religious thought

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religious thought
2
RELIGIOUS THOUGHT
Quarterly
First Year - 2011
Vol. I, No. 2
Al-Mustafa International University Iran
(New Delhi)
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RELIGIOUS THOUGHT
Under Supervision
Al-Mustafa International University Iran (New Delhi)
Address: 18, Tilak Marg, Iran Culture House, New Delhi
Tel: 0091-11-23387164, 23387174
Managing Director: Dr. Gholam Reza Mahdavi
Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Abdollah Shayan Rad
Designing and Page Setting: Communicadence (0091-9013350575)
Circulation: 1000 copies
Publisher: Al-Mustafa Islamic Research Society
E-mail:[email protected]
Website: www.india.miu.ac.ir
Articles have been selected by the group of scholars. These articles in the
book do not reflect the view of Al-Mustafa University.
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MEMBERS OF SCIENTIFIC GROUP
Dr. Gholam Reza Mahdavi
Prof. K.T.S. Sarao
Prof. Akhtarul Wasey
Prof. Ashok Vohra
Prof. S.M. Waseem
Prof. I.H. Azad Faruqi
Prof. S.M. Azizuddin Husain
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Contents
1. The Notion of Harmony in Religion …………...……………... 09
Prof. R.P. Singh
2. Contribution of Turkish Sultans of Delhi for the Development
of Architecture in India ………...…………………………….. 19
Prof. S.M. Azizuddin Husain
3. Interfaith Dialogue between Buddhism and Islam:
Preparing Ethical Foundations for Co-Existence ….………... 24
Prof. Hari Shankar Prasad
4. Peaceful Co-existence in Jain Ethics ………............................. 46
Prof. (Dr.) Veer Sagar Jain
5. Mutual Existence and Just Peace ……………………………...… 53
Prof. Shah Mohammad Waseem
6. Mankind’s Equality and Oneness in Diversity ………………. 69
Dr. M.M. Verma
7. An Outline of Buddhist Economic Theory and Systems ......... 80
Dr. Siyaram Mishra Haldhar
8. Religious Basis of Peaceful Co-existence in Buddhism and
Jainism …………………………………………………………. 86
Dr. Nayyara Abyat
9. Jain Theory of Anekantavad and Co-Existence ………........... 94
Dr. Anekant Kumar Jain
10. The Ethical Roots of Peaceful Co-Existence of Religions and
Cults in India ……………………………………………….….106
Md. Nasr Isfahani
11. Summary of the Articles in Hindi ………………………………
12. Summary of the Articles in Urdu …...…………………………..
13. Summary of the Articles in Persian …………………………….
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The Notion of Harmony in Religions
Prof. R. P. Singh*
The present millennium is different from all earlier millennia in
human history. We have scientific knowledge which is most delicate,
advanced technology which is most capable and sophisticated, and the
fifth generation micro-soft with knowledge and information. But do we
have wisdom to make use of all this for social harmony and cohesion?
One of the features of human history has been that people, resources,
ideas and consciousness move from one place to another and get
transformed gradually. Yet, one can ask as to what has been the role of
faith and values in such movements and transformations? We can see
disharmony and disintegration at all levels - individual, family,
community, nation/state, society and environmental levels, etc. The
way to overcome these problems is to propose inter-faith and intrafaith harmony in which one faith does not alienate another. Rather, it
tries to harmonize them in such a way that their common features such
as brotherhood, love, compassion, non-violence and above all their
emphasis on peace are duly emphasized. A discourse on harmony in
religions is based on pluralism, tolerance and mutual self-respect.
In Taittiriya Upanishad, there is a prayer which reveals that the
sense of harmony proceeds from protection that we seek from the
source of being for togetherness. ―Together may He protect us; together
may He possess us; together may we make unto us strength and virility.
May our quest be full to us of light and power. May we never envy.‖
The prayer proceeds from our co-operative effort to increase strength,
harmony and vitality, with constant vigilance to be free from envy and
hatred. Our constant hymn is – "Peace and Peace against Hatred and
still again.‖ This is what lies at the basis of harmony in religions.
*
Centre for Philosophy, School of Social Sciences, JNU, New Delhi-110067
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
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Harmony is an act of understanding different faiths in terms of unity in
their philosophical doctrines, principles and practices, myths and
rituals, beliefs and attitudes, identities, legends and profiles, etc. For
instance, we come across intra-faith harmony with the Sanatan Dharma
as the basis of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism on the one
hand, while on the other hand, we have inter-faith harmony in terms of
love, compassion and non-violence in Christianity, Buddhism and
Jainism, Sthitaprajna in Gita and Arhat in Buddhism, doctrine of
Brahman in the Upanishads and the notion of God in Judaism,
Christianity and Islam, status of devotion in Buddhism, Bhakti
movement including Sikhism and Sufism, immortality of words, reason
and revelation, dialectics, reconciliation of God, man and evil, cultural
response to hope, shame and guilt, Swami Vivekananda‘s vision of
Universal Religion, Mahatma Gandhi‘s views on inter-faith harmony,
pluralism, self-respect and tolerance, nature of Dharma Yuddha,
crusade and Jihad, convergence of faith in art, architecture and music
and so on.
With inter-faith/intra-faith harmony, we try to evolve the
conceptual linkages under the ethical, cultural and civilizational
background. It does not pose one faith against another. It is an attempt
to overcome Samuel Huntington‘s Clash of Civilizations on the one
hand and Oswald Spengler (1880-1936), the author of the Decline of
West, and the American Cultural Anthropologist Ruth Benedict (18871948), who formalized the Patterns of Cultures (1934) on the other.
These authors have made an attempt to revive and revitalize the
Neitzschean distinction between the Apollonian and the Dionysian and
apply it to cultures as a whole. Evidently, these problems are deeply
rooted in European modernity in terms of Galileo‘s Letter to the Grand
Duchess Christina (1633) and Immanuel Kant‘s Critique of Pure
Reason (1781), ‗I must limit knowledge in order to leave room for
Faith‘. This philosophic vision has emerged out of the Treaty of
Westphalia (1648) which brought to an end the Thirty Years‘ War
(1618-1648); acknowledges the existence of both Calvinism and
Lutheranism; introduces secularism by separating Church and the State;
establishes modern State systems, based on linguistic and ethnic
identity with more or less permanent boundaries. It made an impact on
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Far East countries like China and Japan as well. China under the
Manchu dynasty, starting with Li Tze Ch‘eng in 1644, became a
centralized and firmly ruled Empire; and, in Japan of the Tokugawa
period, from about 1600, during arbitrarily centralized government
under the ―Shogun‖2, nationalism was the political philosophy of the
State.
In order to organize discussion on harmony in a precise manner,
it is proposed to take up Sanatan dharma which includes Vaidic
tradition and also Shramana tradition like Jaina and Buddhists.
Sanatan dharma has the feature of colossal continuum of Contact,
Conflict and Confluence Plurality, Hermeneutics, Dialogue,
Dialectic, Deferring, Synthesis and Analogies/Aphorisms/
Metaphors, etc.
Sanatan dharma came in contact with the Jewish religion,
Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Islam over the millennia, and recently
with the Bahai‟s faith. There have been conflicts regarding the
fundamental beliefs, practices, myths and rituals. But there is no
conflict so far as the absolute concepts of particular faiths are
concerned. It is the harmony, cohesion or confluence that has prevailed,
sustaining all through the ages. Different religions have preserved their
identities; maintained their rituals; propagated their beliefs and value
systems and cherished their culture. Not only this, the northern India
came in contact with the Greeks, the Mongols and the Persians. The
southern part of India was also in greater contact with Egypt, Syria,
Palestine, Babylonia as well as Persia, long before the Persian or
Achaemenian imperialism extended their empire into India in the days
of Cyrus (558-530 BC.). King Solomon of Palestine and his ally King
of Syria sent Phoenician sailors to trade with India and their contacts
were mostly with the South. The flourishing spice trade was an avenue
for many contacts between the southern Indians and their trade partners
in the Middle East. The intention here is not to impress that the contact
was based on trade alone, though it has been one of the important basis
of contact. There are stronger inter-faith issues too. It should not be
forgotten that Zoroastrian Community came to Gujarat coast much
before the Christian era and that Jewish community had migrated to
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Bombay and Kerala, when their faith was shattered by the Roman
tyranny. Christianity also came to south India in 54CE. St. Thomas
almost twelve centuries before Christianity went to Europe. During the
middle ages, Islam came to India under certain historical conditions.
Its influence can be found on Sikhism too. Out of 36 contributors of
Gurugrantha Sahib, only 6 are Sikhs; others are Bhakti poets and
Hindus. Seven of them are Muslims. All contributors including Sheikh
Farikh, Bhikhan, Namdeva and Ravidas were involved in practical life.
Yet, they spoke of intra-faith/inter-faith harmony, as the voice of truth.
In nutshell, it can be said that all religions of the world emerged in
Asia; and, therefore, all Asian religions can be found at one place i.e.,
in India.
Of Hinduism, it can be said that it is not a religion like
Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Islam, etc. Its most significant
contribution consists of the disciplines like Vyakaran or shabda
shastra, Hetu Vidya or Argument, Chikitsa Vidya, Shilpa Vidya,
Astronomy, Mathematics, Grammar, Values, Hermeneutics and
Aesthetics, etc. Hinduism as a philosophy, as a way of life, revolves
around these areas. It is rather a kind of Sanatan dharma, or ‗perennial
duty‘. By its origin and development, Sanatan dhaema has a collection
of thoughts that encompasses all aspects of not only human existence,
but also of the existence of plants, insects, animals, rivers, mountains,
moon and sun etc., including the climates, seasons and everything. It is
essentially cosmo-centric as against anthropo-centric of European
thinking. The very fact that Hindus worship an entire pantheon of gods
and goddesses means that the faith is an all-inclusive one. There is
always a room for dissent and digression and the freedom of choice.
In fact, the Vedas and the Upanishads do not preach a particular
religion, nor do they spell out a list of dos and donots. The Rig Veda
says that Aano bhadrah kritavo yantu visvatah or ‗let noble thoughts
come to us from everywhere‘.
Plurality is the basis of intra-faith/inter-faith harmony. The Vedic
exhortation of Ekam sat viprah bahudha vadanti has been the
fundamental act of philosophizing in India. The Reality admits of
alternative approaches in terms of thought constructions and linguistic
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expressions. It is pluralistic in its expression. The initial characteristic
of Indian society is that it is diverse, liberal, democratic and pluralistic
in regulating and restructuring the systems of Indian philosophy. It is
pluralistic in its expression. In the later development of Indian
philosophical system, Pluralism has been expressed in many ways viz.,
in the Vedanta philosophy, we go from one to many; in Vallabha
Vedanta, we go from many to one; in Sankhya and Nyaya-Vaisesika
systems, we go from many to many, and in Buddhism, we go from
nothing, i.e., svabhāva shunya to many. The pluralistic nature of Indian
society is manifested in various ethnic identities, community structure,
linguistic identities, different nationalities, languages and so on. In
search of our local identities, we have to go into the details of our
tradition.
Indian tradition could be divided into two kinds; namely, the
Brahminical tradition and the Shramana tradition. While the former is
textual and the written intellectual tradition or the Sastriya parampara
consisting of the Dharma Sastras, Purusarthas and Asramas etc., the
latter is oral tradition, the folk tradition and the tradition of the people
or the Lokaparampara. Fortunately, we have had both the traditions as
equally strong. On the other hand, Europeans have an anthropo-centric
world-view. The early Greeks, particularly, the Thales, Heraclitus,
Democritus and others were cosmo–centric. With Sophists particularly
with Protagoras, the dictum came up — Man is the measure of all
things. In modern times, particularly with liberal humanism, human
being is regarded as ‗given‘ and nature is regarded as another ‗given‘
and nature is something for you to ‗use‘. One of the founders of
modern thinking, Immanuel Kant has said: ―The order and regularity in
the appearances, which we entitle nature, we ourselves introduce. We
could never find them in appearances, had not we ourselves, or the
nature of our mind, originally set them there.‖3 This was Kant‘s
Copernican Revolution, which quite literally shifted the direction of
both epistemology and morality from the nature of reality, outside
there, to the essential structure of human mind. Further, Indians have a
cyclic perception. For them, the same divinity is born again and again
or the concept of Avatar. The Europeans have a linear vision like the
pre-modern, modern and post-modern, etc. Indians are also idolatrous.
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We are idol worshippers. This approach differs radically from the
Semitic religions - Judaism, Christianity and Islam, which are
bibliolatrous. What is so remarkable in idol worshipping, is the
plurality of images taking place. Being imagistic, it has to have
plurality. This is not possible in Semitic religions, which always
emphasize on ‗formlessness‘. These are some of the ways of our
thinking through which we fundamentally differ from the Europeans.
Hermeneutics is a system of understanding, an interpretation and an
attempt to find the hidden meaning of a text. In theology, hermeneutics
means the interpretation of the spiritual truth of the Bible. It is said that
Jesus interpreted himself to the Jews in terms of scriptural prophecy.
Also, the Gospel writers interpreted Jesus to their audiences. However,
during the period of modernization, secularization and humanization of
Europe i.e., during the European modernity, hermeneutics came into
prominence in the context of European Protestant theology. In
philosophy, the term hermeneutics was used first by Dilthey (18331911) to denote the discipline, concerned with the investigation and
interpretation of human behavior and speech, etc. as essentially
intentional. In existentialism, hermeneutics has been used to enquire
into the purpose of human existence. If by hermeneutics we mean the
interpretation of a text, the Mīmamsakas and Vedantins have used this
probably from the 1st century B.C. There are so many statements in the
Upanishads, which are so paradoxical, puzzling, symbolic, suggestive
and aphoristic that we cannot understand them without interpretation.
Just to illustrate this point briefly here, let me take up the Isavasya text
5, which says: ―That moves; That does not move; That is far off; That
is very near; That is inside all this; and That is also outside all this.‖ It
is in this context that hermeneutics has been used to clarify the obvious
paradoxes.
Method of Dialogue: The one method that has been continuously used
in different Upanishads, is the method of dialogue. We come across
several dialogues in the Upanishads viz., Satyakama and his mother
Jabala in Chāndogya4, Prajapati and his sons in Brihadāranyaka,5
Yama and Nachiketa, Ghora Angirasa and Krishna in Chāndogya,
Narada and Sanat Kumar in Chāndogya, Prajapati, Indra and Virochana
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in Chāndogya, Swetaketu and Uddalaka in Chāndogya, Aruni and
Swetaketu in Chāndogya, Yājñavalkya, Maitreyi and Katyayani in
Brihadāranyaka. A dialogue is a process of conversation,
argumentation and mutual supplementation of ideas between two
individuals. With dialogue, a method has evolved in which the
encounters with other thinkers are essential. It is just opposed to a
monologue, which can formulate nothing but a dogma. The ideas which
I formulate to defend the standpoint, must confront with other
approaches; must give expression to other thinkers as others, and not as
possible elements of a system in which I can recognize my own
thought. Other thinkers must be permitted to speak as others on the
same subject. I am and remain only a participant, says Robert E.
Hume.6
Dialectic has been used in almost all the dialogues available in
the Upanishads. Dialectic has been operating at two levels: Firstly, it
is a mode of argumentation to bring out a contradiction in the views of
the other party. This process is generally known as the Purva paksha,
the khandan and finally the uttarpaksha; and, secondly, it
resolves/dissolves/sublates the contradictions at higher levels. In such
dialogues as between Uddalaka and Nachiketa, we find that the
dialogue begins with the empirical experiences, the vyāvahārika sat. In
order to resolve the contradictions at the vyāvahārika level, we go to
the pāramārthika level.
Questioning as an Enquiring Act: The Kena Upanishad consists of
an older prose section along with some more recent verses, with which,
it begins. The word Kena means "by whom" and is the first word in a
series of questions. Asking by whom is the mind projected, by whom
does breathing go forth, by whom is speech impelled? What god is
behind the eye and ear? The answer to these questions points to a
mystical self that is beyond the mind and senses, but is that God by
which the mind and senses operate?
Deferring: It is a method used by the sages to show the active and
passive movements that consists of deferring by means of a delay,
delegation, reprieve, referral, detour, postponement and reserving, etc.
Very often the seers are absolutely pertinent and do not illuminate
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anything except the one which is before them, taking into account the
capacity of the learner. We come across such an instance in the
celebrated dialogue between Prajapati, Indra and Virochana in
Chāndogya Upanishad.
Analogical Approach: It is an inference, making it possible to draw
conclusions about the similarity of objects in certain of their properties
on the basis of the similarity of other properties. It has been used at
many places in the Upanishads. When, for example, the sage
Yājñavalkya introduces the analogy of the drum, the conch or the lute
in order to explain the process of the apprehension of the self, or when
again Aruni introduces the analogy of the juices, which in constituting
honey ceases to be different from it, or again of the rivers that flow into
the ocean and become merged in it, or of salt which becomes one with
water, when it is poured into it, and so on. All these analogies are used
to show the identity and difference between the individual soul and the
universal soul by means of analogies alone. Psychology is explained in
the Katha Upanishad by using the analogy of a chariot. The soul is the
lord of the chariot, which is the body. The intuition (buddhi) is the
chariot-driver, the mind the reins, the senses the horses, and the objects
of the senses the paths.
Synthesis: It has a reference to what is immediately given to us by
means of the senses, and within the spatio-temporal frame in terms of
the vyāvahārika sat. There is a synthesis of thought affected by
Asvapati Kaikeya out of the doctrines of the six cosmological
philosophers in the Chāndogya or by Prajapati out of the six psychometaphysical questions, propounded by the six seers in the
Prasnopanishad.
Aphorisms/Metaphors: Aphorisms are used for the benefit of
compressing all the material of thought in short and pregnant sentences.
It leaves enough conceptual space for the commentators to provide as
the best and the varied interpretation of them. The best example of the
aphoristic method we find in the Māndūkya Upanishad. It is perhaps
because of this method that the name Vedānta Sutras has been
interpreted in so many ways that 8 to 10 schools of Vedanta philosophy
have come up. To translate from Māndūkya Upanishad, we are told
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how ―the syllable Om is verily all that exists.‖ Under it is included all
the past, the present and the future, as well as that which transcends
them.
These are some of the most general features of India‘s spiritual,
intellectual and perspectival traditions. These features are both
instrumental and emancipatory at the same time.7 For Indian minds,
puzzled about post-modernity, we would recommend a change of
perspective. Let us leave Descartes, Kant and Hegel, Marx and Freud
for a while; get out of the enlightenment frame of mind and go to the
Upanishads. There is no other way of detoxifying ourselves from the
fumes of Enlightenment Rationality, because the Western way is not
the only way of thinking and experiencing. Let us as Indians emerge
ourselves in our own rich Indian Heritage, especially prior to its
breaking up into Buddhist, Jaina and Hindu - for example, the
Samkhya-Yoga heritage common to all three traditions - the great
philosophical perspective that undergrades all Upanisadic, Vedic,
Buddhist, or Jaina thought and experience. Keep your painfully
acquired critical rationality, but do not get tyrannized by it. Stay
critical, but do not reject out of hand what seems strange at first.
Expose yourself without hesitation to a system of thought and
experience, which has endured for millennia.
Look also at the heritage of the first Veda, before it became
totally distorted in the Purva-Mimamsa - with the noble actions of
Yajna from which all creation originates (Yajno bhuvanasya nabhi,
Prajapati's sacrifice of oneself in order to engender the created order)
and Rta which holds all things together in a transcendent, but
comprehensive dynamic harmony, with enough room for creative
disharmony within it.
Then, come back to the models of plurality in the Vedas and you
may include Jains and pick up their Anekantavada, which can inoculate
you against all dogmatisms including that of Enlightenment Rationality.
The post-moderns‘ failure to grasp the Transcendent is to give up the quest
for a world with peace, freedom, joy, dignity and fulfilment, just because
they know both that they cannot do it on their own and that they cannot be
at the centre of such a world.
17
References
1. Preface to Immanuel Kant‘s Critique of Pure Reason, Trans. N.K.Smith, The Macmillan Press Ltd., London, U.K., 1973.
2. Illustrated Encyclopaedia of World History, Ivy Leaf, London, U.K., 1976, pp. 833- 34.
3. Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, Tr. N. K. Smith, The Macmillan Press Ltd., U.K., 1973, p. 147.
4.. Chāndogya Upanishad, III-11-5, Tr. Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli, Upanishads in Śankara‘s Own Words, Vol. III, The
Mathrubhumi Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd., Calicut, India, 1993, pp.253-54.
5. Brihadāranyaka Upanishad, VI.3.12, Tr. Vidyabhooshanan, Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli, Upanishads in Śankara‘s Own
Words, Vol. IV, The Mathrubhumi Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd., Calicut, India, 1994, p.1308.
6. The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, U.K., 2002, p. 297.
7. http://www. India.Forum.com/categories/Indian-Culture-and-Philosophy retrieved on 10.10.2007.
_____________________
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Contribution of Turkish Sultans of Delhi to
Development of Architecture in India
(From 1206-1388)
Prof. S.M. Azizuddin Husain*
The Turkish conquest of India did not mean simply the
substitution of one governing class by another. Rather, it resulted in
bringing about some very significant changes in various spheres of life,
be it social, religious, political, economic or cultural. The new cities,
founded by the Turks, revealed an altogether new planning and
architecture. Sultan Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-10) laid the foundation
of Turkish Sultanate in Delhi. A glorious chapter to Delhi‘s history
was added by the Turks. A few cities in India could claim the long
continuity and status that Delhi has been enjoying. With much
variegated history, it is not surprising that Delhi is abound with relics
and remains of its long chequered past.
The Turks ruled northern India up to the close of the14th century
– thus they ruled for about 200 years. Contribution of Qutubuddin,
Iltutmish, Balban, Kaiqubad, Alauddin Khalji, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq,
Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Firoz Shah Tughlaq in the field of
architecture is of immense vlue. These Turkish rulers made an
effective and distinct impact on the indigenous manifestations of life
and culture, which gave rise among other expressions of art to a new
style in architecture. This style incorporated not only certain new
modes and principles of construction but also reflected the religious
and social needs of the adherents of Islam. The mode, theme or motifs
of ornamentation, employed in Islamic monuments, are also different
from those employed in the Indian monuments.
*
Dean, Faculty of Humanities and Languages, Jamia Millia Islamia,
New Delhi – 110 025
19
Qutubuddin selected Delhi as the capital of his Sultanate (12061210). He constructed Quwwat ul Islam mosque (Might of Islam Mosque)
in 1198CE, the Qutuab Minar, and his palace in Mehrauli. Iltutmish
(1210-1236) extended Quwwat ul Islam mosque and his palace known as
Mehl-i-Suped. He also built the tomb at the grave of his son Nasiruddin
and a madrasa. Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-89) constructed forts and
mosques in different towns of his sultanate, and shifted his capital from
Mehrauli to Ghiyaspura, where he built Lal Mahal. His grandson
Kaiqubad built his palace, Jama mosque and an Id G‟ah in Kilokhari.
Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316) shifted his capital to Siri, where he built a
fort and a beautiful water tank, which he named as Hauz-i-Khas. He built
one madrasa in the campus of Quwwat ul Islam mosque, which is known
as madrasa-i-Alai. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-25) shifted his capital to
Tughlaqabad, where he built a massive fort and his own tomb, prior to his
death. Muhammed bin Tughlaq (1325-51) built Adilabad fort,
Jahanpan‘ah, darg‟ah of Shaikh Nizamuddin Aulia, and planned and built
a new town in South India, which he named as Daulatabad. Firozshah
Tughlaq (1351-88) repaired all old monuments, built by earlier Turkish
Sultans and built his new capital, which he named as Firozabad. He built
a massive madrasa at Hauz Khas and a mosque in Firozabad. He
constructed tombs of the Sufis of India.
Lucidity, simplicity of expression, economic use of material and
orderly arrangement of different parts characterize the Turkish art. The
monuments, constructed by or under the patronage of the Turkish
Sultans, are fully planned and built with appropriate material. Lime was
known earlier in India, but its use was very limited; sand was being
used for brickwork, while large blocks of stones were generally laid dry
and secured to each other by means of iron clamps. The Turks made an
extensive use of lime which served rarely as a building medium, but
also as plaster and a base for incised decoration.
Delhi turned a new leaf in its history from the beginning of the
foundation of the Sultanate by Qutubuddin Aibak. The whole pattern of
its life felt the impact of the faith and culture of the Turks and
continued to experience it for the next two centuries. The new culture
manifested itself no less in architecture than other expressions of art.
20
The reins of numerous monuments constructed during this period are
grouped as six cities of Delhi.
As regards the construction of the Quwwat ul Islam mosque, it
was due to non-availability of Muslims masons that the Hindu masons
were employed to build it. This is quite clear from the corbelling
technique and ornamentation of the screen, not only with its serpentine
tendrils and undulating leaves, but also in its curves of the character of
the Qur‘anic inscriptions.
As far as the building material of this mosque is concerned,
Qutubuddin Aibak demolished twenty seven temples and constructed
this mosque. Around 1199, he laid the foundation of 72.5 meters‘ high
Qutub Minar, the tallest stone-tower in India. It was raised as a tower
of victory.
Then, Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1210-36) extended Quwwat
ul Islam mosque from fresh stone material and with corbelled arches.
His tomb too was built in the same style with Qur‘anic Calligraphy,
inscribed on the arches.
In 1231, Iltutmish had also built the tomb of his eldest son
Nasiruddin Mehmud, known as Sultan Ghari‘s tomb. It is also having
corbelling style.
Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-89) built Lal Mahal in Ghiyaspura,
located in Basti Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia. His son Muhammad, known
as Khan-i-Shaheed, died fighting against the Mongols, during the life
time of his father Balban. Balban built his tomb. Adjacent to it is
Balban‘s own tomb, which occupies an important place in the history
of development of architecture in India, as we find true arches,
squenches and the dome, all these used for the first time here.
Balban‘s grandson Sultan Kaiqubad (1289-90) built his palace,
Jama mosque and an Idg‟ah in Kilokhari. These monuments contained
true arches. As the cementing material used in these monuments, was
not good, all of them have already collapsed.
21
Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316) extended Quwwat ul Islam
mosque. He also built the southern gate of this mosque, which is called
as Ala‘i Darw‘aza. He laid the foundation of another minar also, but it
could not be completed. He shifted his capital to Siri. He built a fort,
but it also could not survive. He built a Jamaat-Khana mosque which is
now located adjacent to the darg‟ah of Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia.
Alauddin built a madrasa in the campus of Qutub Complex, which is
known as madrasa-i-Ala‟i.
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-25) built a fort in Tughlaqab‘ad
and also a fortified town and his tomb, facing this fort in his own life
time. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-51) built Adilab‟ad fort, facing
Tughlaqabad fort and his palace, known as Jahan Pan‟ah. He
constructed mosques, havelis, khanqahs and sarais, etc., in Daulatabad.
Thus, the salient features of Turkish architecture were also introduced
and developed in southern part of India. Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88)
repaired all the existing monuments and also built a new capital town,
known as Firozabad. He built a madrasa on the bank of Hauz-i-khas. It
is a huge structure. He constructed Shikar G‟ahs (hunting lodges) too.
His wazir, Khan-i-Jahan Telangani had taken keen interest in building
mosques. Khirki mosque, a mosque in the Basti of Hazrat Nizamuddin
Aulia and one near the Turkmangate were built by him. Khirki mosque
is having ninety-nine domes as Allah is having ninety nine names.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq had also constructed a Qadam Gah-i-Rasool and a
madrasa. He named that locality as Nabi Karim.
With the advent of Turks in Delhi, Delhi‘s structure was
completely revolutionized, as is quite evident from the accounts of
contemporary historians like Minhaj us Siraj, the author of Tabaqat-iNasiri, Ziaduddin Barani, the author of Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi, Isami, the
author of Futuh us Salatin, Shams Siraj Afif, the author of Tarikh-iFiroz Shahi, Malfuzat of Sufis, verses of Amir Khusrau and other poets
and the travel account of Ibn-i-Batutah. Thus, society, economy and
culture underwent a drastic change. Delhi used to be called as ‗Hazrati-Delhi‟.
What danger Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan perceived in 1846,
became true when after 1857the British demolished a large number of
22
monuments of Delhi. In the ―Radical New Castle Chronicle‖, dated 17th
July-7th August and 23rd October, 1857, Joseph Crown Yoke, while
reflecting on the growing imperialist fervor of its proprietor, talked of
―This magnificent dependency of British Crown‖ and criticized
Canning‘s ―clemency‖, saying: ―It is no time for mercy now; our
vengeance should be sharp and bloody, and of such nature as to make
our Indian subjects tremble in future at the name of Delhi.‖ British
knew that since 13th century, Delhi emerged as a centre of Islamic
learning and culture, so they destroyed Delhi intentionally, both in
1857 and 1947.
______________
23
Inter-faith Dialogue between
Buddhism and Islam
Preparing Ethical Foundations for Co-Existence
Prof. Hari Shankar Prasad*
The Preamble:
This Paper explores the ability of Buddhism to contribute to and
strengthen the inter-faith dialogue in order to overcome the actual or
possible inter-faith or inter-religious conflicts in various parts of the
world, so that creative peace can be established. Inter-faith dialogue
values interdependence over independence, pluralism over absolutism,
mutual respect and adjustment over hegemony, and difference over
identity. The Paper includes discussion on the Buddha‘s and Islamic
manners of thinking toward human issues and problems in the light of
their basic structures and tenets, the nature and condition of inter-faith
dialogue in general, the Buddhist response to inter-faith dialogue and
its ability to strengthen it, its dealing with the contemporary social and
political issues like equality, justice, liberty, and human rights, and its
attitude toward other religions and engagement in conflict resolution.
Inter-faith dialogue between two religious groups, despite being
external to each other, is never totally incommensurable. It
presupposes that each one is committed to positive socio-political
action and has the basic understanding of the internal structure of
other‘s religious truth, claims and tenets in proper context, and is only
then trying to judge these both internally and externally in such a way
that their positive and suitable aspects are projected for the purpose.
Remember that the motive is always social harmony and peace, which
are the foundational values. What is important about inter-faith
dialogue is to see how different religions claim to promote these values.
*
Head, Department of Philosophy, Dean, Faculty of Arts, University of Delhi, Delhi
24
This involves both transcendence and development of certain doc-trinal
beliefs within the internal structure in order to join hands with the
external religion to address common concern. Every religion has divine
sanction for such attempts, although they may be required to be
explored and emphasized. Without this, there cannot be a true religion
or civilization. With this plan at hand, a religion is then subjected to
objective evaluation.
The real test of an inter-faith dialogue is in a situation of
conflict. In such a situation, it is of utmost importance that the
participants properly understand the internal structures of both, one‘s
own and other‘s religion, and identify their hierarchical leadership
structures as well. The practical tool for further action is to approach
the leadership of both sides to help realize the necessity of addressing
the issues of common concern for the sake of peaceful co-existence
which necessarily requires interdependence.
Since inter-faith dialogue is a very sensitive normative issue, a
proper and sympathetic understanding of the other‘s religious claims
and its rational application to the dialogue demand utmost care. The
whole exercise includes openness and mutual respect, a passionate
humanitarian religious spirit to work together without any prejudice
and without invoking any differences with sincerity of purpose. With
this background, now we can say that the stage is ready to identify the
universal common humanitarian concern and to prepare a common
action plan. Note that this is a continuous process through which interfaith dialogue matures and becomes more and more effective at every
level of its development. A serious participation in an inter-faith
dialogue is an act of transformed consciousness - a high level
consciousness - which deconstructs one‘s narrow sectarian selfhood
and sees the entire humanity as the sphere of action. This is the true
worldly goal of every religion, linked with its eschatological goal as
well. This realization gives rise to a sense of religious responsibility
toward humanity without fear of the loss of any religious identity. This
fear has so far not created any violent conflictsonly, but has also
prevented the people from developing their innermost nature, a state of
being oneself, which appropriates the ―others‖ for its own sake. This
radical transformation takes care of the troubled humanity and sets a
highly normative agenda.
25
In this Paper, we opt for Islam and Buddhism for inter-faith
dialogue. Buddhism is the most suitable religion for the present
purpose as it emphasizes ethicization and humanization of the world.
These are the two processes which can be carried out only by human
effort, irrespective of the fact whether one is a theist or not. The central
or pivotal doctrine of Buddhism is called the doctrine of
interdependence or dependent arising (pratityasamutpada) which
defines the very manner of any existence, functioning, or organization,
be it epistemological, ontological, conceptual, ethical, social, or
political. This is also called the middle path which avoids any extreme
position. Despite its denial of the existence of God and soul, it is a
religion because of its emphasis on ethicization and humanization of
the world and its attempt to equate it with eschatological and
soteriological goals. On the other hand, Islam is absolute Monotheism.
But it is undeniable that both religions share the same ethical and
humanitarian concerns. And, this is enough for an inter-faith dialogue
To enter into an inter-faith dialogue with Islam, as said above, it
is essential that one clearly understands the contexts and the
circumstances in which Islam emerged and developed, and its religious
doctrines and statements were revealed. It is worth noting that it traces
its roots, like Judaism and Christianity, to Adam and Abraham, the
original absolute Monotheists, who believed in One God, Who
represents the Asolute Unity of the world. It is noticed that in the preIslamic period there was a complete disunity among the Jews,
Christians, tribals, and idolators. The region was in great turmoil and
violence was the order of the day. Islam respects the earlier Prophets.
It says that all of them were as per the needs of the changing times and
the need to educate the people, some of whom were found distorting
and diluting the original message of Adam and Abraham. Besides,
there was a prophecy by no less a person than Jesus in the New
Testament that a new Prophet, called Muhammad (PBUH) would come
to organize the humanity. Further, Muhammad (PBUH) is said to have
defined the best Islam as that which undertakes the task of feeding the
hungry and promoting peace with everyone, whether known or
unknown. He put emphasis on creating the just moral order in strict
compliance with God‘s commandments, which, in other words, is the
responsibility of man. (Sura: 42) Moreover, the implementation of the
26
Unity of God in Islam is seen in every human act, which must achieve
the integrity of mind, soul, and body with God (Shahadah). Going
against this is an unpardonable sin. The act of life in Islam is strictly
patterned and religiously regulated. This, it is believed, creates a just,
peaceful, and homogeneous society in the path of God; whereas
Shari‟ah guides the practice. Following Muhammad‘s way of life
Sufism emphasizes the inner practice of Islam. Belief in God
(Shahadah), daily prayer, fasting during Ramadhan, pilgrimage to
Mecca (Hajj) and almsgiving or feeding the hungry (Zak‟at), are
considered the five pillars of Islam.
The single most problematic and at the same time most
misunderstood and controversial article of Islam is jihad which, in the
absence of its proper understanding by both a section of the Muslims
and other religionists, has maligned the entire Muslim civilization all
over the world. It is true that Islam believes in the expansion and
promotion of the Kingdom of God, i.e. Islamic religion, but not
necessarily and always by resorting to lethal war. Jihad means different
things in different contexts which must be emphasized. It is an Arabic
term which means exerting one‘s utmost effort against an evil. This evil
may be one‘s own polluted self, or a tyrant‘s injustice, or an aggressive
enemy. In these cases, a Muslim is asked to take appropriate action. In
other words, jihad is a divinely sanctioned action in the path of God. If
this is so, then a Muslim is not allowed to engage in preemptive or
initiatory war. Besides, even in case of aggression, Hazrat Muhammad
always gave peace a chance through reconciliatory moves with his
opponents. This means lethal war should be the last option. According
to him, the best jihad is to protest injustice by a tyrannical ruler. So far,
like other religions, Islam has enough scope for divinely sanctioned war
in the event of aggression, but then it is called a lower jihad in contrast
to the greater jihad which is fought against the lower self. A terrorist
act of killing innocent people will certainly go against the spirit of
Islam.
With this background, it is now not difficult for the Buddhists
and the Muslims to engage themselves in an inter-faith dialogue. It is
essential that it remains in effect during peace time too, so that people
know the importance of peace and harmony and make attempts to avert
27
any inter-religious conflicts. Education of the people in right direction
and regular organization of various social functions are the two tools
which remove the hostility, if any, generated out of ignorance and also
a result of lower self, and develops mutual understanding, appreciation,
respect, adjustment, and collaboration. But the human nature is such
that despite all this, a conflict cannot be ruled out. Now, it is the
responsibility of the leaderships of both sides (Caliphs, Imams,
Sheikhs, Tulkus, Lamas, and politicians and other representatives) to
control and guide the warring groups to restore peace and harmony for
their own sake and also for the sake of the members of the both the
communities.
What is Inter-faith Dialogue?
Inter-faith dialogue is today‘s necessity for creative peace,
harmony, tolerance, and prosperity in the world. Religious pluralism is
a historical fact and inter-faith dialogue not only presupposes this fact
but also recognizes it as an opportunity for true interpretation of a
religion. Religion is a great living force, a powerful worldview with
faith and praxis, a set of doctrines, rituals, and customs. Besides, it has
varied dimensions – anthropological, historical, geographical,
sociological, cultural, political, and soteriological???– which have
given birth to innumerable groups within religions. Needless to say,
these religions have been tremendously affecting the human life
throughout the world at all times. In their history, they have been
instrumental in organizing the humanity in the realms of their influence
for the benefits of their followers, but it is also a truth that inter- and
intra- religious clashes have killed millions of people and proved to be
ghastly atrocious in many other ways. In the name of religion as we
have seen throughout the world in the past, and even today that the
people have suffered from superstition, self-mortification, intolerance,
violence, hatred, bigotry, slavery, exploitation, and so on and so forth.
It is an irony that even the non-religious and anti-religious worldviews
like scientism and Marxism have not been less atrocious.
The situation today is very complex. Many major religions like
Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism crossed their regions of
birth long ago and are still expanding. New denominations have
emerged for different reasons – doctrinal differences, migration,
28
encounters with other religions, and needs of time and situation. Many
traditional values and customs have changed and many others are under
threat from scientific development, industrialization, communism,
secularism, democratization, materialism, and consumerism. In many
parts of the world, fundamentalism and regimentation, and political
ideology and religion are combined. The result is there to see. In other
parts, exclusive individualism is threatening the institutions of family,
society, and religion. All these create a very gloomy picture of the
world today. Inter-faith dialogue addresses most of these issues and
tries to find amicable solutions to them.
What is inter-faith dialogue? It is a creative encounter, an
interface, an attempt to understand each other; accommodate and enrich
each other between two or more systems of religions or existential
worldviews which have competing truth-claims, doctrines, faiths,
Godheads, customs, goals, and in general conflicting perspectives. This
means each worldview has to face many opposite worldviews and also
the challenges posed by them. The objective of inter-faith dialogue is to
create mutual understanding, respect, and tolerance to work in unity for
peace and prosperity of humanity and the world at large without
harming the identity of any religion. It is believed that every religion
has some universalizable values as common ground. A simple desire or
openness to understand the other is necessarily a good condition for
initiating a dialogue. Other issues are taken up gradually: for instance,
the necessity to redefine, reorient, and enlarge some of the key concepts
of a religious system. How to go about the whole scheme is the next
step. Here are some of the important points as prerequisites1 for
consideration:
 To realize that religious pluralism is not only a hard fact but also a
necessity to maintain the dynamism and growth of a religious
worldview.
 To properly understand any other religion is to understand its
internal structure i.e., the phenomenology of that religion from an
authentic representative of that religion. It is to be remembered that
every religion has both deep and surface structures.
29
 To recognize that other religions also have some unique concepts of
truth, which have ben uniting a section of humanity since long.
 Every religion has a humanization and ethicization programme.
 Every religion has an idea of Golden Rule of treating both self and
the other in equal terms.
 To recognize the fact that there are not any two worldviews which
are either totally commensurable or totally incommensurable.
Instead, they have many common grounds and interests.
 The unity of the two worldviews does not mean uniformity. Rather,
it aims at formulating a common minimum programme.
 To realize that the desired truth i.e., the new truth, will emerge in
the process of dialogue itself.
 Exclusivism, inclusivism, absolutism, and relativism are detrimental
to inter-faith dialogue.
 Varied appeals to their respective mysticism or prophetic
experiences or Holy Scriptures by different participating parties
have the potentiality of sabotaging the spirit of inter-faith dialogue.
 The thesis that ―truth is one but approaches to it are many‖ won‘t
hold either as it would be impossible to determine the absolute
nature and contents of that ‗One Truth‖, given the various
conflicting conceptual frameworks. Also, because all approaches
have to be taken equally valid. This means the possibility of interreligious conflict and so inter-faith dialogues are ruled out. This
goes against the ground reality.
 Every religion represents only a segment of the humanity, despite
the claim that it is universal in character. This failure has to be
looked into.
 Some believe that there is not an automatic descent of religious
truth on the earth which is universally available and is effective to
entire humanity.
30
 The emphasis should be more on learning each other‘s religion and
mutual accommodation, rather than validating one‘s religion and
conversion of others.
 The finality-claim of truth is not to be emphasized by the partners in
the dialogue. At the same time, at some stage some criteria of truth
have to be found in search of a common ground and a mechanism
has to be devised to eliminate unsound and ungrounded truthclaims, which is indeed a daunting task.
The Interfaith Criteria of Truth
A serious attempt is imperative to look for some criterion of
truth which can appeal to all participants in the inter-faith dialogue.
The following ones are worth considering:
2
 Criterion of Experience: It involves direct experience of the
religious truth, whose contents have to be shown meaningfuly and
made liable to be a subject of public discourse.
 Criterion of Rationality: It demands that the experienced truth
should stand to sound rational evaluation.
 Criterion of Public Morality: It emphasizes the point that the truth
must be inseparable from universal public morality.
 Criterion of Humanization: It emphasizes a shift from the surface
structure to the deep structure of a religion and utilizes the latter to
embark upon a humanization programme to create a world of
human concern without neglecting the ecological concern.
 Criterion of Transcendence: It seeks transcendence of personal
salvific interest to global altruism and reorientation of key concepts
of a religion.
 Criterion of Reinterpretation: It advocates the necessity of
reinterpretation of religious doctrines and faith to bridge the gap
between divinity and humanity on the one hand; and, between
humanity and Nature on the other. In this context, the
corresponding action plan needs human effort to implement it.
31
 Criterion of Transformation: It highlights the power of a religion as
an instrument to transform its followers to create a peaceful and
harmonious humane world.
Divergent Responses on the Inter-faith Dialogue
There have been divergent responses to the proposal of interfaith dialogue. Diana Eck3 finds three such responses: (i) Exclusivism:
It is a chauvinistic tendency of a religion, which claims to have
exclusive claim about truth and so looks down upon other religions as
false or imperfect. (ii) Inclusivism: It is a mind set according to which a
religion advocates one universal religion and considers itself as perfect
and so comprehensive that all religions can be merged into it. And (iii)
Pluralism: It recognizes the autonomy of every religion and considers
the religious pluralism as the necessary condition for inter-faith
dialogue which aims at consensus, common good, united action plan,
highlighting the positive points in others‘ religions, and mutual
enrichment and adjustment. ―By pluralism,‖ writes Raimundo
Panikkar, ―I mean the awareness of the legitimate co-existence of
systems of thought, life, and action which, on the other hand, are
judged incompatible among themselves.‖ Besides, there are two other
responses: (iv) Relativism: According to which every religion is right
in its own way. This denies the very necessity of inter-faith dialogue.
It is a self-stultifying way of thinking. (v) ―One Truth Many
Approaches‖: Its simple theory is that various truth-claims lead to One
Ultimate Truth. This in disguise admits the simultaneous validity of all
approaches. The mystics maintain so. This is obviously untenable.
Except pluralism, the remaining ones do not have a rational theory of
other‘s perspectives i.e., the recognition of the other as other.
Quotes on Inter-faith Dialogue
We are giving here some selected quotes on the subject under
consideration by great thinkers and inter-faith organizations of our
time:
 ―If the Parliament of Religions has shown anything to the world, it
is this: It has proved to the world that holiness, purity and charity
are not the exclusive possession of any church in the world, and that
every system has produced men and women of the most exalted
32
character. In the face of this evidence, if anybody dreams of the
exclusive survival of his own religion and the destruction of others,
I pity him from the bottom of my heart.‖ – Swami Vivekananda.4
 The Golden Rule: ―There is a principle which is found and has
persisted in many religious and ethical traditions of humankind for
thousands of years: What you do not wish to be done to yourself,
do not do it to others. Or, in positive terms: What you wish to be
done to yourself, do it to others! This should be the irrevocable,
unconditional norm for all areas of life, for families and
communities, for races, nations, and religions.‖ – The Declaration
Toward a Global Ethics.5
 ―[B]ring religions and spiritual traditions to a common table, where,
respecting each other‘s distinctness, they may seek the common
ground necessary to make peace among themselves and to work
together, in dialogue with local, national, and international
organizations, to create a sustainable future for all people on the
earth.‖ – Bishop Williams Swing.6

