden
ZEOLITE, not to be confused with ZONALITE, has been used
in industrial, agricutural, and livestock feed applications for a
number of years but is relatively new to the gardening
community. Zeolite is available at Golden Acre in it's
pure form, in soil-less planting mixes and in Gypszeolite
(a blend of gypsum and Zeolite)
Zeolite is an extraordinary product with a multitude of
uses above and beyond gardening, many of which are
listed below. It is a natural volcanic mineral formed when
volcanic ash was deposited in ancient alkali lakes. The ash
interacted with the salts in the
water, creating
zeolite minerals.
These minerals
have an unusual
crystalline
structure; trace
minerals like
potassium,
calcium, iron,
and magnesium
are arranged
throughout
the mineral in
honeycombs of
channels and
cavities. This open structure greatly increases the surface are
within the mineral, giving it amazing absorbing capabilities. One
of the most, if not the most, important aspect of zeolites is that
they are able to exchange positively charged ions allowing them
to absorb harmful elements from the water, soil, or air. Zeolites
can remove calcium from hard water by exchanging sodium
ions for calcium ions resulting in soft water and allowing natural
calcium to be available to the plant. Zeolites can do this with
many heavy metals and, because of these properties, are used
extensively in industrial and environmental applications.
Since zeolite is a mineral it does not break down like leaves,
sawdust, or other organic material and it performs better than
either gypsum or sand. Once zeolite has been worked into the
soil it will remain for years absorbing any harmful or toxic
elements. The sharp edges of its silica structure break up clay and
increase air and moisture movement through the soil. Zeolites’
open channels and cavities increase it’s surface area more
than 100 times greater than sand allowing for excellent water
absorption when wet and water release when the soil around it
begins to dry.
Horticultural Use
Zeolite can be used in all gardening situations. For tropical plants
incorporate 20% zeolite into your soil-less mix to eliminate
excess salts from fertilizers. It can be especially helpful in the
lawn, increasing the roots of the grass, which means greater
drought tolerance and faster recovery time from damage and
disease. By opening the pores in the grass it softens the blades
resulting in a more cushiony lawn. For lawns scatter 20 kg per 10
m2/3530 ft2. For garden beds use 20
kg per 10 m2 /353 ft2. When applying
to planters mix in about ½ an inch.
The water-holding capacity of the soil
will be greatly increased. Harmful
metals and other elements will be
locked away allowing the plants to
receive the nutrients that they need.
Clay soils will become lighter and
more workable and much more air
will reach the roots of the plants.
NUTRIENTS
nutrients
zeolite
Animal and Pet Uses
Zeolite will create a healthier environment for
your animals by locking away ammonia and
other harmful and/or disagreeable chemicals. It
is commonly used in horse stalls and feed lots for
odor control. You can add it to cat litter to greatly
reduce that lovely ammonia aroma and to deodorize
doghouses and/or dog runs. Work in 1/4 inch layer
prior to re-seeding dog spots to neutralize the area.
Zeolites can be used in bird and small rodent cages
and even for chinchilla baths. Finally, it is excellent
for absorbing any pet accidents from the carpets
or flooring.
Household Uses
Zeolites are excellent at absorbing odors and/or excess moisture.
Place some in a small box as you would baking soda to reduce
or eliminate odors in the fridge, cabinets, closets, shoe storage,
and so on. It can eliminate freezer ice buildup by locking away
excess moisture. A sachet placed in hockey bags, with sports
equipment, in clothes hampers, or similar areas will greatly
reduce odors.
Absorbent Properties
One of the best uses for zeolites is taking care of spills. Zeolites
are highly absorbent and lock away chemicals, neutralizing
dangerous materials. According to
www.nationalzeolite.
com zeolites can absorb, trap, or neutralize the following: acids,
ammonia, antifreeze, bleach, blood, diesel fuel, Drano, gas from
carpet glues, gasoline, lighter fluid, mold, oil, paint and paint
thinner, many pesticides including sevin, Round-Up and Killex,
oil stain, turpentine, WD40, and even urine. And this is only
a partial list! There are many other spills and environmental
contaminants that zeolites can contain and control.
157
Gypszeolites are natural minerals that do not breakdown
like sawdust or leaves. The silica in gypszeolites breaks up
clay soil by splitting the clay particles to allow air and moisture to move both ways. When gypszeolite in incorporated
into the soil, its open structure and channels interact with
other minerals to improve the soil. Gypszeolite's structure
and high Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) attracts water
and nutrients such as calcium, iron and magnesium, locking them up inside the gypszeolite and slowly releasing
the water and nutrients as the plant requires them. The
CEC of gypszeolite is 100 times greater than sand.
Gypszeolite also reduces the soil pH as it absorbs excess
calcium, magnesium, sodium and other alkaline-causing
agents from the soil. When soil pH is corrected, the proper
balance of nutrients becomes available for absorption by
plant roots.
This product holds moisture. Do not over water.
Tropical Plants: Mix in 10% gypszeolite onto mix to
eliminate salts due to excess fertilization. Makes for a
finer rootsystem by splitting root hairs.
Lawn: 10 kg per 100 sq. meters/1530sq. ft.
Potting Mixes: Mix 5% gypszeolite into potting soil.
Vegetables: Make row and slightly scatter down row,
seed and cover.
Bulbs, Tubers, Potatoes, and Perennials: Mix a small
handful of gypszeolite in and around plants
Small Trees (evergreens and shrubs up to 5 gal): one cup
mixed in and around root zone
Large Trees (7 gallon up to caliper trees): mix two cups
in and around root zone
Other Uses
Dog Runs: Sprinkle one pound (454 grams/2 cups) per
100 sq. ft./9.30 sq. meters)
Gypszeolite can also be added to dog urine spots on lawn.
Cover spot with mix of grass seed, peat moss, loam, and
gypszeolite.
Composting Piles: add 1-2 cups (252-454 grams) per
layer of pile to aid in keeping odors down.
nutrients
Functional Uses In Plant
Deficiency Symptoms
Nitrogen (N)
Growth and development of green leaves
and stems; component of most proteins
Chlorosis of older, lower leaves; stunting
Phosphorus (P)
Promotes root growth and development;
energy storage and transfer within plant
Purplish coloration; stunted root growth
Potassium (K)
Improves cold hardiness, drought tolerance Poor flowering and fruit formation;
and disease resistance; promotes blooms brown leaf edges
Sulphur (S)
Component of 3 proteins and 2B vitamins; Chlorosis of younger leaves; stunting
flavor of onion, garlic, and mustard; a fungicide
Calcium (Ca)
Promotes cell division, strong cell walls,
and sturdy structure
Collapse of cell walls and structural failure;
curled leaf tips; stunting
Magnesium (Mg)
Component of chlorophyll;
essential for photosynthesis
Marginal (edges) and interveinal (between veins) chlorosis of older leaves
Minor Elements
(Micro Nutrients)
Functional Uses In Plant
NUTRIENTS
Major Elements
(Macro Nutrients)
Deficiency Symptoms
Iron (Fe)
Formation of chlorophyll
Interveinal chlorosis of younger leaves
Manganese (Mn)
Helps in uptake of carbon dioxide which is
used for photosynthesis.
Mottled interveinal chlorosis of leaves
Boron (B)
Development of shoot tips and leaf bud;
formation and movement of sugars in plant
Tip growth die back and deformed buds
Chlorine (Cl)
Stimulates photosynthesis
Wilting but rare because present in water
Copper (Cu)
Formation of chlorophyll and converting
sunlight into energy; also a fungicide
leaf chlorosis and shoot tip growth die
back
159
Molybdenum (Mo)
Helps production and use of nitrogen
Marginal and interveinal chlorosis of
older leaves
Zinc (Zn)
Formation of growth hormones
Mottled leaf chlorosis, little leaves;
Rosetting
NUTRIENTS
nutrients
Plant Type
Nutrients Needed
Some Recommended Fertilizers
ANNUALS*
* If using Myke® Annual & Perennial growth supplement (increases phosphorous uptake), use fertilizers with 15% or less phosphorous (5-15-5)
Bedding Out Plants High phosphorous to
promote flowering.
Hanging Baskets
Treat as a bedding out plant or use slow-release
fertilizer in the soil.
Seedlings/TransplantsHigh phosphorous for root
growth; a root stimulant
is often required.
Vegetables
Less emphasis on nitrogen
except for leafy vegetables.
Water Plants
Only trace elements are required.
Water soluble powder: Miracle Gro, Plant-Prod Flowering
Liquid concentrate: Alaska MorBloom
Granular: So-Green Rose and Flower, Smartcote Annual Food
Water soluble/liquid concentrate: see ‘Bedding Out Plants’
Granular: Smartcote Hanging Basket Food
Other: Jobe’s Plant Spikes
Water soluble: Plant-Prod 10-52-10
Liquid concentrate: Plant Starter 5-15-5 with rooting stimulant
Granular: Bone Meal, Root Grow
Water soluble: Plant-Prod Tomato & Vegetable
Liquid concentrate: Schultz Tomato Food
Granular: So-Green Garden Food or Tomato Food, Vigioro Pink All Purpose
Pond tablets in the water at the rate of one per month will supply
the necessary nutrients.
PERENNIALS*
* If using Myke® Bulb or Annual & Perennial growth supplement (increases phosphorous uptake), use fertilizers with 15% or less phosphorous (5-15-5)
160
Bulbs Relatively high
(Spring & Summer) phosphorous fertilizer to encourage roots & flowers.
Perennials
Need phosphorous for a strong root system and
potassium for healthy
growth.
Transplanting
High phosphorous to promote root growth
Vines
Require higher levels
of phosphorous.
Winterizing
Never add nitrogen
in fall as it encourages
excess leafy growth.
Water soluble: Plant-Prod Flowering, Miracle Gro
Granular: Bone Meal
Note: Bloodmeal helps keep some squirrels from feeding on bulbs.
Water soluble: Plant-Prod Flowering, Miracle Gro
Liquid concentrate: Alaska MorBloom, Shultz All Purpose
Granular: Bonemeal, So-Green Perennial Food, Smartcote
Perennial, Miracle Gro Shake-n-Feed
Water soluble: Plant-Prod 10-52-10
Liquid concentrate: Plant Starter 5-15-5 with rooting stimulant
Granular:Root Grow or Bone Meal, So-Green Super Phosphate
Water soluble: Miracle Gro, Plant-Prod Flowering
Liquid concentrate: Alaska MorBloom
Granular: So-Green Clematis & Vine, Bone Meal when planting
A fertilizer without nitrogen will strengthen plants for better
winter survival: Alaska MorBloom, So-Green Muriate of Potash
TREES & SHRUBS*
* If using Myke® Tree & Shrub growth supplement (increases natural phosphorous uptake), use fertilizers with 15% or less phosphorous (5-15-5)
Deciduous
Balanced nutrients
are necessary
Evergreens
Higher in nitrogen for
for green growth. A soil
acidifier is beneficial.
Roses
Need phosphorous for
rooting & blooming.