―The dialogical dialogue is, in my opinion, indispensable as the
only, or at least as the most promising chance for a fruitful
encounter. . . . In the dialogical dialogue, I am open to the other in
such a way that my partner can discover my myths, my subjacent
assumption – and vice versa, of course. The authentic dialogue
exists neither in what I say, nor in what my partner adds, but in that
which takes place in the dialogue itself. Neither of us knows what
is going to happen beforehand, nor have we any power over it
during the process. Only when we stand under the spell of the
words happening between us, can we understand each other. We
both listen.‖ (Raimundo Panikkar)7
Buddhist Response to Inter-faith Dialogue
The discussion of Buddhism above has made it amply clear that
it is a radical religion in many ways. Its founder, the Buddha, goes
against the prevailing religious beliefs and practices. In our opinion,
Buddhism meets all the requirements, needed for inter-faith dialogue:
33
 The Buddha considers himself a worldly person, who is enlightened
through his own insight developed by himself and asks his disciples
to experience themselves the truth of life.
 Buddhism holds a naturalistic view of man, a sociable being, whose
suffering is to be redeemed. He is a cluster of mind, body, desire,
will, motive, intention, inclination, emotion and reason.
 Man is liable to ethical and spiritual transformation without any
external intervention or grace and without any gender distinction.
For Buddhism, humanity is one whole.
 The Buddha suggests experiential and rational examination of his
Dharma and asks his followers not to spare him out of sheer
reverence to him.
 He maintains that his Dhamma consists of the ethical principles
which have intrinsic value and are also equated to nirvana, the
ultimate religious good.
 He does not believe in personality cult and advocates the primacy of
the Dhamma over his own identity as the Buddha, a spiritual
teacher. He tells his favourite disciple, Ananda: ―Dwell making
yourselves your island (support), making yourselves, not anyone
else, your refuge; making the Dhamma your island (support), the
Dhamma your refuge, nothing else your refuge.‖8 Further, he says:
―Whether Tathagata [=the Buddha] do or do not arise (or appear),…
that fixed sequence of Dhamma (or its regulative principle,...) is
firmly established.‖9
 He restructures humanity according to the ethical and spiritual
development of man, not on the basis of cult, caste, faith, race,
gender, colour, nationality, or any other non-ethical identity.
 Buddhism thinks that God-centric religions are bound to hamper
ethical development of men and create inter-religious conflicts, so
human effort, assisted by the cultivated mind, is the only way to
overcome such problems and many others.
 The Buddha draws our attention to the urgency of immediate
concern of life and so he asks us to shift the focus from the
34
pernicious speculative and conventional views to the burning
ethical concerns. His parable of arrow10 makes this point very
clear. If a person is struck by an arrow in his chest and is in
excruciating pain, his immediate priority should be to get medical
aid. But if he does not focus on the immediate concern of how to
remove the arrow and cure the wound, his curiosity knowing about
such irrelevant things - the size and stuff of the arrow, who hit it,
what is his caste, and where did it come from and so on – would
prove to be suicidal. In the similar vein, when he was asked
speculative questions about the origin of the universe, metaphysical
self, and other dogmas, he maintained deliberate silence because
they were ethically useless, irrelevant, pernicious, and
unanswerable.
 The Buddhist ultimate goal is to do good to others, as much as
possible, out of compassion which is an ethical concern – ―For the
welfare of many, for the happiness of many, out of compassion for
the entire world.‖11 And, this is possible only through global
ethicization and humanization of the action plan.
 The Buddha realizes that grasping at their own views and
competing truth-claims by the followers of different religions hijack
the deep structures of their own religions and trivialize them by
reducing the deep structures to surface structures. To maintain the
dynamism and development of a religion, the Buddha rejects the
absolute truth-claim – ―This alone is Truth, and everything else is
false.‖12 He further says: ―To be attached to one thing (to a certain
view) and to look down upon other things (views) as inferior – this
the wise men call a fetter.‖13 His raft simile14 applied to his
Dhamma makes a significant point that there should be no grasping
at Dhamma which is actually manifested only in the ethical and
spiritual development of man. Just as a raft is useful in crossing
over a river, the Dhamma is useful in redeeming the human
suffering and bringing lasting peace and freedom. But just as it
would be foolish and harmful to carry on the raft on the shoulder
simply because it helped cross over the river. Likewise, it would be
foolish and harmful to hold on to the Dhamma, or any other
religious view.
35
 The Buddha is averse to the idea of conversion to any other faith.
He believes in ethical and spiritual transformation of man and not
just conversion to any other faith. When a Jaina householder Upali
approached him to convert him into his religion, the Buddha asked
him to seriously reconsider his decision and to continue to respect
and practice his own religion. In another context, when a person
called Malunkyaputta expressing his desire to accept the Buddha as
his religious leader, the latter asked him: ―Did I ever tell you
Malunkyaputta, Come, Malunkyaputta, lead the holy life under
me...‖15 What he wants to say thereby is that a religious identity is
meaningless, rather harmful, if we do not develop ourselves
ethically and spiritually.
 The Buddha emphasizes on moral question and training, cultivation
of mind, and moral sensitization.
 Since ethical and spiritual transformation requires continuous effort
and development which implies change, there is an endless
possibility and necessity too to maintain the dynamism of religion.
 Buddhism, in letter and spirit, respects other religions. In the Rock
Edict XII, Asoka says:
One should not honour only one‘s own religion and condemn the
religions of the others, but one should honour others‘ religions for
this or that reason. So doing, one helps one‘s own religion to grow
and render service to the religions of others too. In acting otherwise
one digs the grave of one‘s own religion and also does harm to
other religions. Whosoever honours his own religion and condemns
other religions, does so indeed through devotion to his own religion,
thinking ―I will glorify my own religion‖. But on the contrary, in so
doing he injures his own religion more gravely. So concord is good:
Let all listen, and be willing to listen to the doctrines, professed by
others.16

War and peace have been hot issues in every age and society.
Buddhism would never justify war at any cost in principle.
Aggressive war is unthinkable in it. It locates the origin of both war
and peace in the human mind which gets reflected in implicit or
explicit behaviour. According to it, ―Grasping at wrong view‖ is
36
the most dangerous factor which is creating all sorts of conflicts at
personal, social, and global levels. The Buddha faces a peculiar
situation of conflicts. His emphasis on immediate ethical concern
and advice to neglect other unethical matters discomforts other
religionists, who sometimes fiercely oppose the Buddha‘s
enterprise. In this vein, he says: ―I am not in dispute with the
world, rather the world is in dispute with me. A dhamma-follower
never disputes with the world.‖17
Buddhism on Equality, Justice, Liberty, and Human Rights
Equality, Justice, Liberty, and Human Rights are four key
values of today‘s free democratic world. Strictly speaking, they fall
under social and political philosophy, but religious responses to them
are not a new thing. In ancient times in India, they were not discussed
as separate issues in detail, but as part of the holistic worldview. This
means reconstruction and reinterpretation of some of the key passages
in the ancient literature are required, so that we can have some idea
about the hidden Indian theories of these concepts.
As to equality, there are different kinds of equality viz., ethical,
metaphysical, natural, social, economic, political, and gender justice.
Moreover, if humanity is one united whole i.e., if each human being is
an instantiation of humanity and is interdependent and kinly related to
other human beings, whether because of God‘s creation or natural
creation, all human beings are equal in terms of biological constitution,
feeling, reason, desire, disposition of sociability, aspirations, and so on.
Equality does not mean that everybody is equal in every sense like
physical fitness and strength, intelligence and temperament, and
conditions and needs. Equality in a simple term means recognition of
each individual as a dignified subject in himself/herself, availability of
opportunity and resources to each one, and equal in the eyes of law
without any distinction in terms of social status, caste, creed, race,
faith, religion and gender, etc. Most of the inequalities are man-made.
Hindu caste-system is an example of this. The principle of justice,
along with the principles of liberty and human rights, is derived from
the principle of equality. This means equality is the foundation or
operating field of these principles. Once equality is in force, justice,
liberty, human rights, social change, personal development, peace,
37
harmony, and prosperity are on the fast track. On the contrary, manmade inequality is the source of injustice, exploitation, atrocities,
violence, social unrest, and disharmony. The Dhamma, since it is not
any religion-centric, can be a rallying point in the inter-faith dialogue,
for the reason that it is an ethical, natural and eternal principle
encompassing all sentient beings of all times and in all places. It is an
ethical truth as against a hollow sectarian metaphysical truth. If
universal human goal is the need of today, then Dhamma is the solution
as it bridges the gap between faith and praxis andS between ideal and
real. Socially engaged Buddhism takes care of the contemporary issues
like equality, justice, liberty, human rights, and other social goods.
The Buddhist principle of interdependence (paticcasamuppada)
recognizes the mutual necessity of self and other. This means each self
is the source of other‘s good and vice versa. Self-transcendence is not
only self-development but also self-fulfillment which requires the other
as a necessary condition. In Buddhism, suffering is considered a
universal problem, so there should be a universal solution, and perfect
universal ethical practice is that solution which in the theistic religions
is the disposition of God. It is not confined to any age or place. It is
the only inter-religious ground. The five precepts, noble eightfold path,
four social emotions (or four sublime states of Brahma), Bodhisattva
ideal, and ten perfections collectively provide the ethical paradigm for
interpersonal relationship. It aims at perfecting the moral agent, who
has to imbibe and practice such values as equality, justice, liberty, and
human rights. For Buddhism, these are dynamic ethical concepts. The
Buddhist ethical paradigm first generates the moral and social rectitude
which in action combines these values. It is a continuous historical
process in which religious, social, political, and educational institutions
are actively involved. It is actually a progressive ethicization and
humanization programme, which, according to the needs and situations,
goes for reinterpretation and reorientation of the traditional concepts.
The Buddhist concept of universal equality is based on its
treating humanity as a community of sufferers as against the Vedic
concept of humanity with its divine structure into fourfold hierarchical
divisions, which is the permanent source of inequality and injustice,
and thus the source of various social evils. The Buddha takes humanity
38
as one species, and restructures it in terms of ethical development of
human beings under full liberty from the bondage of the unexamined
existing tradition and beliefs. He argues that man is endowed with the
cognitive faculty to experience for himself and with the faculty of
reason which enable him to distinguish between good and evil, and
right and wrong. The function of a teacher, a family, a society, and a
religious or political institution is to recognize these faculties as natural
gifts which have great values not only for the individual but also for the
society, and for crating conducive conditions – such as economic,
educational, social, and political - for their cultivation.
Economic Condition
The Buddha is aware of the economic disparity and poverty as
the main source of social evils and immorality. He greatly values the
ideal and practice of ‗giving‘ (dana) to the poor and needy by the
wealthy ones and the State as the remedy of such social evils. ‗Giving‘
here also involves distributive justice. But the rightful acquisition of
wealth without greed, its enjoyment with contentment and renunciation,
and not taking what is not due to one as parts of the Buddhist way of
living, are strongly emphasized. The Buddha sees a chain of moral and
social problems leading to social disharmony, if ‗giving‘ is not valued
and practiced seriously:
Thus, due to not giving of property to the needy, poverty
became rife; from the growth of poverty, the taking of what was not
given increased; from this, increase of theft; the use of weapon
increased; from the increased use of weapon, the taking of life
increased – and from the taking of life, people‘s life-span decreased,
and their beauty decreased.18
Educational Condition
The Buddha and Buddhism advocate the basic necessity of
education which involves acquisition of right knowledge, sound
reasoning, cultivation of mind, development of moral rectitude,
perfection of virtues, etc., which make a person a good autonomous
moral agent. Education instills wholesome values – such as equality,
justice, liberty, and human rights – in him.
39
Social and Political Conditions
These conditions are of utmost importance, because they add to
promotion and protection of the above values, so that a harmonious and
peaceful society is established. The Buddha talks of an ideal ruler, who
takes care of the needs and welfare of his subject according to the
Dhamma. Nagarjuna, a great Buddhist thinker (second century CE),
has a long list of advice for King Udaya in this regard:
Cause the blind, the sick, the lowly, the protectorless, the
wretched/ and
The crippled equally to attain food and drink without
interruption//
Always care compassionately for the sick, the unprotected,
those stricken/
With suffering, the lowly and the poor and take special care to
nourish them//
Provide extensive care for the persecuted, the victims (of
disaster)/
The stricken and diseased, and for worldly beings in conquered
areas//
Provide stricken farmers with seeds and sustenance/
Eliminate high taxes by reducing their rate//
Eliminate thieves and robbers in your own and others‘ countries/
Please set prices fairly and keep profits level (when things are
scarce)//19
Human Rights
In the Buddhist worldview, a person enjoys equality, liberty,
justice, dignity and respect for life. According to these, human right
issues are primarily ethical and only secondarily political and legal.
All the above values reinforce each other, but the value of equality has
primacy over others, because it fulfills the basic necessity of the natural
law (Dhamma) to entitle a human being to be a dignified member of the
universal humanity which is the community of sufferers. The
40
principles of the Dhamma cover both natural law and the natural rights,
which fight against the narrow and unjust conventional laws to be
broader and universal. The Dhamma principles are independent of any
cultural and social contexts. Social values like justice are judged in the
light of these principles. Inada succinctly explains the Buddhist
approach to the issues of the human rights:
Human rights is indeed an important issue, but the Buddhist
position is that it is ancillary to the larger or more basic issue of human
nature. It can be asserted that the Buddhist sees the concept of human
rights as a legal extension of human nature. It is crystallization, and
indeed formalization, of the mutual respect and concern for all persons,
stemming from human nature. Thus, human nature is the ultimate
source, the basis from which all other attributes or characteristics are to
be delineated. They all have their respective raison d‟etre in it. They
are reflections and even byproducts of it. The reason for assigning
human nature its basic position is very simple. It is to give human
relations a firm grounding in the truly existential nature of things i.e.,
the concrete and dynamic relational nature of persons in contact with
each other, that which [sic] avoids being caught up in rhetorical or
legalistic tangles.20
Buddhism, Other Religions, and Conflict Resolution
In this section, we shall discuss in brief the possibility of the
Buddhist dialogue with such religions as Hinduism and Islam, as a case
study to resolve inter-religious conflicts and to restore harmony and
peace. By now, it is clear that Buddhism aims at the universal
ethicization and humanization programme. The Buddha‘s most
fundamental realization is the common problem of the universal
humanity, whose members are equally governed by natural laws and
rights. The whole effort of the Buddha and Buddhism is to execute this
programme by ethically transforming every human being through selfeffort. To resolve the inter-religious conflicts, it is necessary that we
hold an inter-religious dialogue by suspending our sectarian beliefs and
truth-claims, but at the same time devise a way how to go about the
universal ethicization and humanization programme. Each religion has
this programme but sadly it is neglected and overpowered by its
sectarian and dogmatic elements.
41
Buddhism would like Hinduism to shed its caste-system,
unethical way of purification like taking bath in holy rivers, and
superstition, which are contrary to its main characteristics like cosmic
organic holism, eclecticism, tolerance and respect for others‘ views,
desire for harmony and peace through mutual adjustment and
enrichment, and dynamic value-system. Hinduism is not an organized
religion like Abrahamic religions, but its recognition of man‘s status as
a cosmic being in miniature, who is functionally inter-related to other
beings, and general principles of morality (peacefulness, self-control,
austerities, purity, tolerance, honesty, knowledge, wisdom, and
righteousness) can make it a suitable claimant for inter-faith dialogue.
In public opinion, Islam is looked upon by non-Muslim Indians
as antagonistic against Hinduism and Buddhism for the reasons that
while Hinduism believes in many gods and idol worship, and
Buddhism denies the existence of God. There are historical reasons
also, besides exaggeration by anti-Muslim groups, which are
responsible for this image of Islam. Unfortunately, terrorist activities
in some parts of the world by certain group of Muslims and individuals
like Taliban and Osama bin Laden respectively have rubbed salt into
the wound. Though, it is paradoxical, if we see the other side of Islam
when we consider the meaning of the word ‗Islam‘ as ―peace, complete
surrender to Almighty Compassionate God.‖ Islam is actually an
absolute monotheistic religion. Its holy scripture Qur‟an is considered
by the Muslims the most original and final version of God‘s revelation
to his appointed Prophet Muhammad (PNUH, who is a human being
like others except that revelition is made to him. However, its two
main claims - ―There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His
Messenger‖ and ―With Muhammad there is seal of Prophets‖ - go
against the basic condition i.e., the recognition of religious pluralism
and rejection of any absolute truth-claim, required for inter-faith
dialogue. Contrary to it, when looked into Islam seriously, we find that
it has all the essential ingredients to become a great civilization and an
active partner in the inter-faith dialogue. Let us explore some of these
characteristics and proposals, which focus on ethicization and
humanization programme:
42
 Islam treats every human being as God‘s creation in his own image.
For this reason, every one of them is a dignified and respected
person, and enjoys equality and justice.
 The Qur‟an emphasizes the unity of all three Abrahamic religions –
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It can be extended to other
religions as well by reorientation of Muslim attitude.
 Hazrat Muhammad‘s proposal to achieve universal brotherhood
among the Muslims can be extended to the entire humanity.
 Six of the ten commandments of God (Allah) define ethical and
social relationships of human beings.
 Hazrat Muhammad links Islam to service to humanity. He says:
―The best Islam is that you feed the hungry and spread peace among
people, you know and those you do not know.‖21

Sura 2:136 bestows respect upon different Prophets. It says: ―Say:
We believe in Allah and (in) that which has been revealed to us, and
(in) that which was revealed to Abraham, and Ishmael and Isaac
and Jacob and the tribes, and (in) that which was given to Moses
and Jesus, and (in) that which was given to the Prophets from their
Lord; we do not make any distinction between any of them and to
Him do we submit.‖22

Sufism highlights Hazrat Muhammad‘s emphasis on integrating the
internal and external aspects of revelation by means of
contemplation to defeat dogmatism, overcome egoism, purify self,
and serve the humanity in the name of God.23

Sura 2:256 forbids coercion against other religions: ―There is no
compulsion in religion – the right way is indeed clearly distinct
from error. So whoever disbelieves in the devil and believes in
Allah, he indeed lays hold on the firmest handle which shall never
break. And, Allah is Hearing, Knowing.‖24
 Islam makes charity (Zakat) to the needy ones in order to minimize
the economic inequality among people and fasting during
Ramadhan so that one can directly experience the pains of hungry
people and get motivated to help them.25
43
 Jihad is one of the articles of Islamic faith which is most
misunderstood and denounced. In fact, it is a holy war against the
morally polluted ‗self‘ and a challenge to injustice. Fischer writes:
―The absolute conviction that characterizes jihad derives from the
recognition of the vast disparity between evil and the spiritual ideal,
both in oneself and in society. Continual exertion is thought
necessary in order to maintain a peaceful equilibrium in the midst of
changing circumstances. Traditionalists and radicals have differed
in how this exertion should be exercised in society.‖26
------------------------------------------
References
1 See Articles in Thomas Dean, Religious Pluralism and Truth, Essays on Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion, Sri Satguru
Publications, Delhi, India, 1997. (First Edition, State University of New York, 1995)
2 See Mary Pat Fisher, Living Religions, Fifth Edition, Chapter 13, Pearson Custom Publishing, Boston, U. S. A., 2003.
3 Ibid, p. 469.
4 Ibid, pp. 476-472.
5 Ibid, p. 472.
6 Ibid.
7Thomas Dean, Religious Pluralism and Truth, Essays on Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion, Sri Satguru Publications,
Delhi, India, 1997, p. 41.
8 Walpola Rahula, What the Buddha Taught, Gordon Fraser, London, U.K., 1978, p. 61.
9 Edward Conze, Edward, Buddhist Thought in India, Paperback, University of Michigan Press, Michigan, U. S. A., 1967, p.
93.
10 Walpola Rahula, What the Buddha Taught, Gordon Fraser, London, U.K., 1978, p. 14.
11 Ibid, p.46.
12 Ibid, p.10.
13 Ibid.
14 Ibid, p.11.
15 Ibid, p. 13; also see pp. 4 & 8.
16 Ibid, p. 4.
17Samyuttanikaya, III, Ed. M. Leon Feer, Pali Texts Society, Lonodn, U. K., (Reprint), 1975, p. 138.
18 Peter Harvey, An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. K., 2000, p. 197.
19 Ibid, p. 199.
20 Quoted from Damien Keown, ―Buddhism and Human Rights,‖ in Keown, Damien (ed.), Contemporary Buddhist Ethics,
Richmong, Corzon Press, Surrey, U. K., 2000, p. 67.
44
21 Quoted in Mary Pat Fisher, Living Religions, Chapter 13, Fifth Edition, Pearson Custom Publishing, Boston, U. S. A., 2003,
p. 366.
22 The Holy Qur‘an, English Translation and Commentary by Maulana Muhammad Ali, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1996.
(First Edition, Lahore, 1951), p. 58. Also see Fisher, p. 370.
23 Mary Pat Fisher, Living Religions, Fifth Edition, Chapter 13, Pearson Custom Publishing, Boston, U. S. A., 2003, pp. 377ff.
24 The Holy Qur‘an, p. 111. Also see Fisher, p. 384.
25 Mary Pat Fisher, Living Religions, Chapter 13, Fifth Edition, Pearson Custom Publishing, Boston, U. S. A., 2003, p. 385.
______________
45
Peaceful Co-existence in Jain Ethics
Prof. (Dr.) Veer Sagar Jain*
Jain Ethics is a very wide and deep subject. Here we will deal
with the concept of peaceful co-existence in Jain ethics. Peaceful coexistence is the most basic and important need of the times. Today,
while we see new technological and scientific advances taking place on
day-to-day basis, we also see the modern-age people as full of violence,
arrogance and devoid of any peaceful thinking. It appears as though
man is sinking in his own ocean of selfishness and is on the look out to
eat each other. No one cares for another‘s existence on earth. No one
bothers if one is alive or dead! The danger has increased to such a
deadly level that if we would not care about co-existence now, man will
finish each other in the near future and not a single person will be
saved. According to Jain canonical literature, ethics has been divided
into two parts - The First part pertains to monks and sages; and, the
Second to the house-holders (i. e., Shravak). Our topic being the
Peaceful co-existence in the modern society; we would take to
particularly explain the second part of Jain ethics, which is for the
house-holders (known as Shravakachar). Jain Shravakachar is being
explained by dividing it into 12 vows in the Jain Canonicals??? These
12 vows are given and explained below:
1. Ahinsanuvrat (Partial abstinence from violence): To
renounce the violence. Violence is of two types - mental and
physical. Anger, greed, passions, etc., amounts to mental
violence; and, torturing or killing others is physical violence.
2. Satyanuvrat (Partial observance of truth): Partial abstinence
from telling lies is partial observance of truth.
*
Head, Deptt. of Jain Studies, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapith
(Deemed University), New Delhi – 110 016, India Phone: 91-11-26177207, 919868888607
46
3. Achauryanuvrat (Partial abstinence from stealing): To take
anything under constraint of passion without permission of its
owner is stealing. If the householder draws water from a tank or
a river, and earth from a mine without asking its owner, he is a
partial observant of non-steeling.
4. Brhmacaryanuvrata (Partial abstinence from indulging in
sex): Complete abstinence from sex is celibacy. A householder,
unable to observe complete celibacy, remains satisfied with his
own wife or her husband and treats all other women or men as
mother, sister, or as father and brother. A Muni, who frees
himself completely from sexual act is Brhmacarya Mahavrata.
5. Parigrahaparimanvrat (Limitation of worldly passions):
Indulgence in things is Parigraha. It is of two kinds: external
and internal. The householder is incapable of renouncing all
types of parigrahas. Therefore, he should impose a limit to all
external possessions. Muni abandons all parigrahas of worldly
things.
6. Digvrat (Direction abstinence): The householder imposes
limitations on his movements in all the ten directions.
7. Deshvrat (Regional abstinence): The minimization of limits of
directions‘ abstinence for a short time, is known as regional
abstinence.
8. Anarthdandtyagvrat
(Abstinence
from
unnecessary
demerits): Purposeless indulgence and inclination towards
violence and other demerits is indulgence in unnecessary
demerits. The householder should not do any type of
purposeless activities viz., dig earth, throw water, burn fire,
move air and crush vegetables.
9. Samayika (Meditation): To sit alone quietly or peacefully in
loneliness for thinking about only one‘s own soul for at least
forty-eight minutes three times a day, is Samayika.
10. Prosadhopavasavrata (Fasting): Fasting without outside
activities viz., trade and commerce for a complete day in a week
and also to study spiritual literature is Prosadhopavasavrata.
11. Atithisamvibhagavrata (Service of saintly beings): To offer a
share of one‘s meals to monks and householder and to feed them
in the proper prescribed process, is Atithisamvibhagavrata.
47
12. Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata (Limitation of objects of
sensual pleasures): Bhoga means those objects which are
capable of being used only once, and Upabhoga covers those
objects which are capable of being used again and again.
Amongst these 12 vows, the primary five vows are called
Anuvratas and the following three are known as Gunvratas, because it
adds quality to Anuvratas. The last four vows are called Shikshavratas,
because these teach us how to practice the sage-living in our own lives.
From these, the first five vows are called Vrat, and the following seven
are called Shee, because they secure and provide protection to the first
five vows or the Vratas.
Here, there is a very important point that deserves mention.
Surely, according to Jain Canonicles, there is only one vow – Ahinsa –
upon which lay the foundation of the whole ethical discipline and the
entire Jain ethics tends towards the translation of the principle of
Ahinsa into practice. All the 12 vows stand in support of Ahinsa. If
we follow just one vow Ahinsa, we will follow all the 12 vows. That is
why according to Jainism to follow the 12 vows, one must understand
and study the aspect of the vow of Ahinsa or non-violence.
In Jainism, Ahinsa has been described very minutely. Even the
great philosophers of the world are amazed on studying these
explanations. The description of Ahinsa in Jain Philosophy is
important. Jainism believes Hinsa will remain Hinsa, even if it is done
by anyone, to anyone, for anyone at a place or the other. Hinsa cannot
be considered as Ahinsa in any case. In the Jain philosophy, it is
clearly mentioned that hurting or killing any living being is Hinsa. Not
only this, even if one thinks of hurting some one, it is also Hinsa.
Thus, we conclude that the theory of Ahinsa in Jainism does not
include just human beings, because it talks about every living organism
also. As per Jainism, even the earth, water, fire, atmosphere, air, plants
and all vegetations are considered as living organisms, and violating or
hurting them, is considered as Hinsa. This proves that Jainism gives
importance not only to peaceful co-existence of human beings, but also
48
cares for the peaceful and non-violent co-existence of every living
organism in the entire cosmos.
Those, who make and create differences between human beings,
must think not only about humans but also about the drastic changes
occurring in our ecosystem and our environment. Pollution and
dangerous chemicals which are coming and getting mixed with our
natural resources are creating land-pollution, water-pollution, airpollution etc. This terrifying change will destroy the human race. We
must take notice of the environment for the sake of well being of entire
mankind.
Ahinsa is not only for self-emancipation, but also for betterment
of the whole universe. One, who wears shoes to protect his/her feet
from the dangerous stones and thorns on the way, but hurts and kills
other living beings by a sharp weapon, is considered in Jainism a sinful
person.
Likewise, there are many similar statements and explanations:
Savve jiva icchanti, jividum n marijjdum.
Tamha panvahm
Samansuttam
ghorm,
niggantha
vajjayanti
nam–
It means that every living being wants to live; to survive and not to die
or to starve. That is why the Jain monks consider killing as most
dangerous and horrifying. Accordingly, they want to prohibit these
sins.
Similar to Ahinsa, obeying and following truth, not stealing,
celibacy and non-possessiveness not only lead to the path of selfimprovement, but also result in the betterment of other well-beings.
This also helps in the maintenance of peaceful co-existence amongst all
the living beings. The peaceful co-existence of all the beings is in
danger, because of the sins like falsehood and theft etc. For instance:
(a) No one trusts a person, who speaks lies.
49
(b) Similar is the case of theft also. Everyone‘s property is very
precious to him or her. How can one live peacefully with a person,
who steals his or her property and all his wealth?
(c) Next is celibacy! It means to find complete satisfaction in one‘s
spouse only. It also means not to look to another woman or a man
with a lustful eye. This is also one of the very important rules,
needed for peaceful co-existence of all living beings. The society in
which this rule or practice is not followed, would not be able to live
peacefully.
(d) The provisions of the nature are there, but if every individual uses
these including all other resources in an unlimited manner, there
will be nothing left for others. We do not think about the future
generations. Sustainable development should be there for peaceful
co-existence of all human beings of the world. Therefore,
possessiveness is one of the needed aspects for peaceful coexistence of all living beings.
Just like the five Anuvratas, the seven Sheelvratas are also
required for peaceful co-existence. There is not a single vow or a rule
in Jain ethics that becomes an obstacle in the path to peaceful coexistence of living beings.
In the same way, with the above mentioned Vratas and Sheels in
the Jain ethics, there are many other things for which instructions are
given. These rules are to be followed to maintain and enrich the
environment for peaceful co-existence:
(1) We should show friendly behavior towards all and respect towards
the elders and those who are more experienced; show sympathy
towards the needy and poor; and, should keep a balanced
relationship with bad and untreatable people as well.
(2) The animals and birds that are kept in the houses as pets, should
neither be locked, nor be killed or hurt. Proper care to feed them,
50
and for their comfort should be taken. We should not cause any
harm to them.
(3) Never to give false advice to any person and never reveal anyone‘s
secret. We should not try to possess other‘s property.
(4) We should also not get involved in tasks like doing a work that is
against the nation; buying stolen objects; doing mischief in
business, etc.
(5) We should get involved in the protection of even the earth, water,
fire, air, vegetations, flora and fauna and the small insects.
(6) We should not misbehave even with the picture and statues of
different living beings.
(7) We should not allow coming of the intense sexual feeling towards a
person, except with whom we are married according to the religious
precepts.
(8) We should consume food and water etc., in a proper manner in the
day time.
(9) We should renounce the passions like anger, pride, fraud, greed,
complaining, self appreciating and criticizing others.
All kinds of vows and rules, given in Jainism, are essential for
peaceful co-existence of human beings. Further, these help build good
environment for peaceful co-existence for all living creatures of the
whole universe. A creation of healthy and ideal society needs to
observe these vows of Jain ethics.
------------------------------------------
51
Bibliography
1.
Tattvarthsutra, Acharya Uma Swami, Editor, Pt. Phoolchandra,
Shastri, Ganesh Varni Shodha Sansthana, Varanasi.
2.
Rantnakarandashravakachara, Acharya Samant Bhadra, Veetrag
vigyan Trust, Ajmer, Rajasthan.
3.
Purusarthsiddhyupaya, Acharya Amrit Chandra, Pandit Todermal
Smark Trust, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
4.
Sarvarthsiddhi, Acharya Pujya Pad, Bhartiya Gyan Pith, New Delhi.
5.
Samansuttam, Ed. Jinendra Varni, Veer Nirvan Mahotsav Samiti,
Indore, M.P.
6.
Ethical Doctrines in Jainism, Dr. K.C. Sogani, Jain Vidya Sansthan,
Jaipur, Rajasthan.
______________
52
Mutual Existence and Just Peace
Teachings of Nahjul Balaghah
Prof. Shah Mohammad Waseem*
Our Creator and Sustainer is One, the Almighty God.
Therefore, all of us must accordingly live in harmony and peace.
The holy Qur‘an states: ―O‘ mankind! We created you from a single
(pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes
that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise each other).
Verily, the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he, who is)
the most righteous of you. And, Allah has full knowledge and is
well-acquainted (with all things).‖1 Hence, our dealings with each
individual, group and nations must be based on the principles of
justice and peace. As ordained, life should be respected, blood-shed
must be essentially avoided, and rights should be rendered to the
rightful.
Co-existence does have political overtone. Hence, it is
Mutual Existence rather than simply Co-existence which must be
pursued to help develop and sustain a really humane society.
Human life is sacred, as described in the holy Qur‘an: ―… if
anyone slew a person – unless it be for murder or for spreading
mischief in the land – it would be as if he slew the whole people:
And, if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the
whole people…‖2 Thus, man on this planet should not take to merely
co-exist, but to mutually exist in perfectly harmonious relationship
between one another. To help sustain a cohesive human society and
smoothly working organizations, conflict must be avoided and
*
Former Dean of the Faculty, Coordinator , MTA Program, PG Diploma in Business
Finance, and UGC‟s DSA Program in Entrepreneurship and Development of Backward
Areas, and Chairman, Department of Commerce, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh –
202 002, India. Email: [email protected]
53
managed by our living and behaving in triangular relationship
between individuals, groups and nations, which be placed at the two
ends of the base in a triangle, with God, being at the top: thus,
relations between two individuals, two groups and two nations
and/or a groups of nations must be sustained with reference to the
Ultimate Essence – the Creator and Sustainer of the worlds.
Individuals and nations placed at the two angle points of the triangle
at the base, must seek and sustain their mutual relations by referring
first to God at the top and then to the individual or groups and/or
nations placed at the other side of the base of the triangle. Thus, the
relationship will be established and sustained like this: ―I‖, my
―God‖ and ―You‖; likewise, ―You‖, your ―God‖ and ―Me‖ at the
base. This will help develop understanding, paving way to amiably
solve problems. Anyone, not contributing to this method of conflict
management, must ponder over the fact that problems, in spite of all
methods of conflict management, being relied upon in our
contemporary world, continue to remain largely unsolved. Let us,
therefore, give thought to this theistic-secular method as well.
Mankind, as described by the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h), is in its totality
like the teeth of a comb (Un-naas o ka isnaan il misht). If any of
these is broken or damaged, hair locks cannot be smoothened and
arranged. This in itself speaks of ‗mutuality in existence‘, nurturing
and developing dependable human relations with an all-embracing
open mind. The main cause of the existing strife and malaise in our
contemporary world is that men and nations more often do not
faithfully express and speak out what they believe in, and conversely
do express what they believe not in. It‘s all devoid of truth and
honesty in dealings. Such a conduct is to be shunned. Diplomacy
does not mean reliance on untruth, rather it means faithful
expression with objectivity of purpose, aiming at good of the party
or parties involved in relationship. If mankind sustains its human
relation like this with trust in God, it would greatly add to
enrichment of human relations, thus relieving mankind of tension
and strife. Money presently going to piling up of arms and
maintenance of military forces would be released for utilization
elsewhere for enrichment of man‘s life and human welfare.
54
Peaceful Mutual Existence
To establish and perpetuate a genuine and just socioeconomic order and harmony in living between believers of different
faiths, we may refer to Nahjul Balaghah to find that only two
prescriptions, as given by Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (p.b.u.t), shall
guarantee understanding, just peace and tranquility in this strife
ridden world to the benefit of entire mankind. Given below are the
extracts from the Will of Imam Ali to his son, Imam Hasan (p.b.u.t).
These, if faithfully applied in our behavior with each other, while
inter-acting with each other, shall stand to guarantee peaceful mutual
existence, harmony in living and world peace:
I. ―My dear son! so far as your behavior with other human
beings is concerned, let your ‗self‘‘ act as scale to help you judge its
goodness or wickedness. Do unto others as you wish others to do
unto you. Whatever you like for your ‗self‘, like for others, and
whatever you dislike to happen to you; spare others from such
happenings. Do not oppress and tyrannize anybody, because surely
you do not like to be oppressed and tyrannized. Be kind and
sympathetic to others, as you certainly desire others to treat you
kindly and sympathetically. Whatever habits you find objectionable
and loathsome in others, abstain from developing those traits of
character. If you are satisfied or feel happy in receiving a certain
kind of behavior from others, you may behave with others exactly in
the same manner. Do not speak about them in the way that you do
not like others to speak about you. Do not speak on a subject about
which you know little or nothing, and if you at all want to speak on
anything or about anyone of which you are fully aware, then avoid
scandal, libel and aspersion, as you do not like yourself to be
scandalized and libeled in the same manner.‖3
This done, understanding and a just and dependable human
relations would prevail, wherein no one would fear the other; for,
each one would know that he will beget what he would do to others.
Those transgressing and indulging in objectionable behavior, would
be taken care of by individuals and polity itself. In any case,
magnitude of evils will be mitigated and managed easily. Thus,
55
justice would be the guiding spirit in mutual behavior between man
and man. And, thus a just peace will become the order of the day.
Applying the above mentioned rule of behavior dealings with
each other within one‘s own country and internationally,
misunderstandings and unfounded fears of different men, groups and
nations would gradually but surely disappear, rendering different
persons, groups and nations in bondage of togetherness. Thus, all
international organizations including the International Monetary
Fund, International Labor Organization and above all the U. N. O.,
would also become effective, meaningfully discharging their
functions to the benefit of all nations. Under such a set up, no weak
nation will carry any fear of the stronger ones, as is being
unfortunately manifested today in the contemporary world.
Development and prosperity would be equitably shared. The
arrogant would not be able to dominate the humble and weak.
Knowledge would flow freely from one corner to the other in the
world. Man would be man in true sense of his existence and
creation. Unity and understanding and international brotherhood
would be taking firm roots. Skirmishes and war would be largely
disappearing; those still insisting to take to arms, would be isolated
and punished by the peace loving nations jointly and severely,
subject to approval of all. Thus, the United Nations Organization
would be rendered truly effective, succeeding well in establishing a
truly just world order.
To establish and smoothly sustain a peaceful world order, let
the leaders and rulers across the globe ponder over and act, as
prescribed by Imam Ali (p.b.u.h), to establish global peace on firm
footings: His orders and instructions are indicative of the principles
and methods of establishing a just world order. Those, motivated by
their narrow national interests to control and devour others‘ national
wealth and resources, must be opposed by all, rejecting their
domination and control of the weaker nations to carry their own
ends. Thus, war must never be waged. It should be shunned by all
means. Those committing aggression must be bravely opposed.
Thus, Jehad (Holy War) was always and has to be essentially
56
defensive, for Islam does not permit aggression and violation of
human rights. Imam Ali (p.b.u.h) instructed his commanders to act,
as was prescribed for them. It was as under:
1. Never begin a war yourself. God does not like blood-shed; fight
only in defence.
2. Never be first to attack your enemy; repulse his attacks, but do it
boldly, bravely and courageously.
3. While declaring yourself and your deeds (reciting Rajuz - A
custom amongst hand to hand combatants), never waste your time,
and instead of speaking about yourself, speak about God and the
Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h).
4. Never follow and kill those, who run away from the battle or an
encounter, (for) life is dear to them; let them live as long as death
permits them to live.
5. Never kill wounded persons, who cannot defend themselves.
6. Never strip naked a dead man for his coat of arms or dress.
7. Never cut the nose or the ears of the dead to humiliate them.
8. Never take to loot and arson.
9. Never molest or outrage the modesty of a woman.
10. Never hurt a woman, even if she swears at you or hurts you.
11. Never hurt a child.
12. Never hurt an old or an enfeebled person.4
Further, in his Instructive Letter to his Governor-designate
Malik al-Ashtar, he (p.b.u.h) wrote:
57
―Beware of the sin of shedding blood without justification
and sanction, because there is nothing quicker to bring down the
Wrath of the Lord, to take away His Blessings and Mercies, to make
you more deserving of His Punishment and to reduce the span of
your life than to shed innocent blood. On the Day of Judgment, God
will first attend to sins of blood-shed, carried on by man of man.
Therefore, never try to strengthen your rule, position and prestige by
shedding innocent blood, because this, instead of making your
position strong, would not only considerably weaken it but may also
transfer your power totally, taking it away from you and entrusting it
to someone else. If you intentionally and purposefully murdered a
man then no excuse shall be acceptable to God or to me, because
punishment of such a crime is essential...‖5
The description above, speaks of the necessity of rule of
justice, pervading all aspects of human life in any society,
irrespective of its make and philosophy and also of the jurisdiction
of its rule. No ruthlessness, no subjugation, tyranny and oppression
can hold a ruler firm in his seat and pinnacle of power, unless
supported by vox populi, which, in turn, sustains itself on justice
under a just rule.
Peace was dear to the holy Imam. He asked his Governordesignate: ―If your enemy invites you for such a Treaty that it will
be agreeable to the Lord, then never refuse to accept such an offer,
because peace will bring rest and comfort to our armies; will relieve
you from anxieties and worries, and will bring prosperity and
abundance to your people. But even after such treaties be very
careful of the enemies, and do not place too much faith in their
promises, because they often resort to peace and treaty to deceive
and delude you and take advantage of your negligence, carelessness
and trust.‖6
In any case, one must not go back on the promise or
provisions of a Treaty, for the holy Qur‘an sayeth: Le M‟a
Taquloona M‟a La Taf‟aloon (Why do you say what you do not act
upon?), and that O‟ ye who believe! Fulfill (all) obligations.
Accordingly, the Imam advised Malik al-Ashtar: ―…be very careful,
58
never break your promise with your enemy; never forsake the
protection or support that you have offered to him; never go
back upon your words and never violate the terms of Treaty…
take very particular care of promises made; never go back upon
the words given; never attach or take up an offensive, without
previously challenging and giving an ultimatum. Deception and
fraud even against your enemy is a deception against God, and
none but a wretched sinner would dare to do this… there should be
no mental reservation, no fraud, no deception, and no meanings inbetween the lines, when you make a promise or conclude a Treaty.
… Once a Treaty has been finally concluded, do not try to take
advantage of any ambiguous word or phrase in it. If you conclude
an agreement between yourself and your enemy or enter into a
pledge with him, then fulfill your agreement, and discharge your
pledge faithfully. Place yourself as a shield in defense of whatever
you have pledged, because among the obligations of Allah, there is
nothing on which people are more strongly united, despite the
difference of their ideas and variation in their views, than respect for
fulfilling the pledges….Therefore, do not deceive your enemy,
because no one can offend against Allah, save the ignorant and the
wicked.‖ (For safeguarding against varied interpretations of words in
an agreement, the Imam advised his Governor-designate that) ―do
not enter into an agreement which may admit different
interpretations, and do not change the interpretation of vague
words after conclusion and confirmation (of an agreement).‖7
II. The discussion above, brings us to the requirement of just
governance and its fundamental principles: If one is asked to
explain the causes of the present day world malaise and problems
only in one word, he may say anything and many things. But to
precisely explain the cause of all the problems and malaise with
which our contemporary world is suffering, he can say with
confidence that the basic cause of all sufferings world over is
nothing else but Injustice. Truly so! The holy Qur‘an, therefore,
asks us to be just: ―O‘ ye who believe! Stand out firmly for justice,
as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or
your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor…‖8
59
Not only the above, one is required to be equally just with his
enemies. The holy Qur‘an sayeth: ―O‘ ye who believe! Stand out
firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred
of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from Justice.
Be just: that is next to Piety; and fear Allah, for Allah is wellacquainted with all that ye do.‖9
Let the rulers and those who govern must consider the
following advice of the Imam (p.b.u.h) to instill confidence of the
ruled in their ruler: Advising Malik al-Ashtar, he said: ―…know O‘
Malik that I have sent you to an area, where there have been
governments before you, both just as well as oppressive. People will
now watch your dealings as you used to watch the dealings of the
rulers before you. And, they would criticize you as you criticized
them…. (The people there) are of two kinds, either your brethren in
religion or one like you in creation. They will commit slips and face
mistakes. They may act wrongly, willfully or by neglect. So extend
to them your forgiveness and pardon in the same way as you would
like Allah to extend (it to you).‖10 And, that:
―Keep Allah in view in respect of the lowest class consisting
of those who have little means, the poor, the destitute, the penniless
and the disabled, because in this class are both discontented as well
as those who beg. Take care for the sake of Allah of His obligations
about them for which He has made you responsible. Fix for them a
share from the public funds and a share from the crops of lands … in
every area, because the remotest ones have the same share as the
near ones. All these are those, whose rights have been placed in
your charge. Therefore … you can not be excused for ignoring
small matters because of deciding big problems. Consequently, you
cannot be unmindful of them; nor, turn your face from them out of
vanity. Take care of the affairs of those of them, who do not
approach you being of unsightly appearance or those whom people
regard low. Appoint for them some trusted people, who do not
approach you being of unsightly appearance or those whom people
regard low. Appoint for them some trusted people, who are Godfearing and humble. They should inform you of these people‘s
60
conditions. … Take care of the orphans and the aged, who have no
means, nor go a-begging‖.11
It is commonly observed that in spite of all care to reach the
due to its rightful individual and different strata under a well
administered rule, there emerge causes of complaint including those
which are genuine and well founded, as all of the functionaries of
any Government are not the same. The Imam, therefore, instructed
his Governor-designate to ―… fix a time for the complainants,
wherein you spare yourself for them, and sit for them for common
audience and feel humble therein for the sake of Allah, Who created
you. (On that occasion) you should keep away your army and your
assistants such as the guards and the police, so that any one, who
likes to speak, may speak to you without fear, because I have heard
the Prophet of Allah (p.b.u.h) say at more than one place (that) ―The
people among whom the rights of the weak is not secured from the
stronger without fear, would never achieve purity.‖ Tolerate their
awkwardness and inability to speak…‖12 Stating his policy of
Governance, Imam Ali (p.b.u.h) declared: ―…Had I not hated
wickedness and sin, I would have been the greatest politician and
statesman of the type. But any vice, every wickedness, every
duplicity, every crime and every unscrupulousness is a sin and
violation of the Order of God.‖
Dwelling upon human dignity and honor of the State
functionaries, he (p.b.u.h) said: ―It ill becomes of a man to lower
himself before any body but his Allah.‖ The occasion was when
Harris ibn Sohail, one of Governors of the Provinces, was in Kufa
(then seat of the Government) in Iraq. While riding through the city,
he saw Imam Ali (p.b.u.h) also riding. The Governor got down from
his horse to accompany him on foot. The Imam stopped his horse
and said: ―Get on your horse; even if had you not been an officer of
the State, I would not have allowed you to lower yourself like this.
The sight of such humiliation of man before man never pleases me.
It is the worst form of tyranny which can be practised.‖
Describing Imam Ali (p.b.u.h) as a just administrator and
champion of Human Rights, George Jordac in his book Sautul
61
Adalat il lnsaniyah (The Voice of Human Justice, Tr. Fazal Haq)
says:
―Ali enjoys a very high position in the history of human
rights. His views were linked with the thinking of Islam. The central
point of his views was that despotism should come to an end, and
class discrimination should be eliminated from amongst the people.
Whoever has recognized Ali and heard his remarks and has
understood his beliefs and views about human brotherhood, knows
that he was a sword, drawn on the necks of the tyrants.‖
―His entire attention was directed towards the enforcement of
the rules of equity and justice. His thoughts and manner and his
government and politics were all dedicated to the achievement of
this purpose. Whenever any oppressor encroached upon the rights
of the people; threatened the weak in a humiliating manner or
ignored their welfare and threw his burden upon their weak
shoulders, Ali gave him a tough fight.‖
―Ali had laid the very foundation of his treatment of the nonMuslims on this principle: ―Their property is like our property and
their lives are like our own lives.‖ Likewise, while appointing
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Governor of Egypt, he instructed him
thus: ―I recommend to you to be equitable to the Zimmis (NonMuslims); to do justice to an oppressed person; to be severe upon
the oppressor and to be indulgent towards the people as far as
possible and to be kind to them. It is also necessary that in the
matter of truth the far and the near should be equal in your eyes.‖13
Refer to Hammurabi‘s Code of Governance (who ruled over
Babylon in Circa – 1750 B. C) which was discovered in Susa and is
placed in Louvre (Paris) in France, Plato‘s ideals, given in his
Republica, and the provisions in Magna Charta (the Great Charter),
drawn in England in 1512 A. D., forming basis for the later Charters,
and also the December 10, 1948 Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, proclaimed and adopted by the General Assembly of the
United Nations, drafted by thousand of intellectuals particularly
coming from the West, and you will agree with George Jordac, who
62
considers the Constitution for governance, given by Imam Ali
(p.b.u.h), better than all the existing Codes.
Anita Rai, praising the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h), his Ahlul Bayt
and their devout follower Abu Zarr al-Ghaffari says (that) ―…
evident is the fact that while pleading and arguing for justice, of any
form or nature, at any Court of Law, on any ground of dispute, be it
the issue of ethics, liberty, equality, fraternity, discrimination,
wisdom or freedom, the House of Ali is still the place to look for
utterances and acts of substance and power.‖
Needles to emphasize that it is administration, based on the
principle of justice for all that ensures confidence of the ruled in the
policies and action of rulers and the State. The life and preaching of
Hazrat Ali (p.b.u.h) demonstrate it well that rulers have to live an
exemplary life, so that the deprived and those who long for justice,
feel encouraged to work hard to better their lives, so that the society
may develop dynamically to help achieve a better standard of life for
the people in general at dynamic levels of provision and adequacy,
being longed by the people. However, it must be well understood
that any material civilization devoid of fear of God and without the
anchor of faith, can never develop in true sense of the word.14
―Ali‘s actions and words helped in moulding the mode of
thinking and living of the people. Reforms of far-reaching effects
were introduced by him. They are still valid for our contemporary
world. He always instructed his governors and officers to do,
whatever they could, to better the lot of the common man; to help
raise their standard of living and encourage them to voluntarily think
and work for a socio-economic order which guarantees the
sustenance of a true Welfare State…A Welfare State with a program
of socio-economic justice must not and cannot forget the ‗havenots‘. Rather, in every official plan document, special mention
should be made of them.‖15
George Jordac writes that ‗the method adopted by Imam Ali
in the matter of politics, ruler-ship and administration of the State,
was based on the principle of freedom of the people. He had an
63
ardent belief in the principle of the freedom of people - freedom
which can be observed in all his actions … in the first instance Ali
made the people realize that to establish truth and to destroy
falsehood is their own responsibility. They should hold of their
freedom; should not be subservient to the orders of the upper
classes, and should neither betray the society, nor be cruel to
themselves…. Imam Ali had given the body of the workers the same
rank on earth as is enjoyed by the hearts of the righteous persons in
Paradise. .. He elevated the position of freedom and considered the
work of a free person to be great. He had made it his principle not to
compel any person to do any particular work, because any work
which is not done voluntarily, is dishonesty in freedom as well as in
work.16
But then Good Governance requires Development and
Sustenance of Knowledge Economy, which the Governments have
started talking of recently. Gone are the days when saying that ―it is
easy to rule ignorant masses‖, as was expressed by Catherine,
Czarina II of Russia, could be given any consideration - thanks to
dissemination of knowledge, ‗information revolution‘ and resultant
fast upcoming level of awareness, and in certain spheres on-going
enlightenment in our contemporary world.
In will be interesting to note in this regard that the U. N. D.
P., in its Arab Human Development Report, 2002, listed six points,
given by Imam Ali (p.b.u.h) concerning ideal governance, urging the
Arab Governments to learn from Imam Ali in ―advocating
knowledge and fighting ignorance‖ which is ―the main reason for
most problems:‖
1. He who appoints himself as Imam (ruler/leader) of the people,
must be teaching himself before teaching others; his teaching of
others must be first by setting an example rather than with his words,
for he who begins by teaching and educating himself, is more
worthy of respect than he who teaches and educates others.
2. Your concern with developing land should be greater than your
concern for collecting taxes, for the latter can only be obtained by
64
developing; whereas he, who seeks revenue without development,
destroys the country and the people.
3. Seek company of the learned and the wise in search of solving the
problems of your country, and the righteousness of your people.
4. No good can come in keeping silent as to Government policies or
in speaking out of ignorance.
5. The righteous are men of virtue, whose logic is straight forward;
whose dress is unostentatious, whose path is modest; whose actions
are many and who are undeterred by difficulties.
6. Choose the best among your people to administer justice among
them. Choose someone who does not easily give up; who is
unruffled by enmities, someone who will not persist in wrong
doings; who will not hesitate to pursue right once he knows it;
someone whose heart knows no greed, who will not be satisfied with
a minimum of explanation without seeking the maximum of
understanding; who will be the most steadfast when doubt is cast;
who will be the least impatient in connecting the opponent; the most
patient in pursuing truth, the most stern in meeting out judgment,
some one who is unaffected by flattery and not swayed by
temptation, and these are but few.
The presently strife-ridden world is beseeched to refer to the
teachings – Sermons and written words - of the Ahlul Bayt to
explore truth and find enduring solutions to the problems, raging our
contemporary world, and to firmly establish justice, peace and
freedom to the benefit of mankind sans any consideration or
discrimination whatsoever it may be! It must necessarily render all
seekers of truth not only to duly consider their teachings but also
their own lives as well to find out whether or not there existed any
deviation from what they preached and what they practiced. It is
here that the contemporary world leaders have to ponder over ‗as to
why there is evil in the world‘? Why the common man looks
askance to the high pinnacles of seats of governance in all reverence,
longing to find faithful translation of the real purport of the promise,
65
expressed in well chosen words, into actions to the benefit of all
sans any discrimination whatsoever! Let the world find any ruler,
whose action preceded his spoken words, and who talked in all
truthfulness without mincing words. Plausible tongue uttering words
glibly, not backed by genuine actions, lead to misunderstanding,
adding to mistrust in the rulers and administrators. Truth always
manifests itself, even though concealed in thick black wrappings.
The cunning and the unscrupulous, in spite of their trying to conceal
it, do not succeed over time. Further, in spite of their efforts to the
contrary, there continues to remains a thin line of demarcation,
separating cunningness and intelligence. True that Hazrat Ali faced
many a time difficult situations, and expressed by saying ‗ma taraka
lil haq e sadiq‘ (My truth has not left me any friends), but he upheld
justice and implemented it always.
Verily, Imam Ali has been the ideal and just ruler in Islam,
who acted and then expressed in words. Thus, actions preceded his
words of wisdom. He never took any help from those greedy and
unscrupulous by being unfair in distribution. He declared: ―Do you
command me that I should seek support by oppressing those over
whom I have been placed. By Allah! I won‘t do so till the world
goes on, and till one star leads another in the sky. Even if it were my
property, I would have distributed it equally among them, then why
not, when the property is that of Allah.‖17 The Imam refused to give
an advance installment from the public treasury (Bayt ul Maal) to his
brother, Aqeel, out of turn even though he was facing difficulties.
Rulers and administrators accept gifts and presents. Needless
to say that wherever sincerity and well-founded love do not exist,
giving gifts and presents amount to another method of bribing. On
man (perhaps Ashas ibn Qais) brought a ‗closed flask full of honey
paste‘ as gift to Imam Ali. He refused to take it and said: ―Childless
women may weep over you. Have you come to deviate me from the
religion of Allah, or you are mad, or you have been overpowered by
some jin, or you are speaking without senses. By Allah! Even if I
am given all the domains of the seven (stars) with all that which
exists under their skies in order that I may disobey Allah to the
66
extent of snatching the cover of a grain from an ant, I would not do
it …‖18 The Imam instructed his governors that one‘s faith has
nothing to do with our dealing with them; no injustice be done to
them land no harsh treatment be meted out them.
Imam Ali, who implemented Islamic provisions in
governance, was such an exemplary ruler, who earned his and his
family‘s livelihood by working in the fields and orchard, and always
willingly helped the poor and the needy. He did not draw any thing
from the Bayt ul Maal (Public Treasury) for defraying his and his
family‘s expenses.
Thus, Islam and teachings and actions of Hazrat Ali (p.b.u.h)
would serve as laudable points for effecting inter-faith dialogue and
understanding between believers of different faiths.
------------------------------------------
References
1. Surah Hujur‘at, Verse 13 (Tr. Abdullah Yusuf Ali).
2. Surah al-Ma‘idah, Verse
3. Will (Item 31), Nahjul Balaghah, Tr. Syed Mohammad Askari Jaffery, Seerat-uz-Zahra Committee, Hyderabad, India.
4. Introduction to Nahjul Balaghah, Tr. Syed Mohammad Askari Jaffery, Seerat uz Zahra Committee, Hyderabad, India. It
is quoted from Tabri (Vol. VI, p. 577). It also appears in Raozat-us-Safa, Vol II, p. 425, and Tarikh i Abul Fida, p. 425.
5. Letter of Instruction, No. 53, Nahjul Balaghah, Tr. Syed Mohammad Askari Jaffery, Seerat uz Zahra Committee,
Hyderabad, India.
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid.
8. Surah al-Nisa, Verse 135.
9. Qur‘an, Surah al-Ma‘idah, Verse 8.
10. Letter of Instruction, No. 53, Nahjul Balaghah, Tr. S. Ali Raza, Ansariy‘an Publications, Qum, Islamic Republic of
Iran, 1981, p. 456.
11. Ibid, p. 465.
12. Ibid, pp. 465-466.
13. Ansariyan Publications, IR Iran, 1990, p. 84.
15. S. M. Waseem, Equity and Socio-economic Justice, Hannoveresche Studien Uber den Mittleren Osten, edition, Assad
Hannover, Germany, Band 8, 1989.
67
16 . Ibid.
17. Voice of Human Justice, Tr. M. Fazal Haq, quoted from Anita Rai, Ghadeer, Starsighter Limited, London, U. K., 2006,
p. 194.
18. Sermon No. 221, Nahjul Balaghah, Tr. S. Ali Reza, Ansariyan Publication, Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran, 1981, p.
374.
______________
68
Mankind’s Equality and Oneness
in Diversity
Teachings of Islam and Other Religions
Dr. M. M. Verma*
Introduction
The world history decisively reveals that religious traditions
have not developed in the air. Further, it would be wrong to treat
religious traditions as exclusive entities, totally independent of each
other. In fact, these seemingly diverse traditions, which are part of
various religions of the world today, have influenced each other much
more than what the eye can perceive. The level to which they have
enriched each other, is far deeper than what is generally perceived by
common men.
Likewise, every religion has significantly contributed to
humanity‘s understanding of the ultimate reality, which transcends
every specific expression. Universal values are undoubtedly the same
in all religions; we are unavoidably inter-connected and inter-related;
and, no religion can refuse to recognize the spirituality and legitimacy
of truth, embodied in different sacred scriptures.
Undoubtedly, our world is more hospitable to a variety of
approaches today than ever before. As we move towards a world
civilization, we find many cultures and spiritual traditions impinge on
one another. Here, every tradition takes account of traditions belonging
to others. A subtle flavour of unification of ideas and thoughts and
*
President, Interfaith Foundation, India :E-mail:[email protected]
Website: www.interfaithfoundationindia.com
69
ecumenism is radiating. Undoubtedly, it is a good sign for the future of
this world.
The process of globalization has compelled us to re-think about
our approach to other religions and their missionary work. Time has
come when every civilization should be enriched by the treasure
inherent in other religions and civilizations. More importantly,
followers of all religions should work to pave the path of peaceful coexistence. Let‘s make efforts to find a common theological platform
with adherents of different faiths by initiating a process of dialogue.
Owing to its multi-religious and multi-cultural structure, India is
most favourably placed to initiate this dialogue. Particularly so, because
Indians are religious by nature! In order to understand other religions, a
person should be deeply committed to his own religion. Attempt should be
made to understand each religion in its own distinctiveness; and, see its
contribution to spiritual atmosphere and unity of mankind. We will find
that in every religion, there are universal values and a basic message for
human beings. The thrust of each religion is on making man humane,
pious, righteous, and on building a social environment, based on these
universal values. Paths may be several, but they unite when it comes to
the inherent teachings of these seemingly divergent paths.
The Holy Qur‘an has laid down the basis of inter-religious
dialogue. ―Holding of such a dialogue is in complete consonance with
the Islamic Shariah (Traditions),‖ said Syed Wahiddudin (former
Head, Deptt. of Philosophy, Delhi University). Peace Treaty of
Hudaybiyyah in the history of Islam was the result of a successful
dialogue of this kind. This Treaty of 628 CE was entered into between
the Prophet and non-Muslims at Hudaybiyyah, a place near Mecca. The
Treaty was signed despite divergent views of people on both sides;
while Prophet Mohammad emphasized on the unity of God and
repeatedly said ‗don‘t follow what you don‘t know‘, the disbelieving
tribes of Arabia worshipped hundreds of gods, viz., god of gold, animal
god, etc. Interestingly, the Qur‘an called this peace Treaty as the
greatest victory, signifying that the true Prophets are always votaries of
peace, and not of war.
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Imam Bukhari‘s collection of the recorded Hadith of the Holy
Prophet is considered most authentic. He records that the Holy Prophet
showed utmost humility and respect for all religions. Once the Prophet
saw funeral of a Jew and he stood up. When sosmeome questioned on
it, he (p.b.u.h) remarked: “Was he not a human being?” He said: “Jews
and Muslims - all are humans.” According to the Qur‘an, violence is
haram (forbidden). In Islam, none – an individual, a group or a nation
– is allowed to take to fight, except in self-defence. .
The Holy Qur‘an says:
Verily, We have sent thee (Muhammad) in truth as a bearer of
glad tidings and as a warner. And, there never was a people
without a warner having lived among them.1
We assuredly sent amongst every people an Apostle with the
command to serve God and eschew evil. 2
We appointed you as Messenger very much like other
Messengers about whom We have mentioned to you earlier and
several Messengers (whom We sent), whose mention has not
been made to you.3
Some of the messengers named in the Qur‘an are Adam, David,
Solomon, Lot, Jacob, Moses, Jesus and others, and the last Messenger,
Mohammad (p.b.u.h). The books named as revealed books are Old
Testament, New Testament, Psalms and Qur‘an. Immense importance
of a large number of similar Prophets, Messengers and books has been
emphasized in the Qur‘an. It tells not to differentiate among the
Messengers (Qur‟an 2:285); and, it is obligatory on every believer to
have faith and belief on all the earlier Messengers as well. At the same
time, every Muslim is under instructions to revere all religions and treat
every humans (irrespective of their religious belief) as one.
All of you are together One. 4
Qur‘an teaches the dictum and practice as prescribed: Lakum
deenukum wa liya deen (to you your religion to me mine), and La
ikraha fid Deen (there is no-compulsion in religion)5 At another place
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Qur‘an says: Kitaab un anzlnaa hu ilai ka mubaarak un le
yaddabbaroo aayaait ihi wa li-yataza k-kara ul ul-albaab (This is a
book which We have revealed to you (Mohammad). It is full of
blessings, so that the people ponder over its verses and prudent persons
take lessons there from).6
The believers should call upon the followers of other religions
to unite for the sake of truth; seek mutual help and friendship and stand
firm in constancy and patient perseverance.7
Hazrat Mohammad’s Advice to Mankind
Have fear of God; speak truth both in anger and peace; follow
middle path in riches and poverty; befriend a person, who antagonizes
you; forgive a person, who is cruel to you; your silence should be
thoughtful and your words should be liked by God; take lessons of
morality from whatever you see; give instructions for observance of
virtue. He prayed:
God save me. O‟ Lord, I seek your refuge from evil arising from
hatred among human hearts; unsteady on the righteous path;
and bad conduct.
Some of the other oft-quoted words of Prophet Mohammad
(p.b.u.h) are:
Give hospitality to guests.
Speak good words or remain silent. Among you, I like that
person the most, whose manners are the best. He will be
nearest to me on the Day of Judgment.
God sent down a revelation to Prophet Abraham: It is my
promise to the people of excellent manners that I will keep them
under the shadow of my throne on the Day of Judgment.
If you gather some knowledge that benefits people, reward
continues even after death.
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Adopt piety, and abstain from immorality for the sake of God;
fulfill your promises. If anybody has entrusted to you something,
ensure its safe custody and return the same to that person on
time; don‟t fiddle around. And, be kind to orphans; don‟t cause
inconvenience to thy neighbour.
Speak softly. Popularize mutual greetings by praying for peace.
Say assalam alai kum to each other read and try to understand
the meanings of the Scripture; fear reckoning on the Day of
Judgment; keep your expectations to the bare minimum; do
good deeds.
When you visit a sick person to enquire about his health then a
heavenly angel greets you to say that in lieu therefor your good
gesture, a place has been reserved for you in heaven.
Hoarders of food grain etc., are sinners.
If you grant respite to a destitute debtor or forgo debt, on the
Day of Judgment, God will seat you under his empyrean throne.
Your ghulaam (servants) are like your brother. Feed then out of
your food; ensure that he is properly clothed; don‟t ask him to
do a work which is beyond his physical capacity; if at all you
give him some difficult work, help him in its completion.
When you plant a sapling or sow some crop, and a bird eats or
a human being benefits therefrom; this act is counted as your
propitiatory charity for God‟s pleasure.
Sufism emphasizes Ishq. Greater emphasis has been given to
non-violence and compassion of all religions. Christianity emphasizes
of God and Christ, and service to mankind. Equality and justice,
among other things, is vividly present in Islam. Truth, of course, is
common to all religions. Similarly, religions advocate a balanced life,
which latter became the kernel of Guru Nanak‘s teachings. Guru
Nanak - the founder of Sikhism - gave message of freedom of choice.
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He said: “Individuals should learn from their own experiences and
thereby modify their future choices and decisions.”
Sikh Perspective
The Sikh Gurus were philosophers of ecumenism. They sought
to make the world safe for diversity, which could be established by not
giving up one‘s religion and traditions, but by penetrating into the
depth of one‘s own religion, where particularity loses its significance.
When we rise to spiritual freedom, we accept other expressions of the
meaning of man‘s existence. We realize that the ultimate truth is not
capable of being fully expressed in words and propositions.
Guru Arjun Dev said:
Koi Kahe Ram, Koi Khoda (Some call Him Ram; some call him
Khuda [Allah]), but all those who recognize God‟s Will can
understand the meaning of these revelations.
Kabir said:
Aval Alla Nur uppai, Qudrat de sab bande, ek nur te sab jag
upjai, kon bhale kon munde. (God is first, He is source of all
right and life. All are His children; all are created from One
Nur (Divine Light). Therefore, how can anyone be good and the
other bad?
The same level of similarity in thoughts and opinions is visible
at several other places as well. „In the name of Allah‟ or „Praise be to
Allah‟ (Qur‟an Sura I) is just the same as in Gayatri Mantra in
Hinduism or Mul Mantra in Sikhism.
Of all holy places, the most sacred is the heart; wherein the
name of God lives.8
God dwells in it; keep your heart pure, clean, free of filth.
The Lord dwells in the positive mind..9
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Advaita, oneness, unity and no duality.10
You should have the power to see mankind‟s equality and the
realization of oneness in diversity.11
The praise of the Lord and his name is the subject, which all
scriptures have addressed.12
Further, Guru Nanak said:
You embrace only God‟s religion.
Chardian Kala, tere bhane sarbat ka bhala (O‟ God) Thou are
the Highest, all may feel good, because of Your Grace.)
Sabna jian da eko data so mein visar no jai (God is the only
One Benefactor; I should not overlook it.)13 His true servants
can reduce others‟ pain and help the whole world become one.14
Recite what has been revealed to you in the book of your Lord,
all differences shall cease.
Apparently, there is need for the religious leaders to explain the
teachings of their religion in the context of the present day world
problems and help relileve pain and sufferings of humanity. As
religious people, we all owe responsibility to the society. Let the
enlightened people work to re-unite humanity and reduce artificial
boundaries. Religion is a great power, and it must be used in the
positive direction.
Oneness in Diversity
Just as co-existence is valued in Hinduism, so also it is valued in
Christianity and Islam. The goal of co-existence is achieved in
Hinduism through co-recognition, while in Christianity and Islam it is
achieved through mutual co-existence.
Today, the future of the world is at stake, because our own
deviations from sublime teachings. It is up to us to build our future.
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After all, it is the people, who have to deal with one another. It is they,
who have to ultimately to decide all crucial issues. Let the people of
the world come together to assert their sense of understanding and
unity.
We should work to promote harmony among all religions. We
should identify universal values in all religions. Although, there may
be some apparent dissimilarity in different religions of the world, yet
we should work for their peaceful co-existence. We should see unity in
diversity, very much like Gandhi‘s advice; there is no need of pressure
from outside.
The value system in any religion is its soul; whereas institutions
and rituals etc., represent its body. Every living religion has its value
system, which gives it life. Sometimes we focus more on the body
system and less on the soul. While we create institutions, we neglect
the most essential values. However, there is consensus that the most
fundamental values common to all religions include: Love, Nonviolence, Compassion, Equality, Justice, Human Dignity and Truth.
The social concept that has been termed ―the golden rule‖ is
found in almost all sacred writings as well as popular philosophical
sources. Sometimes, it is worded in the positive: “Do unto others” and
to forbid negatilve action, it is worded: “Do not do it to others.”
A Hindu, who mediates on Brahma; a Muslim who praises
Allah; a Sikh, who sings songs of devotion of Akal Purakh (Timeless
Being); a Christian, who magnifies Jesus; a Jew, who magnifies
Adonai, and a Zoroastrian, who honours Ahura Mazda (the wise Lord)
are all in essence generating devotion towards the One, they consider to
be the Supreme Power. They may have differing interpretations of
God‘s nature and name and ways, but in a united way, they are all
reaching out to the Creator.
Today, the human race is blanketed with a common longing for
spirituality. Threads after threads of similar expressions are found
woven throughout the entire global fabric. This is especially evident,
when the subject matter concerns moral guidelines and ethical
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behavior. These commonalities become all the more apparent and
interesting, when various sacred texts are compared concerning basic
issues viz., the Golden Rule, prayer, character development, faith, love
and compassion. Every religion offers some insights, observations and
instructions that are universally acceptable and are helpful too. Let us
celebrate the commonalities in our religions. Let us mingle the
essential messages, delivered by all religions and faiths, whose
combined teachings reveal untold fundamental story which has been
smothered by the doctrines which have been severely dividing
religions.
In a secular society, the most important thing is that the
followers of every religion must learn to faithfully practice their