Water soluble: Plant-Prod All Purpose, Miracle Gro
Liquid concentrate: Schultz All Purpose
Granular: Smartcote Shrub & Evergreen,
Miracle Gro Shake-n-Feed
Other: Tree/Shrub or Fruit Stakes, Ross Root Feeder Cartridges
Water soluble: Plant-Prod Evergreen
Granular: Green Harvest Evergreen &Tree Food,
So-Green Evergreen, Smartcote Shrub & Evergreen Food
Other: Evergreen Tree Stakes, Ross Root Feeder Cartridges
Acidifier: Garden Sulphur, Aluminum Sulphate
Water soluble: Miracle Gro, Plant-Prod Flowering
Liquid concentrate: Schultz Rose Food
Granular: So-Green Rose & Flower, Smartcote Rose Food,
Alaska MorBloom
Plant Type
Nutrients Needed
Some Recommended Fertilizers
TREES & SHRUBS* (continued)
* If using Myke® Tree & shrub growth supplement (increases natural phosphorous uptake), use fertilizers with 15% or less phosphorous (5-15-5)
Transplanting
High phosphorous;
rooting stimulant
Winterizing
No nitrogen after Aug. 1
Less nitrogen slows top-
growth and helps plant
prepare for fall & winter.
LAWNS
Spring & Summer
In spring and summer higher nitrogen is required
Winterizing
Less nitrogen and more
potassium strengthens
grass plants for winter.
Water soluble: Plant-Prod 10-52-10
Liquid concentrate: Plant Starter 5-15-5 with rooting stimulant
Granular: Root Grow, Bone Meal,
Smartcote Tree & Shrub Food
A fertilizer with no nitrogen will strengthen plants & give roots
a slight boost. Alaska MorBloom, So-Green Muriate of Potash
NUTRIENTS
nutrients
Liquid concentrate: CIL Golfgreen Liquid, Scotts Feed-n-Gro
Granular: CIL Golfgreen, Scotts Turf Builder,
Myke Lawn Fertilizer
Granular: CIL Winterizer, Scotts Fall-Wintercare
HOUSEPLANTS
Foliage Plants
A balanced fertilizer
Flowering
A moderately high
phosphorous level
to promote flowering
African Violets
Require phosphorous for bloom production
Orchids
Cactus
Cacti need less nitrogen
Water soluble: Schultz All Purpose, Plant-Prod All Purpose
Liquid concentrate: Schultz All Purpose
Slow release: Jobe’s Houseplant or Fern & Ivy Spikes
Water soluble: Plant-Prod Flowering
Liquid concentrate: Schultz All Purpose
Slow release: Jobe’s Flowering Plant Spikes, Myke Indoor Plant
Liquid concentrate: Schultz African Violet
Water soluble: Schultz Orchid Food, Plant-Prod Orchid
Liquid concentrate: Schultz Cactus Food
161
BIRDS
feeding & attracting birds
More people enjoy bird watching than any other hobby except
gardening. What a great combination; you can garden and
enjoy the beauty and wildness of nature up close at the same
time. Birds have four basic needs: food, water, protection from
predators, and a place to raise their young safely.
from both weather and predators.
With water gardening becoming so popular you can be entertained by your fine-feathered friends in the showpiece you
have created in your yard. The sound of gently moving water
is extremely appealing to birds. In fact bird banders often lure
them with dripping water. A birdbath is the easiest way to set
up a water source in the garden. For the winter months, when
water is not available, a bird bath heater is required, and appreciated by the birds.
Establish a year round feeding program. Many people feed
only in the winter months, but warm months will bring a different clientele to your feeders. Birds tend to scatter at nesting
time and become less social, but the presence of a convenient
food source can lure them to nest nearby. Try feeding different
seeds in scattered feeders, and you will attract a variety of birds.
Hummingbird feeders are easy to maintain, and a ready-made
mixture is available. Hairy and downy woodpeckers, chickadees, and nuthatches enjoy suet in the winter months. Try
putting suet in a pinecone as it’s natural for these gregarious
birds, and they are quite entertaining. Save coconuts, and put
sunflower hearts in them. Hang from a tree and chickadees,
nuthatches, woodpeckers, and pine grosbeaks will always
come back for more.
Plants are the most important element in the garden; to birds as
well as to you. No matter what size your landscape is, whether
formal or naturalistic in style, you can use plants to enhance its
attractiveness to birds. The presence of trees or shrubs near a
feeder is essential. Trees offer both food and protective cover
Some of the trees and shrubs that attract birds are:
PLAN T
162
Study what groundcovers, perennials, and annuals the birds
enjoy. Plant a sunflower and your children will enjoy the comical
activities of birds while they eat the seeds.
ATTRACTS
BIRCH
GOLDFINCHES, PINE SISKINS, CHICKADEES, AND JUNCOS
BLUEBERRY
34 SPECIES INCLUDING ROBINS, MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRDS, WAXWINGS
CHOKECHERRY
43 SPECIES INCLUDING: BLUEBIRDS, ROBINS, PHEASANTS, GROUSE, PARTRIDGES
COTONEASTER
BROWN THRASHERS, ROBINS, WAXWINGS
CRABAPPLE
NORTHERN FLICKERS, WHITE THROATED SPARROWS, WAXWINGS, AND ROBINS
CRANBERRY
7 SPECIES EAT THE FRUIT, CEDAR WAXWINGSS, MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD, PHEASANTS
COLORADO SPRUCE
EXCELLENT NESTING SITE FOR ROBINS, CHICKADEES, PINE SISKINS, BLUEJAYS,
AND PINE GROSBEAKS; ALL EAT ITS SEEDS.
DOGWOOD
36 SPECIES EAT FRUIT INCLUDING 6 SPECIES OF THRUSHES, NORTHERN
FLICKERS, HAIRY WOODPECKERS, SUMMER TANAGERS, EVENING GROSBEAKS,
AND PINE GROSBEAKS.
ELDERBERRY
33 SPECIES INCLUDING WOODPECKERS, BLUEBIRDS, AND ROBINS
HAWTHORN
18 SPECIES INCLUDING WAXWINGS
HONEYSUCKLE
A FAVOURITE FOR OUR FRIENDS THE HUMMINGBIRDS
MOUNTAIN ASH
14 SPECIES INCLUDING WAXWINGS, BLUEBIRDS, PINE GROSBEAKS AND BLUE
JAYS.
NANKING CHERRY
ROBINS, MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRDS, WAXWINGS, CHICKADEES AND NUTHATCHES
ROSES
HUMMINGBIRDS AND 20 OTHER SPECIES OF BIRDS
Come visit the garden sentre to see all the various types of feeders
available. Start with one feeder away from the house, and gradually
add new styles closer to your windows for easier viewing. A set of
binoculars is a must for the bird lover. Eventually you will be able to
hand feed a cheery little bird like a chickadee. Save your eggshells
for when you rototill your vegetable garden, your soil will love it and
so will the birds.
red ribbon tied on top, will attract the birds just as well.
NOTE: Change nectar every three to five days to prevent mold
and deadly fermentation. NEVER use honey as a sweetener.
It readily grows mold that can injure hummingbird tongues. Do
not put any kind of oil around feeding portals to deter bees;
you might contaminate the nectar. If bees or wasps become a
problem, try moving the feeder.
BIRDS
Try speciality seeds such as black oil sunflower, sunflower hearts,
niger seeds, cracked corn, and peanuts. You will attract more
colourful birds such as goldfinches, pine siskins, chickadees, blue
jays, nuthatches, woodpeckers, pine grosbeaks, and red polls.
Birdseeds that contain mostly millet will attract sparrows in great
numbers and scare the colourful songbirds.
Year-round Feeding Tips
Dried or fresh fruit and baked goods (bagels, hard rolls, pizza crusts)
are liked by many birds. Bird beaks and gullets cannot handle large
chunks, so break items into small pieces.
Sand or ground oyster shells are also welcomed to help their gizzards grind food.
The location of the food is also important. Do not put food ‘out in
the open’ away from protection. It makes the birds easy prey for
hawks and cats. The best spot is to put the feeder 5 to 10 feet from
a bush, shrub or tree. More than one feeder prevents one bird from
monopolizing the feeder.
A year round water supply is very beneficial. During winter water is
very hard to find and birds need a source.
Hummingbirds
163
If you provide hummingbird feeders, you will need “nectar.” To make
nectar, add one part sugar to four parts boiling water (boil the water
before measuring, because some water will be lost in the process.)
When the mixture is cool, it is ready for use. You can store extra sugar
water in your refrigerator for up to one week, but left longer it may
become moldy. Adding red food coloring to nectar is unnecessary
and possibly harmful to birds. Red portals on the feeder, or even a
Nests and eggs, clockwise from top right:
Boreal Chickadee; House Sparrow; European Starling;
assemblage of Bluebird eggs showing colour and size variations;
Mountain Bluebird; Tree Swallows; House Wren;
Black-capped Chickadee.
NESTBOX DIMENSIONS FOR SMALL CAVITY NESTERS
(measurements in inches with millimetres in brackets)
Species
Bluebirds
Entrance Hole
Floor
Box Depth
Eastern
Mountain
Western
4 x 4 (101 x 101)
5 x 5 (127 x 127)
5 x 5 (127 x 127)
10 (254)
10 (254)
10 (254)
Chickadees
1 1/8 - 1 1/4 (29-32)
All Species 1 1/4 (32)
4 x 4 (101 x 101)
8 (203)
Finch
House
5 x 5 (127 x 127)
10 (254)
Nuthatches
Both Species 1 1/2 (38)
5 x 5 (127 x 127)
10 (254)
Swallows
Six Species 1 1/2 (38)
5 x 5 (127 x 127)
10 (254)
Wren
House 1 - 1 1/4 (25-32)
5 x 5 (127 x 127)
10 (254)
1 1/2 (38)
1 9/16 (40)
1 9/16 (40)
1 1/2 (38)
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
pests & problems ipm: a practical
Many people are concerned about excess chemicals and pesticides in their immediate environment, made obvious by the
increase in popularity of organically grown foods. Following an
integrated pest management method or IPM at home will greatly
reduce the amount of chemicals you need in your garden. For a
more environmentally sound, organic approach IPM is the way
to go.
best to try other methods. Take care when using pesticides in the
vegetable garden. Follow all instructions carefully – check how
long you have to wait until they are safe to consume and, most
importantly, if the plant you want to treat is not listed on the
pesticide then that pesticide is not for that plant. You could
damage the plant or harm yourself or both.
Soil
It is important to recognize that not all insects are pests. Some
are very helpful. Encourage ladybugs and their larvae to feed on
aphid-infested plants. They can consume up to 300 aphids each
per day. Lacewings and syrphid fly larvae are also excellent aphid
controls. See our beneficial insect section for further information
on the ‘good guys’ of the insect world. Wholesale spraying of
strong chemicals will eliminate the beneficial insects, sometimes
setting you up for a worse infestation in the long run since the
natural control insects (present usually in much smaller numbers
than the pest) have been destroyed in the area.
As always, start with good soil. If you have not done so already
incorporate up to one-third organic material like peat moss or
compost. If you are applying aged manure on the vegetable garden it is best to do so in the fall, allowing it to break down over
the winter and significantly reducing or eliminating any bacteria
present in the manure. It also helps to add zeolite at rate of 20
kg per 10m2 or per 3533 ft2.