religion, taking care not to hurt the susceptibilities of the followers of
any other religion.
Hindu View
The Yajur Veda calls for good thoughts to come from all sides,
annoo bhadra krtavao yantu, vishvataha. It says: One, who is the
permanent friend of all; who is engrossed in the interests of mankind by
his action, mind and speech, is the one who knows the real religion.
Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) said:
Charity means to extend the hand of friendship to him, whom
one knows and to him whom one knows not.
Achieving global unity among millions of people from around
the world, who otherwise come from extremely diverse background, is
an uphill task. These people are different, culturally, financially,
geographically, philosophically and educationally. However, they can
be united on the basis of the soul, which is one common identity that
they share. The ultimate truth is that the path that leads to unity and
peace is a universal path, which has little to do with apparent symbols.
The world desperately needs universally acceptable values for
the sake of unity, peace and survival. A tendency towards
77
exclusiveness and blind faith may create hurdles in forging ahead a
unified mankind. To follow a lasting path to unity, we still need an
internal process in order to succeed at that.
Conclusion
In essence, we have to convince each other that there is
something greater than our differences and distinctiveness, which binds
us together. And, that is the principle of unity. It is possible for people
to derive benefit from all religious writings. Blind rejection of one
faith in favour of another should be done. Let us overcome
exclusiveness and end our blindness in order to imbibe a common
culture of consciousness.
As we gradually approach a world culture, we should overcome
tensions and learn to converse and agree gently with one another. We
should show reverence to all spiritual paths. Such a spirit is needed, if
we are to live at peace with one another. We should acquaint ourselves
and appreciate the richness and universality of truth, found in all Holy
Scriptures of different faiths. Those, who have a genuine concern for
religion and spirituality, should understand and respect one another;
religious power like any other power can be used for a good cause, and
definitely not for a bad one. What we need so desperately in our world
today is a mobilization of religious power for building and sustaining
world peace. This power, if mobilized for a right and just cause would
be of immensevalue for mankind. Let us highlight the shared wisdom
and light of the great religious teachers of the world. May this light
shine brightly! May there be peace on Earth!
------------------------------------------
References
1. Quran 16:36.
2. Ibid, 25:24.
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3. Ibid, 4:164.
4. Ibid, 4:2.
5. Ibid, 109:6.
6. Ibid, 38:29.
7. Ibid, 3:64.
8. Sukhmani Sahib, Canto 3.
9. Canto 4.
10. Canto 11.
11.Canto 22.
12. Canto 24.
13. Canto 16
14. Ibid
______________
79
Buddhist Economic Theory and Systems
Dr. Siyaram Mishra Haldhar*
An ideal Buddhist community is founded on the right livelihood
of each member. A righteous leader has a role to facilitate stability and
order in society. Right livelihood can be conducted through the
attainment of material well-being and mental development. Material
wealth should be used to alleviate physical suffering, while an attitude
of non-attachment to wealth is essential for the elimination of
unfulfilled desires. People with non-attachment are associated with
three Karmic actions: righteous acquisition of wealth, contentment in
consumption, and generosity towards others.
The goal of Unitary Buddhist society is for each individual to
live high quality of life, while striving towards liberation. The state
and the Sangha are important Buddhist institutions in formulating wellordered, prosperous and harmonious conditions in a mutually
dependent society.
The answer, based on the study, is that common property
involves the practice of absolute Non-attachment in ideal settings.
Based on the voluntary spirit of Buddhism, a condition of sharing
common property in a community must be established through public
consent, but without any coercion or suppression from the ruling class.
Until that form of ideal community is reached, private endeavors viz.,
production, consumption and giving will play a major role in Buddhist
economic activities. Without private production in an ordinary society,
there is no other means for the laymen to practice righteous actions,
based on their own understanding of the teachings.
*
Sr. Fellow, I.C.H.R., U.G.C. Associate, IIAS Shimla, Research Associate,
Deptt of Buddhist Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Mob: 09868632102 Email: [email protected]
80
Now, we will discuss: (1) How to develop theoretical framework for
Buddhist Economics from the Fundamental Buddhist principles? And,
(2) How to explore basic features of Buddhist Economic System.
Buddhist economics can be defined as ‗the study of managing
material well-being from the perspective of Buddhist philosophy. The
Buddhist principle of right livelihood forms basis of Buddhist
economics. Given that right livelihood is the fifth factor of the Noble
Eightfold path, it must be understood with a holistic system of Buddhist
practices. Economic activities can not be analyzed in isolation from
other activities.
The positive part of Buddhist economic theory is postulated
from the First and Second Noble Truths, which outline the Buddhist
holistic view of the world. The positive theory consists of three
fundamental axioms:
1. The Non-self axiom states that all economic phenomena are
a combination of interacting conditional factors.
2. The impermanency axiom states that all conditional factors
are ever changing through the process of interaction.
3. The unsatisfaction-ness axiom states that economic activities
are an attempt to eliminate unsatisfaction-ness that has
arisen from clinging to ever changing phenomena.
The Principles of Economic Activities
The Normative part of Buddhist economic theory aims at
finding an effective way to allocate limited resources in order to
achieve a Buddhist goal of life. A Normative theory is based on the
concept that right livelihood has three characteristics (1) It is based on
the right view. (2) It is consistent with the Buddhist ethical system.
(3) It leads to both material well-being and material development.
Thus, the goal is based on the Buddhist view of economic phenomena,
as the positive theory. The effective means for achieving that goals are
derived from the four noble truths, which form basis of Buddhist
81
ethical principles. The means in the Normative theory are the Buddhist
ethical constraints on making economic action choices.
At the individual level, the goal of economic activities is to
effectively eliminate unsatisfactory-ness, subject to internal and
external constraints within a dynamic and interdependent system, while
eventually leading to the ultimate goal i. e., enlightenment. The
effectiveness of any action is measured by its effectivity in ending
present unsatisfactory-ness without causing new undersatisfactory-ness
to one‘s own self and/or to others. In turn, the goal at the societal level
is to provide favourable external conditions, which can assist its
members to reach their individual Buddhist goal, favorable in the sense
that the external conditional factors can facilitate and cultivate a mental
development, which is effective and also tends to eliminate
unsatisfactory-ness.
Based on the Buddhist teachings, the Normative theory first
suggests a criterion for selecting the cost effective action among all
available action choices. To assist an agent in choosing the costeffective action and moving towards enlightenment, the theory gives a
set of principles of actions.
Based on the roots of wholesome actions that are conductive to
both the cost effective actions and enlightenment, a set of Buddhist
ethical constraints on action is derived in its four principles:
1. Responsibility, having confidence in the law of Karma.
2. Harmlessness, abstaining from all unwholesome actions.
3. Generosity, conducting wholesome actions, based on
Loving-kindness and Generosity.
4. Discernment, purifying the mind to deepen an understanding
of the unsatisfactory-ness.
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Conclusion
The basic theoretical framework for Buddhist economics comprises
two parts: Positive and Normative.1 The Positive theory consists of
three fundamental axioms that characterize the properties of economic
phenomena: Non-self, impermanency and unsatisfactory-ness. The
axioms characterize the Buddhist economic systems as complex, everchanging and inter-connected. They also describe human nature as
being ignorant, while predicting that any action by an ignorant
economic agent has the potential to cause instability in the system. The
Normative part consists of the Criterion of cost effectiveness and
Buddhist principles of actions. The Critaon of cost effectiveness and
Buddhist principles are guidelines to encourage actions that are
effective and tend to remove unsatisfactory-ness in the present, and
progress toward enlightenment in the long run. Recognizing ignorance
as the root of the problem, policy implications in a Buddhist economy
should be directed towards enhancing the individual‘s knowledge about
the dynamic and inter-dependency of interactions within the system.
A skill way to utilize wealth consistent with Buddhist principle
is called balanced livelihood. There are two aspects of balanced
livelihood: (1) Not spending more than one earns; and, (2) not clinging
to what one possesses. The first aspect is based on the principle of
responsibility. It imposes a debtless-ness constraint on spending wealth
by emphasizing balance between one‘s expenditures within some
specified time-period. Considering the inter-dependency of the
Buddhist economic system, responsibility in consumption implies
moderation in consumption. The second aspect is to practice an attitude
of non-clinging towards wealth. It emphasizes utilization of wealth to
achieve balance between material and mental well-being.
In a Buddhist economy, establishing economic institutions is to
provide favourable external conditional factors, related to material
well-being that can assist its members to take to actions that are
effective and tend to remove unsatisfactory-ness and to eventually
reach the Buddhist goal of enlightenment. In a Buddhist economy, the
conditions of any economic institution should be in accordance with the
Buddhist principles of actions i. e., the conditions should be favourable
83
for right living, sustainable wealth maintenance and balanced
livelihood within an independent system, and over a long time horizon.
The concept of Buddhist socialization classifies the major role
of Sangha in society: It is to be an example of a peaceful way of life,
one that has arisen from the practice of Non-attachment to wealth. The
framework aims to enable us understand how Buddhism views the
world, especially economic phenomena and human nature. We would
close with enlightening phrases from the Dhammapada (The Man, who
is Awake).
Hard it is to be born. Hard it is to live. Harder still is to hear
of the way; and, hardis to rise, follow and awake.
------------------------------------------
References
1.
The concepts of Positive and Normative Economics have different connotation in modern Economics.
Briefly, Positive Economics studies all economic activites, whether they be beneficial or harmful to consumesrs
viz., output and consumption of wine.
Normative Economics tends to forbid output and consumption of
commodities, harmful to consumers - Editors.
The Paper draws from the following Primary Sources:
1.
Vinaya Pitaka, Tr. I.B. Horner, The Book of the Discipline, 6 Volumes, Pali Text Society, Oxford, 1992-1993.
2.
Digha Nikaya, The Collection of Long Discourses, Tr. Maurice Walsle as ‗Thus Have I Heard‘, Wisdom
Publications, London, U.K., 1987.
3.
Armen A. Alchain, Uncertainty, Evolution and Economic Theory, Journal of Political Economy, 58: 211-21.
4.
Aung Thwin Michael, Role of Sansana Reform in Burmese History; Economic Dimension of a Religious
Purification: ―Journal of Asian Studies, Vol.38, 1979, pp. 671-88.
5.
Stephen Batchelor, Buddhist Economics Reconsidered‖ In Alan Hunt Budiner (ed) Dharma Gaja, Berkley, CA:
Parallax Press, Berkley, U.S.A., 1990.
The Awakening of the CA: Parallax Press, West Barkley, U.S.A., 1994..
Bhikkshu Bodhi, The Noble Eight-fold Path. Buddhist Publication Society, Kendy, Srilanka, The Wheel Publication No,
3081311, 1984.
84
Lawrence A. Boland, Methodology for a New Micro Economics: The Critical Foundations, Allen and Unwin Inc., London,
U.K., 1986.
Nyanaponika Thera, The Vision of Dharma, Rider & Co., London, U.K., 1986.
Stanley J. Jambiah, World Conqueror and World Renouncer, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1976.
Sangha and Polity in Modern Thailand, In Smith (ed.) Religion and Legitimation of Power in Thailand, Laos and Burma,
Chambersbung, Anima Books, PA: 111-133, 1978.
______________
85
Religious Bases of Peaceful Co-existence
in Buddhism and Jainism
Dr.Nayyara Abyat
Emergence of Buddhism and Jainism
Buddhism and Jainism were introduced and founded in India in
6 century B.C by Buddha and Mahavira respectively. Historically,
these two religions have been close to each other, having a very large
following. In some respects they have similarities; and, in some they
differ from each other.
th
Both, Buddha and Mahavira belonged to the higher stratum of
society. They left their palaces and joined the hermits. With the passage
of time, they became known as saints: it was at this stage that they
founded religions of Buddhism and Jainism. Both these religions have
their roots in Hinduism and have branched out from this religion.1
Initially Jainism, like Buddhism, was based on renouncement of
material world and concentrated totally on morality and its
development. With mercy and regard for the right to life, they sought
for salvation from this world and attain eternal peace.2
One common factor in these two religions is ‗suffering‘. The
Buddhist philosophy has an element of scare viz. a viz. suffering.
Buddha had told his disciples, ―O the followers, this great reality is
suffering. Being born, old age, disease and ailment, death, sorrow,
worry and despair are all forms of suffering. Suffering is a general and
continuous phenomenon. It is without break and unending. It is the
urge for life which makes one move from one cycle of life to the other.
So, in order to get rid of this urge, one should give up this life and
attain Nirvana (Salvation).‖
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To do so, Buddha suggested following path of Noble belief,
Noble desire, Noble speech, Noble character, Noble thinking and Noble
acts, etc. So, morality is the origin of salvation and salvation is attained
through right thinking. Buddha suggests that no attention should be
paid to ―traditions‖ and ―narrations‖, and one should believe in what he
experiences. One should believe in what suits him and also to others. A
Buddhist, with faith in action and morality of human being, should try
to acquire knowledge and free himself from the bondage of desire.
According to teachings of Jainism, Karma (Action) which is the
basis of morality is the reward for actions. The real implementation of
this factor lie in the transmigration of soul which results in rebirth of
the soul in this world of suffering or in one of several heavens and hells
of Hindu belief, which have found way into Jaini faith also. This rebirth
is related to actions of a person in his earlier form of life..3
Religious Base of the Two Religions
God: Jainis reject existence of God and even condemn worship.
Mahavira condemned even talking about worship. So, praying to
anybody and desiring things from Superior beings and heavenly objects
is considered a useless Job.4
According to Mahavira, nothing has been created as an object of
worship. He practiced what he preached. He wanted a peaceful life,
free from worry and tension, and without any worship. But strangely
enough, his followers worship him and consider text of his teachings as
sacred religious texts. Further his followers consider him innocent.
The study of Buddhist texts does not reveal any sign of faith in
the Creator or any particular sort of worship. Buddha did not claim
Prophethood. According to his followers, he was a guide and leader,
who has shown path to happiness. He did not refer to a Creator, being
Master of human destiny. No such discussion is found in any Buddhist
text.5 Gods, who were worshipped in India were, according to Buddha,
perishable and not durable They had no impact on human life. For
human beings, they were immaterial and hence there was no question
of worshipping them.6 Buddhist scholars talking of Brahma, who says,
87
―I am Brahma and great God. I am king of gods, I was not born and am
nobody‘s creation and am the ruler and God of world‖, categorize him
as a proud and self conceited object.7 Felicien Challaye holds the view
that though Buddhist religion has numerous gods on earth and in
heavens but it is totally godless. According to Buddha, gods like other
beings are subject to general development. With all this, godlessness
has not been explained in the basic principles of this religion.8
World and Man: In Jainism there are traces of duality. They believe in
genuineness of soul and matter. In this religion, the world of existence
is constituted by light and darkness (Jiva, Ajva). Jiva means souls
scattered all over; they are neither created nor perishable or mortal.
They resemble each other and are eternal. But Ajiva is another part of
the world and has more subtle and greater meaning like Space,
Dharma, Adharma, etc.
Gap Space Area of Existence and Non-existence: This makes
movement of things possible. As regards Adharma, peace and
tranquility of the world is related to it. ‗Kala‘ means Time, Era, Time
makes developments possible. ‗Budkala‘ is a compound of elements of
various colours and shades, taste and characteristics.
At times Jiva and Ajiva intermingle with each other. This
creates a situation where Jiva, with its clear and transparent status, gets
polluted and dirty. This is the point where human life faces pain and
suffering. The solution to this problem lies in the separation of soul and
matter. According to the belief of this School of Thought, the world is
eternal and very long durational cycle of time keeps on rotating.
Human being too is eternal and immortal. It is the human being who
passes through the stages of Development of Soul. Though apparently
human being and all other beings die, but the fact remains that death
does not exist. Existence is intertwined like the links of a chain. So
human beings die in a sense but re-appear with a different face. And,
this is what is known as Transmigration of Soul. The distinguishing
factor between human beings and other beings is that human being has
means of salvation; while others do not have means or power to do so.
The Jaini religion considers noble behavior as the major way to attain
salvation. The Brahmanic and other religions too, believe in
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transmigration of soul and also believe in Nirvana (Salvation) Jainism
has borrowed this theory from Brahmanic faith and has accepted it with
some little alteration.9
Buddhists very clearly say: ―World existed and no one has
created it.‖ Similarly, they do not believe in heaven, hell and doomsday
etc.10 Buddha says that the way of salvation is self-confidence and
faith in ones inner strength. In fact, in Buddhism, major attention is
paid to Man. Thus, one can say that Buddhism is a religion which
concentrates on Man rather than on God.
Humanism is quite developed in Buddhism, and is still
developing. Human being gets salvation and has the capacity to do so.
Its beginning was ambiguous, but it became clear at a later stage.
Buddhism in its teachings stresses on conflict between good and
evil. It emphasizes on love, affection and kindness towards all
creatures; and, also puts stress on humble behavior and humility.
According to Buddhism and Jainism human being is reborn,
because of his dark deeds and ignorance. According to both, one is
born in the world with certain limitations and hence he is neither fully
free, nor can take full responsibility of his actions. Buddhism can‘t be
called propounder of philosophy of compulsion, as it gives some
possible freedom to human beings.
The principle of Karma (actions and deeds) in Buddhism and
Jainism are symbols of compulsion and authority. If freedom does not
have any meaning for man he can‘t be held responsible for good and
evil of his destiny. Religions which have base in Hinduism say about
human nature that Man is basically a spiritual being. Man, in him, has a
soul, which expresses his status and his real characteristics. This soul is
immortal and hence Man in his character is immortal. Even Buddhism,
which apparently rejects this Soul, in some way or the other, accepts it.
Ahimsa: Jainism and Buddhism have a lot of commonality: Jainism
considers love for humanity, human equality, not hurting living beings
i.e. Ahimsa (Non-violence) as the real basis of life. Relief from
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suffering amounts to renunciation of the world. According to Jainism,
only method to purify the self is Ahimsa. According to Jain faith, one
should not hurt any living being under any circumstance, as it is the
worst of all sins. Philosophically, it negates all evil thoughts and
feelings of hostility, animosity and war etc., be it violence of any
category. More or less, Buddhism preaches the same. Mahatma Gandhi,
the leader of Freedom Movement of India was a staunch believer in
Ahimsa (Non-violence). Ahimsa was the base-line of his political life.11
Life after Death: All world religions believe in a life after death,
though their related theories differ. Jainism and Buddhism believe that
after death one is re-born according to his deeds in a different form.
Every individual has a soul inside - this soul does not perish with the
death of a human being and gets transferred into a different body.
Those, who go beyond evil acts and attain knowledge of the Supreme
are not re-born. They reach the status of immortal spirituality. But
Buddhism does not believe in heaven and hell. According to Buddhism,
Nirvana (Salvation) is the final destiny. This is the highest degree of
spiritual emancipation. The status of Nirvana can be achieved in this
life also, so to reach Nirvana, it is not essential to renounce the present
life. If someone has the capacity to renounce pleasures of the world
through the following of eight principles, his physical body
automatically attains Nirvana.
Both Jainism and Buddhism believe that final destiny of human
being is Moksha or emancipation which means relief from cycle of
birth and rebirth and attaining spiritual emancipation, perfection,
eternity and immortality.
Nirvana‟s analysis indicates its meaning: it is ―extinguished‖,
―subdued‖, etc. Lord Buddha in one of his sermons, known as ‗Fire‘,
says: O the followers, everything lies in fire, sexual pleasure, malice,
deceit and Nirvana are the three subdued fire.12 Nirvana is the main
and final teaching of Buddhism. The pre-requisite is awareness and
awakening to the reality of truth, like Buddha who all of a sudden
realized the Absolute truth while sitting underneath the tree of light or
wisdom; and, according to Buddhists, reality dawned on him and
kindled his whole existence and extinguished the flame of material
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desires. The light overshadowed the darkness of ignorance and the saint
smiled in a mysterious way.13
According to the teachings of Jain religion, the way to salvation
is to inculcate Noble faith, Noble knowledge, and Noble character.
According to Buddha, the main object of life is to reach Nirvana.
In addition to all this, Nirvana has other specifications also
which includes power, benevolence, happiness and security etc.
Nirvana is the home and shelter of peace; it is the actual reality and
highest truth.
Asceticism is another important principle which includes
vegetarianism, antagonism with war, physical asceticism, prayers and
strict fasting, keeping away from pretentions, shameful acts, usurping
properties of others, abstention from hurting any living being,
avoidance of power show and bad temper. In order to avoid killing any
animal or living being, the followers of this religion do not go in for
occupations like farming and agriculture etc. They resort to trade and
business. They avoid conflict and dispute with people and hence do not
even entangle into discussions with people. They accept the words of
Brahmins (religious teachers) and follow them. They have accepted the
Indian caste system. However, Mahavira himself did not believe in this
system and did not practice idol worship.
Nakedness and nudity is part of Jaini asceticism. It is a way to
attain salvation. The believers of this cult should not put on clothes and
only cover the organ; and, it suffices. It is the same throughout the year,
whether summer or winter. Some followers strictly follow this and
some do not attach any importance to this. This being their primary
teaching is rooted in teachings of Jain religion. In initial stages, they
taught and preached ―total nudity‖ and ―total hunger‖ - no clothes and
no food, and believed if one dies in this state, he attains very high
status.14 A real Jaini is totally non-violent and does not nurture malice
towards anyone. He is neither friend, nor enemy. He keeps away from
hatred. These elements create attachment which Jain religion does not
approve of. The highest quality according to Jainism is dervish-like
asceticism and Ahimsa (Non-violence).15 Thus, we find that Jainism
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and Buddhism try to persuade human being to look into the inner self
deeply and get to the ―essence of life‖ - the essence which is the secret
of existence and is hidden in the depth of inner self.
Identification of Reality and Realization of Peaceful Co-existence
Thus we find that Buddhism and Jainism give different versions
of reality through different tales and stories. ‗Elephant amongst blinds‘
is a very famous tale in India; very popular and interesting. It is a
mystical tale, believed by all, be it the Hindus, Jainis and Buddhists.
The tale refers to human short-comings and inability to arrive at the
truth.
The story goes like this that some people entered into discussion
about the old existence of the world and its feature of limitlessness.
Some held the view that the body and soul are one and some others
differentiated between the two. The discussions became serious and
heated. The ruler of the place ordered that all blind persons should be
collected in one place and, when they gathered, the king ordered to
bring an elephant near them and asked them to touch the body of the
elephant and tell what sort of thing is an elephant. One touched the leg
and considered it a pillar, the other one the tail and considered it a rope,
yet another touched the trunk and said it was like the touched branch of
a tree, and so on so forth.
A wise man watching and listening to them said that everyone is
correct relating to the part he touched, but elephant is a collection of all
of these parts.
Jainis utilize the theme of the story for bringing out the value of
peaceful co-existence amongst various religions and faiths. In Buddhist
world, this story is known as the story of a king. Buddha believed that
the dispute of hermits, saints and Brahmins too is of the same nature.
Everyone has known a part of the truth and claims to have known full
and whole of it. Maulana Jalaluddin Balkhi, in 3rd volume of his
Mathnavi, has given beautiful version of this story which is very
popular. Maulana has placed the elephant in a dark house, instead
amongst blind persons.
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Buddhism and Jainism are not only historically similar but have
religious similarities also. Both of these religions believe in ―peaceful
co-existence‖; it is an important feature of both these religions.
------------------------------------------
References
1.
Robert Hume, Adyan e Zinda e Jahan, Translation by Abdul Rahim Gavahi, Daftar e Nashr e Farhang e Islami, IR
Iran, 1377, p. 79.
2.
Ibid, p. 77.
3.
Ibid, p. 81.
4.
Ibid, 76.
5. John B. Noss, Comprehensive History of Religions, Amouzesh Publications, Tehran, IR Iran, 1382, p. 189.
6. Ismail, Aale Ishaq, Survey of Faiths and Religions, Bita, Qom, IR Iran, p. 113.
7. Amir Hossein Ranjbar, Dar Justyoue Reshahae Asmani Buddha, Ferozeh, Teharan, IR Iran, 1381, p. 155.
8. Abadani Abdullah Mobalaghi, Tarikhe Adyan-o-Mazahibe Jahan, Sina, Qom, IR Iran, 1373, p. 72.
9. John B. Noss, Comprehensive History of Religions, Amouzesh Publications, Tehran, IR Iran, 1382, p. 102.
10. Ismail, Aale Ishaq, Survey of Faiths and Religions, Bita, Qom, IR Iran, p. 114.
11. John B. Noss, Comprehensive History of Religions, Amouzesh Publications, Tehran, IR Iran, 1383, p. 112.
12. Hans Welfaig Schomen, Aayeene Buddha, Tr. Ali Pashaei, Ferozeh, Tehran, IR of Iran, 1378, p. 89.
13. Shayegan Daryush, Adyan-o-Maktabhae Falsafi Hind, Amir Kabir, Tehran, IR Iran, pp. 367-8.
14. John B. Noss, Comprehensive History of Religions, Amouzesh Publications, Tehran, IR Iran, 1383, p. 113.
15. Robert Hume, Adyan e Zinda e Jahan, Tr. Abdul Rahim Gavahi, Daftar e Nashr e Farhang-e-Islami, IR Iran, 1377, p. 79.
______________
93
Jain Theory of Anekantavad and
Co-Existence
Dr. Anekant Kumar Jain*
More than two thousand six hundred years ago, the Twentyfourth Teerthankar of Jain religion Lord Mahavira made a simple yet
profound statement, based on the absorption of non-violence into the
fabric of his consciousness. He realized:
―All of life is just like me. I want to live, so do all souls, all
living beings. The instinct of self preservation is universal. Every
animate being clings to life and fears death. Each of us wants to be free
from pain. So, let me carry out all my activities with great care, not to
be harmful to any living being like me.‖
He always advised his disciples to discover the truth, taking into
account all aspects and giving them due weight. This broadens one's
outlook and trains the mind to accommodate the feelings and the way
of life of other faiths and communities. He gave the theory of
Anekantavad i. e., many-sidedness. Anekant encourages inter-personal
and communal harmony by promoting tolerance in the community.
The same principle of tolerance can be extended to intellectual, social,
religious and other fields of activities. Tolerance, as enunciated by
Anekant, will end all inter-caste strife and communal violence.
Anekant is thus the pillar of religious and social harmony, and the sheet
anchor of secularism. Anekant ensures peaceful co-existence of all
shades of philosophical and religious opinions, and paths as well as
their followers. Lord Mahavira was a towering personality who has left
*
Asstt. Professor, Dept. of Jain Philosophy, Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya
Sanskrit Vidyapeeth (Deemed University),
Qutub Institutional Area, New Delhi -110 006
Email: [email protected] Mobile No. 09711397716
94
a lasting impact in the form of his teachings for the spiritual
advancement of individuals, protection and conservation of all forms of
life, and a rational, just, peaceful and secular social order. He regarded
the individual and his social responsibilities as the key to progress of
both the individual and society as a whole. His teachings of are as
useful and timely, as they were 2600 years ago. They point to a new era
of hope and promise for the masses, delivering social equality, peace,
and empowerment of women, non-violence, tolerance and social
justice. He always advised his disciples to discover the truth after
taking into account all aspects and giving them due weight. This
broadens one's outlook and trains the mind to accommodate the
feelings and the way of life of other faiths and communities.
1. Doctrine of Anekāntavād
A systematic formulation of Anekāntavāda is found in
Samantabhadra‘s Āpta Mīmāńsā (3-4th cen. CE). However, the
doctrine is so assimilating that it has given rise to various
interpretations.
It will be interesting to refer to some of them:
a) Anekāntavāda: - An + eka + anta + vāda, i. e., not–one –sided –
statement i.e., many-sided exposition. It is a statement made after
taking into account all possible angles of vision regarding any
object or idea. In this sense, Anekāntavāda is a theory of manysidedness or Manifoldness of reality.
b) Anekāntavāda: - An + ekānta + vāda, i. e., not categorically
asserted philosophical position. In this sense, it stands for the
philosophy of non-absolutism.
c) In some other sense, it stands for the theory of manifoldness, which
is different from a philosophy of indetermination or that of dubiety.
In order to understand the scope and denotation of
Anekāntavāda, it is useful to make a distinction between two senses of
the term. In the first sense, the term is used to denote the Jain
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metaphysical doctrine, or the Jaina view of Reality. The Janis hold that
Reality is manifold; each substance does have infinite qualities and
modifications. According to them, each substance has a multi-faceted
nature, consisting of diverse forms and modes, of innumerable aspects.
Thus, the term can be correctly translated as ‗the Theory of
Manifoldness of Reality‘. The term Anekāntavāda is also used in
another sense, and it refes to Jaina philosophical method, which allows
for reconciliation, integration and synthesis of conflicting philosophic
views. Janis argue that different philosophers, when they construct
different philosophical systems, emphasize different ‗standpoints‘.
They further point out that as long as we emphasize one aspect
or standpoint, while being fully aware that this is but only one out of
many equally viable standpoints, we employ a right philosophical
method. But when we emphasize only one standpoint by excluding all
others, we employ an incorrect philosophic method. The aim of
Anekānta philosophy is to expose an incorrect philosophic method and
isolate and identify the right philosophical method. To use other words,
Anekāntavāda is that method of philosophy, which recognizes all the
philosophical theories to be the partially true expressions of reality
(S.S. Divakara‘s Sanmati Tarka).
It is generally believed that every theory is true partially, and
not exclusively, and that there is no perfect theory of reality. The
perfect view of Reality will be obtained only by recognizing that our
theory is one of the many theories that are equally (partially) true. In
this sense, Anekāntavāda advocates a sort of relativistic approach to
reality and denies supremacy to any one view about reality.
2. Anekāntavāda and Relativity
The first principle of Anekanta is relativity. Two castes or two
sects can be held in a mutually antagonistic relation only by adopting
an absolute viewpoint. On the contrary, different individuals, castes
and sects can survive and obtain relative benefits only on the basis of
the non-absolutist viewpoint. In fact, the interests of the factory owner
and the workers are not incompatible. By keeping in mind the workers'
interests, productivity increases and the factory owners' interests may
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be served. Likewise, by keeping in mind the owners' interests, those of
the workers may also be served. If both seek to serve their interests in
absolutely independent terms, the interests of both are jeopardized. The
principle of class differences and their hostile vested interests need to
be examined in the context of relativity, for on the basis of relativity
even antagonistic interests can be reconciled. When these interests are
examined in absolute terms, the inevitable result is conflict and
violence involving the abandoning of the principle of the purity of
means.
3. Anekāntavāda and Co-ordination
The second principle of Anekanta is coordination. It refers to
quest for unity between two apparently different characteristics of a
substance - characteristics, which differ, but are not altogether
different. They are identical also. Reconciliation can be brought about
only by recognizing the identity principle. The principle of ecology is
one of the reconciliations; and, of interrelationship between different
substances. Balance in the universe cannot be established on the basis
of the premise, "I alone exist". We survive only by adhering to the
principle that "besides me, the other also exists and we are
interrelated". The balance in the universe can be explained on the basis
of the above concept of interrelatedness.
4. Anekāntavāda and Co-existence
The third principle of Anekanta is co-existence. Anything or
anybody existent, must have their opposite— yat sat tat sapratipakṣam.
Without the opposite, naming is impossible, and so is characterization.
The animate and the inanimate are two extremes. Yet, they co-exist.
The body is inanimate; the soul too is animate. They co-exist. The
permanent and the impermanent, the similar and the dissimilar, the
identical and the different - all these are mutually contradictory, yet
they co-exist - they co-exist in an object. The permanent is not
altogether separate from the impermanent, nor is the latter completely
separate from the former. The principle of co-existence is as much
practical as it is philosophical. Though the terms system, individual,
taste and viewpoint have different denotations, even implying inherent
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opposition, the principle of co-existence applies to them too.
Democracy and dictatorship, capitalism and communism are
ideologically different political systems. But even then they are no
exception to co-existence. 'You or me' not 'you and me' is an instance
of absolutism by which the problem gets compounded. The holiness of
the world of religion has been destroyed by the view: "Only those have
the right to survive, who follow my religion; all the rest should be
extirpated." The main strengths of religion are non-voilence,
friendliness and fraternity. The absolutist view has changed nonviolence into violence, friendliness into hostility and fraternity into
animosity. Co-existence implies tolerance, freedom of thought. Both
tolerance and freedom of thought are meaningless, if we try to enforce
our likes, ideas, life-style and principles on all others. Nature has
infinite variety, which lends it splendor. Beauty will lose all its charms
and meaning if all plants, trees and flowers look alike. The combined
principle of Satyam, Shivam (benefaction), Sundaram (beauty) is
inherent in the principle of unity in diversity and diversity in unity. It
is only the above harmony which forms basis of co-existence.
Monism and dualism are the two principles belonging to philosophy. Unity cannot be explained in the absence of Monism and
diversity cannot be explained without Dualism. A harmonious
combination of these alone constitutes a holistic viewpoint for
explaining the world. Likewise, there are enough factors of unity
between the animate and the inanimate. On its basis, we are able to
realize what existence means? There are factors of diversity between
the animate and the inanimate also. On this basis, we are able to divide
and analyze existence. Harmony is a principle to search for unity, but it
does not negate the pre-existent diversity. It is only in this way that we
can explain an individual as well as society as a whole.
Every person has both individual and communal consciousness.
Some thinkers give greater importance to the individual, while others
give greater importance to society. It violates the principle of harmony.
We cannot assess an individual properly without paying attention to
his/her personal qualities. The people, who think merely of building a
new society without taking into consideration the innate traits of an
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individual, cannot accomplish their visions. If equal attention had been
paid to individual innate characteristics in socialist and communist
systems, efforts at building a new society could get a healthy basis.
The basic principles, essential for socialization, are related to innate
individual characteristics. We have two aspects with the Anekant and
Co-existence:
I.
Philosophical Aspect: Everything has countless pairs of
opposites. But they exist together.
II.
Practical Aspect: It is possible for two individuals with
opposite views to live together. The beauty of this world lies
in the principle of ‗let us co-exist‘. Therefore, don't think of
destroying your opponent. Define the limits and let them
stay within these - you within yours and I within mine. None
must transgress the limits. Opposition is a mental construct.
It is this that is the main obstacle to co-existence. If we
sublimate the emotions of fear and hatred, this obstacle will
be automatically removed. For sublimation of emotions
repeated mental reflection on co-existence is essential.
5. Anekāntavāda: Individualism and Society
Man and society are two different elements. The philosophers,
who believed in individualism, are of the opinion that man by himself
exists as a human being outside of society. In other words, they say
that man can live without society. This belief implies that before man
became part of society, he was an individual in his own right; that for
the security of his property, rights and life or for the attainment of some
other goal, man founded the institution of society. Anekanta defines
man and society in relation to each other. In a man both individualistic
and social traits are found. Man's capabilities define his individuality.
Their expressions are part of his social skills. That is why individuals
and society are different from one another. Man's individuality can
never be non-existent. In spite of remaining an integral part of society,
man still retains his individuality. In this context, man is different from
society. Man develops his desires, aspirations and activities through
interdependence and exchange. In this context, man is not different
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from society. But in the very same context, where man develops his
desires, aspirations and activities and establishes inter-dependence in
society, he is different also. Man is limited by his feelings – the man,
who experiences love, happiness, fear and grief is a complete man.
These feelings are not common in terms of experience. They cannot be
exchanged or substituted; they cannot be given to another. Exchange is
the bridge between man and society. On one side of it is man and on
the other is society. The fundamental base of an individual is his
emotions, and the fundamental base of society is exchange. Emotions
are individualistic, because they cannot be exchanged.
The biggest problem of an organization, community or nation is
related to emotion. Individuals differ in their emotions. They can be
classified in four categories:
1) Similar to a marsh or a quagmire.
2) Similar to water full of mud.
3) Similar to water full of sand, and
4) similar to water, steadily floating on a rock.
The first type of people having an impure state of the soul (those
endowed with the excessively impure modal standpoint) turn the world
into a hell. They can neither provide sound organizational set up, nor
can they adhere to any system. The second type of people having an
impure state of the soul (those endowed with impure modal standpoint)
encourage bestiality in society and can never be helpful in bringing
about a healthy and non-violent social order. People having the third
type of the state of the soul (those endowed with pure modal
standpoint) can co-operate in building a healthy society. They can
induct health in the social order. People having the fourth type of the
state of soul (those endowed with purified modal standpoint) can
develop divine consciousness in society. They can promote the purity
of means and a beneficent outlook. The first two types believe in the
power of punishment. The last two types believe in bringing about a
change of heart and in the purity of means.
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Spiritual people like Mahatma Gandhi kept dreaming of
building a non-violent society; and, the people like Karl Marx kept
nursing a vision of a communist society. Neither of the two visions has
been fulfilled. Neither there could come a totally non-violent society
into being, nor could communist society gain vigor. The reason is an
absolutist viewpoint. If we do not make the two visions absolutistic,
we can enter in a new society. By nature an individual is inclined
towards selfishness and personal comfort. The effort to forcibly make
him exclusively corporatist cannot succeed. According to the Anekanta
viewpoint, it is possible to make communism dynamic by balancing the
claims of individualism and collectivism. No two individuals share the
same emotions. Some people have subdued emotions; others have
intensive emotions. Therefore, a non-violent society cannot be built
merely on the basis of a change of heart. Dwelling exclusively on a
change of heart denotes an absolutistic view. The Anekanta or nonabsolutistic view is that a non-violent society can be built on the basis
of balanced amalgam of punishment and change of heart.
6. Anekāntavāda and Democracy
Variety is a part of human nature. Even tastes and ideas differ
from person to person. Similarly, ordinary behavior is not identical.
There are a number of languages and sects. To keep them all united
democracy follows the principle of equality of fundamental rights.
Democracy does not divide people on the basis of inequality. On the
other hand, it seeks to forge unity among diverse groups on the basis of
equality.
Democracy cannot project a glorious image without
balancing the claims of diversity and unity. The philosophical basis of
this balancing system is Anekanta. According to Anekanta, nothing is
altogether disparate or identical. A general characteristic lends identity
to things; and, a specific characteristic makes them disparate.
Absolute insistence on being identical destroys usefulness, for the
individual specific characteristics cannot be put to use. Absolute
insistence on disparateness makes things devoid of their basic
generality. It is for this reason that the Anekanta posits the following:
 An object is perhaps identical - from a certain point of view all
objects are identical.
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 An object is perhaps disparate - from a certain point of view all
objects are disparate.
Unity can be strengthened on the basis of identities.
Disparateness can be used to utilize an individual's specific qualities.
Therefore, it is necessary to know the limitations of both identity and
disparateness. A mechanical insistence on identity robs a nation of its
meritorious and talented people. An absolute insistence on
disparateness becomes the cause of a nation's disintegration.
Therefore, there is need to develop a philosophy which balances and
harmonizes identity and disparateness. Unity involves belonging to
common geographic region. No one, who lives within that regi, can be
discriminated against in terms of his need for food, clothing and
housing etc. Everyone must enjoy an equal opportunity to develop. It
is on this basis that everyone in a democracy has the right to become
President, Prime Minister, etc. What limits this right, is individual
excellence or quality. High offices must be manned only by those
people, who have a highly developed intellectual and administrative
competence. Nature has plenty to offer. A democracy can be given a
healthy base only by appreciating element of both identity and
disparateness.
7. Anekāntavāda and Problem of Terrorism
Violence begets violence. Nobody can win lasting peace by use
of force. The Chinese President, while visiting US presented Lao Tse‘s
book ‗How to Win War without Fighting‘ to his host. In our own time,
we have seen Mahatma Gandhi using Ahimsā and Anekānta win
freedom for India. To end terrorism, we have to first become self
sufficient and confident or have faith in our belief, so that we can
defend ourselves in all situations; understand the view points of all and
use education & dialogue to resolve differences, using the technique of
give and take. Ahimsā and Anekānta (existence of opposing forces, and
reconciliation) will bring us closer to solving this problem.
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8. Anekāntavāda and Tolerance
The dictionary meaning of ‗Tolerance‘ exposes the negative
aspect of acceptance in a dominant manner. If tolerance is taken to
mean ‗ability or capacity to tolerate‘, it will point to toleration out of
compulsion, out of helplessness or out of dire need of survival.
Tolerating the baddies in the classroom or their undisciplined behavior
or even the notorious people in the society, may be given as examples.
It may even indicate the attitude of treating the other person with
condemnation or the attitude of superiority complex and treating other
as inferior viz., the rich people tolerating the poor; scholars in the class
tolerating the mediocre students; powerful nations tolerating the weaker
ones, and less-developed countries, etc. However, the doctrine of
Anekāntavāda is based on the definition of reality as existent
(substance is the indication of existent, existent is with origination,
destruction and permanence and substance is with attributes and
modes). Thus, Anekāntavāda is a philosophy of inter-mixture and
tolerance (better known as reconciliation to the existence of opposite
attributes simultaneously); it presupposes balanced and equitable
thinking, rather than from a position of strength or weakness. Thus, it
would be wrong to equate Anekāntavāda with such negativity, because
Anekāntavāda does not reflect negativity. It does not indicate the falsity
or invalidity of any theory. It emphasizes the element of truth in every
theory. Its focus is on pointing out the extent of acceptability of every
view, rather than bringing out the reasons for denial. And, the reason
for its emphasis on positivism is that every theory, according to
Anekāntavāda, is only a partial description/exposition of reality.
Hence, it cannot be regarded as the view that holds the capacity
to tolerate others‘ views. It can correctly be described as that view
which treats all other views including itself, with equanimity. In
holding such temper of equinity, Anekāntavāda demands surrender of
undue pride in one‘s own existence and supremacy, and tend to develop
humility and senses of respect towards other perspectives. In the
present circumstances of communal disturbances and religious tensions
everywhere, Anekāntavāda can be applied as a paradigm to solve these
problems. It can convince the classes and masses that all religions are
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different pathways to the same goal. All religious faiths are equally
respectable. The theory can be applied to many spheres of life, where
there are battles arising out of misunderstanding. And, it can be well
understood that it is the theory advocating equanimity among and
respect towards all the possible alternatives, rather than the ability to
‗tolerate‘. Similarly, in our democratic form of government, doctrine
of Anekāntavāda is very important for both the ruling and opposition
parties to accept existence of each as real, and learn to live with each
other in a logical and peaceful manner. Samantbahdra gave an excellent
example to show application of Anekāntavāda to develop tolerance.
―The king wanted his crown of gold to be melted and made into
bangles for princess. The prince became sad and the princess became
happy, but the king was neither happy nor sad, as he saw gold in both
the situations: while the prince saw loss of crown and the princess gain
of bangles.‖
Thus Anekāntavāda is a theory of tolerance in the broadest
sense of the term. The significant sutra or aphorism of Anekāntavāda is
balance i. e., man should not tilt in one direction. The scale of the
balance should not be heavier on any one side. Both the sides should
be in balance. If one side represents the fixed, the other variable, then
we should move ahead taking both into consideration.
------------------------------------------
References
The Paper is bassed upon the following readings:
1.
Acharya Mahaprajna, Anekant Views and Issues, Jain Vishva Bharati Institute, Ladnun, Rajasthan, 2009
2.
Mahavira's
Message
Of
Ahimsa
&
Anekant
–
Article
appearing
in
The
Times
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/opinion/edit-page/Mahaviras-Message--of-Ahimsa-Anekant-/article
show/36151960.cms#ixzz1AWbTBYHS
104
of
India
3.
Acharya Mahaprajna, Anekanta: The Third Eye, English Translation by Sudhamahi Raghunathan, Jain Vishava Bharti
University, Ladnun, Rajastha, 2002.
4.
5.
Ahimsa, Anekanta and Jainism, MLBD, Delhi, 2004.
John M. Koller, Why is Anekantavad Important, Sanmati Tarka of Siddhasena, Hindi Translation by Shantilal M. Jain,
Gyanodaya Trust, Ahmedabad, 1963.
6.
His Holiness AcharyaMahapragya, Peace and Ahimsa (Non-violence) in Life, New Year's Message, 2009.
7.
Dr Anekant Kumar Jain, Jain Dharma Ek Jhalak, Shanti Sagar Chani Smriti Granthmala, Meerut.
8.
Acharya Mahaprajna, Jaina Dharma Manana Aura Mimānsā, Adarsha Sahitya Sangh, Churu, 3rd Edition, 1977.
9.
W. J. Johnson, Kundakunda: Two-Standpoints and the Socio-Religious Function of Anekantavada: Approaches to Jain Studies,
Ed. N.K. Wagle & O. Qvarnström, Center for South Asian Studies University of Toronto, 1999, pp. 101-112.
10.
W. J. Johnson, The Religious Function of Jaina Philosophy: Anekantavad Reconsidered, Religion Mo. 25, 1995.
11.
Meenal Katarnikar, Jain Theory iof Tolerance.
______________
105
The Ethical Roots of Peaceful Co-xistence
of Religions and Cults in India
Muhamamd Nasr Isfahani
Introduction
The problem of misunderstanding between different religions
arises from their numbers being so many, as also due to their
conflicting claims. Therefore, the necessity of developing an
understanding between the religions/faiths is imperative. Needless to
say that gaining this mutual understanding is much easy in modern
days than it was in the old era. In olden days, interaction between
religions/cults was dependent on their inter-religious traditions.
However, the followers of different religions/cults did not generally
tolerate the ways of adherents of other religions. Furtaher, the newly
established religions aimed to gain a superior stand over the old ones;
and, the older ones also used all their power to preserve their position.
They tried to keep alive their very existence; that is why the history
witnessed so many prolonged and progressive fights between religions.
In old days, the religions had control over every single aspect of
people‘s life; and, their presence had provided their leaders powerful
ground to be present in all the scenaario. As the Western civilization
grot powerful, the religions there lost their power, and retreated from
the scene of human life. The emergence of scientific rationalism,
secularism, liberalism, humanism and democracy and their dominance
over the human life made religions there to back off to the margins.
However, this made some new grounds for emergence of some new
religions/cults, and thus put an end to their historical long fights. It was
very vivid for them that if they do not stop their fighting they will be
pushed to margins of human life; and, will gradually fade out.
Therefore, it seemed essential for the religions/faiths to think about
some ways of understanding to make use of their shared principles, so
106
that everyone of them benefits from the merits of being in the circle of
human life. It appeared that the ethical approach is the best choice,
because the morality and observation of ethical rules is common to all
religions and is accepted by all human societies including the followers
of Indian religions.1 This approach, of course, has been interpreted
differently by them all.2 However, Buddhism has laid most emphasis
on this3 among all religions of Indian origin.
The Necessity of Peaceful Co-Existence between Religions
Based on the instructions of the Holy Qur‘an, there were not
that much of differences among the human societies.4 In fact, the
problems and differences between the people arose due to several
reasons. Included among the causes were economic, natural,
psychological, historical, social, political and cultural motives. These
were considered as the most important ones. Prophets and leaders of
different religions, in order to minimize and possiblty eradicate
differences between religions, introduced some specific behavioral
models (morals/maxims) and defined ways of practical life (Sharia‘in
Islam) – by tradition, as a set of these is called ―religion‖.
Some accepted the religious commandments, and some refused
to compromise. Those, who accepted these rules, faced problems
concerning their interpretation. As a result, there arose diffrerence in
their interpretation. This is how the different denominations, sects or
Mazaheb started. The Holy Qur‘an describes this as under:
―Mankind was [of] one religion [before their deviation]; then
Allah sent the Prophets as bringers of good tidings and warner,
and sent down with them the Scriptures in truth to judge
between the people, concerning that in which they differed.
And, none differed over the Scriptures, except those, who were
given it - after the clear proofs came to them - out of jealous
animosity among themselves.‖
―And, Allah guided those, who believed the truth, concerning
that over which they had differed, by His permission. And,
Allah guides whom He wills to a straight path.”5???
Based on some other traditions of history, the followers of
religions/cults are happy with what they have;6 and, other than some
107
very extraordinary situations, they would not convert to other believes.
These followers normally believe that the others are enemies and the
history has witnessed on so many occasions that the followers of
different religions/cults have entered into several fiery and widespread
fights, leading to mass destruction and bloodshed.
In these modern days though because of the expansion of life
under the shadow of industrialization and the changing needs of the
modern societies, the followers of various religions/cults, despite their
great number, have learned that they need to learn how to live together
like members of one united big family in the small village of this new
age world. In no other point in history such signs of harmony,
understanding and cooperation have been seen. However, this coexistence will lead the society to tension, if, based on traditional
landscapes, it continues to go forward. The fights, war and bloodshed
will continue: this will not only weaken the religions/cults due to
ceaseless onslaught of materialism, but will also inculcate among the
new generation the idea of materialism.
Effort for the unity of religions to cover the differences and to
bring to life the unity of religions/cults all under a single view of the
religious world, is an impossible fantasy.7
As a result, all the peacemakers and religious leaders should
focus their attempts on not to cover the differences, but to center their
efforts on similarities, so as to reach to ―relative‖ agreement, thus
bringing peace and harmony in our world. In this manner, co-operation
between religions and nations will be maximized, and the use of
aggressive reactions and violence will be minimized8; the religions will
thus be able to cooperate on their common goals.
The optimal achievement of social peacemakers could be
defined as their realization of some ethical rules that are accepted by a
majority of principles and traditions of religions and cults. These sets of
rules are either of a positive nature, requiring their adherence, or are of
the negative nature, meaning thereby one should abstain.
In order to put the expected agreement in practical action what
needs to be done includes:
108
1. The agreement on the main goal common between all the
religions/cults (their legal aspect), and the rules and regulations.
2. A sense of identity and communal unity in acceptance of the
institutionsand regulations (the cultural aspect.
3. Founding action-oriented institutions for performing the so called
agreed upon set of rules by religion/cults (the political aspect).
The Agreeable Ethical Rules
Considering what has been stated, the necessity of setting a
regulated set of ethical principles for peaceful co-existence of
religions/faiths is felt more than ever before.
The resources that could be used to provide background for the
religions‘ universal covenant:



Ethics based on shared natural principles.
The ethics, based on reasoning.
The ethics, based on traditions that are already accepted by
religions/faiths.
Now, based on these three common resources, the following
suggestions are offered:

The Principle of Implausibility of Disagreement
We are not going to repeat what has already mentioned in the
introduction concerning implausibility of disagreement, but would
like to add that based on the natural principles of creation any
division, based on disagreement, is not plausible among the human
societies, because it makes ground for psychic distress which in
place causes social nervousness, anxiety, uneasiness and
depression, anger and social violence. Islam which is a natural
(Fitri) religion, encourages its followers to avoid violence and
branching in the society:10
And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute and
[thus] lose courage and [then] your strength would depart; and
be patient. Indeed, Allah is with the patient. (Holy Qu‟ran)
109

Th Principle of Paying Attention to the Shared Commonalities
The shared commonalities could always be used as axis to help
remove differences and to guarantee the unity of religions.
Bringing them together will spare them from social, political,
economic and cultural defects, and also to stop bloodshed,
animosity and war.
This ethical principle is the tradition of wisdom. It is accepted and
agreed by all religions including the religions in the Indian
subcontinent. This principle has been mentioned in Holy Qur‘an at
times as a inter-religious decree and on some other occasions and in
a higher position as an intra-eligious duty. The Holy Qur‘an talks to
the nelieevrs thus:11
O‟ you, who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger
and those in authority among you. And, if you disagree over
anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should
believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and
best in result.
Thus the Holy Q‘uran guides humans towards this very rational
principle of peaceful co-existence and suggests that the religions
should be united around the shared commonalities and to avoid
being parted.
The teachings for peaceful living among the followers of the holy
books such as Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism, do not
include animosity and fight, but envision harmony and unity around
the shared goals and common ways. The obedience of the One, God
Almighty, and thus negating paganism is considered as the common
goals of these religions; the negation of the dominance of human
over another human is the method that makes the goals come true.12

The Principle of Human Equality: People in origin and in the first
glance, before being envisioned from the religious/cult point of
view, are human, and based on this, the rationale too approves of
this principle and bring to account the concept of equal human
rights. More or less, religions/cults share the same point of view
110
regarding the human race and consider the whole humanity as being
one. So, all religions must agree upon the concept of equality of all
people and reject any interpretations of human inequality.13 Hindus
too share the same rational and ethical principle and there is no sign
of any dogmatic belief among them that contradicts other religions.
In facata, Hindus practically have lived for so many years with the
followers of other religions and cults. Bhagavad Gita talks of God
seeing everyone as equal human being:
I act the same toward everyone; no one is hated or loved by me.14
The twelve commands of Buddhism, given by Ashoka, say that
people hurt their own religion by disrespecting other religions/cults.
Buddhism believes that what makes people separated and unequal is
all Anicca (mortal) and superstitious.15 As per Sikhism, all humans
are one and it‘s only the error of our mind that makes us see them
different. All people are the same. Reht Maryada in Sikhism
commands that Sikhs under no circumstances must disrespect other
religions and encourages them to necessarily study other religions‘
books to enlighten their minds. Sikhism believes in and insists on
Sewa which is the tradition of being in people‘s service; people of
all characteristics, color, caste, class, social rank or faith benefit
from this.16

The Principle of Brotherhood: People naturally, by default and in
the first glance, before being aware of the other person‘s religious
belief, show sentiments and intense human affections toward a child
in danger and try to rescue him from any dangerous situation, based
on a sense of brotherhood deep inside him. This human brotherly
responsiveness plays a very important role in condemnation of
inhumane behavior against others. That is why when we hear that
people in Tunisia and Egypt are free from the yoke of dictatorship,
it makes us feel happy and relaxed and condemn, those who
suppress others. Then, it can be concluded that all people are
brothers and non-brotherly relations are against human nature. The
Holy Qur‘an talks of the Prophets and Messengers, relation between
believers among themselves, the idolaters, the hypocrites and
111
believers. It describes that mankind comes from a single pair of
male amd female, and are, therefore, inter-related.17

As given in Nahj al-Balaghah, Imam Ali in his address to his
governors of various States said that people are of two divisions;
they either share the same faith, as you do, or they share humanity
with you, and you should not be hostile and unfair to them.18
Hindus also believe that all generations originated from one man
and woman.19 Hinduism believes that Yemi and her brother Yayem
are the very first two people and all the generations have been
produced by them.20

The Principle of Believing in Diversity of Opinions and the
Dispersion of Truth: The fact remains that no two people look
alike; the way of thinking of two persons is different and, even on a
more precise account, the religion/faith of two people is not the
same. If different religions accept the reality of this diversity and
plurality, then it would be easy to accept the reality of other
religions/faiths. This diversity is accepted vividly and can be found
in so many Verses of the Holy Qur‘an.21 If the followers of
religion/faiths accept this principle and be friendly to followers of
other religions/faiths, the principle of diversity and plurality will be
accompanied by a sense of morality. As a result of this, the
religious people won‘t accuse others anymore and will admit that it
is not only them, who are concerned with truth and happiness of
others, there are others too; and, that nobody is after cruelty, vanity
or aberration. The second point that can also reinforce this
acceptance is to believe that God, common to all religions, offers
the best for everyone and that He provides guidance to all people. If
we believe that it is only us, who are justified and on the path of
happiness, then our good faith in God turns to suspicion and distrust
towards others and we dedicate God‘s guidance only to ourselves.
The Holy Qu‘an educates us that Christians, Jews, Sabe‘ins that are
searching for truth, but do not believe that Islam offers the path of
truth, will be the followers of felicity.22 Hindu leaders also
emphasize and support the concept of equality of all unto God.23
112

The Principle of Criteria: If one believes in the brotherhood and
equality between all people, and give credibility to other peoples as
much as to one‘s ownself, then one will accept oneself as the
criterion and so one should treat others as one would like others to
treat oneself (Golden Rule) or one should not treat others in ways
that one would not like to be treated (Silver rule). Seeking light
from the teachings of Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib (P.B.U.H), we have
named the combination of these two very famous ethical maxims as
the Principle of Criteria.24 This principle is accepted by all the
religions/faiths. Therefore, based on what has sbeen said, we can
conclude that if the followers of all religions decide to accept and
respect the principle of criteria and act toward the followers of other
religions, as they like to be treated in the same situation, they would
revise their actions of the past and start a new behavior. Hinduism
and Buddhism also lay emphasis on this principle. Will the
followers of a majority religion like to be treated unfairly, if they
are in minority? Will they like it that their human rights are
neglected or their right to live, right of benefiting from natural
resources, right of free thought, right of expression, right of
defending their school of thought or their right of sovereignty is
trespassed or withheld? So, it is right for them to be careful not to
deprive others from their human rights.

Preservation of Religious Symbols: As it has been stated before,
the strategy of unity is used to obtain the shared goals and not to
abolish the differences. Then, if the so-called endeavors damage the
principal beliefs of the followers of other religions/faiths in a
manner that their religious symbols and banners be challenged, the
whole strategy of unity would be defeated. As a result if we aim to
make the situation, where all are able to live freely and in amnesty
and preserve their religious symbols, their approaches must not
oppose this goal; that is why the Holy Qur‘an orders Muslims not to
disrespect even the idolaters of Pagans ways.26

The Principle of Non-violence: In the past, the mechanics of
power dictated that the followers of the most powerful religion
113
would act harshly toward the followers of other minor religions.
But in modern days, the ethical morale is not allowing that kind of
treatment. The amazing point about Islam is that even in the most
dominant and most powerful time of Islamic sway, it is suggested
that if Muslims enter a peace treaty with the followers of other
books, none of the followers of either religions should have lordship
over others. Islam orders its followers that faith and religion is not
imposable.27 And, that the Prophet of Islam (P.B.U.H) has no duty
to be dominant over people‘s life, but only is entitled to reveal and
explain the religion.28 God is kind to everyone29 and His mercy is
for all humanity.30
The historical understanding of hostility between religions/faiths
toward each other shows that any hostile difference among
religions/faiths is primarily in conflict with their own teachings of
non-violent behaviour. Secondly, the religions that aim to attract
others to their faith by application of force will not only lose their
credibility, but would also cause a sense of cynicism towards the
origin of religions/faiths in the minds of ,the impartial and ordinary
people. Thirdly, the approach, stated above, has not proved
beneficial to any religion. Further, the power has been exchanged
so periodically between different religions, based on the status of
their economic power. Fourthly, such fights not only have no
victorious party in the end, but weaken the forces of both sides,
thereby impede them from their main goal of searching for
eminence. Fifthly, violence is not an effective way of defeating
religions/faiths. None of the religions which experienced such
violence, have faded away from the face of earth. Instead, violence
inflicted on a religion, has sometimes made the followers of such a
religion more serious in their attempts to preserve and carary their
faith.
Harmlessness is one of the shared commonality among the religions
of India. They believe that ―for the Brahman individual, the more he
gets close to virtue and piety, the more he gets distant from hurting
others, which has roots in negligence, and becomes a reason for the
credibility of the principle of non-violence.‖31 This approach has
been propounded to a large extent in Jainisim.32
114

The Principle of Nullity of Drafting the Differences: To establish
unity and to preserve it, the drafting of differences must be
seriously avoided. Just as the Holy Prophet of Islam (P.B.U.H) at
Hudaibi‟a, agreed to enter a ten years Peace Treaty t with the
Moshrekin. As per this Treaty, it was agreed that the Muslims and
the idol worshipers will not harm each other and, in the shade of the
produced security, shall aact upon their faiths and none should plot
against the other. Although the Prophet of God believed that his
name as the Prophet of Allah should be written in the Treaty as this:
―This is a Treaty between Mohammad, the Messenger of Allah
and…. But he retained only his name in the Treaty, as the
unbelievers were not willing to accept him as Messenegr of Allah.
It is important to keep in mind here that he was far more powerful
than the combined strength of all the unbelievers there. Despite this,
he agreed to their conditions, because in case of his insisting to
write the phrase, the process of peace making between Muslims and
the idol worshipers would have taken much longer time.

The Principle of Dialogue: To gain unity, nothing is more essential
than dialogue among religions/faiths. What is accepted by
humanity, is a system of relations in which everyone could talk
freely about the thoughts and goals. In the process of dialogue, the
differences and their damaging results shrink to a most minimum
level. In a conflicting situation, the circumstances are not suitable
for the religions/faiths to talk and the vested interests on either side
nullify all chances, because of their insistence on a certain matter.
In such a situation, the religions envision each other as
inconspicuous. Contrarily, in the peace situation the religions/faiths
are ready to understand each other, and thereby the propaganda
itself gets nullified. In such circumstances the shared values and
beliefs are conspicuous.

The Practical Obligation on Principles: In order to act on the
foretold principles, some practical approaches must be suggested.
The best ethical approach in the first step is the establishment of a
national protocol and an inter-religious agreement, based on the
shared values and the geographical density of the followers. This is
115
what the Holy Prophet of Islam (P.B.U.H) did, when he arrived in
Medina and had the agreement signed by all the people in the city.
The second step could be the establishment of institutions to
administer the principles. This will play a very important role in
active internalization of unity.