Plant Resistant Varieties
An easy way to avoid disease and fungus problems is to purchase
resistant varieties. Many vegetables, flowers, bulbs, shrubs, and
trees have been bred to resist certain problems. For example,
some tomatoes are bred to resist fusarium wilt and verticillium
wilt. The letters ‘VFN’ on their tags identifies these plants.
Rotate Crops
164
Of particular importance in reducing plant problems and subsequently reducing chemical use is crop rotation. If you grow a
plant or a plant in the same family in the same area year after
year disease-causing organisms can build up. In addition certain
insects may lay their eggs in the fall in anticipation of a spring
food source. It is best to cycle through three types of plants over
three years. This will reduce the build up of disease organisms
in the soil that affect specific plants. A sample crop rotation at
one location would be tomatoes, peppers, and/or potatoes the
first year, cauliflower and/or cabbage the next, and beans and/or
peas the third year. This is only an example but be sure to check
what family your plants belong to before rotation. Tomatoes and
potatoes are in the same family (Solanacea) and alternating these
crops does not help to prevent disease though it can help to a
lesser degree with insect pests.
Controlling Pests
Check you plants once or twice a week. It is much easier to take
care of a pest problem when it first appears. If you find any pest
insects (remember not all insects are pests) or a fungus problem
remove them by hand if possible. Pull weeds to reduce competition, increase airflow, and remove host plants for some insect
pests. Handpick any large insects like caterpillars if they are in
lower numbers. For small insects like aphids or spider mites a
hard stream of water can dislodge them from the plant, knocking them to the ground and making them easy prey for ground
beetles, centipedes, birds, or other predators. If this does not
work try to use chemicals with a low toxicity/ low environmental
impact. Though non-toxic or of low toxicity to ourselves, sprays
like insecticidal soap or pyrethrins are extremely effective against
soft-bodied insects. There are also fungicides like sulfur dust that
are much safer to use than some chemicals. Do not forget that
even though these pesticides are more environmentally friendly
than others they are still pesticides; read and follow all label
directions carefully. If all the above options fail then you can
turn to synthetic pesticides and/or fungicides knowing you did your
Biological Controls
Take Good Care of Your Plants
A healthy plant almost always has an easier time resisting pests
than an unhealthy one. Generally we keep our vegetable garden
well-watered, free of weeds, and fertilized. The same holds true
usually for the flower gardens be they perennial or annual. We
tend to neglect, however, our trees and shrubs, both of which, but
trees are commonly underwatered and undernourished. A good
example of this in Calgary is the birch. Birch trees need a lot of
water and are often quite dry. This reduces their resistance to
the leaf miner, which can do tremendous damage to the leaves.
In addition, a weak birch will experience major winter dieback.
Follow watering directions set out in our xeriscaping section and
fertilize either with spikes or by hand watering 2-3 time per season
but no fertilizing later than the last weekend of July. As a result,
your birch will be stronger and more able to resist attack by leaf
miner. The same basic principles apply for all trees and shrubs;
a healthy plant tends to have less pest problems.
Accept a Few Insects
If all the above directions are followed and your plant still has a
few pest insects it is best to simply accept it. This is especially
true of trees and shrubs. A tree is an ecosystem unto itself. It has
evolved to support minor pest populations. Trees, depending on
the variety, can even handle one or two years of total defoliation
by insects before running into major trouble. If it is not bothering
the plant, do not let it bother you. Granted, in the case of vegetables and prize perennials it can be frustrating and may warrant
control methods. However, if you find that a particular type of
plant under good growing conditions still seems to attract aphids
to your yard, it may be best to simply remove it for the sake of
your other plants. Integrated pest management (IPM) is basically
common-sense pest control that aims to keep pest populations at
levels below which they cause significant damage. IPM controls
pests and problems through a combination of biological, cultural
and chemical methods. However, a treatment is used only when
it is necessary. Instead of completely eliminating pests, they are
kept at non-damaging levels. Both the gardener and the garden
benefit from a balanced IPM approach. Reduced chemical use
reduces damage to non-target organisms like beneficial insects
and plants, protects the broader environment and decreases
threats to human health. It also prevents pesticide-resistant pests
from developing and reduces pesticide costs. In the long term it
A Framework for Practical IPM
1. Preparation
- Be aware of potential problems
- Try to anticipate and avoid costly
remedies.
- Be aware of what control tactics are available if, despite your best efforts, pests get out of control.
2. Prevention
- Use practices that contribute to protec-
tion for the long term such as:
- Biological controls
- Crop rotation (breaks pest cycles)
- Host plant resistance (choose varie-
ties that have proven resistance to common pests)
- Sanitation: remove and destroy
infected debris and other sources of infestation.
- Choose the proper plant for the proper site.
- Observation: collect and document information to help make timely
decisions.
3. Analysis
- After observation indicates what pests
you have, you must now decide if
action is warranted.
-Determine whether the benefits derived
are justified by the costs incurred
(monetary and human health costs).
- If action is called for then choose the
actions that will optimize the cost and
effect while minimizing adverse effects.
eg. Cultural - Crop rotation
Mechanical - Cultivation
Biological - Release of beneficials
Chemical - Herbicides, insecticide,
fungicides
4. Implementation
- If control is justified use the proper
procedures at the proper time, eg.
- Weed Cultivation: most effective
before seedlings are even visible.
- Biological controls: when releasing
beneficial insects be aware of
temperatures and life cycles.
5. Evaluation
- Short Term: did we make the right
decision; did we get the desired
results?
- Long Term: keeping accurate records will help us in the future (next growing
season). We will continue taking
beneficial actions and discontinue
practices that are costly and harmful.
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
is the most practical and viable pest control solution.
One of the most important ways to prevent pest infestations in the garden is by
providing good growing conditions that encourage strong, healthy plants. A pest
infestation can be a sign that cultural conditions need to be corrected. Improper
light, poor soil drainage, overpruning, too much or poorly timed watering or
fertilizing. Any of these can create a weakened plant that becomes susceptible
to insects or disease.
Correct identification of pests, their food source and the damage they do is
important. In other words, know your enemy. Their are three basic forms of insect
pests: generalist, specialist, and opportunist. Generalist pests like some species
of aphid, attack a wide range of plants. In this case it is wise to control the insect.
Specialist pests like birch leaf- miner attack only specific plants. In this situation
biological control, plant resistance and/or proper care can be more helpful than
chemicals. Opportunistic pests target weaker plants. Again, attention to the plant
and its required growing conditions will help immeasurably.
After the plants and/or the pests have been identified the next step is to monitor
the situation, know the ideal healthy state of the plant, then you can compare
how well the plant is faring. Always remember: most plants can withstand more
damage than you would expect. However, if an ornamental plant becomes too
unattractive, the gardener must decide whether or not it needs treatment.
When it comes to controlling the pest there are two basic approaches: offensive
or defensive. The offensive approach involves taking charge of the situation
- making sure plants have adequate light, water, nutrients and air circulation,
planting resistant varieties and doing thorough clean-up in the spring and fall. The
defensive approach involves dealing with the pest after it has arrived. Increasing
plant health could be beneficial as could biological control (ie. introducing
predators), removing the pest (by hand or pruning of infested areas), or using
chemicals. When using chemicals always read the product label carefully,
making sure you understand the plant and the pest as well as the required safety
precautions. As an example, in the case of a leaf-hopper infestation on virginia
creeper, chemical sprays may be a poor defensive approach. Leaf-hoppers are
highly mobile and can easlily escape most of the chemical spray. Virginia creeper
are very sensitive to chemicals and can burn easily. A better control method is
to remove all leaf litter in the fall. This offensive method removes the protection
that leaf-hoppers need. When adults move down to the base of the plant to
overwinter, they will have no shelter from the cold and the pest population will
be greatly reduced.
In summary, using integrated pest management (IPM) perspectives and principles
is the most reasonable and effective way to ensure balanced, healthy and
beautiful gardens as well a safer environment in which to live and enjoy them.
165
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
pests & problemsbeneficial insects
Not all insects in our yards are harmful. Don't jump to the hasty
conclusion that an insect is a pest unless you have positively
identified it, or have seen it actually eating the plant. Many
insects are neutral; they do not harm plants. Some insects are
beneficial; they prey on the harmful insects that do damage our
plants.
The descriptions of some common pests are described on the
next couple of pages of our guide, which will help to identify
harmful insects. If you are unsure, the knowledgeable staff at
Golden Acre may be able to offer assistance.
Listed below are the more common beneficial insects in our
area.
Centipedes:
This fast-moving arthropod is another of the important grounddwelling predators. Centipedes are totally carnivorous and
never damage plants. Their close relatives millipedes may
do damage to soft-stemmed plants but these mainly feed on
decaying plant and animal matter. The easiest way to tell these
two creatures apart is the number of legs and how fast they
move. A centipede has fewer legs and moves much faster
than a millipede. Centipedes will eat nearly anything living they
encounter including slugs and other centipedes.
Ground Beetles:
Ground beetles or Carabids are a very common predator of
crawling pests like slugs, cutworms, ants, aphids, etc. Most
species are black but some have bright metallic green or
reddish shells. The larval form also feeds on pests but they are
not as mobile as the adults. As a result, they spend most of this
stage of their life in the soil or grass and are rarely ever seen.
166
Honeybees & Other Pollinators:
Although they do not destroy pests, honey bees are considered
beneficial because they pollinate plants. Leafcutter bees,
bumblebees, carpenter bees, butterflies, and moths also visit
flowers to feed on nectar and pollen. These insects and other
pollinators are vital for a plant species to survive. Without them
many plants would be unable to produce fruit or seeds.
Hover/Syrphid Flies:
In both larval and adult form this insect is extremely beneficial
though for different reasons. The larva is an important aphid
predator. It is hard to identify because it is similar in appearance
to a caterpillar differing only by a narrow, eye-less head
and faintly translucent skin. As well, these insects, unlike
caterpillars, will be found amongst aphid colonies. The adult
form mimics bee and wasp coloring for protection but, as it is
a true fly, is unable to sting. These flies merely feed off nectar,
pollinating flowers in the process.
Hypoaspis Mites:
Sold in the form HYPE-O, these beneficial mites feed on fungus
gnats, thrips, bulb mites, weevil eggs and spring tails. They live
in the soil as long as they have a food source and up to 30 days
without food. However if plants continue to be overwatered they
will drown.
Lacewings:
Adult lacewings are one of our most beautiful and beneficial
insects. They can reach lengths up to 3/4" long, & have long
green or occasionally brown lacy wings. The larval form is
very similar to ladybug larvae. Both adults and larvae feed on
aphids, various insect eggs, mealy bugs and scale.
Ladybugs:
Both the larval and adult stages eat insect eggs and soft bodied
insects, particularly aphids. We are all familiar with the blackspotted red ladybug beetle, but should learn to recognize the
ladybug larvae, which eats more pests than the adults. They
are shaped like tiny alligators; the most common types are dark
blue with orange or yellow spots.
Predator Nematodes:
Predator nematodes eat insects such as grubs, cut worms,
and larvae of the carrot rust fly, onion maggot and the crane fly
(leather jacker). Nematodes only need to be applied once per
season and require a soil tempurature of 10 degrees C. They
will not overwinter.