The Principle or Revision: A long term stable unity is possible only
when we show flexibility whenever the agreed points need to be
changed in times of pressure from both inner and outer elements,
subject to their being based on truth and principles. The most
common elements that normally nullify treaties, are emergence of
new demands, new life styles, greed, scarcity of resources and
changes in the geographical demography of religions. Therefore, in
order to preserve unity; it is essential that the domain of unity be
flexible and the situations and causes necessating revisions, be
stated clearly.33
Conclusion
Out of all that has been said, it could be concluded that the
changes at times have made leaders of religions to understand the
necessity of peace presently; they know very well that if their wish is to
continue to exist and to promote their faith, they need to stop feuds and
start inter-religious dialogue peacefully. They need to enhance the
culture of understanding and tolerance among their followers and focus
on the shared values. They should consider all people as equal and
having the same rights. They need to consider the followers of other
religions/faiths as their brothers and have family-like relations with
each other. They are to accept the diversity in the world and follow the
golden and the silver rules and in the meantime support their own
belief. They need to avoid differences and stop drafting intrigue
against each others‘ religions/faiths. They must not do any thing
against any other faiths. Promotion of one‘s faith should be in sensible,
practical and peaceful manner. Further, the leaders should be
compelled to establish an ethical protocol and have institutions to
administer the principles.
116
References
1.
Daryoush Shayegan, Religions and Philosophical Schools of India, Vols. I & II, Amir Kabir Publications, Tehran,
IR Iran, 2007, pp. 24 & 208.
2.
John R. Hineells, A Handbook of Living Religions, Tr. Abdolrhim Govahi, Bostan Ketab Publications, Tehran,
IR Iran, 2007, p. 510.
3.
Robert E. Hume, The World's Living Religions, Tr. Abdolrahim Govahi, Office for Propagation of Islamic
Culture, Tehran, IR Iran, 1999, p.105.
4.
The Holy Qur‘an, 10/ 19.
5.
Ibid, 2/213.
6.
Ibid, 30/32.
7.
Ibid, 11/118.
8.
Hossein Boshrieh, An Introduction to the Sociology of Consensus and Consent, Naghed Magazine, Year I, Issue
No. 3, 2004, p.75.
9.
Ibid, p. 84.
10.
The Holy Quran, 8/10.
11.
Ibid, 4/59.
12.
The Holy Qur‘an, 3/64.
13.
Ibid, 49/13.
14.
Vernersky et al, Ethics in Six Religions of the World, Tr. Mohammad Hossein Veghar, Etela‘at Publications,
Tehran, IR Iran, 1999, p.112.
15.
Ibid, p. 192.
16.
Ibid, pp. 220, 246-7.
17.
The Holy Qur‘an, 3/156.
18.
Nahaj Al-Balagha, Letter No. 31.
19.
Mohammad Reza Jalali Naeini, India in One Glance, Shirazeh Publications, IR Iran, 1996, p. 376.
20.
Veronia Ions, Indian Mythology, Tr. Bajalan Farokhi, Asatir Publications, Tehran, IR Iran, 2003, p. 52.
21.
The Holy Qur‘an, 26/21
22.
Ibid, 2/62.
23.
T Robert E. Hume, The World's Living Religions, Tr. Abdolrahim Govahi, Office for Propagation of Islamic
Culture, 1990, Tehran, IR Iran, p. 59.
24.
Nahj Al-Balagha, Letter No. 31.
25.
John Noss, The Holistic History of Religions, Tr. Ali Asghar Hekmat, Piruz Publications, Tehran, IR Iran, 197, p.
250.
26.
The Holy Qur‘an, 10/108
27.
Ibid, Bag/256.
28.
Ibid, 88/22.
29.
Ibid, 3/159.
30.
Ibid, 21/107.
31.
R. Daryoush Shayegan, Religions and Philosophical Schools of India, Amir Kabir Publications, Tehran, IR Iran,
2007, p. 48.
117
32.
T Robert E. Hume, The World's Living Religions, Tr. Abdolrahim Govahi, Office for Propagation of Islamic
Culture, 1990, pp. 78-9.
33.
Hossein Boshrieh, An Introduction to the Sociology of Consensus and Consent, Naghed Magazine, Year I, Issue
No. 3, 2004. pp. 75, 80.
______________
118
Mail Box
Send your views & comments to:
Al-Mustafa International University,
18,Tilak Marg,Iran Culture House, Iran Culture House, New Delhi-110001
E-mail:[email protected]
From:
Dr. Saju Chackalackal
Dean, Faculty of Philosophy, Dharmaram Vidya Kshetram
Head, Department of Philosophy,
Christ University, Bangalore)
Respected Dr. Abdullah Shayanrad
Greetings from Bangalore, India.
I am indeed grateful to you for you having sent copies of your new
Journal, ―Religious Thought‖, published by Al-Mustafa Islamic Research
Society.
It is a worthy initiative, especially as you try to bring together scholars
from various institutions of higher learning and research. As we live in
the time of religious divide and rivalry, only the intelligentsia will be in a
position to do serious research on matters of communion among religions
that need to be highly prioritized. I am happy to see that scholars, who
have contributed various entries have come from across the world and
religious identities and ethnic communities. I am sure that these initiatives
will generate more interest among the readers and the general public to
look for the domains of religious communion, despite the distinct religious
identities that we all subscribe to.
Wishing you the best,
Sd/- Saju
119
From:
Prof. Nandu Ram,
Dean, School of Social Sciences,
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi – 110 067
Dear Mr. Shayanrad,
Thank you very much for sending the copy of the Journal ―Religious
Thought‖, Issue No. 1, 2011, published by Al-Mustafa International
University, Iran. Having a cursory look at the material, published in this
Issue, I am of the view that it is quite satisfactory, leaving enough scope to
get it improved along with time span. I wish all success in the venture.
With best wishes,
Yours sincerely,
Ssd/- Nandu Ram
Dear Sir
As-Salam
I am very happy to see your magazine, and I thank you very much. I shall
be waiting for other copies of your magazines.
Wassalam
Sd/- Ansar)
120
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vkt dh nqfu;k balkuh bfrgkl ds reke fiNys nkSjksa
ls fHkUu gSA bl nkSj esa f”k{kk] rduhd vkSj tkudkjh eas c<+ksrjh ds
vufxur lk/ku ;k mik; mtkxj gq, gSa vkSj gekjh igq¡p esa Hkh gSaA ;s
reke lk/ku cgqr izHkkodkjh vkSj vk/kwfud gSaA ysfdu iz”u ;g gS fd
D;k ge budk mi;ksx lgh <ax ls dj jgs gSa ;k ml ij fuiq.krk j[krs
gS\a D;k gekjs vanj og lykfg;r gS fd ge bu lk/kuksa ls lekt esa
lg&vfLrRo vkSj bRrsgkn iSnk djus dk dke ys ldsa\ balku dk
bfrgkl ;s crkrk gS fd balku] mldh lksp vkSj fopkj/kkjk ,d txg
ls nwljh txg LFkkukaf=r gksrs jgs gSa vkSj bl fgtjr vkSj LFkkuka=.k esa
muesa cnyko Hkh vkrk jgk gSA blesa vkLFkk vkSj lnkpkj dk D;k jksy
jgk gS\ vxj vkt ds lekt ij ut+j Mkysa rks gj txg tyu]
nq”euh] nwfj;k¡ vkSj rckgh dk n`”; ut+j vkrk gS vkSj ;s gj rCd+sa esa
lkQ fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA ,d balku gks ;k ifjokj] lekt gks ;k ns”k ;k
d+kSe] lc bl esa fxjQrkj gSaA vc ;s vglkl c<+rk tk jgk gS fd
leL;k ds lek/kku ds fy, /keksZa ds chp vkilh okrkZyki vkSj ckrphr
vko”;d gSA ;s ckrphr ,sls ekgkSy esa gksuh pkfg, tgk¡ ,d /keZ nwljs
/keZ ij uqDrkphuh djus dh txg csgrj ekgkSy iSnk djs vkSj
cjknjhokn] ekSgCcr] gennhZ] vfgalk tSlh feyrh tqyrh f”k{kk dks
lkeus yk,A bl rjg bRrsgkn vkSj csgrj fj”rs iSnk gksus esa enn
feysxhA /keksZa ds chp okrkZ dh cqfu;kn uohurk] lcz vkSj eqgCcr ij
gksuh pkfg,A ,d nwljs ls vkxs c<+us dh gks<+] yM+kbZ] >xM+s vkSj erHksn
ls nwjh j[kuk pkfg,A bl ckrphr dh cqfu;kn ,d nwljs dh f”k{kk dh
*
tokgjyky ;wfuoflZVh] ubZ fnYyh
121
bT+t+r vkSj vkilh le> ij gksuh pkfg,A nqfu;k ds gj /keZ us blh
ckr ij t+ksj fn;k gS vkSj vd+y vkSj le> dk mi;ksx djus dks dgk
gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, mifu’n dh f”k{kk ij ,d ut+j MkysAa ge
ns[krs gSa fd rSrfj;k mifu’n esa ,d nqvk gS tks reke balkuksa dh rjQ
ls feyh tqyh nqvk gS ftlds gj Hkkx esa ^lc ds ,d lkFk* gksus dk
iSxk+ e gSA tSls ^lc dks ,d lkFk rkd+r ns] ,d lkFk j[k] ,d lkFk uwj
vkSj jkS”kuh fn[kk] ,d lkFk bZ”;kZ ls nwj dj* vkfnA nqvk esa gj txg
lkjh balkfu;r dks lfEefyr fd;k x;k gSA bl nqvk dk ed+ln feyh
tqyh vkilh dksf”k”k dks c<+kok nsuk vkSj mu dksf”k”kksa ds ek/;e ls
bRrsgkn vkSj veu o veku ds ekxZ dks vkxs c<+kuk gSA bu reke /keksZa
dh cqfu;kn ,d gS] bLyke gks ;k bZlkbZ /keZ] fgUnq /keZ gks ;k dksbZ vkSj
/keZ] /kkfeZd rkSj rjhd+ksa esa erHksn rks gks ldrs gSa ysfdu balkfu;r ds
mlwy ij dksbZ erHksn ugha vkSj ;gh cqfu;kn gSa lg&vfLrRo vkSj
vkilh lg;ksx dhA
122
fnYyh ds rqdhZ ckn”kkgksa dk
Hkkjr dh ,sfrgkfld fuek.kZ esa ;ksxnku
¼1388 & 1206 bZloh½
izksQl
s j lS¸;n eqgEen vt+ht+qÌhu gqlSu*
rqdZ ckn”kkgksa dh Hkkjr ij fot; flQZ ,d fl;klh
fot; ugha Fkh ftlesa ,d jktk dks ijkt; nsdj nwljk r[+r o rkt
dk ekfyd cu x;kA ;g Qrsg Hkkjr dh ft+Unxh ds gj {ks= esa cnyko
ykbZ vkSj ml uslkekftd] /kkfeZd] vkfFkZd ,oa lk¡Ld`frd ft+Unxh dks
cny dj j[k fn;kA bl lyrur dk Hkkjr esa izorZd dqrqcqÌhu ,scd
Fkk ftlus 1206 ls 1210 bZloh ds chp jkT; fd;kA
rqdkZsa us fnYyh ds bfrgkl esa ,d cgqr lqUnj v/;k; dks vkjaHk
fd;kA “kk;n gh Hkkjr ds fdlh nwljs “kgj dk bfrgkl bruk yEck
gksA bl rF; dks lkeus j[ksa rks bl ckr ij foLe; ugha gksrk fd
fnYyh esa bruh ;knxkj bekjrsa gSa tks fuek.kZdkjh dk [kwclwjr uewuk gSaA
lyrur ds rd+jhcu nks lkS lkyksa ds bfrgkl esa dqrqcqn~nhu ,scd]
vyre”k] cycu] dhd+ckn] vykmn~nhu f[kyth] x+;klqn~nhu rqx+yd+
vkSj fQjkst”+ kkg rqx+yd+] ekSgEen fcu rqx+yd+ ox+Sjk us tks fgLlk fy;k
og cgqr vgfe;r j[krk gSA bu ckn”kkgksa us lH;rk o laLd`fr] Kku
vkSj f”kYidyk dk ftl izdkj mRFkku fd;k mldk ,d O;kid uewuk
muds t+ekus dk fuekZ.kdk;Z gSA fuek.kZdkjh esa ,d u;k rjhd+k muds
t+ekus esa lkeus vk;k vkSj “kh’kZ rd igq¡pkA bl fuek.kZdkjh esa bLyke
ds /kkfeZd vkSj lekth rRoksa dk Hkh tyok gS vkSj /kkfeZd o lkekftd
vko”;drkvksa ij ut+j djrs gq, fuek.kZ fd;k x;k gS tks fd dsoy
ewy Hkkjrh; fuek.kZdkjh ds rjhd+s ls fHkUu gSA
*
tkfe;k fefYy;k bLykfe;k] ubZ fnYyh
123
bl nkSj dh fofHkUu e”kgwj bekjrsa tks fuek.kZdkjh dk uewuk gSa
vkSj fofHkUu ckn”kkgksa ds nkSjs gqdew r esa cukbZ xbZa gSa fnYyh dh jkSud+
dks vkSj mlds ,sfrgkfld vkSj lkaLd`frd egRo dks jkS”ku djrh gSaA
bu esa dqN bekjrksa dk mYys[k vko”;d tku iM+rk gSA ;s bekjrsa gSa%
efLtn dqOorqy bLyke] enjlk ulh:n~nhu] yky egy X+;kliqjk
fLFkr] bZnxkg fdyksdgjh fLFkr] fd+yk] rkykc ¼gkSt+s [k+kl½ vkSj efLtn
dqOorqy bLyke dk enjlk] ftldks enjls vykbZ dgrs gSaA blds
vfrfjDr rqxyd+kckn dk fd+yk] X;klqn~nhu rqx+yd+ dk ed+cjk]
vkfnykckn dk fd+yk] njxkg gt+jr “ks[k+ fut+keqn~nhu vkSy;k] ,d u;k
“kgj nf{k.k Hkkjr esa tks nkSyrkckn ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS]
Qhjkstk+ ckn “kgj ftldks Qhjkst”+ kkg rqx+yd+ us viuh jkt/kkuh cuk;k
Fkk vkSj cgqr lh nwljh bekjrsa Hkh blh nkSj dh nsu gSaA
;s lkjh bekjrsa rqdhZ fuekZ.kdkjh dk uewuk gSaA bu rqdZ ckn”kkgksa
us fnYyh dks ,d u;k jax fn;k ftl esa /keZ vkSj laLd`fr nksuksa dk
lekos”k FkkA bu nksuksa ds feyu ls ,d ubZ laLd`fr fuek.kZdkjh dh
“kdy esa lkeus vkbZ vkSj bl lc ds chp dqrqc ehukj laLd`fr dks ,d
ubZ jkSud+ iznku djrk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA bu lkjh bekjrksa esa dqjku djhe
dh vk;rksa dh [kwclwjr [k+Rrkrh vlk/kkj.k vkSj vlkekU; :i ls lkeus
fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA v¡xzstk+ sa us gqdew r ij d+Ct+s ds ckn cgqr lh bekjrksa dks
csjgeh ls ohjku fd;k ysfdu ml nkSj dh lyrur ds fu”kku vkt Hkh
fnYyh esa ;gk¡ ogk¡ fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA
124
ckS/k /keZ vkSj bLyke ds chp ckrphr
lg&vfLrRo ds fy, lnkpkj dh ryk”k
izksQl
s j gjh “kadj izlkn*
bl ys[k esa ;g dksf”k”k gS fd bl ckr dks le>sa fd
ckS/k /keZ esa fdruh rkd+r gS fd oks /keksZa ds chp >xM+ksa dks nwj dj lds
vkSj fo”oO;kih Lrj ij ,d veu ilUn lekt dh cqfu;kn j[k ldsA
lg&vfLrRo ij ckrphr dk ed+ln ,d nwljs ij fuHkZjrk] vkxs c<+uk]
,d nwljs ds fy, vknj vkSj esytksy gS u fd nwljs ij vf/kdkj ikus
dh ykylkA bl ys[k esa ckS/k vkSj bLyke /keZ dh f”k{kk esa balkuh
O;ogkj ij cgl gSA vkt ds cnyrs lekt esa lekth vkSj fl;klh
leL;k,a tSls cjkcjh] vnkyr] vkt+knh vkSj balkuh gqdw+d+ vkSj ,d /keZ
ckjs esa nwljs ds fopkjksa ij nksuksa /keksZa dh f”k{kk ij ckrphr gSA
lg&vfLrRo ij ckrphr dk ed+ln bl cqfu;kn ij gS fd
nksuksa /keZ ldkjkRed lekth vkSj fl;klh fQØ j[krs gSa vkSj cqfu;knh
rkSj ij ,d nwljs dks le>rs gSa( bl ed+ln dh jkS”kuh esa nksuksa /keksZa ds
ldkjkRed fopkjksa dks mtkxj djuk gSA gesa ;kn j[kuk pkfg, fd
gekjk ed+ln lqyg vkSj lekth ,drk dks c<+kok nsuk gSA gesa ;s
ns[kuk gS fd fofHkUu /keZ fdl izdkj ls bu ewY;ksa dks c<+kok nsrs gSaA gj
/keZ esa ;s ;ksX;rk gS] gesa bls ryk”k djuk gSA fcuk bl ewy ea= ds
dksbZ lekt vkxs ugha c<+ ldrk] u dksbZ /keZ vius lPps mn~ns”; dks
ik ldrk gSA bl ckr dks lkeus j[krs gq, /keZ dk van:uh vkSj ckgjh
ijh{k.k djuk gSA
lg&vfLrRo ij ckrphr dh lPph ijh{kk ml gkyr esa gksrh gS
ftlesa >xM+s] Qlkn vkSj ruko gksA ;s oks gkyr gS ftl esa dksbZ Hkh /keZ
vius <kaps dks vkSj nwljs dh lksp dks le> ldrk gSA O;ogkfjd
*
fnYyh ;wfuoflZVh] fnYyh
125
rjhd+k ;s gksxk fd ,sls esa nksuksa /keksZa ds eq[; yksxksa ds fopkj lfEefyr
leL;kvksa ij fy, tk,aA
;s cgqr vko”;d eqn~nk gS D;ksfa d nwljs ds /kkfeZd fopkjksa ds
fo”ys’k.k esa cM+h vgfr;kr dh vko”;drk gSA bl leL;k ij ,d nwljs
dk vknj djrs gq, cgqr lkQ ckrphr djuh pkfg,A iwjh balkfu;r dks
dk;Z{ks= le>uk pkfg, vkSj nqfu;k ds reke /keksZa dk ;gh mn~ns”; gSA
bl esa ge dks reke balkfu;r ds fy, /kkfeZd ft+Eesokfj;ksa dks lkeus
ykuk pkfg, vkSj bl esa fdlh /keZ dks viuh igpku [kksus dk dksbZ
[krjk ugha gSA
eSa us ckS/k /keZ ls ckrphr ds fy, bLyke dk pquko fd;k gS
D;ksfa d nhus bLyke esa Hkh ckS/k /keZ dh rjg dksbZ dsUnzh; lRrk Lokeh
(central authority) ugha gSA nhus bLyke fo”o Lrj ij balkfu;r dks
rjD+d+h nsuk pkgrk gSA balkfu;r dk fgr vkSj dY;k.k vkSj mPp
balkuh ewY;ksa dks c<+kok nsuk bLyke dh f”k{kk dk fupksM+ gSA blh fy,
esjh n`f’V esa ckS/k /keZ ls ckrphr ds fy, lc ls csgrj /keZ bLyke gSA
;s ,d ,slh f”k{kk gS] ,sls fopkj gSa ftu ij ukfLrd O;fDr;ksa dks Hkh
vkifRr ugha gks ldrhA ckS/k /keZ dh f”k{kk dk ewy ea= gS fd reke
deksZa esa vkSlr deZ lc ls csgrj gSA gj leL;k esa chp ds jkLrs dks
c<+kok nsuk gS tks ckS/k /keZ ds ^izrhr;k lewrikok* (Pratitya
samutpada) esa izfrfcafcr gksrk gSA gkykafd ckS/k /keZ [kqnk vkSj :g dk
badkj djrk gS ysfdu mls Hkh /keZ dgrs gSa D;ksfa d og Hkh nqfu;k esa
balkfu;r dks c<+kok nsrk gSA bLyke iwjs rkSj ij v}Srokn dk /keZ gS]
ysfdu nksuksa /keZ ,d mn~n”s ; ;kuh balkfu;r ds mRFkku ds gkeh gSaA
bLyke ds lkFk ckrphr ds fy, vko”;d gS fd mu gkykr vkSj
ml ekgkSy dks vPNh rjg le>k tk, ftl esa bLyke dk mRFkku gqvk
vkSj ml ds cqfu;knh mlwy cuk, x,A ;gwfn;r vkSj elhg /keZ dh
ekfuan bLyke dh tM+sa Hkh vkne vkSj bczkghe ls flafpr gksrh gSa tks iwjh
rjg ls v}Srokn ds ijLrkj FksA ;s lksp ,d [kqnk ls ,d la;qDr fo”o
dh dYiuk dks ijofj”k nsrh gSA bLyke dh fuxkg eas nqfu;k ,d gS
vkSj oSf”od ,drk gh balkuh rjhd+k gSA eqlyeku reke ufc;ksa ij iwjk
126
;d+hu j[krs gSa ijUrq bfrgkl xokg gS fd vkne vkSj bczkghe dh f”k{kk
dh vans[kh gks jgh Fkh vkSj lekt fofHkUu chekfj;ksa ls xzLr FkkA ;s
gkykr Fks vkSj lkFk esa gt+jr elhg dh bathy eqdn+ ~nl esa gt+jr
ekSgEen ds t+gwj dh isf”kaxksbZ] bu gkykr esa bLyke t+gwj esa vkrk gSA
gt+jr ekSgEen dk ;g dguk fd csgrjhu bLyke oks gS tks x+jhcks]a
csdlksa vkSj Hkw[kksa dh t+:jr dks iwjk djs] pkgs oks tkudkj gks ;k
vutku] yksxksa dks viuh rjQ vkdf’kZr djus ds fy, dkQh FkkA
iSx+Ecjs bLyke us bl t+ekus esa ,d balkQoj lekt dks cukus dh ckr
dh vkSj bls gj balku dh ft+Eesokjh crkbZA bLykeh f”k{kk esa oks reke
rRo mIyC/k gSa tks ,d balkQilUn] veuilUn vkSj ,d`r lekt dh
cqfu;kn Mkyrs gSaA dsoy tsgkn dh leL;k gS ftlus bLykeh lH;rk
ij udkjkRed vlj Mkyk gSA ysfdu D;ksa\ bldk dkj.k ;g gS fd
eqlyekuksa ds ,d fxjksg us vkSj x+Sj eqlyekuksa us tsgkn dks lgh rjg
ls ugha le>k vkSj x+yr Qgeh dk f”kdkj gqvkA tsgkn ukbalkQh ds
lkeus ,d izdkj dk vlUrks’k izdV djuk gSA
bl Li’Vhdj.k dh jkS”kuh esa bLyke vkSj ckS/k /keZ ds chp
ckrphr Hkh vklku gS vkSj fj”rk HkhA nksuksa /keksZa us cjkcjh] vnkyr]
lqyg o lQkbZ vkSj oSf”od ,drk dh f”k{kk nh gS vkSj /kkfeZd }s’krk
dks fcuk cqfu;kn crk;k gS vkSj blls nwj jgus dk funsZ”k fn;k gSA nksuksa
/keksZa dh fuxkg esa balkuksa dh lgh nh{kk >xM+s vkSj nq”euh dks [kRe
djds ,d veuilUn oSf”od lekt dh cqfu;kn j[k ldrh gS vkSj bls
c<+kok ns ldrh gSA bu nksuksa /keksZa dk fopkj gS fd lkjh dfBukbZ dk
dkj.k vKku vkSj uknkuh gSA bu lc ckrksa ds vfrfjDr ekuo LoHkko
Hkh yM+krk gSA cgjgky] nksuksa /keksZa ds “kh’kZ O;fDr;ksa dh Hkh ft+Eesokjh gS
fd oks vius ekuus okyksa dks lgh jkLrs ij pyus dk izyksHku nsrs jgsa
rkfd reke balkfu;r lqyg vkSj veu ds lkFk lekth ft+Unxh xqt+kj
ldsA
127
tSu O;ogkfjd thou esa
veu ilUnh ,oa vkilh fj”rksa ds
mPp fopkj
izksQl
s j MkDVj ohj lkxj tSu*
tSu lekt esa O;ogkfjdrk ij cgqr /;ku fn;k x;k gS
ijUrq bl ys[k esa ge dsoy mlds veu ilUn vkilh fj”rksa ds ckjs esa
ckr djsx
a sA ;g blfy, D;ksfa d ekStwnk lekt esa ;g leL;k vkSj vf/kd
xaHkhj cu xbZ gS vkSj vkt fo”oO;kih Lrj ij bl ij cgl gks jgh gSA
vkt dh nqfu;k esa bl leL;k dks mtkxj djuk cgqr vko”;d gS
D;ksfa d nqfu;k esa [kqnxt+hZ vkSj cnpyuh bruk QSy xbZ gS fd balku
balku dk nq”eu gks x;k gSA ;fn bl c<+rh gqbZ gSokfu;r dks jksdk u
x;k vkSj balkuksa dks gj izdkj dh dksf”k”k ls lqyg vkSj veu o veku
vkSj vkilh fj”rksa vkSj lg&vfLrRo dh vksj /;ku nsus ds fy, vkdf’kZr
u fd;k x;k rks balku vius gkFkksa ls Lo;a dks vkSj viuh nqfu;k dks
rckg o cckZn dj nsxkA
fo”o ds rd+jhcu lkjs yksx fdlh u fdlh /keZ dks ekurs gSA
ijUrq mu esa ls vf/kdrj vius gh /keZ dh :g ls cs[k+cj gSaA ;fn
fofHkUu /keksZa dh vPNh ckrksa dh vksj ml /keZ ds ekuus okyksa dk /;ku
vkdf’kZr fd;k tk, rks eqefdu gS fd gekjh dksf”k”k jax yk ldsA blh
rF; dks lkeus j[krs gq, ge tSu /keZ esa O;ogkfjd lnkpkj vkSj mlls
tqM+s lg&vfLrRo ds egRo ij jkS”kuh Mky jgs gSaA
tSuh O;ogkfjd lnkpkj ds nks :[k+ gSa% ,d dk fj”rk lk/kw larksa
ls vkSj nwljs dk vke balkuksa ls gSA thou ds ftu ewY;ksa dks tSu /keZ
c<+kok nsrk gS muesa fgalk dks jksduk] cM+cksysiu ls cpuk] viuh
*
Jh yky cgknqj “kkL=h jk’Vh; laLd`r fo|kihB] ubZ fnYyh
128
vko”;Drkvksa dks lhfer j[kuk] fdlh Hkh tkunkj dks nnZ u igq¡pkuk]
;kSu lEca)ksa dks lhfer j[kuk] gj jkst+ FkksMh+ nsj pqipki fparu djuk]
vius ikl mIyC/k vUu dks nwljksa esa ckaVuk [k+kl dj lk/kw larksa dks]
cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSaA
ijUrq tSu /keZ ds reke rRoksa esa ls lc ls egRoiw.kZ vfgalk gS
tks mldh O;ogkfjDrk dh cqfu;kn gSA vfgalk ds ekxZ ij pyuk gj
/keZ ds fy, vko”;d gSA
tSu /keZ reke balkuksa dks lacksf?kr djds dgrk gS fd dsoy
balku gh ugha] gj tkunkj dh vksj /;ku nsa vkSj fgalk o uqd+lku
igq¡pkus ls cpsa vkSj gj ,d ls HkkbZpkjxh vkSj nksLrkuk O;ogkj djsaA
Li’V gS fd bl izdkj dh nh{kk ,d lsgrean lekt dh uhao
j[kus vkSj lqyg ilUn lg&vfLrRo dks c<+kok nsrh gSaA bu ij vey
djds y{; dh izkfIr gks ldrh gS vkSj balkuksa vkSj nqfu;k dks rckgh ls
cpk;k tk ldrk gSA
129
U;k; ,oa “kkafr ds lkFk
ikjLifjd vfLrRo
izksQl
s j “kkg eqgEen olhe*
vius ys[k ds izkjEHk esa ys[kd us ;g iz”u fd;k gS fd
;fn fdlh ls iwNk tk, fd og lalkj dh lHkh ijs”kkfu;ksa ds dkj.kksa dks
,d gh “kCn esa C;ku dj ns rks og dqN Hkh dg ldrk gS% x+jhch]
fuj{krk] fj”or] “kks’k.k] bR;kfnA ;g lc ds lc lgh gSa] fdUrq og ,d
“kCn gS ^^vU;k;** ¼injustice½! vr% izR;sd O;fDr rFkk izR;sd leqnk; dh
lykerh ds fy, ^U;k;* dks dke esa ykuk pkfg,] vkSj ^^ikjLifjd
vfLrRo ¼mutual existence½ u fd co-existence ij dk;Zfor gksuk
pkfg,A D;ksfa d ge lc dks ,d gh bZ”oj us iSnk fd;k gSA uSgtqy
cykx+k esa gS fd gt+jr vyh ¼v +l +½1 us ekfyds v”rj dks felz dk
xojuj cuk;k rks fy[k Hkstk fd ^^turk esa nks izdkj ds yksx gksax%s
rqEgkjs nhuh ¼/kkfeZd HkkbZ½ vkSj bZ”oj ds cuk, gq, rqEgkjs tSls vkneh + + +
[kcjnkj! turk ls dHkh u dguk fd eSa rqEgkjk gkfde cuk fn;k
gw¡! + + + ;kn j[kks fd tks dksbZ bZ”oj ds cUnksa ij t+qYe djrk gS] rks
bZ”oj [kqn vius et+ywe cUnksa dh vksj ls t+kfye dk gjhQ cu tkrk
gSA
lekt esa vkil ds esy tksy ds fy, gt+jr vyh us vius cM+s
csVs ¼beke½ glu dks olh;r dh ^^csVs! vius vkSj nwljksa ds njfe;ku
[kqn viuh t+kr dks fet+ku cuk] tks ckr Lo;a vius fy, ukilan djrk
gS] muds fy, Hkh ukilUn dj! fdlh ij t+qYe u dj] D;ksfa d nwljs dk
t+qYe rw Lo;a vius vki ij ugha pkgrkA lc ds lkFk lnHkko ls is”k
*
1
vyhx<+ eqfLye ;wfuoflZVh
vki ij lyke
130
vk] ftl rjg rsjh pkg gS fd og rq> ls is”k vk,¡A yksxksa dh tks ckrsa
rq>s ukilUn gSa] og vius fy, Hkh ukilUn djA**
;g rks jgh fdlh lekt esa vkUrfjd ckrA bu ckrksa ij vey
djds lekt esa lq[k “kkafr dk cksy ckyk gksxkA izR;sd O;fDr fcuk /keZ
o leqnk; ds fopkj ds ,d nwljs ls [kq”k jgsxkA vFkkZr fofHkUu /keksZa
rFkk fopkj/kkjk ds yksx vkil esa lq[k “kkafr ls jgsx
a sA
vc cM+s vkSj “kfDr”kkyh ns”kksa dh ckr djsa rks uSgtqy cykx+k dk
iSxk+ e gS fd ^^;q) esa igy u djks** vkSj ;g fd ^^”k=q dks igy djus
nksA** ;fn dksbZ igy ugha djsxk rks “kkafr dgk¡¡ ls vkSj dc Hkax gksxh\
vUrjZk’Vªh; Lrj ij lq[k] “kkfUr rFkk le`)h d+k;e gksxhA fe=rk
iuisxh vkSj c<+sxhA
ys[kd us viuh conflict management F;ksjh esa vkilh HkkbZpkjk
cuk, j[kus ds fy, Dgk gS fd gj O;fDr] gj leqnk; ds vkil esa fj”rs
,d f=dks.k ¼triangle½ esa fn, x, rjhd+s ls d+k;e djus pkfg,% vFkkZr
^eSa*] esjk ^bZ”oj* vkSj ^vki*!
bZ”oj
eSa ¼fxjksg ,d½
vki ¼fxjksg nks½
tktZ tqjnkd+ ¼George Jordac½ us viuh iqLrd lkSrqy
vnkyfry balkfu;kg ¼U;k; gsrq] ekuo /ofu½ esa gt+jr vyh ¼v +l +½ ds
131
U;k; ds ckjs esa fy[kk gS fd mUgksaus ,d bZlkbZ dk jDr ns;2 ¼[kw+¡ cgk½
,d eqlyeku ds jDr ns; ds cjkcj dj fn;k FkkA bZlkbZ muls muds
thou dky esa rFkk mlds ckn Hkh izse djrs FksA la;qDr jk’Vª ds
U.N.D.P. us viuh 2000 bZ +fd vjc MsosyIesV
a fjiksVZ esa Dgk fd ,d
loZJ’s V gqdqejkuh ds fy, gt+jr vyh ¼v +l +½ ds crk, jkLrs ij
pyuk pkfg,] rkfd ns”k dh rjDd+h gksA lkFk gh fjiksVZ us muds dqN
lq>koksa dks Hkh vafdr fd;k gSA
2
tc ekjs tkus okys ds okfjl d+kfry ds nsus ij dqN ysdj mls ekQ dj nsrs gSaA
132
bLyke vkSj vU; iwohZ /keksZa esa
balkuh cjkcjh dh ifjdYiuk
MkDVj ,e ,e oekZ*
bl i`Foh ds bfrgkl dks i<+us ls irk pyrk gS fd
gekjs jhfr fjokt vkSj /kkfeZd ewY; ,sls gh iSnk ugha gks x, cfYd
mudh ,d iq[+rk cqfu;kn gSA ;s lc vkil esa ,d nwljs ij fuHkZj gSaA
lR; rks ;g gS fd bUgksaus ,d nwljs ij cgqr vf/kd izHkko Mkyk gS rFkk
,d nwljs dh izpqjrk dks rhoz fd;k gS] ftldks vke vkneh ugha
le>rkA gj /keZ us lPpkbZ ,oa ;FkkFkZrk ds vk/kkj dks iq[+rk djus esa
egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku fn;k gSA gj /keZ ds izeq[k ewY; ,d tSls gh gSaA dksbZ
/keZ nwljs /keksZa esa mifLFkr :gkfu;r vkSj gd+hd+r ls eq¡g ugha eksM+
ldrkA reke /keksZa dh ifo= fdrkcsa blh gd+ dh iqf’V djrh fn[kkbZ
nsrh gSaA vkt vPNh ckr ;s gS fd ge nwljs /keksZ dh vPNh ckrksa dks
lqurs gSa vkSj muij vkdyu djrs gSa ;k de ls de mudh gd+hd+r
rd igq¡pus dh ps’Vk djrs gSaA
lkalkfjd rjD+dh+ ,oa XyksckykbZt+”s ku ds dkj.k ge foo”k gSa fd bu
leL;kvksa ij fparu djsa vkSj reke /kekZsa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr djsaA
gj lH;rk dks /keksZa ds lgh ewY;ksa ls ykHk mBkuk pkfg,A gj /keZ ds
mikld dh ft+Eesokjh gS fd og vkilh veu vkSj lg&vfLrRo ds fy,
dksf”k”k djs vkSj n`<+rkiwoZd bldks et+cwr djus esa yxk jgsA gesa pkfg,
fd ,slh dksf”k”k djsa fd lkjs /keksZa ds ekuus okys bRrsgkn ds lkFk ,d
IysVQkeZ ij tek gks dj dke djsa vkSj /keksZa ds chp vkilh okrkZ esa c<+
p<+ dj fgLlk ysaA Hkkjr fo”o ds reke /keksZa dk oru vkSj dsUnz fcUnq
jgk gS] bl dk;Z ds fy, Hkkjr ls vf/kd mfpr dksbZ nwljh txg ugha
gSA Hkkjroklh vius /keZ ij fu;fer jgus ds lkFk nwljs /keksZa dks le>us
*
v/;{k] baVjQsFk dkUQzsl
a ] ubZ fnYyh
133
ds fy, ges”kk rS;kj jgs gSaA ;s cM+h fo”ks’krk gSA gesa pkfg, fd nwljs
/keksZa dks vkSj mudh :g dks le>sa vkSj ns[ksa dh ekuo ewY;ksa dh mRifRr
vkSj foLrkj.k esa mudk D;k fgLlk gSA mUgksua s balkuksa dks balku cukus
esa D;k ;ksxnku fn;k gS vkSj blds }kjk vkilh HkkbZpkjxh dks fdl gn
rd c<+kok fn;k gSA gj /keZ dk eq[; fl)kar balkfu;r dks c<+kok nsuk
gSA jkLrs vyx vyx vkSj dbZ gks ldrs gSa ysfdu mÌs”; lc dk ,d
gh gSA
bl mÌs”; dh izkfIr dk ,d ekxZ] /keksZa ds chp ckrphr ,oa
Mk;ykWx gSA dqjvku djhe us Hkh /keksZa ds chp ckrphr dh uhao j[kh gSA
blh ckrphr ds QyLo:i gqnSfc;k dh laf/k gqbZ ftldks dqjvku us
cgqr ilUn fd;kA Kkr gks fd gqnSfc;k eDdk ds ikl ,d LFkku gS
tgk¡ ij 628 bZloh esa oks laf/ki= rS;kj fd;k x;k ftldks lqyg
gqnSfc;k ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA dqjvku us izpaMrk ,oa vR;kpkj dks
gjke Dgk gS] bl dh fl)rk ds fy, dqjvku dh dbZ vk;rsa vkSj
iSx+Ecj dh cgqr lh gnhlsa mIyC/k gSaA
gj eqlyeku dk Qt+Z gS fd nwljs /keksZa ds izfrf’Br ,oa
vknj.kh; O;fDr;ksa dk lEeku djsA bLyke esa eqlyekuksa dk Qt+Z gS fd
nwljs /keksZa ds ekuus okyksa dks vkea=.k nsa fd og ;dtqV gksdj
fe=rkiw.kZ O;ogkj ds lkFk gd+ dh ryk”k djsaA vYykg ds jlwy us ckj
ckj dgk fd [kqnk ls Mjks vkSj lp cksyks vkSj ekQh ,oa {kek dk
O;ogkj djks vkSj dgha Hkh dksbZ vPNh ckr ns[kks rks lh[kks vkSj mlls
f”k{kk yksA
bZlkbZ /keZ gks ;k fgUnw /keZ] fl[k et+gc gks ;k dksbZ vkSj /keZ]
lc esa blh izdkj dh f”k{kk nh xbZ gSA bu ckrksa dks /;ku esa j[krs gq,
gesa lc ls dguk pkfg, fd gekjh fHkUurk ls Åij Hkh dqN gS ftldh
rjQ gesa /;ku dsafnzr djuk pkfg,A gesa vkilh HkkbZpkjxh dks iz/kkurk
nsuh pkfg, vkSj bls viuk ewY; mn~ns”; le>uk pkfg,A fdlh /keZ dk
izfrokn ryk”k djus ls D;k feysxk\ gesa veu ds lkFk thuk gS] /keksZa esa
veu iSnk djus dh rkd+r gS vkSj mudh f”k{kk esa bruk ne gS fd
vkilh esyfeyki dks c<+kok ns ldsa vkSj ;gh gekjk mÌs”; gSA bl
134
nqfu;k dks vPNh nqfu;k cukus dk ;gh ekxZ gSA fofHkUu lH;rk,a jgsa]