Spiders & Harvestmen:
Spiders are voracious predators, feeding on many species of
insects including aphids, flies, leafhoppers, mosquitoes and
other pest insects. They do not damage our plants or crops
and should therefore be left in peace. In fact, these arthropods
should be actively encouraged to live in your garden as they do
nothing but good.
The daddy longlegs or 'harvestman' (not actually a true spider,
though often mistaken for one) performs a similar role as
spiders. Its main prey consists of ground and plant pests like
aphids and small slugs.
Others:
Many other insects commonly found in Alberta are beneficial
as pollinators, predators, or parasites. Butterflies and moths
are, of course, pollinators but so are many species of flies,
small beetles, and wasps. Other predators include robber flies,
aphid midge larvae (tiny bright orange caterpillar-like animals),
predatory true bugs like assassin or ambush bugs, and wasps
(including yellow jackets which are excellent predators) and
even some mites and thrips. Parasites include many species of
wasps which lay their eggs either on or in the pest insect, and
some species of mites.
Pests are
living organisms
that disturb and
harm the natural
and desirable
growth of plants.
Insect pests include aphids and
scale. Diseases
are caused by
various microscopic organisms
such as fungi,
bacteria, and
viruses.
HOUSE PLANT
INSECTS
If you think an insect
may be causing a
problem on your house
plants ask for help. Be
sure you identify the
insect before you use
any chemical sprays. It
may not be an insect at
all: fungal infections are
often mistaken as insect
damage. Insecticides are
ineffective in controlling
fungal related problems.
Cultural errors, watering
too often or not enough,
or inappropriate lighting,
could be the reason your
plants are not doing
well. These problems
can only be corrected
by changing cultural
practices. If an insect
is indeed the culprit,
identifying the type of
insect ensures that the
best treatment, chemical
or other, is used. The
following descriptions
will give you some
Houseplant Pests
Aphids are small insects, usually green or
black, that suck the plant juices out of new
growth or flower buds. Sprays containing
botanical insecticides such as pyrethrin
or insecticidal soap will kill aphids on
contact. Repeated spray applications are
necessary. Plants infested with aphids will
have to be watched closely for some time.
If aphids are only a problem on the flower
buds, which often happens on hibiscus,
remove all buds at the same time to
eliminate the aphids.
Mealy Bugs are small, flat grayish-white
insects that form clumps of damp wool-like
cocoons. Mealy bugs are most often found
in crotches where leaves join stems or
where stems meet. These insects can be
killed on contact with a botanical insecticide
such as pyrethrin or insecticidal soap. Even
with this treatment, plants will have to be
watched very carefully for several months.
Rather than spraying the whole plant only
spray specific insects or cocoons or dab
them with a cotton swab that has been
dipped in a 50% water/rubbing alcohol
solution Mealy bugs can attack almost any
plant but prefer succulent plants like hoya,
jade, and cacti.
Spider Mites are almost too small to
see. Plants infested with spider mites will
demonstrate tiny white specks on the
underside of their leaves, especially near
leaf mid-ribs. Later, fine silky webs are
formed which are most obvious if plants
ALWAYS READ
THE PESTICIDE LABEL FIRST BEFORE
APPLYING ANY
CHEMICAL!
are misted with water. Spider mites feed by
sucking sap from the plant tissue causing
a speckled leaf appearance. Spider mites
are actually spiders, not true insects, so
a specific mite killer is effective at killing
them. Spray the undersides of the leaves
with insecticide twice a week for a month .
Mist the plant with a strong spray of water
before spraying as spider mites do not like
moist, humid conditions.
Fungus Gnats
Often mistaken for fruit flies, a fungus
gnat infestation will most often be noticed
in their adult form as tiny black
flies hovering near overwatered
plants. The adult flies lay
their eggs in the soil which
eventually hatch into
tiny white maggots.
These maggots can
only damage healthy
roots if they are
present in massive
numbers. Their main
food source consists
of dead, rotting roots and other decaying
material like peat moss or fungus in the
soil. Fungus gnats rarely kill plants. In fact,
the plants they are infesting are most likely
dying from overwatering or poor drainage.
As a result of the excess moisture, the fine
absorbent roots decay, supplying the gnat
larvae with a source of food. To eliminate
these pests water less if possible. Allow
the top inch or so of soil to dry out as this
is where the majority of larvae live. If this
is ineffective, apply rotenone every few
weeks to eliminate the population over time.
Another method is to introduce Hypoaspis
mites which attack
fungus gnats - See
the Beneficial
Insects page.
Scale can look
like drops of dried
glue on stems or
leaves. Plants
with scale are
best destroyed
as chemical
treatments are
only a temporary
measure. Scale
spreads to other
plants if the
source is not eliminated. Scale is often
mis-identified as leaf spot, sun burn, or a
fungal infection. Bring a leaf in for positive
identification under a magnifying glass.
Thrips are tiny dark, slender active, flying
insects that swarm when disturbed. They
suck sap from the leaves, causing silvery
white streaking or blotching. Thrips are
chemically controlled by Trounce or End-All.
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
pests & problemspests
167
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
168
White Flies are tiny white, moth-like, flying insects which
swarm into white clouds when plant leaves are disturbed.
They suck sap from primarily the undersides of leaves,
causing them to discolor
to yellow and then to die.
Whiteflies secrete honeydew
which favors dark fungal
growth. Whiteflies overwinter
only indoors in houses, but
in summer infest outdoor
annuals and perennials. They
are controlled chemically by
pyrethrins.
Garden Insect Pests
Ants do not eat plants or kill them directly. There are 8800
species worldwide, with 580 in North America and 100
species in Canada alone. These insects live in underground
nests or in large soil mounds. As these mounds are pushed
up plant roots are damaged. The unsightly mounds can
smother turf or greatly reduce the vitality of vegetables,
annuals, perennials, or even trees and shrubs. Ants are
neither beneficial nor harmful to peonies. Water your lawn
thoroughly after each treatment. Cultural controls such
as digging up the nest or drowning can be very effective.
Please see Golden Acre staff for chemical treatments.
Aphids are small green, gray, red or black insects with
or without wings that attack almost any type of plant by
sucking sap from leave or stems. The damage caused by
aphids appears as stunted and curled new growth and
is usually associated with the presence of a sticky shiny
substance called honeydew. Aphids commonly attack
honeysuckle, dogwood, mayday, elm, and apple trees. A
sooty black mold often develops on plant tissue coated
with honeydew. Control aphids with foliar applications of
Ambush, insecticidal soap, or Trounce. A steady spray of
water from the garden hose can dislodge the insects.
Cabbage Worms are green caterpillars which chew holes
in the leaves of cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels
sprouts (cole crops). Control cabbage worms with repeated
applications of Rotenone or BTK. Row covers stop
butterflies from laying eggs on plants.
Caterpillars
This broad family of insects appear in most any color
from yellow to black. Caterpillars cause damage to
many different plants by actually
chewing away large sections
of leaf tissue. Most caterpillars
are somewhat particular which
type of plants they will feed on.
Control caterpillars on food crops
with pyrethrins or Rotenone
dust. Contact chemicals such as
Ambush will eliminate caterpillars
from feeding on ornamental plants.
Green leaf rollers are caterpillars
that roll themselves in leaves and
webbing. Leaf roller caterpillars can
not be contacted with chemicals.
Caterpillars are best controlled by
manual removal or through BTK
when they are very small.
Cutworms are green
caterpillars with
black heads. These
caterpillars cut beans,
peas, and many other
tender young plants off
at ground level. When
touched, cutworms will
always curl into a tight
ball. Control cutworms
by applying Rotenone to
the soil prior to planting
ornamental flowers. BTK
may be effective when
they are small. Other
controls like placing
barriers around the
young seedlings can
also work.
Flea Beatles are small shiny black or dark red beetles
which attack almost any
vegetable crop. They leave
many small pinholes in the
leaves. Flea beetles jump
when disturbed. Control flea
beetles with applications of
Rotenone, insecticidal soap,
or Trounce. Spray flea beetle
infested plants twice weekly
until the insects are under
control.
Maggots are small white
worm-like insects that attack
vegetable crops such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli,
brussels sprouts, radishes, carrots and onions. Prevention
is the best cure for maggots.
Slugs (shell-less snails), are usually dark brown slimy
creatures that attack almost any vegetation. Place Safer's
Slug and Snail Bait (a new product consisting of ferric
phosphate and is perfectly safe for humans and animals)
in a cool moist place where slugs hide during the day.
These spots can be located by
following, early in the morning,
the slimy trails that slugs leave
as they move. Keep soil free of
mulch and dead plant material
as these are ideal places for
slugs to hide. Water in the
morning, not in the evening,
because they move less easily
on dry soil. Cover soil surface with sharp sand to prevent
slugs from moving around on soil surface.
Spider Mites are minute sap sucking pests that cause
plant foliage to yellow, brown, and eventually dry up and
drop. They are common on almost every type of plant
including house plants (see House Plant Pests), deciduous
and evergreen trees and shrubs, perennials, and annuals.
Damage appears as spotted leaves or needles and dead
patches in spruce or pyramidal junipers. A fine webbing is
usually present which is often noticed after a rain. Spider
mites are more common during hot dry weather than during
cool damp weather. Control spider mite infestations on
outdoor ornamentals with two applications, about a week
apart, of Ambush. By hosing spider mite infested trees
down once a week you can provide some natural control
because they can not fly and may not climb back up into the
tree.
tations ranges from mild
symptoms to
the death of
a plant or a
whole crop
of plants.
Regardless
of the severity garden
plant pest
damage is
discouraging.
The following are some
cultural rules
which will
help to diminish these
problems:
1.Keep
gardens and
greenhouses
free of dead
or diseased
Cottony Ash Psyllid
The nymph stage of this insect
pierce leaf tissue, feed on plant
juices and inject a toxin causing
severely curled or "cauliflowered"
leaves and leaf drop. It is a
new insect to our area which
attacks black and Manchurian
ash trees. During summer, the
feeding nymphs are covered in
"cotton" and enclosed in the leaf.
Spraying has little effect at this
time, therefore it is best to spray
the newly-hatched nymphs with
Trounce (pyrethrin; insecticidal
soap) just when leaf buds start
to open, usually in late May or
early June. Spraying again about
one month later is less effective
but may kill some of the second
generation nymphs as they hatch
in late July/early August.
Pear Slugs are the larvae of a
sawfly species and appear as
small dark slugs on the surface
of plant leaves. Pear slugs
skeletonize leaves as they scrape
away upper leaf surfaces. They
are common on Cotoneaster
hedges, and Hawthorns. There
are generally two generations of
pear slugs during the growing
season. The second generation
which appears in August does the
most leaf damage. Since these
insects attack plants in
the season they don’t do
any measurable harm to the
shrub. Earlier infestations of pear slug can be effectively
controlled with spray applications of Ambush/permethrin.
Ash Bark Beetles have recently become a major problem
on green, black, and Manchurian ash trees. Mountain
ash, which are in the rose family, are unaffected by these
insects. Trees infected with the larvae of ash bark beetles
will show signs of wilted leaves and later dead branches
will be evident throughout the crown area. Where dead and
live branches meet you will see circular rings of tiny holes.
Cut open the bark to reveal tunnels, called galleries, that
restrict sap flow and disrupt plant growth beyond these
rings.
Control: As soon as you notice these rings of beetle
entry holes, prune damaged branches back beyond the
damaged area; make cuts just above the nearest healthy
branch or leaf cluster. The damaged branch portions that
have been removed should be sealed with plastic bags to
prevent the emergence of the beetles and their re-entry
into other ash trees. If beetle infested trees are not pruned
the beetles will emerge from the tunnels in late July to mid
August. From here they travel down tree trunks and burrow
into the bark close to tree bases. There are no available
systemics and foliar sprays are not effective.
Evergreen Pests
Spruce Sawfly Larvae are small green orange-headed
caterpillars that feed on young spruce or larch needles.
They are similar in color and size as a spruce needle and
as a result are difficult to see. Ends of branches with new
needles missing indicates insects are present. Check your
spruce trees regularly from June to July. Spruce sawfly
larvae are best
controlled with a
contact insecticide
such as Ambush.
Spray infested
spruce trees when
the caterpillars
first appear and, if
necessary, again in
10-14 days or after
a rain if more larvae
are present.
Cooley Spruce
Gall Aphids are little white fluffy aphids that lay eggs in
the new growth of young spruce trees. The larva forms
a green gall, a swelling on the end of the branch, which
later turns purple and finally
brown after the eggs have
hatched. Brown galls no longer
contain the insect that created
them months earlier; they can
be removed if you find them
disfiguring. Once the gall has
formed spraying is useless. If
you can, pick the green galls off
to reduce the number of aphids
that hatch. Insecticidal spraying
is generally not recommended
for control of this insect.
White Pine Weevil on Spruce
Large white larvae inside the
leaders of spruce and pine
trees eat the soft tissue. They
cause leaders to curl over and
the needles on the leader to
die in the late summer. In the fall, on damaged trees, you
will be able to see telltale holes in the leader where adult
weevils have emerged. Once a leader has curled over no
control is possible. Cut the leader off just above the next
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
Deciduous Pests
Birch Leaf Miner
The larvae of these insects tunnel or mine into the leaf
tissue creating unsightly brown patches on the leaves.
These areas can be pulled apart to reveal tiny larvae
between the leaf layers. When damage is noticed, contact
insecticides are not effective
since larvae are safely hidden
GARDEN
within the leaf tissue. Systemic
pesticides were effective but are
PESTS:
no longer available. Try to deal
Despite
with the adult females as they
lay eggs. Spray the foliage with
your best
Ambush, a synthetic pyrethroid,
efforts some
when the leaves are fully opened
and repeat in mid-June and again
plants may
in early July. Remember, birch
become
and other trees under drought
stress are prone to insect attack.
infested by
Keep your birch deeply watered
either insects
out to
or diseases
and
beyond
during the
the
course of
dripline.
If
a growing
possible,
season. The
also
mulch
degree of
this
the damage
area to
conserve
caused by
soil
these infesmoisture.
169
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
“Why, Sir, they have as good a right to live as we; they are our
fellow worms."
-Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1840)
170
set of healthy branches. To form a new leader, tie a sturdy
stick, that extends beyond the cut, to the trunk of the tree.
Bend one of the top healthy branches up to it and tie it to
the stick. If other healthy branches try to compete, they
should be removed. After one year previously damaged
trees will have new leaders.
Insecticidal spraying is
generally not recommended
for control of this insect.
Pine Needle Scales are
small white oblong-shaped
crusts on pine needles.
These scales can be scraped
off with a fingernail. Insects
under these scales suck sap
from needles and eventually
give pine trees a pale sickly
appearance. Most insecticides
won’t penetrate scale,
however horticultural oil may
help. Various types of scale
attack spruce and juniper as
well as pine.
Spruce Budworms are seen occasionally but are less
common than sawfly larvae in
western Canada. The green
budworm larvae are larger than
spruce sawfly larvae. Budworm
larvae also attack new spruce
needles, but rather than leaving
the ends of the branches
bare, they form clusters of silk
webbing, bud scales, and debris
around the end of the branch.
Ambush is an effective budworm
control if sprayed when larvae
are present.
them and use gypsum to break down clumps and mounds
left by dew worms.
Sod Webworms are gray caterpillars that attack the root
system of lawns. Circular areas of lawn will die. If the dead
grass areas are pulled on the grass comes out of the soil
easily since the roots have been damaged. A fine white
web can be seen just below ground level. Diazinon is an
effective control for sod webworm. Always read and follow
instructions on the container label.
Plant Diseases
Plant diseases fall into two major groups: parasitic and
physiological. Parasitic diseases are caused by fungi,
bacteria, viruses and other microscopic organisms.
Physiological disorders are caused by unfavorable
environmental conditions, chemical injury, improper
fertilizing or other environmentally related situations. Some
of the most common plant diseases are listed below.
Fire Blight is probably the most destructive disease of
trees and shrubs in the rose family in North America. Fire
blight occurs sporadically and unpredictably. A severe
outbreak can seriously damage or kill mature pear, apple,
or crabapple trees in one season. Mountain ash is equally
vulnerable to the disease and may suffer the same fate.
Other ornamentals such as
hawthorn, plum, chokecherry,
saskatoon, cotoneaster, and
spirea may also be affected.
The Cause: Fire blight is caused
by a bacterium (scientific
name Erwinia amylovora)
that enters the tree through
Lawn Pests
Read the label directions to find
out which chemical will work best
against the particular
insect you are dealing
with. Some of the
most common lawn
insects are listed
below:
Dew Worms create
small mounds in
your lawn, making it
uneven. Some dew
worms are beneficial
as they prevent
the ground from
compacting. If you are
overrun with them,
apply carbolic soap
at the recommended
rate (mixing it with
water), using a watering can to prevent chemical drift.
Water your lawn and surrounding area thoroughly for
1-2 hours in the early evening, then apply the chemical.
Remember to read the directions first before you apply the
carbolic soap. Remove any dead worms seen, as they
are poisonous to birds. Repeat this treatment several
times at 2 week intervals and have your neighbors treat
their lawns as well to lessen the chance of recurrence. This
is only a temporary solution; the best method is to live with
blossoms, leaves, or stem
wounds. Usually the disease
is spread by bacteria that
over winter in main stem and
branch cankers or in infected
twigs. In the spring, just as
the blossoms begin to open, these cankers and infected
twigs exude drops of bacterial ooze that are spread by rain,
heavy dew, or wind-blown mist to the blossoms and young
leaves. Fire blight may also be spread by pollinating insects
such as bees, by sucking, chewing, or boring insects, or by
unsanitary pruning tools. Favorable conditions for disease
entry and development include warm temperatures and
high humidity. In the spring infected blossoms suddenly wilt
and turn brown. Later, twigs and leaves also turn brown,
appearing to be scorched by fire; hence the common name.
Affected leaves usually remain on trees well into the winter.
The branch ends curl over like a shepherd’s crook. Young
infected fruits become watery or oily in appearance and
America from Europe in 1930. Since then, DED has
spread throughout the continent via the transportation of
elm firewood within which the smaller European elm bark
beetle breeds. It is believed that this elm bark beetle was
introduced to Calgary in this way.
Prevention: Preventative treatment of fruit trees and
mountain ash should be undertaken as a matter of course if
fire blight is present in your neighborhood. Trees that have
previously been infected and pruned of their diseased parts
should also be treated to prevent new infections.
Prevention: To keep DED out of Calgary, the City is
monitoring its elms to detect DED infection. Part of this
monitoring includes completion of an elm inventory. By
knowing where its elms are, Parks & Recreation staff may
best care for the City's elms. During summer months, watch
for signs and symptoms of DED. An elm with DED displays
the following signs; wilting, yellowing leaves and leaves
turning brown and falling before onset of fall. If you see a
tree displaying such symptoms, contact the DED hotline @
221-4686. Secondly, be sure to maintain the health of your
elm through proper care.
Blossoms are the part of the plant most susceptible to
fireblight. Blossoms can be protected by using a Copper
Spray solution following label instructions. Apply this
solution with a hose-end sprayer during the early
stages of blossom, when 10% of the blossoms have
opened. Repeat these spray applications at 4 to 5 day
intervals until the late stages of blossom, when only
a few blossoms remain on the tree. This will require at
least three applications. These applications can only be
made when the air temperature is around 18 C (65 F.) The
best control of fire blight comes from spraying the entire
tree at regular intervals through the summer. Copper sprays
may be used until 1 day before picking the fruit. Additional
preventative measures that should be taken to eliminate fire
blight are to:
1. Avoid the use of high nitrogen
fertilizers that
promote succulent growth readily
susceptible to fire blight.
2. Remove root suckers from the
base of the trees for the
same reason.
3. Control leaf hoppers, aphids
and other leaf-feeding insects
that may spread fire blight.
Control: There is no chemical that can cure fire blight. The
only effective method of controlling fire blight is to prune off
diseased twigs and branches. During the dormant season,
late fall to early spring, prune out and destroy all diseased
twigs and branches. Cut 30 cm. (1 ft.) below the diseased
area since bacterial infections such as fire blight can extend
beyond the visibly blighted area. (All pruning wounds can
be disinfected with a copper spray solution.) During the
growing season prune and burn any infected twigs or
branches or seal in garbage bags for disposal. Once again,
cut 30 cm. (1 ft.) below the infected area. Make regular
inspections during the summer to detect and remove new
infections but avoid pruning excessively during the growing
season. Trees that are severely infected, with large cankers
in the trunk, should be removed and destroyed immediately.
WARNING: Healthy plant tissue can be infected by
bacteria-coated pruning tools. After each cut dip your
pruning tools in a disinfectant solution of Lysol at 50 ml/L
(4tbs/qt) or household bleach at 100 ml/L(8 tbs/qt) to
prevent this.
Dutch Elm Disease
Dutch elm disease
is a fungi that infects
elm trees and inhibits
the flow of nutrients
throughout the tree.
The name Dutch Elm
Disease originates
from Holland, where
the fungi was first
identified. The disease
was accidentally
introduced to North
Powdery Mildew
Powdery mildew fungus affects all types of plants including
lawns, perennials, annuals, and shrubs. It is particularly
prevalent on roses and
currants. This disease starts
on young leaves as raised
blister-like areas that are
soon covered with grayishwhite powder or mold. The
fungus growth develops on
the surface of leaves, stems,
buds, and flowers. Symptoms
of injury are: stunting,
distortion of leaves and buds,
yellowing of leaves, premature
leaf fall, and general decline in
plant growth.
Control: Powdery mildew can
be prevented: by planting
mildew-tolerant or resistant varieties wherever possible; by
not planting susceptible plants in damp shady locations;
by spacing plants out to avoid overcrowding and allow
air circulation; and by pruning off affected young growth
and discarding it. Water plants in the morning so that leaf
moisture has a chance to evaporate during the day. In
serious cases, apply protective fungicides like Garden
Sulphur at the first sign of infection.