fofHkUu /keZ jgsa] mu ij fofHkUu rjhd+ksa ls pyus okys jgsa ij veu vkSj
bRrsgkn d+k;e jgsA
135
ckS/k /keZ esa foRrh; O;oLFkk
MkDVj fl;kjke feJk gy/kj*
ckS/k /keZ dh uhao gyky thfodk izkfIr ij gSA gj
ckS/k vuq;k;h dk nkf;Ro gS fd og gyky thfodk izkfIr dh fpark
djsA /ku nkSyr dk iz;ksx HkkSfrd vko”;Drkvksa dks iwjk djuk gS vkSj
nqfu;k ls nwjh j[kdj lgh rjhd+s ls bZekunkjh ds lkFk jkst+h dekuk
gSA larks’kiw.kZ ft+Unxh vkSj nwljksa dh enn gsrq nku”khyrk o mnkjrk
ckS/k /keZ ds ewy ea= gSaA
ckS/k /keZ dk mÌs”; ,d vPNs lekt dk fuekZ.k gS ftl esa yksx ,d
nwljs ls fey dj lg;ksx ds lkFk ft+Unxh fcrk,aA bl O;oLFkk esa
iw¡th esa lc dh lk>hnkjh dh uhao vkilh ijke”kZ ij vk/kkfjr gSA
tc rd lfEefyr :i ls ,slk u gks] futh iw¡th dk iz;ksx cgqr
egRo j[krk gSA
ckS/k /keZ ds ekuus dk eryc yksxksa ds fy, lqfo/kk vkSj muds fgr ds
fy, lk/ku iSnk djuk gSA gyky thfodk dh izkfIr ckS/k /keZ ds vkB
fu;eksa esa ls ikapok¡ fu;e gSA foRrh; dk;ksZa dk tk,t+k mlds izHkkoksa
dks ns[k dj ugha fd;k tk ldrk( dbZ nwljs rRo vkSj leL;kvksa ls
bldk ukrk gSA ckS/k /keZ esa foRrh; fopkj/kkjk dks ;fn ldkjkRed
:i esa ns[kk tk, rks og lR; vkSj ;FkkFkZrk dh ryk”k esa gSA reke
foRrh; iz.kkyh fofHkUu rRoksa ds vkilh lEca/k vkSj vyx vyx
gkykr esa mu rRoksa ds O;ogkfjd :i ij fuHkZj gS vkSj ;s gkykr
fofHkUu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa cnyrs jgrs gSa vkSj bl iwjh iz.kkyh esa ;g
ps’Vk jguh pkfg, fd futh gol ml esa “kkfey u gks vkSj larks’k
izkfIr eq[; mÌs”; jgsA bl reke ryk”k dk eq[; mÌs”; gd+hd+r dh
*
fnYyh ;wfuoflZVh] ubZ fnYyh
136
jkS”kuh dh izkfIr gSA ;gh gj dksf”k”k dk vfHkizk; gS( gj dksf”k”k dh
dke;kch vkSj ukdkeh dk fj”rk mlds mÌs”; lss gSA ckS/k /keZ
ekufld vkSj vk/;kfRed mRFkku dh fujarj ps’Vk ij t+ksj nsrk gSA ;s
balkuksa dks mudh ft+Eesokjh fuHkkus] fdlh dks gkfu u igq¡pkus vkSj
vko”;Drk ls vf/kd O;; dks jksduk fl[kkrk gSA ckS/k /keZ ;s
lqfuf”pr djrk gS fd vkenuh vkSj [k+psZ esa larqyu cuk, j[kk tk,A
ckS/k /keZ esa lkekftd ft+Unxh ds <kaps dks et+cwr cukus ij
cgqr vf/kd t+ksj fn;k x;k gSA ckS/k /keZ dh f”k{kk dk ,d igyw
nsf[k,% ^tUe dfBu deZ gS] ft+Unxh cpkuk Hkh dfBu deZ gS] blls
dfBu lgh jkLrk ikuk gS vkSj ml ls Hkh dfBu tkx:drk gkfly
djuk gSA*
137
ckS/k vkSj tSu /keZ esa
lg&vfLrRo dh cqfu;kn
MkDVj u;~;jk vC;kr
ckS/k vkSj tSu nksuksa /keZ bZlk iwoZ NVh “krkCnh esa lkeus
vk,A xkSre cq) us ckS/k /keZ vkSj Lokeh egkohj us tSu /keZ dh cqfu;kn
MkyhA ,d gh t+ekus esa lkeus vk, ;s nksuksa /keZ ,d nwljs ls cgqr
d+jhc gSa( nksuksa esa dqN lekurk gS rks dqN fHkUurk Hkh gSA
nksuksa /keksZa ds izorZd cM+s ?kjkuksa ls Fks vkSj fQj lk/kw lar dk :i
/kkj.k dj fy;k vkSj gd+ ds jkLrs ij ft+Unxh xqt+kj nhA nksuksa /keksZa dh
tM+sa fgUnw /keZ ls feyrh gSa( ckn esa ;s vyx gq, vkSj vyx /keZ cusA
“kq:vkr esa tSu /keZ Hkh] ckS/k /keZ ds leku la;kl dks c<+kok nsrk
Fkk vkSj dsoy lnkpkj dh f”k{kk nsrk FkkA nksuksa /keksZa esa “kksd o nq[k ds
lgu ij ;dleku t+ksj gSA ;s /keZ tUe ls ej.k rd ds lQj dks “kksd
o nq[k dk lQj le>rs gSa vkSj bl ls NqVdkjs dh dksf”k”k dks
vko”;d ekurs gSaA
bl mn~ns”; dh izkfIr ds fy, ckS/k
pfj=] lq”khyrk vkSj vPNs fopkjksa o bPNkvksa
gSA bl izdkj lqdeZ ,oa vPNk cjrko bl
j[krs gaSA balku dks gj le; nwljs balkuksa dh
/keZ Js’B ftUnxh] vPNs
ij pyus dk ekxZ crkrk
/keZ esa egRoiw.kZ gSfl;r
fpUrk gksuh pkfg,A
tSu /keZ esa Hkh vPNk cjrko ft+Unxh dh cqfu;kn gSA ;gk¡ rd fd iwtk
dk dksbZ egRo ughaA tks dqN gS lnkpkj o lnO;ogkj gSA vkSj lkQ
lqFkjh ft+Unxh vkSj :g vkSj :gkfu;r ij cgqr t+ksj fn;k x;k gSA
balku vkSj balkfu;r dks c<+kok ft+Unxh dk ed+ln gSA nksuksa /keksZa esa
138
lqyg vkSj vfgalk ij [k+kl /;ku gSA ckS/k /keZ dk dsUnz balku gSA ;s
/keZ eqgCcr vkSj balku ls izse dks cgqr egRo nsrk gSA nksuks /keZ
lg&vfLrRo vkSj “kkafr dks ft+Unxh dk eq[; mÌs”; le>rs gSaA bl
rjg bu nksuksa /keksZa esa dsoy ,sfrgkfld lekurk gh ugha gS cfYd mudh
f”k{kk Hkh leku gS vkSj nksuksa lg&vfLrRo dks c<+kok nsus dh {kerk
j[krs gSA
139
tSu /keZ dk
vusdkarkokn n`f’Vdks.k vkSj
lg&vfLrRo
MkDVj vusdkar dqekj tSu*
nks gt+kj Ng lkS lky igys Lokeh egkohj us vius
oDrO; esa Dgk Fkk fd gj ft+Unxh leku egRo j[krh gS( lkjh ft+Unxh
esjh ft+Unxh tSlh gSA gj dksbZ ft+Unxh ls tqM+k jguk pkgrk gS vkSj
ekSr ls Mjrk gSA gj dksbZ nnZ ls nwj jguk pkgrk gSA bl dkj.ko”k
gesa viuh ft+Unxh cgqr lko/kkuh ls O;rhr djuh pkfg, vkSj vius gh
tSls fdlh tkunkj dks gkfu ugha igq¡pkuk pkfg,A
vius vfLrRo vkSj thou dk vglkl ,d fo”okl gSA gessa bruh
lko/kkuh ls ft+Unxh xqtk+ juk pkfg, fd fdlh dks gekjh mifLFkfr ls
dksbZ Bsl u igq¡psA
egkohj us vius vuq;kf;;ksa dks ges”kk ;s lans”k fn;k fd gd+ dh
ryk”k esa nwljksa dks vkSj mudh f”k{kk dks le>sAa ;g nh{kk nwljksa dh
f”k{kk dk lEeku o lRdkj fl[kkrh gS vkSj vkilh esy tksy dks c<+kok
nsrh gSA ;gh gS tSu /keZ dk vusdkarkokn ;s lgu”khyrk ft+Unxh ds gj
foHkkx esa] pkgs /keZ gks ;k lekt] jktuhfr gks ;k dksbZ vkSj {ks=] lc
txg leku :i ls fo”oLuh; gSA tSu n”kZu”kkL= lsdqyfjT+e vkSj
lg&vfLrRo dks c<+kok nsrk gS vkSj vfgalk] veu vkSj U;k; dh
izfrHkwfr gSA
*
Jh yky cgknqj “kkL=h jk’Vªh; laLd`r fo|kihB]
dqrqc baLVhV~;w”uy ,fj;k] ubZ fnYyh
140
egkohj ds vusdkarkokn dh f”k{kk gS fd gd+hd+r dks viuh
cikSrh u le>sa vkSj ;g fo”okl j[ksa dh gd+ dks iw.kZr;k le>us ds
fy, nwljs /keksZa dk v/;;u vko”;d gSA vusdkarkokn dk eryc gh
lg&vfLrRo gSA tSu /keZ dh ;g f”k{kk balku vkSj lekt ds fj”rs dks
jkS”ku djrh gS vkSj dgrh gS fd balku lekt dk gh ,d fgLlk gSA
tSu /keZ vfgalk] ekjdkV vkSj tqYe o flre dh cM+h fuUnk
djrk gS vkSj veu vkSj HkkbZpkjs dk lkFk nsrk gSA iwjh rjg ls vfgalk]
lqyg] veu o veku vkSj lg&vfLrRo dh f”k{kk tSu /keZ esa ns[kus dks
feyrh gSA
141
Hkkjrh; /kekZas esa eS=hiw.kZ lekth
ft+Unxh dh cqfu;kn
eqgEen uLj bLQgkuh*
/keksZa dh cgqrk;r dh otg ls gesa ,d nwljs dks
le>us esa dfBukbZ gksrh gSA fofHkUu /keksZa dks le>uk ;k ;w¡ Dgsa muds
ckjs esa ukle>h ,d leL;k jgh gS ijUrq leL;k ds gksus dk ;g eryc
,dne ugha gS fd ,d nwljs dks le>us dh vko”;drk lekIr gks xbZ
gksA /keksZa dh c<+rh gqbZ la[;k us fofHkUu fopkjksa dks tUe fn;k gS vkSj
eqf”dy vkSj Hkh c<+ xbZ gSA iqjkus vkSj u, fopkjksa ds chp ,d rjg dh
tax pyrh jgh gS vkSj gj fopkj/kkjk ds ekuus okys vius dks ,d nwljs
ls csgrj le>rs jgs gSaA ;s Hkh /keksZa dks le>us esa ,d :dkoV jgh gSA
iqjkus t+ekus dk bfrgkl xokg gS fd /keZ futh vkSj lekth ft+Unxh ij
fu;a=.k j[krk FkkA vkt ge ns[k jgs gSa fd ;g leL;k,a de gks xbZ gSa
vkSj ,d nwljs dks le>us vkSj fopkjksa ds vknku iznku dk ekxZ
iztfOyr gks x;k gSA ubZ lkbZalh [kkstksa vkSj if”peh lH;rk ds pSysat
vkSj mlls tqM+h izfr}U)rk us cqf) o le>] t+guh vkt+knh] tura=
fopkj/kkjk] lsdqyfjT+e vkfn fopkjksa dks c<+kok fn;k gSA bl i`’BHkwfe esa
yksxksa dks ;d+hu gks x;k gS fd >xM+s dh lwjr esa lc det+ksj gks tk,axs
rks csgrj gS fd lqyg o lQkbZ ds lkFk vkilh ft+Unxh fcrk,aA ijUrq
bldks ikus dk ekxZ D;k gS\ “kk;n vPNs vkpj.k vkSj mlds ewy fu;eksa
ds izfr izfrc/;rk tks reke /keksZa ds chp leku gS bl xarO; rd
igq¡pus esa enn dj ldrh gSA
iSx+Ecjksa us vkSj blh rjg gj t+ekus ds cqt+qxksZa us lnkpkj dh
vksj yksxksa dk /;ku vkdf’kZr fd;k gS vkSj mlij pyus dh ulhgr dh
gSA dqjku dh nh{kk lnkpkj ij [k+kl /;ku nsrh gSA vkt ge bldh
*
fopkjd ,oa ys[kd
142
vko”;Drk igys ls dgha vf/kd eglwl djrs gSaA vkt nqfu;k fleV
dj NksVh gks xbZ gS vkSj veu ds lkFk lekth ft+Unxh xqt+kjus dk
vglkl c<+ x;k gSA
vkt gekjs lekt dks ,d ,sls jkLrs vkSj ed+ln vkSj dsUnz fcUnw
dh vko”;drk gS ftl dks lc gh eku ldsa vkSj blds fy, vkilh
le> cw> ls jkLrk ryk”k djuk pkfg,A vkt balku dks lekth
ft+Unxh esa veu vkSj veku dh t+:jr vkSj >xM+ksa ls nwjh dh vgfe;r
dks le>uk gSA nqfu;k ds reke /keZ HkkbZpkjs vkSj cjkcjh dh f”k{kk nsrs
gSaA bLyke Hkh ,d fQrjh /keZ gS vkSj blh izdkj dh fopkj/kkjk dks
izksrlkgu nsrk gS] dsoy ;gh ugha og ml ij pyus dk funsZ”k Hkh nsrk
gSA bLyke vfgalk dk ikyu pkgrk gS vkSj /kS;Z o lgu”khyrk dk
mikld gSA ;gk¡ rd fd dqjku djhe ewrhZ iwtk djus okyksa dh rkSghu
dks Hkh l[+rh ls euk djrk gSA
tgk¡ rd Hkkjrh; /keksZa dk loky gS lc gh bl ckr dks ekurs gSa
fd vfgalk ;gk¡ ds thou dk dsUnz fcUnw jgk gS vkSj vfgalk Hkkjrh;
laLd`fr dk eq[; fgLlk gSA gj Hkkjrh; /keZ ;g dgrk gS fd fdlh dks
fdlh izdkj dk uqd+lku ugha igq¡pkuk pkfg,] fdlh dks rdyhQ ugha
nsuh pkfg, vkfnA bl leL;k ds lek/kku esa dqN Hkkjrh; /keZ rks cgqr
vkxs rd pys x, x, gSa tSls tSu /keZA
leL;kvksa dks le>us ls ;g fu’d”kZ fudyrk gS fd vkilh
ckrphr vkSj ,d nwljs dh jk; dh jkS”kuh esa ft+Unxh fcrkus dh
vko”;drk gSA bl lacU/k esa fofHkUu /kkfeZd ekxZn”kZdksa vkSj /keZxq:vksa
dk jksy cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSA muds fopkj muds vius ekuus okyksa dks
jkLrk fn[kkus esa cgqr ennxkj lkfcr gksaxs vkSj mudh ;s enn ekuuh;
gksxhA vko”;Drk gS fd yksx vius /kkfeZd fopkjksa ij iwjh rjg pysa
vkSj nwljksa ds /kkfeZd fopkjksa dk vknj djsAa yksx lqyg lQkbZ vkSj
veu o veku ds ekgkSy esa vkilh ft+Unxh O;rhr djsa tSlk fd lkjs
/keksZa dk ed+ln gS vkSj ,d lfEefyr vkpkj lafgrk ij vey djds
futh vkSj lekth mRFkku dh ps’Vk djsa vkSj blh vk/kkj ij ft+Unxh
143
O;rhr djus ds ekxZ dks iztOofyr djsa] ;gh fo”o ds reke /keksZa dk
mÌs”; gSA
144
‫هذاہب هیں بقائے باہوی کا تصور‬
‫(اصالم اور دنہواتسین ذماہب ںیم اخالق یک اینبد)‬
‫ٌ‬
‫رپورسیف ا ر‪ .‬یپ‪ .‬ھگنس‬
‫خالہص‪ :‬ا ج یک داین انساین تارخی ےک دورسے ادوار ےس فلتخم ےہ۔ اس دور ںیم ملع ‪ ،‬تکنو ولیج‪ ،‬اطالاعت اور ولعمامت‬
‫ےک ااضہف ےک امشیبر وصالئ ااجید وہےئ ںیہ اور امہر دسرتس ںیم ںیہ۔ ہ مامم وصالئ تہ ثو ر اور قر ی تا ہت ںیہ۔‬
‫نکیل وسال ہ ےہ ہک ایک مہ ان اک اامعتسل حیحص دھنگ ےس رکرےہ ںیہ تا اس یک اہمرت رےتھک ںیہ؟ ا تا امہرے ادنر وہ‬
‫صالحنب ےہ ہک مہ ان وصالئ ےس اامتجیع اگیتگن اور ااحتد دیپا رکےن اک اکم ےل ںیکس؟ انساین تارخی ہ بنالیت ےہ ہک‬
‫انسان‪ ،‬وصالئ رکف اور وصترات اتک ہگج ےس دورس ہگج لقتنم وہےت رےہ ںیہ اور اس یلقتنم ےک دوران ان ںیم‬
‫دبتایلین یھب ا یت ریہ ںیہ ۔ اس ںیم اقعتد اور اخال ی دقرون اک ایک رول راہ ےہ۔ ارگ ا ج ےک امسج اک اجبزہ ںیل وت ہش‬
‫رطف ہنیک‪ ،‬دعاوت‪ ،‬احنالف اور ابتیہ اک رظنم رظن ا تا ےہ اوراس اک ااکعنس ہش حطس رپ اصف طاہش ےہ۔ فسد وہ تا رھگاہن‪،‬‬
‫اامتجع وہ تا کلم و تلم سب اس ےب رسو صاامین یک رگتف ںیم ںیہ۔ ات ہ ااسحس بزاتھ اجراہ ےہ ہک ہلئسم ےک لح ےک‬
‫ےئل نیب المداہب وگتفگاور اکمہمل یک رضورت ےہ۔ ہ وگتفگ اےسی اموحل ںیم وہین اچےئہ اہجن اتک ذمہب دورسے رپ‬
‫ہتکن ینیچ ےک اجبےئ اگیتگن دیپا رکے اور بزادر ‪ ،‬تبحم‪ ،‬دمہرد ‪ ،‬دعم دشتد یسیج رتشمہک دقرون رپ تادیک رکے۔‬
‫اس رطج اافتق اور ااحتد دیپا رکےن ںیم دمد رکے۔ نیب المداہب وگتفگ یک اینبد ونتع‪ ،‬تکثش‪ ،‬بزداسب و لمحت اور تبحم رپ‬
‫وہین اچےئہ۔ یق ‪،‬ت‪ ،‬بزقر اور عزارع ےک پ ہفس رپ ۔ںی۔ اس وگتفگ یک اینبد اتک دورسے ےک اقعک ےک امارام اور‬
‫افتمہ رپ وہین اچےئہ۔ داین ےک ہش ذمہبےن ایس تات رپ رور دتا ےہ اور ااہفم و میہفت یک تادیک یک ےہ۔‬
‫منال ےک وطر رپ اوتاتیساد رپ اتک اامجیل رظن داںیل۔ مہ دےتھکی ںیہ ہک یرتیتا اوتاتیساد ( ‪Taitiriya‬‬
‫‪ )Upanishad‬ںیم اتک داع ےہ وج مامم انساونن یک رطف ےس یلم یلج داع ےہ‪ ،‬ےکسج ہش ڑکٹے ںیم ‚سب ےک اتک‬
‫صاھت‛ وہےن اک اغیپم ےہ ۔ من ًال ‚سب وک اتک صاھت طاقت دے‪ ،‬اتک صاھت رھک‪ ،‬اتک صاھت ونر اور روینش داھک‪،‬‬
‫ٌ رمکز اطماعلت پ ہفس‪ ،‬وجاہش الل ویوینریٹس‪ ،‬یئن دیلہ‬
‫‪145‬‬
‫اتک صاھت دسح ےس دور رک‛ وریغہ۔ داع ںیم ہش رمہلح ںیم صار انساتین وک صالم ایک ےہ۔ اس داع اک دماع تایمہ‬
‫وکوششن وک فسوع دانی اور ان وکوششن ےک درہعی ااحتد اور اافتق وک فسوع دانی ےہ‪ ،‬اامتجع ںیم انم و اامن اور حلص و‬
‫ا یتش وک فسوع دانی ےہ۔ ہ مامم ذماہب اک اینبد اوصل ےہ‪ ،‬اصالم وہ تا تیحیسم‪ ،‬دنہوبزم وہ تا وکیئ اور ذمہب‪ ،‬ذمیبہ‬
‫اقعک اوروطر رطوقین رپ احنالف ےہ نکیل ان انساین اوصولن رپ اعطقً احنالف ۔ںی اور یہی اینبد ںیہ رتشمہک ردنیگ اور‬
‫اقبےئ تایمہ اک ۔‬
‫‪146‬‬
‫دہلی کے تزک سالطیي کا ہٌدوستاى کی هعواری هیں حصہ‬
‫)‪1206-1388‬‬
‫(‬
‫رپورسیف حم زع د زبز ا نسح ن‬
‫*‬
‫خالہص‪ :‬قرک صالنیط یک دنہواتسن یک حتف رصف اتک ایسیس حتف ہن یھت سج ںیم اتک رمکحان وکتسکش دے رک دورسا‬
‫تخت و تاج اک امکل نب ایگ وہ۔ ہ حتف دنہواتسن یک ردنیگ ےک ہش ہبعش ںیم دبتیلی اک تاعب ینب اور اامتجیع‪ ،‬ذمیبہ‪ ،‬ایسیس‪،‬‬
‫ااصتقد اور اقثیتف ردنیگ وک درگوگن رکدتا۔ اس تنطلس اک دنہواتسن ںیم تاین بطق ا نسح اکبی اھت (‪1206-‬‬
‫‪1388‬وسیع )۔‬
‫قروکن ےن دیلہ یک تارخی ںیم اتک تہ تا روقن تات اک ااضہف ایک۔ صاتد دنہواتسن ےک یسک اور رہش یک تارخی‬
‫اینت وطلی وہ۔ اس ہلئسم وک اگنہ ںیم رںیھک وت اس تات رپ بجعت ۔ںی وہتا ہک دیلہ ںیم اینت تاد رر ترارہ ں ںیہ وج یرامر‬
‫اک وخوصبرت ومنہن ںیہ۔ تنطلس یک رقتابیً دو دص یک تارخی ںیم بطق ا نسح‪ ،‬اشمتل‪ ،‬نبلب‪ ،‬ابقیکد‪ ،‬عالءا نسح یجلخ‪،‬‬
‫ایغت ا نسح قلغت اور ریفور صاہ قلغت‪ ،‬زع د نب قلغت وریغہ ےن وجہصح ایل وہ اخص اتیمہ اک احلم ےہ۔ ان رمکحاونن‬
‫ےن ذہتبی و دمتن‪ ،‬ملع و رنہ وک سج رطج ےس فسوع دتا اس اک رونش ومنہن ان ےک رامہن یک یرامر ےہ۔ یرامر ںیم‬
‫اتک این رطر ان ےک رامہن ںیم ووجد ںیم ا تا اور درہج امکل وک اچنہپ۔ اس یرامر ںیم اصالم ےک ذمیبہ اور امسیج انعرص اک‬
‫یھب ولجہ ےہ اورذمیبہ‪ ،‬امسیج رضوروتن وک دم رظن راھک ایگ ےہ وجاخصل دنہواتسین رطرےس فلتخم ںیہ۔‬
‫اس دور یک فلتخم وہشمر ترارہ ں وج یرامر اک ومنہن ںیہ اور فلتخم صالنیط ےک دہع خکومب ںیم ریمعت وہیئ‬
‫ںیہ دیلہ یک روقن وک اور اس یک تاریخی اور اقثیتف اتیمہ وک رونش رکیت ںیہ۔ ان ںیم دنچ تراروتن اک درک رکتا رضور‬
‫ولعمم وہتا ےہ۔ ہ ترارہ ں‪ ،‬دجسم وقہ االصالم‪ ،‬دمرہس ریصنا نسح‪ ،‬الل لحم‪ ،‬واہعق ایغت وپرہ‪ ،‬دیع رہ واعق ولک رہک ‪،‬‬
‫*اجہعم ہیلم اصالہیم‪ ،‬یئن دیلہ‬
‫‪147‬‬
‫ہعلق‪ ،‬تاالت (وحص اخص)‪ ،‬دجسم وقہ االصالم اک دمرہس سج وک دمرہس عالیئ ےتہک ںیہ۔ قلغت ا تاد اک ہعلق‪ ،‬ایغت ا نسح‬
‫قلغت اک ربقمہ‪ ،‬اعدل ا تاد اک ہعلق‪ ،‬در رہ رضحت خیش اظنم ا نسح اوایلء‪ ،‬اتک این رہش ونجیب دنہ ںیم وج دولت ا تاد ےک تام‬
‫ےس اجتا اجتا ےہ۔ ریفورا تاد رہش سج وک ریفور صاہقلغت ےن اانپ تاتہ تخت انبتا اھت اور دعتمددورس ترارہ ں ۔‬
‫ ہ مامم ترارہ ں قریک یرامر اک ومنہن ںیہ۔ رہباحل قرک صالنیط ےن دیلہ وک اتک این رتگ دتا سج ںیم‬
‫ذمہب اور اقثتف دوونن یک ااکعنس ےہ‪ ،‬دوونن اک ازتماج ےہ۔ اتک یئن اقثتف یرامر یک لکش ںیم رظنماعم رپ اینپ‬
‫روقن داھکیت رظن ا یت ےہ اور اس سب ےک درایمن بطق انیمر‪ ،‬اقثتف اک انمرہ ےہ۔ ان مامم تراروتن ںیم ا تات قسا ن‬
‫رکمی یک وخوصبرت حاا ی ریغ لومعیل تیثی ر یتھ ےہ۔ رہباحل ایرگبزون ےن خکومب ےنی ےک دع تہ یس‬
‫تراروتن وکےبریمحےس وریان ایک نکیل دہع تنطلس ےکنساتات ا ج یھبدیلہ ںیم تا ی ںیہ۔‬
‫‪148‬‬
‫دیي بودائی اور اسالم کے درهیاى گفتگو‬
‫اقبےئ تایمہ ےک ےئل اخال ی اینبد یک تالس‬
‫رپورسیف ہش رکنش رپصاد‬
‫ٌ‬
‫خالہص‪ :‬ثووجدہ اقمہل اس تات یک وکشش ےہ ہک ہ اجبزہ ایل اجےئ ہک وبدبزم ںیم ینتک ادعتساد ےہ ہک وہ ذماہب ےک‬
‫درایمن ثووجد عزارع وک دور رکےکس اوراعیمل حطس رپ اتک حلص بلط اامتجع یک اینبد رھک ےکس۔ نیب المداہب اکمہمل اک دصقم‬
‫اتک دورسے رپ اراصحر‪ ،‬ونتع‪ ،‬اتک دورسے ےک ےئل امارام اور لی وجل (اجبےئ طلس یک وخا)ش) یک بزقر ےہ۔‬
‫اس اقمہل ںیم وبدبزم اور اصالم یک امیلعتت ےک انساین رو ہ رپ ثحب ےہ۔ ا ج ےک نیب االوقایم اسملئ رپ دوونن ذماہب‬
‫ےک رو ہ اک درک ےہ‪ ،‬اامتجیع اورایسیس اسملئ ےسیج بزابز ‪ ،‬دعالت‪ ،‬ا راد اور انساین وقحق اور دورسے ذماہب ےک‬
‫تارے ںیم راےئ رپ دوونن ادتان ےک رکف اک زجت ہ ےہ۔‬
‫نیب المداہب اکمہمل اک دصقم ہ فسہضی ےہ ہک دوونن ذماہب تبثم اامتجیع اورایسیس ااکفر ےک احلم ںیہ اور‬
‫اینبد وطر رپ اتک دورسے وک ےتھجمس ںیہ‪ ،‬اس دصقم یک روینش ںیم دوونن ذماہب ےک تبثم رظنتات وکااجرگ رکتا‬
‫ےہ۔ ںیمہ تاد رانھک اچےئہ ہک دصقم حلص اور اامتجیع ااحتد وک فسوع دانی ےہ۔ ںیمہ ہ دانھکی ےہ ہک فلتخم ذماہب سک‬
‫رطج ان ادقار وک فسوع دےتی ںیہ۔ ہشذمہب ںیم ہ صالحنب ےہ‪ ،‬ںیمہ اےس تالس رکتا ےہ۔ ریغب اس رصنع ےک ہن وکیئ‬
‫ذہتبی ا ےگ بز یتک ےہ‪ ،‬ہن وکیئ ذمہب ا ےن ا ل دصقم تک چنہ اتک ےہ۔ اس ہتکن وکاگنہ ںیم رےتھک وہےئ ذمہباک‬
‫ادنروین اور ریبوین اجبزہ انیل ےہ۔‬
‫نیب المداہب اکمہمل یک ا ل ا رامشئ اس احلت ںیم وہیت ےہ سج ںیم عزارع‪ ،‬عزاﺅ اور جنشت وہ۔ ہ وہ احلت‬
‫ےہ سج ںیم وکیئ یھب ذمہب ا ےن دنا ےچ وک اور دورسے ےک ااکفر وک ھجم اتک ےہ۔ یلم رو ہ ہ وہ ر ہک اےسی ںیم‬
‫دوونن ذماہب ےک رسبزاوہن یک راےئ رتشمہک اسملئ رپ یل اجےئ۔‬
‫ٌ دصر ہبعش پ ہفس‪ ،‬دیلہ ویوینریٹس‬
‫‪149‬‬
‫ ہ تہ اسحس ثووضع ےہ اور دورسے ےک ذمیبہ دوع ٰےک زجت ہ ںیم بز اایتحط یک رضورت ےہ۔ اس‬
‫ہلئسم رپ اتک دورسے اک امارام رکےت وہےئ تہ واحض اورریغ مہبم وگتفگ وہین اچےئہ۔ وپر انساتین وک دیمان لمع‬
‫انھجمس اچےئہ اور داین ےک مامم ذماہب اک یہی دصقم ےہ۔ اس ںیم ںیمہ اعمل انساتین ےک ےئل ذمیبہ دہم داروین وک‬
‫رظنماعم رپالتا ےہ اوراس ںیم یسک ذمہب وک اینپ انشحب اک وکیئ حطسہ ۔ںیےہ۔‬
‫ںیم ےن وبدبزم ےس اکمہمل ےک ےئل اصالم اک اباختت ایک ےہ ںوین ہک دسح اصالم ںیم یھب وبدبزم یک رطج‬
‫وکیئ رمکز اصحب اایتخر (‪ )Central authority‬۔ںی ےہ۔ دسح اصالم اعیمل حطس رپ انساتین وک قر ی دانی اچاتہ ےہ۔‬
‫رشببت یک فالج و وبہبد اور فسوع انساین اصالم یک امیلعتت اک وچنر ےہ۔ ایس ےئل یری اگنہ ںیم وبدبزم ےس وگتفگ ےک‬
‫ےئل سب ےس انمسب ذمہب اصالم ےہ۔ ہ اتک ایسی میلعت ےہ‪ ،‬ااسی ہتکن ےہ سج رپ ریغ ذمیبہ ولوگن وک یھب ارتعاص‬
‫ ۔ںی وہ اتک ےہ۔ وبدبزم اک دصقم یھب ’’ریخ االثور اوطس‘‘ ےہ‪ ،‬ہش ہلئسم رپافساط ےس انچب اھکستا ےہ اور ایمہن رو وک‬
‫قروجی داتی ےہ سج اک ااکعنس ‚رپتینا ومس اپتوا‛ (‪ )Pratitya Samutpada‬ےک وبدایئ رکف و پ ہفس ںیم ےہ۔ احالہکن‬
‫وہ خدا او رروج اک منکز ےہ نکیل اےس ذمہب ےتہک ںیہ ںوین ہک وہ یھب داین ںیم رشببت ےک فسوع اک احیم ےہ۔ اصالم‬
‫یعطق وطر رپوتدیح ذمہب ےہ‪ ،‬نکیل دوونن اتک دصقم نا ی انساتین ےک احیم ںیہ۔‬
‫اصالم ےک صاھت اکمہمل ےک ےئل رضور ےہ ہک ان احالت اور اس اموحل وک ایھچ رطج اھجمس اجےئ سج‬
‫ںیم اصالم اک وہظر وہا اوراس ےک اینبد اوصل رپوان ڑچےھ۔ وہیدبت اور اعمل تیحیسم یک رطج اصالم یک ڑجںی یھب‬
‫ا دم اور ابزامیہ ےس ریسات وہیت ںیہ وج اعطقً وتدیح ااکفر ےک احلم ےھت۔ ہ رکف اتک خدا ےس اتک دحتم اعمل یک رکف وک‬
‫رپورس دیتی ےہ۔ اصالم یک اگنہ ںیم داین اتک ےہ اور اعیمل ااحتد یہ انساین رو ہ ےہ۔ املسمن مامم اتیناء رپ وپرا دیقعہ‬
‫رےتھک ےھت نکیل تارخی وگاہ ےہ ہک ا دم اور ابزامیہ یک میلعت ےس ارحناف وہراہ اھت‪ ،‬اعمرشہ ہشج و رمج اک اکشر اھت۔ ہ‬
‫احالت اور رضحت حیسم یک الیجن دقمس ںیم رضحت زع د ےک وہظر یک نیشیپ وگیئ‪ ،‬ان احالت ںیم اصالم وہظر ںیم ا تا‬
‫ےہ۔ رضحت زع د اک ہ انہک ہک رتہبسح اصالم وہ ےہ وج رغوبین‪ ،‬تادارون اور وھبوکن یک رضورت وک وپرا رکےکس‪ ،‬اس‬
‫ےیلاچےہ وہ ا انش وہن تا تا ا انش ولوگن وک اینپ رطف وتمہج رکےن ےک ےئل اکیف اھت۔ ربمغیپ اصالم ےن اس رامہن ںیم اتک‬
‫اعدالہن اامتجع ےک اقمئ رکےن یک تات یک ا ور اےس ہش انسان یک دہم دار اتبیئ۔ اصالیم امیلعتت ںیم وہ مامم انعرص ثووجد‬
‫ںیہ وجاتک اعدالہن‪ ،‬رپوکسن اور دحتم اامتجع یک اینبد داےتل ںیہ۔ اہنت اہجد اک ہلئسم ےہ سج ےن اصالیم ذہتبی رپ یفنم ا ر‬
‫داال ےہ۔ نکیل ںوین؟ اس یک وہج اہجد اک پ ہفس ۔ںی ےہ‪ ،‬اس یک وہج ہ ےہ ہک املسمونن ےک اتک رگوہ ےن اور ریغ‬
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‫املسمونن ےن اہجد وک حیحص رطج ےس ۔ںی اھجمس اور طلغ یمہف اک تاعب ےنب۔اہجد تا ااصنیف ےک اقمتل اتک رطج اک ااجتحج‬
‫ےہ۔‬
‫اس وتحیض یک روینش ںیم اصالم ا ور وبدبزم ےک درایمن وگتفگ یھب ا صان ےہ اور راہطب یھب۔ دوونن ذماہب‬
‫ےن بزابز ‪ ،‬دعالت‪ ،‬حلص وافص اوراعیمل ااحتد رپ تادیک یک ےہ اور ذمیبہ عزارع وک تال اینبد بنال رک اس ےس دور رےنہ یک‬
‫دہابت یک ےہ۔ دوونن ادتان یک اگنہ ںیم انساونن یک درسب میلعت و قرتیب عزارع اوردعاوت وکمتخ رکےک اتک حلص‬
‫بلط اعیمل اامتجع یک اینبد رھک یتک ےہ اور اےس فسوع دے یتک ےہ۔ ان دوونن ذماہب اک ایخل ےہ ہک صار لکشم اک‬
‫صیب لہج ےہ‪ ،‬تاداین ےہ۔ ان مامم زیچون ےک تاووجد انساین رطفت یھب ڑلایت ےہ۔ رہباحل دوونن ذماہب ےک‬
‫رسبزاوہن یک یھب دہم دار ےہ ہک ا ےن دلقمسح وکحیحص راہتس رپ ےنلچ یک قربیغ بزابز دےتی رںیہ تاہک اعمل انساتین حلص‬
‫اور انم ےک صاھت تایمہ ردنیگ زگارےکس ۔‬
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‫جیٌی اخالق هیں صلح پسٌد باہوی سًدگی کا تصور‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ااتسد داو ر وریصارگ ن‬
‫خالہص‪ :‬ینیج اخالایقت ےک اطمہعل اک دیمان تہ وعیس ےہ نکیل اس اقمہل ںیم مہ رصف اس ےک حلص دنسپ تایمہ ردنیگ‬
‫ےک تارے ںیم وگتفگ رکںی ےگ ںوین ہک ہ ہلئسم ردنیگ اک امہ ہلئسم ےہ اور ا ج اعیمل حطس رپ رری ثحب ےہ۔ ا ج یک داین ںیم‬
‫پ‬
‫اس ہلئسم وک ااجرگ رکتا تہ رضور ےہ ںوین ہک داین ںیم وخدرغیض اور ےب راہ رو اعزا ھنل یئگ ےہ ہک انسان انسان‬
‫اک دنمش وہایگ ےہ۔ ارگ اس بزیتھ وہیئ ویحاتین وک رواک ہن ایگ اور انساونن وک ہش نکمم راہتس ےس حلص و انم واامن اور تایمہ‬
‫ردنیگ و اقبےئ تایمہ یک رطف وتمہجہن ایک ایگ وت انسان ا ےن اہوھتن ےس وخد وک اور اینپ داین وک ابتہ رکدے ر۔‬
‫داین ےک رقتابیً مامم ولگ یسک ہن یسک ذمہب یک ریپو رکےت ںیہ نکیل اکثشبت ا ےن ذمہب یک روج ےس ےب‬
‫ربخ ےہ۔ ارگ فلتخم ذماہب ےک تبثم اکنت یک رطف اس ےک دلقمسح وک وتمہج ایک اجےئ وتصاتد ولطمت ہجیتن نکلنے ںیم‬
‫دمد ےلم۔ اس انبء رپ مہ ینیج ذمہب ںیم اخالایقت اور اس ےس واہتسباقبےئ تایمہ ےک وصتر رپ روینش داےتل ںیہ۔‬
‫ینیج اخالایقت ےک دو رج ںیہ‪ ،‬اتک اک قلعت صادوھ وتنسن ےس اور دورسے اک قلعت وعام اانلس ےس ےہ۔‬
‫ردنیگ ےک اوصولن وکن ذمہب فسوع داتی ےہ ان ںیم دشتد وک قرک رکتا‪ ،‬دروع وگیئ ےس رپ ‪،‬زی‪ ،‬یسن لمع وک ودحود‬
‫رانھک‪ ،‬رضورتات وک ودحود رانھک‪ ،‬یسکیھب د روج وک رضر ہن اچنہپتا‪ ،‬ہش رور وھتر دری اخثویش ےس وغر و رکف رکتا‪ ،‬ا ےن‬
‫تاس ثووجد ذغا ںیم دورسونوکرشتکرکتا وصخاصً صادوھوتنسن وک‪ ،‬وج اخص اتیمہ ےکاحلم ںیہ۔‬
‫ن ذمہب ےک مامم اوصولن ںیم سب ےس امہ دعم دشتد ےہ وج اس ےک اخالایقت یک اینبد ےہ۔ دعم دشتد‬
‫وک یلم اجہم انہپتا ہش ینیج اک فسص ےہ۔‬
‫ٌ دصرہبعش اطماعلت ینیج‪ ،‬الل اہبدر صاسرت رکسنست ودتا تیٹھ‪ ،‬دیلہ‬
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‫ن ذمہب مامم انساونن وک اخمبط رکےک اتہک ےہ ہک رصف انسان یہ ۔ںی‪ ،‬ہش د روج یک رطف وتہج‬
‫رکںی اور دشتد ےس ا وررضر اچنہپےنےس رپ‪،‬زی رکںی اور ہش اتک ےس بزادراہن اور دواتسہن بزتاﺅ رکںی۔‬
‫طاہش ےہ ہک اس رطج یک امیلعتت اتک تحص دنم امسج یک ریمعت اور حلص دنسپ اقبےئ تایمہ وک وقت یتشخب ںیہ‬
‫اور ان رپ لمع رکےک اس دصقم وک اح ل ایک اج اتک ےہ اور انساونن اور داین وک ابتیہ ےس اچبتا اج اتک ےہ۔‬
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‫صلح آهیش بقائے باہن‬
‫ٌ‬
‫رپورسیف صاہ زع د ومیس‬
‫اقمہل اگنر ہ وسال وپ اتھ ےہ ہک ارگ یسک ےس ہ اہ اجےئ ہک وہ داین یک مامم رپاشیوینن اور مووںوتن وک رصف‬
‫اتک ظفل ںیم این رک دے وت وہ ھچ یھب ہہک اتک ےہ‪ :‬تاوخادنیگ وریغہ وریغہ۔ ہ سب ےک سب حیحص ںیہ‪ ،‬رگم وہ اتک ظفل‬
‫ےہ ’’تا ااصنیف‘‘۔ لہٰداہش فسد و ہش فسہق یک صالیتم ےکےئل دعل وک بزوے اکر التا اچےئہ۔ اور اقبےئ تاتیمہ ( ‪Mutual‬‬
‫‪ )Existence‬ہن ہک اقبےئ تامہ (‪ )Co-existence‬رپ رور دانی اچےئہ‪ ،‬ںویہکن سب اتک یہ اخقل یک ولخمق ںیہ۔‬
‫جہن النالہغ ںیم ےہ ہک رضحت یل(ع) ےن حب امکل ارتش وک رصم اک وگررن تا مسد ایک وت ھک اجیھ ہک ’’ راعتا ںیم دو مسق ےک‬
‫ولگ وہن ےگ‪ :‬اہمترے دینی اھبیئ اور ولخمق خدا وہےن ےک احلط ےس اہمترےےسیج ا دیم ‪......‬ربخدار راعتا ےسیھبک‬
‫ہن انہک ہک ںیم اہمترا اح م انب دتا ایگ وہن تاد روھک ہک وج وکیئ خدا ےک ودنون رپ مل رکتا ےہ وت خدا وخد ا ےن مولظم ودنون‬
‫یک رطفےس طامل اک رحفی نب اجتا ےہ‘‘۔‬
‫اعمرشہ ںیم ا یس لی وجل ےکےئل رضحت یل(ع) ےن ا ےن بزے فسردن اامم ( ن (ع) وک وت یک ہک‬
‫’’ فسردن ا ےن اور دورسون ےک درایمن وخد اینپ دات وک زیمان انب ‪ ،‬وج تات وخد ا ےن ےئل وت تادنسپ رکتا ےہ‪ ،‬ان ےک‬
‫قح ںیم یھب تادنسپ رک یسک رپ مل ہن رک ںویہکن دورسے اک مل وت وخد ا ےن ا ت رپ ۔ںی اچاتہ اس ےک صاھت ( ن ولسک‬
‫ےس شیپ ا سج رطج ریت وخا)ش ےہ ہک وہ ھجت ےس شیپ ا ںی۔ ولوگن یک وج تاہ ں ےھج تادنسپ ےہ‪ ،‬وہ ا ےن ےئلیھب‬
‫تادنسپ رک‛۔‬
‫اس رطج ان تاوتن رپ لمع رک ےک اعمرشہ ںیم انم و صالیتم اک دور دورہ وہ ر ہش صخش تال دیق ذمہب و تلم‬
‫حلص و ا یتش ےک صاھتردنیگ ذگار ےکس ر۔‬
‫ٌ یل گز ملسم ویوینریٹس‪ ،‬یل گز‬
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‫ ہ وت ںیہ دایل انم و صالیتم اور نیب االدتان افمتمہ یک تات۔ ات مماکل یک ا سپ یک حنقلش‪ ،‬بز‬
‫طاوتقن ےک ک ہل اک در وت اس م ہلس ںیم جہن النالہغ اک اغیپم ےہ ہک ’’ ڑلایئ ںیم لہ ہن رکو‘‘ اور ہ ہک ’’دنمش وک لہ‬
‫رکےن دو‘‘ دوونن مماکل ک ہل ںیم لہ ۔ںی رکےگنی‪ ،‬وت حنگ اہن ےس اور کت وہیگ اس رطج نیب االوقایم حطس رپ‬
‫انم اقمئ وہ ر اور وکلمن ےک اقلعتترتہب وہن ےگ۔ اور ہش ذمہب و وقم واولن ںیم اھبیئ اچرہ اور دویتس اقمئ وہیگ۔‬
‫فنصم ومضمن ہٰداےن اتک ثلثم (‪ )Triangle‬رپ فلتخم افساد اور رگووہن وک اس رطج اقمئ ایک ےہ ہک‬
‫ےچین دوونن ‪ angles‬رپ افساد تا رگووہن وک اتک دورسے ےس رواطب وک اس رطج انب تا اچےہےئ ہک ’’ںیم‚ یریا‬
‫’’اہلل‘‘ اور ’’ا ت‘‘۔‬
‫’’اہلل‘‘‬
‫’’ا ت‘‘ (رگوہ ‪)2‬‬
‫’’ںیم‚ (رگوہ‪)1‬‬
‫اجرج رجداق (‪ )George Jordac‬ےن اینپ اتکت وصت ادعلالة اال نساہنی ںیم رضحت یل(ع) ےک‬
‫دعل ےک تارے ںیم اھک ےہ ہک اسییئ ان ےس ان یک ردنیگ ںیم اوران یک اہشدت ےک دعیھب تبحم رکےت ےھت‪،‬‬
‫اوھنن ےن اتک اسییئ اک وخن اہب (‪ )Blood Money‬اتک املسمن ےک وخن اہب ےک بزابز رک دتا اھت‬
‫‪U.N.D.P.‬ےن اینپ ‪۰۲۲۲‬؁ یک رعت دوی ٹنمپل روپرت ںیم اتک رتہبسح رطر خکومب ےک ےئل امیلعتت یل (ع)‬
‫(جہن النالہغ )رپ لمع رکےن رپ رور دتا اور دنچ تاوتن اک ثو ر وطر رپ درک ایک ےہ‪ ،‬ہک خکومب سب ےک ےئل وہیت ےہ‪ ،‬اور‬
‫پ‬
‫سب اک ھال رکیت ےہ‪ ،‬رشب ہکیط دعل وک بزوے اکر الریہ وہ۔‬
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‫اسالم اور دوسزے هشزقی هذاھب هیں‬
‫اًساًی بزابزی کا تصور‬
‫ٌ‬
‫داو ر ام۔ ام۔ ورام‬
‫خالہص‪ :‬داین یک تارخی ےس ہتپ اتلچ ےھ ہک ذمیبھ ربت رواج اور ااکفر وین یھ ووجد ںیم ۔ںی ا ےئ ایکن اتک مکحم اینبد‬
‫ےھ۔ ہ انہک حیحص ہن وھ ر ہک ان ذمیبھ رواتات اک اتک دورسے ےسوکیئ قلعت ۔ںی ےھ۔تقیقح ہ ےھ ہک اوھننےن‬
‫اتک دورسے رپ اکیف ا ر داال ےھ۔ اتک دورسے وک انغ اشخب ےھ وکسج اعم ا دیم ۔ںی اتھجمس۔ ہش ذمھب ےن ا لتقیقح‬
‫نفھٹ‬
‫ےک افھام و م ںیم ح ّصہ ایلےھ۔ اعیمل ادقار رہباحل ہش ذمھب ںیم رتشمک ںیھ۔ وکیئ ذمھب دورسے ذماھب ںیم‬
‫ثووجد رواحتین اور تقیقح ےس ااکنر ۔ںی رک اتک۔ مامم ذماھب یک دقمس اتکوبن ںیم قح یک دصتقی یتلم ےھ۔ ا ج‬
‫ایھچ تات ہ ےھ ہک تالہبش امہر داین فلتخم ااکفر وک یتنس ےھ اور ان رپ قیقحت رکیت ےھ تا م ار م ایکن تقیقح تک ےنچنہ‬
‫یک وکشش رکیت ےھ۔ اعیمل ذہتبی و دمتن ےک اطمہعل ےس تابت وھتا ےھ ہک فلتخم رواحین رواتات اتک دورسے‬
‫ںیم دممغ وھ یئگ ںیھ۔ ھمار داین ںیم ہش اتک اک رتگ طارھ ےھ۔‬
‫ھ‬
‫اعیمل قر ی اور ولگتالزیئنشی ےن میں وبجمر ایک ےھ ہک ان اسملئ رپ رکف رکںی اور مامم ذماھب ےک تارے‬
‫ںیم ا ریہ اح ل رکںی۔ ہش ذہتبی وک ذماھب ےک صامل ااکفر ےس افک ہ ااھٹتا اچ ہینے۔ مامم ذماھب ےک امےنن واولن وک‬
‫ھ‬
‫ھ‬
‫ھ‬
‫حلص بلط تا می ردنیگ اور اقبےئ تا می ےک ےئل وکشش رکین اچ ہینے‪ ،‬اےس ااکحتسم انشخب اچ ہینے۔ میں اچ ہینے ہک ایسی‬
‫وکشش رکںی ہک مامم ذماھب ےک دلقمسح ااحتد ےک صاھت اتک ٹیلپ افرم رپ عمج وہرک اکم رکںی اور نیب المداھب‬
‫اکمہمل ںیم تبثم ح ّصہ ںیل۔ وچہکن دنھواتسن داین ےک مامم ذماھب اک ونط اور رمکز ےھ‪ ،‬اس لمع ےک ےئیل سب ےس‬