Leaf Yellowing
Trees & shrubs often appear to be declining in vigor by
showing signs of leaf yellowing in summer. Pale yellow
leaves with dry crisp edges that drop prematurely can be
equated to a number of causes: leaf scorch resulting from
rapid leaf moisture loss during dry conditions, nitrogen
deficiency resulting from lack of fertilizer, toxicity resulting
from the use of concentrated insecticides during hot dry
weather, or from herbicides or soil sterilants used too
closely to ornamental trees and shrubs. However, the most
common cause of leaf yellowing is iron or manganese
deficiency. Leaf veins stay green while inter-veinal spaces
become pale yellow. Young leaves are affected first, but
this condition, known as iron chlorosis advances throughout
entire plants if not corrected. Iron chlorosis can be
corrected by adding iron or acidifying soil conditioners such
as peat moss, aluminum sulfate or sulfur to the soil. The
problem is that iron, although present, is not available in
soil conditions common to the prairies because our soil and
water are alkaline.
Potato Late Blight
Late blight caused by a fungus (Phytophthora infestans)
is the most destructive disease of potatoes worldwide.
This disease is responsible for causing the infamous Irish
potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century. Late blight has
reappeared as a major disease in many potato growing
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
exude droplets of clear or amber-colored ooze. This fruit
later become leathery and turns dark brown. The shrivelled
fruit usually remains attached to the tree. Cankers, which
are sunken woody areas, also form on affected branches
and exude this sticky ooze.
171
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
areas of the world,
mainly because
fungicide-resistant
strains of the fungus
have developed.
The disease affects
potatoes and tomatoes
equally severely. In
Alberta, the disease
has been gaining
in importance for
the last few years.
Its resurgence is of
concern to potato
growers. Late blight
is a "community
disease"; if any
diseased plant exists
in an area, there
is a good chance
that the disease will
spread to neighboring
fields. A hobby home
garden (of potatoes and tomatoes) with infected plants
could threaten a nearby commercial field. It is, thus, very
important that the community as a whole keeps their plants
free from late blight.
Prevention: Since the disease can survive in infected
tubers, DO NOT use your own potato tubers if they show
any kind of rotting. As a precaution, ALWAYS buy "certified
seed potatoes" & tomato seedlings from reputable sources.
172
Lawn Diseases
Snow Mold
The incidence and severity of damage caused by snow
mold depends largely on the nature of the fall weather.
If the ground is frozen solid before a permanent snow
cover, damage from snow mold may be minimal. If
however, a heavy snowfall is experienced before freezeup, considerable lawn injury can occur. Snow Mold is a
common fungi in southern Alberta.
Control: Apply a suitable fungicide to the grass just before
the arrival of the permanent snow cover, in approximately
autumn. Copper spray or Garden Sulphur can be used
to control snow mold. Remember to read the directions
first before you use either. Control snow mold naturally
by reducing watering in the late summer to allow your turf
to harden-off, by raking up leaves in the fall, by breaking
up piles of snow to speed their melting in the spring, and
by picking up grass clippings and/or dethatching the turf
regularly.
Fairy Ring
This fungus spreads easily and is therefore very difficult
to control. Dark green circles appear in the lawn. As these
rings enlarge the center area of lawn dies. The fungus
forms a thick impervious mat under the soil surface,
preventing water, air and nutrients from reaching the grass
roots.
Control: The disease can be effectively controlled with the
spray of an appropriate, registered fungicide. Consult your
local greenhouse garden centre or other such sources for
the fungicides and their use. Always follow the directions on
the fungicide label.
Black Knot
Black knot is a common
fungus problem on many
flowering Prunus species
such as cherries or plums.
It affects only woody tissue,
developing on twigs, limbs,
and branches, stopping the
flow of sap and nutrients.
Growth beyond the knots
can be stunted or even
dead, resulting in weak,
disfigured, and sometimes
dead trees. Knots are easily
recognized as lumpy, hard
black swellings on the wood.
Fungus overwinters on
infected twigs and produces
new spores in the spring.
These spores are easily
transferred by wind, rain,
or the activities of animals. New shoots are susceptible to
infection in the spring just before blooming or just after the
petals have fallen. Wet spring weather increases the spread
of black knot spores.
Control: Unfortunately there are no fungicides currently
available to effectively treat black knot. Instead, prune out
any growths making sure to cut at least eight inches below
the knot. Disinfect the wound with copper spray, clean the
pruning tool between cuts with a bleach solution, and either
destroy of completely dispose of infected wood.
Control: Use a garden fork or an aerating tool to poke
holes, 7-10 cm (3-4 in.) apart and at least 12-15 cm (56 in.) deep into the fairy ring. To prevent the spread of
this fungi to other parts of your lawn or garden be sure to
disinfect your tools with a solution of household bleach or
lysol containing chlorine after you use them to aerate fairy
rings. Water the infected area thoroughly. Next, apply a high
nitrogen fertilizer, such as 20-3-4, to the lawn area. Water
this area deeply throughout the summer. An alternative
method is digging the fairy ring out. To do this effectively
the grass and soil must be removed from a distance of 12
inches from the outside and inside edge of the ring and 1218 deep. Take care not to spill any soil since any fairy ring
mycellium that fall on the lawn from the soil being removed
can start a new ring. Follow the instructions for cleaning the
tools after this procedure has been completed.
A disappointing factor of
gardening is the fact that disease, insects, and weeds (pests)
can destroy productive or attractive plants. However, not all
insects cause damage. Many
insects are not pests at all but
are beneficial. Without insects
many berry and fruit producing
plants would not be pollinated.
Insects also provide food for fish
and birds. Beneficial insects are
scavengers, parasites, or predators which live off undesirable insects. Because of the beneficial
aspects of some insects, insecticides should only be used when
natural controls fail. Please see
the beneficial insect section for
further information.
Natural pest controls include
hard frost, snow, rain; and the
feeding of predacious insects
such as ladybugs, dragon flies,
and wasps. Spraying should
only be done when insect damage is intolerable. Furthermore,
pesticides are only one way of
controlling pests and should only
be used when non-chemical
methods are not affective (See
Alternative to Pesticides).
Alternatives to pesticides:
There is a growing concern
over the extensive use of pesticides and the effect they have
on the environment. For this
reason many people are looking
for alternative methods of pest
control. We offer a number of
natural products that can be economical, effective, and safe to
use. Botanical insecticides such
as Pyrethrum, Resmethrin, Rotenone, and Insecticidal Soaps are
examples of such products.
Trees and Shrubs: Many
home-garden pest problems can
be solved with cultural or biological techniques. Deciduous trees
and shrubs may withstand substantial defoliation before being
significantly damaged. Insect
pests or leaves harboring insects
can be removed manually when
infestation levels are low. Spray
trees and shrubs with a strong
stream of water to dislodge and
kill insects. Prune diseased
When and if pesticides are required, there are a number of
precautions you should be aware of. Small plants can easily be sprayed by
a home owner using a small portable sprayer or hose-end sprayer. When
large trees require spraying a professional pesticide applicator should
be considered. Ask to see the company’s pesticide applicators license,
required by law, before hiring anyone.
Prior to applying any pesticide it is important to identify the problem.
For insect related problem determine when, during the insects' life
cycle, the insect is most vulnerable. Then determine which of the many
insecticides will control the insect harming your plants. Finally determine
if the insect in question has more than one life cycle. This may make it
necessary to spray more than once in a season to control the insect.
The best time to spray is on a calm evening, when rain is not
forecast. At this time insects are least active and most vulnerable.
Spraying in the evening also protects birds and bees which are also
less active at this time. Spraying when it is windy causes chemicals
to drift onto desirable plants in your own yard or in your neighbors'
yard. This can be especially destructive if you are applying herbicides.
The cool temperatures late in the day reduce the chance of pesticides
damaging (burning) plant tissue. Spraying when rain is forecast can lead
to chemicals being washed off, allowing pests to survive, and depositing
chemicals in local water ways. Spraying when plants are in bloom can
damage attractive flowers and reduce pollination which in turn reduces
yields.
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
pests & problemssafety & care
It is the responsibility of the user to handle, store and apply
pesticides correctly and safely. Listed below are the most important things
to know when using pesticides.
1. When mixing and handling pesticides read and carefully follow the
precautions listed on the product label - chemicals may be toxic to
animals and beneficial insects.
2. Use only the pesticide recommended for the problem in question.
The recommended uses are listed on the label.
3. Mix all pesticide chemicals outdoors. Mix pesticide chemical
solutions according to the directions on the label. Do NOT make
pesticide solutions a little stronger for good measure as too much
may cause injury to plants, kill beneficial insects, or leave harmful
residues on edible crops; and is not more effective
4. Avoid inhaling chemical fumes, especially from the concentrated
chemical.
5. Never eat, drink, or smoke when handling chemicals.
6. Use all the safety equipment listed on the label. Keep your skin
completely covered by wearing protective clothing, waterproof boots,
and rubber gloves.
7. Mix chemicals for immediate use only and dispose of any left over
solution (See Pesticide Disposal).
8. Carefully return left over concentrated pesticides to the original
container for storage (See Safe Storage of Pesticides).
9.Use separate spray applicators for insecticides, fungicides and
herbicides. Traces of herbicides, even in a well washed sprayer, may
damage sensitive plants.
10. Apply pesticides on a calm day. Reduce drift through larger
droplets, low spray pressure, and low spray height.
173
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
After spraying thoroughly wash out your pesticide
applicator and run some clean water through it. Wash your
protective clothing separately from other clothing in hot
water. Shower yourself, scrubbing with soap and warm
water. If dust or sprays are spilled on your skin or clothing,
remove clothing immediately and wash contaminated skin
with warm, soapy water. Keep children and pets out of the
treated area for 24 hours to prevent them from coming in
contact with the pesticides. When spraying vegetables,
fruits, or berries, note the number of days before harvest
listed on the product label. Make sure that no food products
are eaten from plants treated with pesticides until after the
appropriate number of days have passed.
It is also important to follow up on spray applications.
Check to see how affective the pesticide treatment was. Is
another application required or have the fungi, insects, or
weeds been controlled?
Since pest problems reoccur annually and throughout
the growing season it is important to know how to safely
store pesticides. Pesticides are poisons and should be
stored accordingly.
1. Store pesticides in a cool, dry location up out of reach
of kids.
2. Store chemicals in a locked cupboard away from food,
medicine, animal feeds, and cleaning compounds.
3. Always store pesticides in their original containers.
4. Keep the containers tightly closed when not in use.
Always store pesticides where they are not exposed
to freezing temperature or excessive heat. Extreme
fluctuations in temperature will considerably reduce a
pesticide's shelf life.
“A gardener who knows his flowers and is ignorant of weeds now
seems to me to be like half a coin, a tail without a head."
-Sara Stein (1988)
174
5. Store volatile herbicides such as 2,4-D separately
from other pesticides.
Safe Disposal of Pesticides
Disposal of unwanted pesticides in a proper manner.
The best precaution against disposal problems is to purchase only small amounts of pesticides that can be used
up.
1. To dispose of unwanted pesticides contact the Waste
and Chemicals Division of the Alberta Government
(See Important Telephone Numbers). They will be
able to inform you as to where to drop-off unwanted,
unmarked, corroded, or damaged pesticide containers.
2. Dispose of leftover pesticide solutions by diluting them
with water. Combine the solution with three times as
much fresh water, a triple rinse, and dispose of this
highly diluted pesticide solution by pouring it into the
soil in the area where the chemical was originally applied.
3. Do NOT pour pesticides down the drain or down an
outside storm sewer drain.
4. Destroy or dispose of empty containers ASAP. Do
not leave empty containers around and never re-use
pesticide containers.
5. Break, puncture, or crush pesticide containers before
disposing of them. Always dispose of empty pesticide
containers in an outside garbage.
Herbicides
There are two main types of herbicides, or weed killers: Non- Selective and Selective.
Round-Up is a non-selective herbicide, killing most
annual and perennial grasses, including lawn grasses,
broadleaf weeds and brush. (i.e.) virtually anything that
is green and growing). It is a translocated herbicide that
is absorbed by the leaves and moves through the stem
to the roots to kill the entire plant. Results usually takes 7
- 10 days. Repeat applications may be necessary as new
seedings and vegetation emerge. Round-Up is not a soil
sterilant. It has no soil activity and will not leach or run off to
affect nearby vegetation.
Killex is a selective herbicide that kills most broadleaf weeds. It works by making the weed grow extremely
rapidly, completing its life cycle. It can safely be sprayed
onto weeds in the lawn, killing the weed, but not injuring the
grass. Results take 7 days, and repeat applications may be
necessary for new seedlings.
Herbicides should be applied on a warm calm day,
when rain is not expected for at least six hours. Care should
be taken to apply herbicides close to ground level with either a heavy spray or a dust free watering can. Mist can be
picked up by a slight breeze and carried to desirable plants.
For best results, weeds should also be dust free.
Soil Sterilizers
Soil Sterilizers kill everything growing in the soil where
they are applied. They can also move in the soil, and kill
trees many feet away from the place of application. They
move farther and more quickly in sandy soil than in heavy
clay, and move in the direction water drains. Soil sterilizers
can persist in the soil for several years. Remember that tree
roots can grow a considerable distance, so they can move
into an area where a long-lasting herbicide is still active
several years after application. Generally, it is safer to use
a herbicide such as Round-Up, which is decontaminated
upon contact with soil and kills only what is sprayed.
Metric Conversion
volume
1 in. = 2.54 cm.
6 in. = 15.24 cm.
12 in. = 30.48 cm.
3.3 ft. = 1 m.
1 ft. = 30.5 cm.
10 ft. = 3 m.
WEIGHT
11 sq. ft. = 1 sq. m.
110 sq. ft. = 10 sq. m.
1100 sq. ft. = 100 sq. m.
5376 sq. ft. = 500 sq. m.
1 tsp. = 5ml.
1 tbsp. = 3 tsp. or 15ml.
1 oz. = 30 ml.
1 cup = 8 oz. or 250 ml.
4 cups = 1000 ml. or 1 litre
1 gal. = 4.5 litre
1 oz. = 28 g.
9 oz. = 250 g.
1 lb. = 454 g.
2.2 lb = 1000 g or 1 kg
11 lb. = 5 kg.
22 lb. = 10 kg.
AREA
(approximate measurements)
LENGTH
Trade Name
Active
Ingredient
(partial list only)
Mode of Formulation Features/Uses
Action
Pests
Controlled
Ambush
permethrin
contact
liquid spray Synthetic pyrethroid for
outdoor insects
tree and garden
Antkiller
carbaryl
contact
granules
Lawn/garden ant control
outdoor ants
Aqua Bac
Bacillus thuringensis stomach
pellets
Biological insecticide for
mosquito larvae
israelensis
poison
standing water outdoors
BTK
Bacillus
stomach
liquid spray Biological insecticide
caterpillars, worms
thuringensis
poison
Bacteria disrupts stomach lining
Carbolic Soap
carbolic acid
contact
soap bar
Apply to lawn
dew worms
Creepy Crawly
permethrin
contact
aerosol
Synthetic pyrethroid for
indoor/outdoor
cracks and crevices
non-flying insects
Diatomaceous Earth silicon dioxide
long lasting
abrasive
Diatomaceous earth crawling insects
residual
powder
scratches insects body
Dormant Oil
mineral oil
contact,
liquid spray Dormant oil breaks down
scale, mealybugs,
residual
insect's waxy coating insect eggs
End-All
vegetable oil;
contact
liquid spray Miticide/insecticide; outdoor aphid, spider mite,
pyrethrin
whitefly, caterpillar, scale, thrips, etc.
Hornet & Wasp Spray resmethrin;
contact,
foam,
Spray wasp or hornet nest
wasps, hornets permethrin
residual
jet spray
HYPE-O
Hypoaspis mites
predator
granules
Avail. for indoor or outdoor
fungus gnat, thrips
Insecticidal Soap
potassium salts contact
liquid spray Mild insecticide
soft-bodied insects
of fatty acids
Dessicates body fluids
Rotenone Garden Dust rotenone
stomach
powder
Natural organic insecticide;
outdoor insects
poison
extremely toxic to fish
Sevin; Bug-B-Gon
carbaryl
contact
liquid
Spray fruit, vegetables,lawns outdoor insects
Trounce
insecticidal soap;
contact
liquid spray Avail. in outdoor yard/garden aphids, spider mite
pyrethrin
or indoor houseplant forms
whitefly, caterpillar,
psyllid, etc.
insecticides for houseplant pests
Pest
Aphid
Fungus Gnat
Mealy Bug
Scale
Spider Mite
Thrips
Whitefly
Color/
Description
Plant
Damage
Plant
Hosts
Feeding
Action
Insecticidal
Control
usually green
wilting flowers/ most plants
suck sap
pyrethrin
or black
yellowing
insecticidal soap
small black
root damage most potted
larvae
resmethrin;
flies
plants
eat roots
HYPE-O
grayish-white;
plant stunting mostly cacti
suck sap
pyrethrin
cottony, wingless
and succulents
dark brown;
leaf spotting
most plants
suck sap
pyrethrin,
shell-like, wingless
insecticidal soap
minute red or
leaf spotting
most plants
suck sap insecticidal soap,
two-spotted mite
miticide
tiny, dark
silvery streaks most plants
suck sap
pyrethrin
slender flies
small white
plant stunting fuschia, daisies, suck sap
pyrethrin
moth-like insects
tomatoes, etc.
Cultural
Control
remove heavily
infested leaves
allow soil to dry out
between waterings
hand-picking
pruning or picking
misting reduces population
keep dry
sticky yellow boards
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
insecticides
175
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
fungicides
Trade Name
Active
Ingredient
Mode of
Formulation Features/Uses
Action
Pests
Controlled
Bulb and Soil Dust
captan;
protectant
powder
Fungicide/insecticide
fungal rot,
carbaryl
contact
applied to bulbs and soil
soil borne insects
Copper Spray
copper
protectant
wettable Prevents fungal disease
mildew, blight, black contact
powder
on yard/garden plants
spot, anthracnose
Folpet
folpet
protectant
wettable
Prevents fungal disease
powdery mildew,
sytemic
powder
on roses and ornamentals black spot
Funginex
triforine
protectant
liquid spray
Prevents fungal disease
powdery mildew, rust,
systemic
on roses and ornamentals black spot
Garden Sulphur
sulphur
protectant
wettable powder Prevents many fungal
powdery mildew, black
contact
liquid spray
fruit and foliage diseases spot, anthracnose, rust
LIme Sulphur
sulphide
protectant
liquid spray
Prevents fungal diseases powdery mildew, black
sulphur
contact
on fruit/foliage; used with spot, anthracnose, etc
Dormant Oil to kill overwin- insect eggs, scale
tering insects; fungal spores
Tomato and
copper;
protectant
powder
Insecticide/fungicide
fungal diseases;
Potato Dust
carbaryl
contact
insect pests
herbicides
Trade Name
176
Active
Ingredient
Mode of
Formulation Features/Uses
Action
Calcide
amitrole;
soil residual
liquid
simazine
Chickweed, Clover M.C.P.P.
contact
liquid
& Thistle
(mecaprop)
systemic
Killex
2,4-D; dicamba contact
liquid
mecoprop
systemic
Moss Control
ferrous
liquid or
sulphate
granular
Roundup
glyphosate
systemic
liquid
Weedex Bar
2,4-D
contact
solid bar
systemic
Pests
Controlled
Non-selective herbicide
kills all vegetation
One year soil residual
Selective herbicide for
ckickweed, clover,
broad-leaf weeds
thistle
Selective herbicide for broad-leaf weeds
broad-leaf weeds in lawn
Controls moss in lawns;
moss
do not use on cement
Non-selective herbicide
kills all green vegetation
for perennial weed control incl. grass and thistles
Non-volatile, no spray drift dandelions, plantain
kills broad-lf. weeds in lawns
The best definition of a weed is a plant that grows where it is not
wanted. Invasive weeds are those that grow in the wrong place
and are very hard to get rid of. These have been categorized as
nuisance, noxious, and restricted. Nuisance weeds are kept in
check to prevent their spread; they may be problematic but do
not threaten habitats or species. Noxious weeds are controlled
and can cause problems with habitats. Finally, restricted weeds
are destroyed when found. These weeds threaten other species
of plants or animals with extinction.
Ox-Eye Daisy
Weeds are further classified as perennial or annual forms.
Shallow-rooted
perennial that
Perennial weeds come up every year from the same roots.
Examples of this type are thistles or quackgrass. Generally
spreads by rhizomes and
these weeds have swollen roots which store energy much like seeds. Classified as noxious.
perennial plants; some even begin as perennial plants brought
into the garden. As a result these weeds are very hard to control.
Chemicals that are effective on these plants will also kill or
damage ornamental plants and are uaually not recommended,
though Round-Up can be carefully painted on the leaves of
the weed. Cultural methods include trying to remove the entire
plant, simply removing the top every time it comes to the surface
(eventually this will exhaust the weed's energy supply) and using
landscape fabric in evergreen plantings or perennial beds.
Annual weeds sprout from seed every year; the plants do
not survive the winter. Because of this, annual weeds seed
themselves in greater profusion than perennial weeds. On the
positive side, these weeds are much easier to take care of. A
consistent program of cultivation, that is turning the top inch or
so of soil over periodically, will destroy weed seedlings. If your
vegetable or annual garden is heavily infested an application
of Round-Up on a warm spring day before you plant will be
successful on any weeds that have germinated. Never spray
Round-Up near the leaves of any plants you wish to keep
such as perennials, ornamental trees, evergreens, annuals,
or vegetables because it is a non-selective herbicide and will
kill or damage every plant it touches. Chemicals like Killex, or
selective herbicides that kill everything except grasses, are not
recommended because they remain active in the soil and will
damage anything planted in the area.
Pictured on this page are a few of the common and problem
weeds in our area. For further information visit our website.
Creeping Bellflower
A perennial weed commonly found in alleys. Aggressively invades lawns and
gardens through seeds
Wild Mustard
An annual weed commonly
found in newly developed
areas.
Yellow Toadflax
(Butter & Eggs)
Perennial that reproduces
from seed and rootstocks.
Canada Thistle
A vigorous perennial that
spreads by seeds and roots.
Classified as noxious.
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
pests & problemsweed identification
Purple Loosestrife
This perennial is said to
invade wetlands and choke
out plant and animal life.
177
Spotted Knapweed
This biennial/short-lived
perennial is a major problem as other plants cannot
compete with it.
Common Tansy
This aromatic perennial
spreads by seed.
It is classified as noxious.
Field Bindweed
Introduced perennial with
extremely well-developed
root system. Classified as
noxious.
Scentless Camomile
Annual or short-lived perennial with prolific seed
production. Classified as
noxious.
PESTS AND PROBLEMS
178
pests & problemsweed identification
Name(s)
Annual
Biennial or
Perennial
BUCKWHEAT-
annual
Wild or Tartary
CHAMOMILE-
biennial
Scentless
CHICKWEED-
annual
Common
CLOVER
perennial
DANDELION
perennial
FLIXWEED
annual
FOXTAIL
perennial
(Wild Barley)
GROUND IVY
perennial
Creeping Charlie
GROUNDSEL-
annual
Common
KNAPWEED-
biennial
Diffuse or Spotted
KNOTWEED-
annual
Prostrate
KOCHIA
annual
(Cypress)
LAMB'S QUARTERS annual
LOOSESTRIFE-
perennial
Purple (Lyrthum salicaria)
MALLOW-
annual
Round-leaved
NETTLE-
annual
Hemp
PIGWEED-
snnual
Redroot
PLANTAIN-
annual
Broad-leaved
PURSLANE
annual
(Wild Portulaca)
QUACK GRASS
perennial
(Couch Grass)
SHEPHERD'S PURSE annual
SPURGE-
perennial
Leafy or Cypress
STINKWEED
annual
THISTLE-
perennial
Canada
THISTLE-
biennial
Nodding
THISTLE-
perennial
Sow
TOADFLAX-Yellow
perennial
(Butter & Eggs)
Description
Spreads
by:
Fields
Beds or
Lawns
Registered
Herbicide
Control
small green flowers
seeds
fields
heart-shaped lvs, clasping stems
and beds
white, daisy-like flowers
seeds
fields
dissected lvs on branched stems
tiny, white, star-shaped flowers
seeds,
shaded
Killex
opposite, oval lvs, prostrate stems layering
beds
pink or white flowers
seeds
lawns
Killex
rounded leaflets
yellow daisy-like flwr. heads
seeds,
lawns
Killex basal rosette of toothed lvs.
roots
beds, fields
small yellow flower clusters
seeds
fields
dissected lvs on branched stems
and beds
green foxtail flower spikes
seeds
fields linear leaves on round stems
purple flowers, round leaves
stolons
beds
Killex
square, spreading stems
and lawns
yellow flower heads
seeds
fields
fleshy leaves and stems
and beds
purple or white flower heads
seeds
fields
alternate lvs on branched stems
small inconspicuous flowers
seeds
roadsides Killex
prostrate stems with small lvs
inconspicuous flowers
seeds
fields
narrow lvs on branching stems
small green flwrs, grooved stems seeds
fields
Killex
alternate stalked leaves
and beds
purple flower spikes
seeds,
wetlands
seeds/stems invade wetlands
stems
tiny white flowers
seeds
beds
Killex
round lvs on spreading stems
pink flwrs, opposite oval lvs
seeds
fields
hairy, square stems
and beds
green flower spikes
seeds
fields
Killex
red roots and stems
and beds
long, narrow, green flwr spikes
seeds
lawns
Killex
basal rosette of lvs, basal stem
inconspicuous yellow flowers
seeds
fields
Killex
prostrate, succulent stems
and beds
green flower spikes
seeds,
fields
Roundup
flat-leafed blades on hollow stems rhizomes beds, lawns
small white flowers, basal lvs.
seeds
fields
Killex
purse-shaped seed pods
and beds
yellow flowers, linear lvs.
roots,
beds
stems contain milky sap
seeds
numerous, small white flwrs.
seeds
fields
Killex
narrow lvs, round seed pods
and beds
upright purple flwr heads
roots,
beds
Roundup
spiny leaves and stems
seeds
and fields Killex
nodding purple flwr heads
seeds
fields
spiny leaves and stems
upright yellow flwr heads
seeds,
fields
Killex
toothed lvs on smooth stems
roots
and beds
yellow snap-dragon-like flwrs.
roots,
fields
Roundup
linear lvs, creeping rootstocks
seeds
Restricted
Nuisance or
Noxious
Weed
Nuisance in AB
Noxious in
Calgary & Alberta
Nuisance in AB
Noxious in Calgary
Nuisance in AB
Nuisance in AB
Noxious in Calgary
Nuisance in AB
Restricted in AB
Noxious in Calgary
Nuisance in AB
Noxious in AB
Nuisance in AB
Nuisance in AB
Nuisance in AB
Noxious in Calgary
Nuisance in AB
Nuisance in AB
Noxious in AB
Noxious in Calgary
Nuisance in AB
Noxious in Calgary
and Alberta
Restricted in AB
Noxious in Calgary
and Alberta
Noxious in Calgary
and Alberta
Come in and see our expanded Christmas department!
Every year our talented staff spend six feverish weeks
transforming the store into a beautiful Christmas shop.
We carry a wonderful array of ornaments, garlands,
trees (both everlasting and cut), Dept. 56 and other
collectibles, Nativity scenes, Christmas plants
(naturally) and much more. Make a point of stopping
in this holiday season; it's well worth the trip.
CHRISTMAS
christmas atgolden acre
Fresh
Cut Trees
We bring in hundreds of cut trees every year, filling our
covered lot by mid-November. Here you will find BC
Fir and Balsam Fir. We also carry fresh cedar, balsam,
and mixed evergreen boughs, garlands, and wreaths.
Ask our staff for assistance and they will gladly give the
tree a fresh cut, wrap it, and help you out to your car. Be
sure to pick up a tree-disposal bag and Christmas Tree
Food. The bag will help reduce the mess left by falling
needles and the food will significantly increase the life
of your tree. If you add food to the tree's water, keep it
away from a heat source like the fireplace or a register.
Always ensure the water is topped up your tree should
be fine until well after Christmas. We carry a very good
selection of decorative tree stands for your cut tree.
Lately we have had a number of requests for living
Christmas trees that you can plant outside after the
holidays are over. Unfortunately, these evergreens
find it too dry inside and have a difficult time. If the tree
survives the Christmas season then you are faced with
planting it either in frozen soil or a dry, climactically
unstable conditions. The vast majority of trees treated in
this manner die in Alberta conditions. Norfolk Island Pine
or Goldcrest Cypress are available in our houseplant
section and can be decorated for Christmas. These trees
must remain inside because they are tropical evergreens
and cannot survive our winters.
Everlasting
Christmas
Trees
We have a large selection of everlasting trees in many
styles and colours ranging from traditional green and
blue through to silver and even black. The trees come
in sizes from 24 inches all the way up to 14 feet. We
also carry a variety of everlasting wreaths, swags, and
garlands. Ask our staff how to string the lights on the tree
so you can leave them on until next year.
179
CHRISTMAS
christmas atgolden acre
We are proud to be one of the city's largest dealers of
Dept. 56 ceramic and porcelain houses. Golden Acre
carries most village pieces and Snowbabies. We hold
special event days for collectors and the general public.
Listed below are the Dept. 56 lines we carry throughout the year. Come in and see our permanent display.
Dickens'
Village
Take a journey back to Victorian London with this col-
lection. Quaint shops and homes, inspired in part by the
novels of Charles Dickens, show us what Christmas was
like in this bygone era. Made of hand-crafted porcelain
by highly skilled artisans, this series was introduced in
1984 to capture both the detail of the times and the spirit
of holidays past, present and yet to come. Many pieces
even feature animation or sound for additional authenticity and fun. Best of all, a multitude of accessories add
realism and depth to your holiday village setting.
180
North
Pole Series
The home of everyone’s favorite jolly old elf, Santa, Mrs.
Claus and all their busy little helpers. Sprinkled with newfallen snow, these brightly-lit, porcelain buildings and
fanciful accessories make for a legendary wonderland
only Santa could imagine. Santa’s North Pole is a place
of joy - where he, Mrs. Claus and the elves live, play
and prepare for Christmas each year.
Christmas
in the City
Introduced in 1987, it’s just the place for excitement
and cheer. Inspired by the hustle and bustle of city
sidewalks, this hand-painted, porcelain cityscape is
filled with lighted shops, restaurants, theatres, homes
and, of course, busy shoppers, carolers and loads of
well-wishers. It’s the quintessential city all dressed up
for the holidays.
The enchanting lighted buildings are generally two
stories in height and are home to the usual cast of
characters including holiday shoppers, city police cars,
party-goers, and, naturally, town tree trimmers.
CHRISTMAS
living gifts
We have one of the best selections of flowering plants in the city, including azaleas, orchids, holiday cactus, cyclamen, kalanchoe, and pot mums. For unique gifts don't forget to check out the rest of our indoor plants including
cactus and bonsai. Of course, we carry poinsettias available in red, pink, white, gold, marbled and variegated
types. We also have new varieties like the double-flowering 'Christmas Rose' and the ruffled 'Carousel'.
Choosing
a poinsettia
Look for dark green foliage and brightly colored bracts (the coloured leaves surrounding the true flowers).
Avoid poinsettias with wilted foliage, broken stems, or few flowers.
How
to care for your poinsettia
Always take care to keep the plant warm. Never take it outside since exposure to freezing temperatures, even
for a short while, may cause the leaves to blacken and drop. We will wrap your poinsettia to help prevent this
but make sure you take it home quickly. The paper sleeve will not protect you plant during an extended stopover in a cold car.
Once you get home place the poinsettia near, but not touching, a sunny window or in another well-lit spot. Make
sure to keep it away from draughts. Water only when the soil becomes dry to the touch.
Are
poinsettias poisonous?
A common myth about poinsettias is that they are poisonous. This is not true (though they are of a low toxicity
to cats); studies conducted by the Ohio State University concluded that they are not poisonous though certain
individuals may experience an allergic reaction to the sap.
Re-flowering
To get your poinsettia to flower again next year you must follow these steps:
•Cut the plant back to around 8" high in early April, fertilize with all-purpose fertilizer, and water regularly. This
should result in new growth by the end of May.
•You may prune during the summer to keep plants compact but do not prune any later than September 1. Keep
the poinsettias in indirect sun and water them regularly.
•Starting October 1 poinsettias must be kept in complete
darkness (no light at all - not even streetlights or a
nightlight) for 14 hours and at a temperature of 16-21 degrees Celsius. In order to do this cover them or move
them into a dark room every night. Poinsettias also need 6-8 hours of bright sunlight a day during this period.
Carefully follow these instructions for 8-10 weeks and you should get flowers for Christmas.
Holiday
Cactus
Getting your Holiday Cactus to rebloom is a lot like getting a poinsettia to rebloom. Once the plant has stopped
flowering, begin feeding with an all purpose fertilizer. Do not fertilize while in bloom as this will cause a shorter
blooming period. You also need to limit the number of daylight hours the plant is exposed to. It needs 14-16 hours
of darkness and only 8 hours of light each day. Repeat this for 8-12 weeks, and before you know it you will have
beautiful Holiday Cactus blooms once again.
181
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1 Attach to your hose
2 Insert a refill bottle
of liquid Miracle-Gro
3
Start feeding by
turning the dial to 'feed'
Miracle-Gro LiquaFeed
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FED EVERY 2 WEEKS
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