‫انمسب ہگج ےھ۔ دنھواتسین ا ےن ذمھب رپ تاودن ےک صاھت دورسے ذماھب وک ےنھجمس ےک ےئیل ھمیسہ ایتر رےھ‬
‫ھ‬
‫ںیھ۔ ہ بز وصخت ےھ۔ میں اچ ہینے ہک دورسے ذماھب وک اور ان یک روج وک ںیھجمس اور دںیھکی ہک انساتین‬
‫ٌ دصر‪ ،‬اینبد اطماعلت نیب المداھب‬
‫‪156‬‬
‫ےک فسوع ںیم ان اک ایک ح ّصہ ےھ۔ اوھنن ےن انساونن وک انسان انبےن ںیم ایک ح ّصہ ایل ےھ اور اس لمع ےن اامتجع وک اہن‬
‫تک رتہب انبتا ےھ۔ ہش ذمھب یک تادیک انساتین ےک فسوع رپ ےھ۔ ہش ذمھب رتشمہک اعیمل دقرون وک دمّرظن رکھنا ےھ اور‬
‫ان ےک ااکحتسم ےک ےئیل وکشش رکتا ےھ۔ راےتس فلتخم اوردعتمد ںیھ نکیل دصقم اتک ےھ۔‬
‫اس دصقم وک اح ل رکےن اک اتک امھ درہعی نیب المداھب وگتفگ ےھ۔ قسان رکمی ےن نیب المداھب اکمہمل‬
‫یک اینبد ریھک ےھ۔ ایس وگتفگ اک ہجیتن حلص بیک ہی ےک اقمم رپ وھا۔ قسان ےن دشتد وک رحام قسار دتا ےھ‪ ،‬اس تات ےک‬
‫اابثت ںیم قسان یک ا تات اور دعتمد ااحدبت ثووجد ںیھ۔‬
‫ہش املسمن اک فسص ےھ ہک دورسے ذماھب ےک بزروگن اک امارام رکے۔ اصالم یک امیلعتت ےک اطمقب‬
‫املسمونن اک فسص ےھ ہک دورسے ذماھب ےک امےنن واولن وک دوعت دے ہک دحتم وھ رک اور دواتسہن رو ہ ےک صاھت‬
‫قح یک تالس رکںی۔ روسل اﷲےن تارنا اہ ےھ ہک خدا ےس درو اور چس وبول اور وفع و ششخب اک بزتاﺅ رکو‪ ،‬اخالایقت یک‬
‫ریپو رکو اور ںیہکیھب ایھچ تات دوھکی وت وھکیس اور اس ےس قبس ول۔‬
‫اسییئ ذمہب وہ‪ ،‬تا دنہو بزم‪ ،‬صکھ ذمہب وہ تا وکیئ اور ذمہب و کلسم‪ ،‬سب ںیم ایس مسق یک میلعت ےہ۔ ان‬
‫مامم اکنت وکدنہ ںیم رےتھک وہےئ ںیمہ سب ےس ہ انہک اچےئہ ہک امہرے احنالافت ےس اورپ یھب ھچ ےہ سج یک‬
‫رطف ںیمہ وتہج رکین اچےئہ۔ ںیمہ ا یس ااحتد وک اتیمہ دینی اچےئہ‪ ،‬اےس دصقم انھجمس اچےئہ۔ یسک ذمہب یک ذکتبی‬
‫صل‬
‫ےس ایک اح ل وہ ر؟ ںیمہ حلص ےک صاھت انیج ےہ‪ ،‬ذماہب مین ح دیپا رکےن یک طاقت ےہ اور ان یک امیلعتت ںیم اعزا‬
‫رور ےہ ہک اقبےئ تایمہ وک فسوع دے ںیکس اور یہی امہرا دصقم ےہ‪ ،‬داین وک ایھچ داین انبےن اک یہی درہعی ےہ۔ فلتخم‬
‫ذہتبی ودمتن رںیہ‪ ،‬فلتخم ذماہب اور ادتان رںیہ نکیل ااحتد اقمئ رےہ۔‬
‫‪157‬‬
‫ًظزیہ و ًظام اقتصادی بودیشم‬
‫ٌ‬
‫داو ر ایسرام رشما ھلدر‬
‫خالہص‪ :‬وبدبزم اور وبداویئن ےک اامتجع یک اینبد خالل ررق رپ ےہ۔ وبدبزم ےک ہش دلقم ےک ےئل الک خالل فسص ےہ۔‬
‫امل و اتمع اک اامعتسل امد رضورتات وک وپر رکتا ےہ اور داین ےس دعم وایگتسب حیحص درہعی ےس اامیدنار ےک صاھت‬
‫رور امکتا ےہ۔ ردنیگ یک رضورتاتںیم انقعب اور دورسون یکدمد یک راہ ںیم اخسوتوبدایئ دسح یک روس ےہ۔‬
‫وبدبزم اک دصقم اتک اےھچ امسج یک ریمعت ےہ سج ںیم ولگ اتک دورسے ےس لم رک اور اعتون ےک صاھت‬
‫ردنیگ اتبںی۔ اس اظنم ںیم رسام ہ ںیم سب یک رشکت یک اینبد راےئ اعہم یک اینبد رپ ینبم ےہ۔ حب تک ہ اظنم ووجد ںیم‬
‫ہن ا اجےئ‪ ،‬دایت رسام ہ اک لمع اکیف اتیمہ رکھنا ےہ۔‬
‫وبدبزم ےک ا ہنیئ ںیم ااصتقد اک بلطم ولوگن ےک ےئل وہسلت اور رافہ ےک وصالئ دیپا رکتا ےہ۔ خالل‬
‫ررق اک وصحل وبدبزم ےک ا ھٹ اوصولن ںیم تاوچنان اوصل ےہ۔ ااصتقد لمع اک زجت ہ ابزوا ںیم ۔ںی ایک اج اتک‪ ،‬اس اک‬
‫قلعت دورسے انعرص اور اسملئ ےس یھب ےہ۔ وبدبزم ےک ااصتقد رظن ہ اک تبثم ولہپ قح اور تقیقح یک تالس ںیم‬
‫لم‬
‫ےہ۔ مامم ااصتقد فلتخم انعرص ےک تایمہ ارابتط‪ ،‬لمع اور سک ا مل اک عومج ہ ےہ اور ہ احالت فلتخم ادقاامت ےک‬
‫ہجیتن ںیم دبےتل رےتہ ںیہ اور اس وپرے لمع ںیم ہ وکشش وہین اچےئہ ہک وہس اک رصنع ہن ارھبے اور انقعب دمرظن‬
‫رےہ۔ اس مامم تالس اک ا ل دصقم تقیقح یک روینش اک وصحل ےہ‪ ،‬ویہ دماع ےہ۔ ہش وکشش یک اکایمیب اور تااکیم اک‬
‫قلعت وصحل دماعےس ےہ۔ دہٹی اوررواحین ادعتساد یک قر ی رپ وبدبزم اکیف تادیکرکتا ےہ۔‬
‫ٌ وفع ثوہئس اقیقحتت تاریخی ‪ ،‬ہبعش اطماعلت وبد بزم ‪ ،‬دیلہ ویوینریٹس‬
‫‪158‬‬
‫م‬
‫وبدبزم انساوننکو ان یک دہم دار ‪ ،‬یسک وک رضر ہن اچنہپےن یک راہ و روس‪ ،‬انساین دمہرد ‪ ،‬ھسوتبحم‪،‬‬
‫اخسوت اور تایمہ افتمہ یک تمس وتمہج رکتا ےہ۔ وبدبزم تاداین وک ہش رخایب یک ڑج بنالتا ےہ اور ’’لہج و تاداین‘‘ وک‬
‫دوررکےن یک وجتبز رکتا ےہ۔‬
‫وبدبزم ےک ااصتقد اظنم ںیم ارصاف ےباج یک اخمتفل یک یئگ ےہ‪ ،‬وبدبزم وجتبز رکتا ےہ ہک ا دمین اور‬
‫ارخااجت ںیم اعتدل بزقسار ایک اجےئ۔‬
‫وبدبزم ںیم اامتجع اک وصتر تہ تبثمےہ۔ وبدبزم یک امیلعتت اس ےک حسب دلی وقلدےئھکی‪:‬‬
‫‚دیپاشئ دوشارلمع ےہ‪ ،‬ردنیگ اتبتا دوشار لمع ےہ‪ ،‬اس ےس لکشم حیحص راہتس تالس رکتا اوراس ےس یھب‬
‫دوشار دیبار اک رمہلح ےہ ۔‛‬
‫‪159‬‬
‫بودیشم اور جیٌی هذہب هیں بقائے باہوی کی بٌیاد‬
‫داو ر تثّشہ اایت‬
‫ٌ‬
‫خالہص‪ :‬دسح وبدایئ اورینیج دوونن ذمہب یٹھ دص ام لب ٰیسی ںیم وہظرںیم ا ےئ ۔ وبداےن وبدبزم اوروسایم اہموری‬
‫ےن حنثشم یک اینبد دایل۔ اتک یہ رامہن ںیم طاہش وہےن واےل ہ ذماہب اتک دورسے ےس تہ بزدیکی رکف قلعترےتھک‬
‫ںیہ‪ ،‬ان ںیم ھچ اشم تہ ےہ وت ھچ احنالافت یھب ںیہ۔‬
‫دوونن ذماہب ےک تاین ارشاف ہقبط ےس ےھت اور رھپصادوھ صیب یک لکش اایتخر یک اور اکر قح ںیم ردنیگ‬
‫اتبیئ۔ دوونن ذمہب یک ڑجںی دنہو ذمہب ںیم یتلم ںیہ اور دع ںیم ہ میسوب وہےئ اور دحیلعہ ذمہب ےنب۔‬
‫ادتباء ںیم ن ذمہب یھب‪ ،‬وبدایئ ذمہب یک رطج قرک داین وک فسوع داتی اھت اور رصف اخالایقت یک قروجی‬
‫رکتا اھت۔ دوونن ںیم رجن و امل یک بزداسب اک رصنع رتشمک ےہ ۔ ہ ذماہب دیپاشئ ےس رمگ تک ےک رمہلح وک رجن و‬
‫امل اک رفس ےتھجمس ںیہ اور اس ےس اجنت اح ل رکتا فسص امےتن ںیہ۔‬
‫وبدا اس دماع ےک وصحل ےک ےئل رشاتف یک ردنیگ‪ ،‬بنک رکدار‪ ،‬اتفگر اور وخاہسات بنک یک ریپو یک‬
‫وجتبز رکتا ےہ۔ اس رطج ااھچ اخالق اس دسح ےک ااکفر اور پ ہفس ںیم رمکز تیثی اک احلم ےہ۔ انسان وک ہشوقت‬
‫دورسے انساونن یک رکف وہیناچےئہ ۔‬
‫ن ذمہب ںیم یھب اخالق ردنیگ یک اینبد ےہ ٰیتح ابعدت یک وکیئ اتیمہ ۔ںی‪ ،‬وج ےہ اخالایقت ےہ‪ ،‬ااھچ‬
‫اخالق اور حلص و افص یک ردنیگ‪ ،‬روج اوررواحتین رپ تادیک ےہ۔ انسان اور انساتین اک فسوعردنیگ اک دصقم ےہ۔‬
‫ٌ دصر‪ ،‬نیب االوقایم رمکز اطمہعل ذمیبہ‪،‬رہتان ویوینریٹس‬
‫‪160‬‬
‫دوونن ذمہب ںیم حلص و ا یتش اوردعم دشتد وک اخص اتیمہ اح ل ےہ۔ وبدا انسان یک ادنروین رواحین‬
‫صالحنب اک دقتعم اھت۔ وبدبزم یک اخص وتہج انسان رپ ےہ۔ ہ ذمہب تبحم اور خلوص انساین رپ اخص رور دااتل ےہ۔‬
‫دوونن ذماہب اقبےئ تایمہ اور حلص و افص یک ردنیگ اک امہ دصقم ےتھجمس ںیہ اس رطج ان دوونن ذماہب ںیم رصف تاریخی‬
‫یہ ۔ںی ہکلب رکف اشم تہ یھب ےہ اوراقبےئ تایمہ اور انساین ااحتد وک رواجدےنی یک صالحنب رےتھکںیہ۔‬
‫‪161‬‬
‫جیي هذہب کا ایٌکا ًتا واد‬
‫‪Anekantavad‬‬
‫کا ًظزیہ اور بقائے باہوی‬
‫داو ر ابنکنب وکامرن‬
‫ٌ‬
‫خالہص‪ :‬دوہشار ھچ وس صال لب‪ ،‬وسایم اہم وریا ےن ا ےن این ںیم اہ اھت ہک ہش ردنیگ ویہ اتیمہ ر یتھ ےہ وج یری‬
‫ردنیگ۔ ںیم ردنہ رانہ اچاتہ وہن‪ ،‬ایس رطج دورسون وک یھب ہ قح ےہ۔ ا ےن اقبء اور دوام اک ااسحس اتک اعیمل دیقعہ‬
‫ےہ۔ ہش ثووجد ردنہ ردنیگ ےس تبحم رکتا ےہ اور ثوت ےس درتا ےہ۔ مہ ںیم ےس ہش وکیئ درد و رجن ےس ا راد رانہاچاتہ‬
‫ےہ۔ اےسی ںیم ےھجم اےنت اایتحط ےس ردنیگ رسب رکین اچےئہ ہک یسک وکیری دات ےس رضر ۔ںیےچنہپ۔‬
‫اہموریا ےن ا ےن دلقمسح وک ہشیمہ ہ قربیغ د ہک قح یک تالس ںیم دورسون وک اور ان ےک اقعک وک‬
‫ںیھجمس۔ ہ میلعت اتک رطج ےس ربص و لمحت اور دورسون ےک اقعک اک امارام اھکسیت ےہ اور ا یس لی وجل وک بزناوا‬
‫دیتی ےہ‪ ،‬یہی ےہ ن ذمہب اک ااکین اتنواد اک پ ہفس‪ :‬ہ لمحت ردنیگ ےک ہبعش ںیم‪ ،‬اچےہ ذمہب وہتا اامتجع‪ ،‬ایسسب وہ تا‬
‫ملع و ادت‪ ،‬بزابز ربتعم ےہ۔ ہ پ ہفس وکیسرلرم اور اقبےئ تایمہ وک فسوع داتی ےہ اور دعالت‪ ،‬اامتجیع حلص ‪ ،‬دعم دشتد‪،‬‬
‫وریغہ یک امضبت رکتا ےہ۔‬
‫اہموریا ےک ااکیناتنواد ےک پ ہفس یک تادیک ےہ تقیقح وکاینپ یریات ہن ںیھجمس اور ہ دیقعہ رںیھک ہک قح وک‬
‫لمکم وطر رپ ےنھجمس ےک ےئل دورسے اقعک یک قیقحت رضور ےہ ۔ ااکیناتنواد اک وہفمم یہ اقبےئ تایمہ ےہ۔ ن ذمہب‬
‫اک ہ پ ہفس فسد اور اامتجع ےک ارابتط وک رونش رکتا ےہ اور اتہک ےہ ہک فسد اامتجع اک زجو ال کفنی ےہ۔‬
‫ٌ رپورسیف‪ ،‬ہبعش ن پ ہفس‪ ،‬رس لعل اہبدر صاسرت رارٹش ہ رکنسبت و دتا ٹیپ ‪ ،‬دیلہ ون‬
‫‪162‬‬
‫ن ذمہب دشتد اور مل و متس یک دشتد ذممب رکتا ےہ‪ ،‬وہ انم و ا یتش اک رطدفار ےہ۔ ن ذمہب وپر‬
‫رطجےس دعم دشتد‪ ،‬حلص‪ ،‬انم و اامن و اقبےئ تایمہ اک احیم ےہ۔‬
‫‪163‬‬
‫ہٌدوستاًی هذاہب هیں‬
‫صلح جو یاًہ باہوی سًدگی کی بٌیاد‬
‫زع درصنااہفصین‬
‫*‬
‫خالہص‪ :‬ذماہب یک دعتاد یک رتادیت یک وہج ےس اتک دورسے وک ےنھجمس ںیم دوشارتان شیپ ا یت ریہ ںیہ۔ ہ ذماہب ےک‬
‫ااہفم و میہفت اک اتک امہ ہلئسم راہ ےہ نکیل ہلئسم ےک ووجد اک ہ بلطم یعطق ۔ںی ےہ ہک اتک دورسے وکےنھجمس یک‬
‫رضورت متخ وہیئگ وہ۔ ذماہب اور اسمکل یک بزیتھ وہیئ دعتاد ےن فلتخم رظنتات وک منج دتا ےہ اور لکشم اور یھب‬
‫بز یئگ ےہ۔ رپاےن اور ےئن رظنتات ےک چیب اتک رطج یک شکمشک یتلچ ریہ ےہ اور ہش رظن ہ ےک ریپو ا ےن وک دورسے‬
‫ےس رتہب ےتھجمس رےہ ںیہ‪ ،‬ہ یھب ااہفم و میہفت ےک راہتس ںیم اتک راکوت ریہ ےہ۔ رہباحل رپاےن رامہن یک تارخی صادہ‬
‫ےہ ہک ذمہب ارفناد اور اامتجیع ردنیگرپاغلت اھت۔‬
‫ا ج مہ دھکی رےہ ںیہ ہک ہ اسملئ م رتگ وہےئگ ںیہ اور اتک دورسے وک ےنھجمس اور ااہفم و میہفت ےک ااکمتات بز‬
‫ےئگ ںیہ۔ ےئن یملع ااشکنافت اور رغمیب ذہتبی ےک جنلیچ ا ور اس ےس واہتسب راقبت ےن لقع ورخد‪ ،‬ا راد رکف‪،‬‬
‫دثورکایس‪ ،‬وکیسرلرم ےسیج انعرص وک دقرت یشخب ےہ۔ اس سپ رظنم ںیم ولوگن وک نیقی وہایگ ےہ ہک ڑگھجے یک لکش‬
‫ںیم سب زمکور وہاجںی ےگ وت رتہب ےہ ہک حلص وافص ےک صاھت تایمہ ردنیگ اتبںی۔ نکیل اس ےک وصحل اک درہعی ایک‬
‫ےہ؟ صاتد اخالق اوراس ےک اوصولن یک تاودن وج مامم ذماہب اور اسمکل ےک چیب رتشمک ےہ ‪ ،‬اس دصقم تک ےنچنہ‬
‫ںیم دمد رکےکس۔‬
‫ربمغیپون ےن اور ایس رطج ہش رامہن ےک بزروگن ےن ولوگن وک اخالایقت یک رطف وتمہج ایک ےہ اوراس یک‬
‫ریپو رپ تادیک یک ےہ۔ قسا ن رکمی یک امیلعتت ریپو اخالایقت رپاخص تادیک رکیت ںیہ۔ ا ج مہ اس زیچ یک رضورت‬
‫*ققحم و ومضمن اگنر‬
‫‪164‬‬
‫ےلہپ ےس رتادہ وسحمس رکےت ںیہ۔ ا ج داین ٹمس رک وھچیٹ وہیئگ ےہ اورحلص وجتاہن تایمہ ردنیگ یک رضورت اک ااسحس‬
‫دشتد قر وہایگ ےہ۔‬
‫ا ج امہرے اامتجع وک اتک اےسی راہتس اور دصقم اورک رر یک رضورت ےہ سج رپ سب یہ اافتق رکںیکس اور‬
‫اےکس ےئل تایمہ وکشش ےس راہتس تالس رکتا ےہ۔‬
‫ا ج انسان وک رتشمہک ردنیگ اور ڑگھجون ےس دور یک اتیمہ وک انھجمس ےہ۔ داین ےک مامم ذماہب بزادر اور‬
‫بزابز یک میلعت دےتی ںیہ۔ اصالم یھب اتک رطف ذمہب اور ان انعرص و رظنتات یک تادیئ رکتا ےہ‪ ،‬رصف یہی ۔ںی‬
‫ان رپ تادیک رکتا ےہ۔ اصالم دعم دشتد یک تادیئ رکتا ےہ‪ ،‬ربص و ااقتسمب یک قربیغ داتی ےہ۔ قسا ن رکمی ٰیتح بت‬
‫رپوتسن یکوتنیہ وک یتخس ےس عنم رکتا ےہ۔‬
‫اہجن تک دنہواتسین ذماہب و اسمکل اک وسال ےہ سب یہ وک اافتق وہ ر ہک دعم دشتد دنہواتسین رکف اک ک رر‬
‫ےہ‪ ،‬اس اک امہ زجو ےہ۔ ہش دنہواتسین ذمہب ہ اتہک ےہ ہک یسک وکیسک رطج اک اصقنن ۔ںی اچنہپتا‪ ،‬یسک وک ا رار ۔ںی‬
‫دانی۔ اس ہلئسم رپ ھچ دنہواتسین ذماہب وت افساط تک ےلچ ےئگ ںیہ ےسیج ینیج ذمہب ۔‬
‫اسملئ ےک زجت ہ اور لیلحت ےس ہ ہجیتن نکلنا ےہ ہک تایمہ وگتفگ اور وشمرہ یک روینش ںیم ردنیگ اتبےن یک‬
‫رضورت ےہ۔ اسمیع رتشمک یک رضورت ےہ۔ اس ہلئسم ںیم فلتخم ذماہب ےک رس بزاوہن اور املعء اک رول اخص‬
‫اتیمہ رکھنا ےہ۔ ان یک ا ےن دلقمسح وک حلص و افتمہ یک ردنیگ یک قربیغلکشم وک لح رکےن ںیم دمد رر تابت وہیگ اور‬
‫ان یک ہ دمد تالہبش اقتل دقر وہیگ۔ ولگ ا ےن اقعک یک وپر ریپو رکںی اور دورسون ےک اقعک اک امارام۔ ولگ حلص‬
‫و افص یک تایمہ ردنیگ وک رواج دںی اسیج ہک مامم ذماہب اک دصقم ےہ اور اتک رتشمہک اخالایقت ےک عومج ہ رپلمع رکےک‬
‫ارفناد اور اامتجیعردنیگ وک فسوع دںی‪ ،‬یہی داین ےک مامم ذماہب اک دصقم اور رظن ہ ےہ۔‬
‫‪165‬‬
166
167
‫تفکر دیىی‬
‫فصلنامه علمی و پژوهشی‬
‫‪۰۹۳۱‬‬
‫‪۲‬‬
‫داوشگاٌ بیه المللی المصطفی – ایران – ومایىدگی دهلی وً‬
‫‪168‬‬
‫تفکر دیىی‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫–‬
‫‪‬‬
‫–‬
‫تلفن‪:‬‬
‫هذیرهسئىل ‪ :‬دکتر غالمرضا مهديي‬
‫سردبیر‪ :‬دکتر عبداهلل شایان راد‬
‫طراحی و صفحه آرایی ‪:‬کمیونیکیدنس‬
‫تیراژ ‪ ۰۱۱۱:‬نسخه‬
‫واشر ‪:‬مرکزپژيهشی هاي اسالمی المصطفی‬
‫پست الکترونیکی ‪[email protected] :‬‬
‫سبیت‪www.India.miu.ac.ir :‬‬
‫هقبالت بىسیله اعضبی هیئت علوی انتخبة شذه است و بیبنگر دیذگبه دانشگبه بین‬
‫الوللی الوصطفی نوی ببشذ‪.‬‬
‫‪169‬‬
‫اعضاي هیئت علمی‬
‫دکتر‪‬غالهرضب‪‬ههذوي ‪‬‬
‫پروفسىر‪‬کی تی اش ‪‬سبرااو ‪‬‬
‫پروفسىر‪‬اخترالىاسع ‪‬‬
‫پروفسىر‪‬آشىك وُهرا ‪‬‬
‫پروفسىر‪‬شبه‪‬هحوذ‪‬وسین ‪‬‬
‫پروفسىر‪‬آزاد‪‬فبروقی‬
‫پروفسىر اش ام عسیسالذین حسین ‪‬‬
‫‪170‬‬
171
‫فْزست‬
‫عنوان‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫صفحه‬
‫ایدُ ّوشیستی هسالوت آهیش در ادیاى (اسالم ٍ ادیاى ٌّدی)‬
‫پروفسور آر‪ .‬پی‪ .‬سینگ ‪............................................................................‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪۹۰‬‬
‫ًقص ٍسْن سالطیي تزک دّلی در هعواری اسالهی ٌّد‬
‫استاد سید محمد حسین عزیزالدین حسین ‪............................................‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪۹۰‬‬
‫گفت ٍگَ بیي دیي بَدائی ٍ اسالم‪ :‬تالش در راُ ّوشیستی هسالوت آهیش بز‬
‫هبٌای اخالق‬
‫دکتر هاری شانکر پراساد ‪...........................................................................‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫اخالقیات جیٌی ٍ ّوشیستی هسالوت آهیش‬
‫دکتر ویرساگرجین ‪.......................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪۰۸‬‬
‫هذّب جیي ًظزیِ آًیکاًتاٍاد (‪ّ ٍ )Anekantavad‬وشیستی هسالوت آهیش‬
‫دکتر آنیکانت کومار جین ‪.............................. ............................................‬‬
‫‪.11‬‬
‫‪۰۹‬‬
‫هباًی ّوشیستی هسالوت آهیش در دیي بَدائی ٍ جیٌی‬
‫دکتر نیّره ابیات ‪...........................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.9‬‬
‫‪۸۰‬‬
‫ًظزیِ ٍ ًظام اقتصادی بَدائی‬
‫دکتر سیارام میسرا هالدر ‪...........................................................................‬‬
‫‪.8‬‬
‫‪۷۵‬‬
‫ایدُ بزابزی اًساى ّا در اسالم ٍ دیگز هذاّب ضزقی‬
‫دکتر ام ام ورما ‪............................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫‪۶۸‬‬
‫ّوگزایی عدالت آهیش‬
‫پروفسور شاه محمّد وسیم ‪...........................................................................‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫‪۴۶‬‬
‫‪۰۶‬‬
‫هباًی اخالقی سیست هسالوت آهیش ادیاى ٍ هذاّب ٌّد‬
‫محمد نصر اصفهانی ‪....................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.11‬‬
‫خالصه مقاالت به هندی ‪..........................................................................‬‬
‫‪.12‬‬
‫خالصه مقاالت به اردو ‪........................................................................ .....‬‬
‫‪.13‬‬
‫خالصه مقاالت به فارسی ‪.........................................................................‬‬
‫‪172‬‬
‫‪۹۹۸‬‬
173
‫خالصه هقاله‬
‫‪174‬‬
175
‫ایدُ ّوشیستی هسالوت آهیش در ادیاى‬
‫(اسالم و ادیان هندی)‬
‫*‬
‫پط‪ٌ٦‬ؿ‪٧‬ض آض‪.‬پی‪.‬ؾ‪ٗ٥‬‬
‫چکیده‪ :‬ر‪٫‬ب‪ ٢‬ا‪٠‬ط‪٦‬ظ ثب ز‪٤‬یبی از‪٦‬اض پیكی‪ ٣‬تبضید ثكط تٍب‪٦‬ت زاضز‪ .‬ای‪ِ ٣‬ط‪ ٢‬قب‪٪‬س تح‪ّ٧‬الت‬
‫لفی‪٘ ٦ ٟ‬ؿتطز‪ ٨‬زض ل‪ ٦ ٟٝ‬تٕ‪٧ٜ٧٥‬غی ‪٦ ٦‬ؾبئ‪ ٛ‬اضتجبؼی ث‪٧‬ز‪ ٨‬اؾت‪ .‬اؼاللبت ‪ ٦‬آ٘ب‪٪‬ی ثكط‬
‫ٌ‪ َ٧‬ا‪ٜ‬مبز‪ ٨‬اٌعایف یبٌت‪ ٩‬اؾت‪٪ .‬ط ‪٧٤‬ق ‪٦‬ؾی‪ ٩ٝ‬ای زض زؾتطؼ ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬ب ِطاض ٘طٌت‪ ٦ ٩‬زیس ثكط ضا‬
‫ثؽ‪٧‬ض ٔ‪ٝ‬ی ز٘ط٘‪ٔ ٢٧‬طز‪ ٨‬اؾت‪ .‬ؾ‪٧‬ا‪ٜ‬ی ٔ‪٠ ٩‬ؽطح اؾت ای‪ ٣‬اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬آیب ‪٠‬ب اظای‪٦ ٣‬ؾبئ‪٦ ٛ‬‬
‫پیكطٌت ل‪ ٦ ٟٝ‬تٕ‪٧ٜ٧٥‬غی اؾتٍبز‪٠ ٨‬خجت ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬ی‪ ٦ ٟ‬یب قبیؿت‪ٙ‬ی ای‪ ٣‬ل‪ ٛ١‬ضا زاضی‪ٟ‬؟ آیب ‪٠‬ب آ‪٢‬‬
‫‪ٜ‬یبِت ضا زاضی‪ ٩ٔ ٟ‬اظای‪٦ ٣‬ؾبئ‪ ٛ‬ثطای اتحّبز ثكطیّت اؾتٍبز‪٥ٔ ٨‬ی‪ ٦ ٟ‬آ‪٫٤‬ب ضا ث‪ٍ٥‬ك ثكط ثٕبض‬
‫ث‪٥‬سی‪ٟ‬؟‬
‫‪ٙ٤‬ب‪٪‬ی ث‪ ٩‬تبضید ؼ‪٧‬ال‪٤‬ی ثكط حٕبیت ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س ٔ‪٦ ٩‬ؾبئ‪ ،ٛ‬إٌبض ‪ ٦‬ایس‪٪ ٨‬ب ‪٧١٪‬اض‪ ٨‬زض‬
‫حب‪ ٚ‬حطٔت ث‪٧‬ز‪ ٦ ٨‬اظ ربیی ث‪ ٩‬رب‪٪‬بی زی‪ٙ‬ط ا‪٤‬تّب‪ ٚ‬یبٌت‪ ٦ ٩‬زضای‪ ٣‬ربثزبیی ‪ ٦ ّٛ٤ ٦‬حطٔت‬
‫زض آ‪٫٤‬ب تىییطاتی ‪ ٟ٪‬ضخ ‪٠‬ی زاز‪ ٨‬اؾت‪.‬‬
‫* ‪٠‬طٔع ‪٠‬ؽب‪ٜ‬مبت ٌ‪ٝ‬ؿٍ‪ ،٩‬زا‪٤‬ك‪ٙ‬ب‪ ٨‬ر‪٧‬ا‪٪‬ط ‪ٜ‬م‪٫٤ ٛ‬ط‪ ،٦‬ز‪ٝ٪‬ی ‪٧٤‬‬
‫‪176‬‬
‫ثب زض ‪٤‬فط زاقت‪ ٣‬ای‪٦ ٣‬اِمیّت تبضیری ثبیس ‪ّ٤‬ف لّبیس ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬جی ‪ ٦‬اذالِیّبت ضا ‪ٟ٪‬‬
‫ثسی‪٥٠ ٣‬ف‪٧‬ض ثطضؾی ٔ‪٥‬ی‪ .ٟ‬ثیبئیس ‪ٙ٤‬ب‪٪‬ی ثیبٌٕ‪٥‬ی‪ ٟ‬ث‪ ٩‬ا‪٦‬ظبق ‪ ٦‬اح‪٧‬ا‪ٌ ٚ‬م‪ٝ‬ی زض ر‪٫‬ب‪ .٢‬ا‪٠‬ط‪٦‬ظ‪٨‬‬
‫قب‪٪‬س ‪٪‬طد ‪٠ ٦‬طد ‪٪‬ؿتی‪ ٟ‬زض ‪٪‬ط رب‪٠‬م‪ ٩١٪ .٩‬رب ٔی‪ ٦ ٩٥‬لسا‪٦‬ت‪ ،‬ذص‪٠٧‬ت‪ ،‬ذك‪٤٧‬ت ‪٦‬‬
‫‪٦‬حكی‪ٙ‬طی ث‪ ٩‬چك‪٠ ٟ‬ی ذ‪٧‬ضز‪.‬‬
‫زض ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ٌطزی ‪ ،‬زض رب‪٠‬م‪١٪ ٦ ٩‬چ‪٥‬ی‪ ٣‬زض حٕ‪٠٧‬ت ‪ ٦‬ر‪٧‬ا‪٠‬ك ‪ ٩١٪‬رب‪١٪ ،‬ی‪٪ ٣‬طد‬
‫‪٠ ٦‬طد‪ ،‬تك‪ّ٥‬ذ ‪ ٦‬ثی ؾط ‪ ٦‬ؾب‪٠‬ب‪٤‬ی ‪٦‬ر‪٧‬ز زاضز‪ .‬زض ای‪٘ ٣‬یط ‪ ٦‬زاض ٌٕط ٍ٘ت‪٧ٙ‬ی ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت‬
‫ث‪ ٩‬قسّت ‪٠‬ؽطح اؾت ‪ ٦‬زض ‪٪‬ط ؾؽح احؿبؼ آ‪٠ ٢‬حؿ‪٧‬ؼ ‪٠‬ی ثبقس تب ‪ّ٤‬ف ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ‪ ٦‬اذالَ‬
‫ضا ‪٤‬یع زض ح‪ ٛ‬ای‪٠ ٣‬كٕ‪ ٛ‬ثطضؾی ٔ‪٥‬ی‪ .ٟ‬ا‪ٜ‬جتّ‪ ٩‬ای‪ٍ٘ ٣‬ت‪ ٧ٙ‬ثبیس زض ‪٠‬حیؽی آضا‪ ٞ‬ص‪٧‬ضت ٘یطز‪٦ .‬‬
‫ثزبی ‪٠‬ؿبثّ‪ ٩‬ث‪ ٩‬ؾطان ‪ٕ٤‬بت ‪٠‬كتطْ ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز زض ‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت ثط‪٤٦‬س‪ .‬ثزبی ای‪ ٩ٕ٥‬ثطتطی ث‪ ٩‬ضخ‬
‫‪١٪‬سی‪ٙ‬ط ثٕك‪٥‬س‪ ،‬اتحّبز‪ ،‬ثطاثطی‪ ،‬ثطازضی‪ ،‬لسا‪ٜ‬ت ‪ ٦‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬س‪٦‬ؾتی ضا ‪٠‬ؽطح ٔ‪٥٥‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬ض‪٦‬حیّ‪٪ ٩‬ط‬
‫‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت اؾت ‪٤ ٦‬یع ت‪ّ٧٥‬ق ‪ ٦‬تٕخّط لكُ ‪ ٦‬لالِ‪٠ ،٩‬حجّت ‪ ٦‬ضأٌت‪ ،‬اتحبّز ‪ ٦‬اتٍبَ ضا پیبز‪٥٥ٔ ٨‬س ٔ‪٩‬‬
‫قب‪ ٛ٠‬تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت ‪٪‬ط ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪ ٩١٪ .‬ی ازیب‪ ٢‬ثط ایزبز تٍب‪ ٦ ٟ٪‬احتطا‪٠ ٞ‬تّبث‪ ٛ‬تأٔیس ٔطز‪٨‬‬
‫ا‪٤‬س‪ .‬زض ای‪ ٣‬ثط‪ ٩٪‬اظ ظ‪٠‬ب‪ ٢‬زضْ ‪ ٦‬ق‪٥‬بذت ض‪٦‬حیّ‪٠ ٩‬صا‪٪‬ت ٔ‪٠ ٩‬ی ت‪٧‬ا‪٤‬س حالّ‪٠ ٚ‬كٕالت ثبقس‬
‫ظط‪٦‬ضی ث‪٥‬فط ‪٠‬ی ضؾس‪.‬‬
‫ثیبئیس ‪ٙ٤‬ب‪٪‬ی ث‪ ٩‬یٓ زلبی تیتطیب ا‪٦‬پب‪٤‬یكبز (‪ )Taitiriya Upanishad‬ثٕ‪٥‬ی‪٦ ٟ‬‬
‫ض‪٦‬حیّ‪ ٩‬آ‪ ٢‬ضا زضْ ٔ‪٥‬ی‪" ٟ‬ذسایب ‪ ٩١٪‬ضا ثب ‪ ٟ٪‬اؾتمساز ‪ِ ٦‬سضت ‪ ٦‬ت‪ٌ٧‬یُ لؽب ٔ‪ ٩١٪ ،٣‬ضا‬
‫‪٠‬تحّس ٔ‪ ٩١٪ ،٣‬ضا ثب ‪٧٤ ٟ٪‬ض ‪ ٦‬ض‪٦‬ق‪٥‬بئی لؽب ٔ‪ ٩١٪ ٦ ٣‬ضا ثب ‪ ٟ٪‬اظ حؿبزت ز‪٦‬ض ‪ ٩ٙ٤‬زاض"‪.‬‬
‫‪٠‬ی ثی‪٥‬ی‪ ٩ٔ ٟ‬زض ‪٪‬ط ‪٠‬طح‪ ٩ٝ‬ای‪ ٣‬زلب ‪ ٩١٪‬ضا قب‪ٔ ٛ٠‬طز‪ ٩١٪ ٦ ٨‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬ب ضا زض ثط ٘طٌت‪ ٩‬اؾت‪.‬‬
‫‪٥٠‬ف‪٧‬ض اظ ای‪ ٣‬زلب پیكجطز ا‪٪‬ساي ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی اؾت‪ .‬آضظ‪٦‬ی ‪ٌّ٧٠‬یّت ثطای ‪٠‬ؿبلی‬
‫‪٠‬كتطْ ث‪ٍ٥‬ك ثكطیّت اؾت‪ .‬ذ‪٧‬ا‪٪‬ب‪ ٢‬ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آقتی زض رب‪٠‬م‪ ٩‬ثكطی اؾت‪ .‬اص‪ ٚ٧‬ؾبئط ازیب‪٢‬‬
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‫‪١٪‬ی‪ ٣‬اؾت‪ .‬اؾال‪٠ ،ٞ‬ؿیحیّت‪٥٪ ،‬س‪٦‬ئیع‪ ٦ ٞ‬یب ‪٪‬ط ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت زی‪ٙ‬طی‪ ٩١٪ ،‬ض‪٦‬ی ‪ٍٕ١٪‬طی ‪ ٦‬اتحّبز‬
‫تأٔیس ٘صاقت‪ ٩‬ا‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬ض‪٦‬ی اص‪ ٚ٧‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی‪ِ ،‬ؽمبً اذتالي ‪٤‬فط ‪٤‬ساض‪٤‬س‪١٪ .‬ی‪ ٣‬اؾت پبی‪ ٦ ٩‬اؾبؼ‬
‫‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع ٔ‪ ٩‬زض ایزبز آ‪٠ ،٢‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪٠‬ی ت‪٧‬ا‪٥٤‬س ‪ّ٤‬ف ل‪١‬س‪ ٨‬ضا ایٍبء ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪.‬‬
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‫ًقش ٍسْن سالطیي تزک دّلی در هعواری اسالهی ٌّد‬
‫(‪ ۸۰۲۱-۸۸۱۱‬میالدی)‬
‫اؾتبز ؾیس ‪٠‬ح‪١‬س حؿی‪ ٣‬لعیعا‪ٜ‬سی‪ ٣‬حؿی‪٣‬‬
‫*‬
‫چکیده‪ٔ :‬ك‪٧‬ض٘كبئی ‪ ٦‬تؿریط ‪٥٪‬س ث‪٧‬ؾی‪ ٩ٝ‬ؾالؼی‪٥٪ ٣‬سی ٌّػ ا‪٤‬تّب‪ ٚ‬حٕ‪٠٧‬ت اظ یٓ ؾ‪ٝ‬ؿ‪٩ٝ‬‬
‫حٕ‪١‬طا‪ ٢‬ث‪ ٩‬ؾ‪ٝ‬ؿ‪ ٩ٝ‬زی‪ٙ‬طی ‪٤‬ج‪٧‬ز‪ ٨‬ث‪٧٤ ٩ٕٝ‬لی اظ ا‪ّ٤‬الة زض ‪٪‬طقئ‪ ٢٧‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ‪٥٪‬سیب‪ ٢‬ث‪٧‬ز‪ ٨‬اؾت‬
‫ٔ‪ ٩‬تبحیط ٌطا‪٦‬ا‪٤‬ی زض ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ارت‪١‬بلی‪٠ ،‬ص‪٪‬جی‪ ،‬ؾیبؾی‪ ،‬اِتصبزی ‪ٌ ٦‬ط‪ٙ٥٪‬ی ‪٥٪‬س ٘صاقت‪ ٩‬اؾت‪.‬‬
‫ِؽت ا‪ٜ‬سی‪ ٣‬ایجٓ (‪٠ 120۱ - 1210‬یالزی) ث‪٥‬یب‪ٙ٤‬صاض ؾ‪ٝ‬ؽ‪٥‬ت تطٔب‪ ٢‬زض ‪٥٪‬س ث‪٧‬ز ‪ ٦‬ثس‪٤‬جب‪ ٚ‬آ‪٢‬‬
‫تمسازی اظ ؾالؼی‪١٠ ٣‬تبظ زض ای‪ٔ ٣‬ك‪٧‬ض ٌط‪٠‬ب‪٤‬ط‪٦‬ائی ٔطز‪٤‬س‪.‬‬
‫تطٔب‪ٌ ٢‬ص‪ٝ‬ی ثب ض‪ ُ٤٦‬ضا زض تبضید ‪٥٪‬س اٌتتبح ٔطز‪٤‬س‪ .‬قبیس ‪٪‬یچ ق‪٫‬ط زی‪ٙ‬طی زض ‪٥٪‬س‬
‫ِس‪٠‬ت ق‪٫‬ط ز‪ٝ٪‬ی ضا ‪٤‬ساقت‪ ٩‬ثبقس‪ .‬ق‪٫‬ط ز‪ٝ٪‬ی ؾبثّ‪ ٩‬ثؿیبض ؼ‪٧‬ال‪٤‬ی تبضیری زاضز‪ .‬ثب زض ‪٤‬فط‬
‫زاقت‪ ٣‬ای‪٦ ٣‬اِمیّت ‪٪‬یچ ربی تمزّت ‪٤‬یؿت ٔ‪ ٩‬ز‪ٝ٪‬ی پط اظ ؾبذت‪١‬ب‪٫٤‬بی تبضیری ‪ ٦‬ث‪٥‬ب‪٪‬بی‬
‫ثبقٕ‪٠ ٦ ٨٧‬ز‪٠ ّٛٝ‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬ا‪ٜ‬جتّ‪ ٩‬او‪ٝ‬ت ای‪ ٣‬ث‪٥‬ب‪٪‬ب یبز٘بض ل‪٫‬س ؾ‪ٝ‬ؽ‪٥‬ت تطٔب‪ ٢‬ز‪ٝ٪‬ی ‪٠‬ی ثبق‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫ؾالؼی‪ ٣‬تطٔی ٔ‪ ٩‬زض ؼ‪٠ ٚ٧‬سّت حس‪٦‬زاً ز‪ِ ٦‬ط‪ ٢‬حٕ‪٠٧‬ت ٔطز‪٤‬س لجبضت‪٥‬س اظ‪ِ :‬ؽت‬
‫ا‪ٜ‬سی‪ ٣‬ایجٓ ‘ا‪ٜ‬ت‪١‬ف‘ ث‪ٝ‬ج‪ٔ‘ ٣‬یّجبز‘ لالءا‪ٜ‬سی‪ ٣‬ذ‪ٝ‬زی ‘ویبث ا‪ٜ‬سی‪ ٣‬تى‪٠ ‘ُٝ‬ح‪١‬س ث‪ ٣‬تى‪٦ ُٝ‬‬
‫ٌیط‪٦‬ظ‪ ٨‬قب‪ ٨‬تى‪ .ُٝ‬ؾالؼی‪٤ ٣‬ب‪٠‬جطز‪ ٨‬زض پیكجطز ٌط‪٥٪ ٦ ٗ٥٪‬ط زض ز‪ٝ٪‬ی ‪ ٦‬زض ثمعی اظ ق‪٫‬ط‪٪‬بی‬
‫زی‪ٙ‬ط ‪٥٪‬س ؾ‪ ٟ٫‬ثؿعائی زاض‪٤‬س‪ .‬ؾ‪ ٟ٫‬آ‪٫٤‬ب زض ض‪ٌ ُ٤٦‬ط‪ ٦ ٗ٥٪‬ت‪١‬سّ‪ ،٢‬ازثیبت ‪ ٦‬ل‪٥٪ ٦ ٟٝ‬ط ِبث‪ٛ‬‬
‫* ضئیؽ زا‪٤‬كٕس‪ ٨‬ل‪ ٞ٧ٝ‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی ‪٦‬ظثب‪٪ ٢‬ب‪ ،‬زا‪٤‬ك‪ٙ‬ب‪ ٨‬رب‪٠‬ك ‪ٝ٠‬ی اؾال‪٠‬ی ‪ -‬ز‪ٝ٪‬ی ‪٧٤‬‬
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‫ؾتبیف ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬یٕی اظ قبذص‪٪ ٩‬بی ای‪ ٣‬ض‪١٪ ُ٤٦‬ی‪ ٣‬ؾجٓ ‪٠‬م‪١‬بضیؿت ٔ‪ ٩‬زض ث‪٥‬ب‪٪‬بی ل‪٫‬س‬
‫ؾ‪ٝ‬ؽ‪٥‬ت ر‪٘ ٨٧ٝ‬طی ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪ .‬زض ای‪ ٣‬ز‪٦‬ض‪ ٨‬ؾجٓ رسیس ‪٠‬م‪١‬بضی ث‪٧‬ر‪٧‬ز آ‪٠‬س ‪ ٦‬ث‪ ٩‬زضر‪١ٔ ٩‬ب‪ٚ‬‬
‫ضؾیس‪ .‬زض ای‪٠ ٣‬م‪١‬بضی ٌ‪ٝ‬ؿٍ‪٠ ٩‬ص‪٪‬جی ‪ ٦‬ارت‪١‬بلی ‪٤‬یع ‪٠‬سّ‪٤‬فط ث‪٧‬ز‪ ٩ٔ ٨‬ثب ؾجٓ ‪٠‬م‪١‬بضی ‪٤‬بة‬
‫‪٥٪‬سی ٔ‪١‬ی تٍب‪٦‬ت زاضز‪.‬‬
‫ث‪٥‬ب‪٪‬بی ‪٠‬تمسزی زض ؼ‪ ٚ٧‬ل‪٫‬س ؾ‪ٝ‬ؽ‪٥‬ت ث‪٧‬ؾی‪ ٩ٝ‬ؾالؼی‪٠ ٣‬رت‪ ًٝ‬ز‪٦‬ز‪٠‬ب‪ ٢‬تطْ ؾبذت‪٩‬‬
‫قس‪٤‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬ثمعی اظ آ‪٫٤‬ب لجبضت‪٥‬س اظ‪٠ :‬ؿزس ِ‪ ٬ّ٧‬االؾال‪٠ ،ٞ‬سضؾ‪٤ ٩‬صیطا‪ٜ‬سی‪ ،٣‬ال‪٠ ٚ‬ح‪( ٛ‬زض‬
‫ویبث پ‪٧‬ض‪ )٨‬لیس٘ب‪ ٨‬زض ٔ‪٫ٔ٧ٝ‬طی‪ِٝ ،‬م‪ ٩‬ح‪٧‬ض ذبل‪٠ ،‬سضؾ‪ ٬ّ٧ِ ٩‬االؾال‪٠( ،ٞ‬سضؾ‪ ٩‬لالئی ‪٤‬یع‬
‫ٍ٘ت‪٠ ٩‬ی ق‪٧‬ز) ِ‪ٝ‬م‪ ٩‬لفی‪ ٟ‬زض تى‪ ُٝ‬آثبز‪ّ٠ ،‬جط‪ ٨‬ویبث ا‪ٜ‬سی‪ ٣‬تى‪ُٝ‬؛ ِ‪ٝ‬م‪ ٩‬لبز‪ ٚ‬آثبز‪ ،‬زض٘ب‪ ٨‬قید‬
‫‪٤‬فب‪ ٞ‬ا‪ٜ‬سی‪ ٣‬ا‪ٜ٦‬یب ‪،‬ق‪٫‬ط رسیسی زض ر‪٧٥‬ة ‪٥٪‬س ث‪٥‬ب‪ ٞ‬ز‪ٜ٦‬ت آثبز (زی‪٘٧‬طی ِسی‪١‬ی) ‪ ٦‬ق‪٫‬ط‬
‫ٌیط‪٦‬ظآثبز ‪ ٦‬زی‪ٙ‬ط ق‪٫‬ط‪٪‬ب‪.‬‬
‫ت‪١‬ب‪ ٞ‬ای‪ ٣‬ث‪٥‬ب‪٪‬ب ‪٪ ٩٤٧١٤‬بی ‪٠‬م‪١‬بضی تطْ ا‪٤‬س‪ .‬ؾالؼی‪ ٣‬تطْ ث‪ ٩‬ق‪٫‬ط ز‪ٝ٪‬ی ض‪ُ٤٦‬‬
‫لزیجی ثركیس‪٤‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬زض ث‪٥‬ب‪٪‬بی آ‪ ٢‬ق‪٫‬ط تأحیط ر‪٥‬ج‪٪ ٩‬بی ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬جی ‪ٌ ٦‬ط‪ٙ٥٪‬ی ثچك‪٠ ٟ‬ی ذ‪٧‬ضز‪.‬‬
‫ِؽت ‪٥٠‬بض ‪٥٠‬بض‪ٌ ٨‬ط‪٥٪ ٦ ٗ٥٪‬ط اؾت ‪ ٦‬زض ت‪١‬ب‪ ٞ‬ای‪ ٣‬ث‪٥‬ب‪٪‬ب ذؽبؼی ‪ ٦‬حٕبّٔی آیبت ِطآ‪ٔ ٢‬طی‪ٟ‬‬
‫‪١٤‬بیب‪ٙ٤‬ط ‪٥٪‬ط آ‪ ٢‬ز‪٦‬ض‪٠ ٨‬ی ثبقس‪.‬‬
‫‪٤‬بٍ٘ت‪١٤ ٩‬ب‪٤‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬حٕ‪١‬طا‪٤‬ب‪ ٢‬ا‪ٝٙ٤‬یؽ ثس‪٤‬جب‪ ٚ‬رب‪٤‬كی‪٥‬ی ثط ؾطیط حٕ‪٠٧‬ت‪ ،‬تمسازی اظ‬
‫ث‪٥‬ب‪٪‬بی آ‪ ٢‬ل‪٫‬س ضا ترطیت ‪٦ ٦‬یطا‪ٔ ٢‬طز‪٤‬س‪ .‬ا‪٠‬ب آحبض ‪٤ ٦‬كب‪٪ ٩٤‬بی آ‪٫٤‬ب ثبِی ‪٠‬ب‪٤‬س‪ ٨‬اؾت‪.‬‬
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‫گفت ٍگَ بیي دیي بَدائی ٍ اسالم‬
‫تالش در راه همزیستی مسالمت آمیز بر مبنای اخالق‬
‫زٔتط ‪٪‬بضی قب‪ٕ٤‬ط پطاؾبز‬
‫*‬
‫چکیده‪ّ٠ :‬ب‪ ٩ٜ‬حبظط ٔ‪٧‬قكی اؾت ثطای ثطضؾی اؾتمساز زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی ثطای ت‪٥‬ف ظزائی ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز‬
‫ثی‪٠ ٣‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪ ٦‬ایزبز ارت‪١‬بق ص‪ٝ‬حز‪٧‬یب‪ ٩٤‬زض ؾؽح ر‪٫‬ب‪٤‬ی‪٪ .‬سي ‪ٕ٠‬ب‪ ٩١ٜ‬ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت تط‪٦‬یذ‬
‫ٌٕطِ زاز ‪٦‬ؾتس‪ ،‬اتٕبء ثط ‪١٪‬سی‪ٙ‬ط‪ ،‬احتطا‪٠ ٞ‬تّبث‪ ٦ ٛ‬زضْ ا‪١٪‬یّت اضتجبغ ‪٠‬خجت ثبیٕسی‪ٙ‬ط ‪٠‬ی‬
‫ثبقس ‪ ٦‬اِسا‪٠‬ی ل‪ٝ‬ی‪ ٩‬ازلبی ثطتطی ‪ ٦‬ا‪٤‬حصبض ؼ‪ٝ‬جی ثك‪١‬بض ‪٠‬ی ض‪٦‬ز‪ .‬زض ای‪ّ٠ ٣‬ب‪ ٩ٜ‬ض‪٦‬ی ‪٧٠‬ظ‪٧‬ق‬
‫ض‪٦‬یّ‪ ٩‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٦ ٞ‬اؾال‪ ٞ‬ثحج قس‪٤ ٦ ٨‬فطیبّت ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت زض ِجب‪ ٚ‬ثطاثطی‬
‫ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی‪ ،‬لسا‪ٜ‬ت‪ ،‬آظازی ‪ ٦‬حّ‪ َ٧‬ثكط اضائ‪ ٩‬زاز‪ ٨‬قس‪١٪ .٨‬چ‪٥‬ی‪ ٣‬ض‪٦‬یّ‪ ٩‬ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت زض ِجب‪ ٚ‬ازیب‪٢‬‬
‫زی‪ٙ‬ط ‪٤‬یع ‪٧٠‬ضز تزعی‪ ٦ ٩‬تح‪ٝ‬ی‪ِ ٛ‬طاض ٘طٌت‪ ٩‬اؾت‪.‬‬
‫‪ٕ٠‬ب‪ ٩١ٜ‬ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت ض‪٦‬ی ای‪ٌ ٣‬طظیّ‪ِ ٩‬طاض ٘طٌت‪٪ ٩ٔ ٩‬ط ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت زاضای ر‪٥‬ج‪٪ ٩‬بی‬
‫‪٠‬خجت ارت‪١‬بلی ‪ ٦‬ؾیبؾی ‪٠‬ی ثبق‪٥‬س ‪ ٦‬ض‪٦‬حیّ‪١٪ ٩‬سی‪ٙ‬ط ضا زضْ ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ .‬زض ض‪٦‬ق‪٥‬بئی ای‪ٌٕ ٣‬ط‬
‫‪٤‬فطیّ‪٠ ٩‬خجت ای‪ ٣‬ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت ثیب‪ ٢‬قس‪ ٨‬اؾت‪٤ .‬جبیس اظ یبز ثطز ٔ‪٥٠ ٩‬ف‪٧‬ض ‪٠‬ب پیكجطز ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬صٍب‬
‫زض ارت‪١‬بق ثكطی ‪٠‬ی ثبقس ‪ ٦‬زض ای‪ ٣‬ضاؾتب ثبیس ثطضؾی ٔ‪٥‬ی‪٠ ٩ٔ ٟ‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪٠‬رت‪ ًٝ‬چ‪ّ٤ ٩‬كی ضا‬
‫زض ای‪ ٣‬ظ‪٠‬ی‪ ٩٥‬ایٍبء ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫*ضئیؽ ثرف ٌ‪ٝ‬ؿٍ‪ ٩‬زا‪٤‬ك‪ٙ‬ب‪ ٨‬ز‪ٝ٪‬ی‬
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‫ثبیس التطاي ٔطز ٔ‪٪ ٩‬ط ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت زاضای اؾتمساز‪٪‬بی ‪٠‬خجت ‪٠‬ی ثبقس ‪٠ ٦‬ب ثبیس ثؿطان‬
‫آ‪٫٤‬ب ثط‪٦‬ی‪ ٦ ٟ‬ث‪ ٩‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬ب ‪٤‬كب‪ ٢‬ز‪٪‬ی‪ .ٟ‬ثس‪ ٢٦‬ای‪ ٣‬اؾتمساز‪٪‬ب ‪ٌ ٩٤‬ط‪ٙ٥٪‬ی پیف ‪٠‬ی ض‪٦‬ز ‪٠ ٩٤ ٦‬ص‪٪‬جی‬
‫ث‪٪ ٩‬سي ذ‪٧‬ز ‪٤‬بی‪٠ ٛ‬ی آیس‪ .‬ث‪٥‬بثطای‪ٙ٥٪ ٣‬ب‪ ٞ‬تزعی‪ ٦ ٩‬تح‪ٝ‬ی‪٪ ٛ‬ط ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬جی ثبیس ای‪ٕ٤ ٣‬ت‪ ٩‬ضا ‪٠‬سّ‪٤‬فط‬
‫زاقت‪.‬‬
‫زض ثط‪ ٩٪‬ای اظ ظ‪٠‬ب‪ ٩ٔ ٢‬قطایػ ظ‪٠‬ب‪٤‬ی ‪ٕ٠ ٦‬ب‪٤‬ی ‪٠‬تك‪ّ٥‬ذ ‪٤‬جبقس‪ٌ ،‬طصت ‪٥٠‬بؾجی ثطای‬
‫آظ‪٠‬بیف ٍ٘ت‪٧ٙ‬ی ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت اؾت‪ .‬زض ‪١٪‬چ‪٠ ٧‬حیؽی اؾت ٔ‪٠ ٩‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪ ٟ٪‬ثط ‪٠‬ب‪٪‬یِّت ذ‪٧‬ز‬
‫‪٠‬ی پطزاظ‪٤‬س ‪٦ ٟ٪ ٦‬ظك ‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت زی‪ٙ‬ط ضا زضْ ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ .‬زض ‪١٪‬چ‪٠ ٧‬حیؽی ثبیس ل‪١‬الً اظ ض‪٪‬جطا‪٢‬‬
‫‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪٠‬رت‪٤ ًٝ‬فطذ‪٧‬ا‪٪‬ی ثم‪ ٛ١‬آیس تب آ‪٫٤‬ب ص‪١‬ی‪١‬ب‪ ٩٤‬احؿبؾبت ذ‪٧‬ز ضا اثطاظ زاض‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬اظ ظثب‪٢‬‬
‫ز‪ ٚ‬صحجت ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫ای‪٧٠ ٣‬ظ‪٧‬ق ذی‪ٝ‬ی حؿبؾّی اؾت ‪ ٦‬زض ثطضؾی ازلب‪٪‬بی ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬جی ‪١٪‬سی‪ٙ‬ط ثبیس‬
‫احتیبغ ذبصّی ضا ثٕبض ٘طٌت‪ .‬زض ‪١٪‬چ‪٧٠ ٧‬ضزی ثبیس ثب زض ‪٤‬فط زاقت‪ ٣‬احتطا‪١٪ ٞ‬سی‪ٙ‬ط ثی‬
‫پطز‪ ٨‬صحجت ٔطز تب اث‪٫‬ب‪٠‬ی زض اٌ‪٫‬ب‪ ٦ ٞ‬تٍ‪٫‬ی‪٦ ٟ‬ر‪٧‬ز ‪٤‬ساقت‪ ٩‬ثبقس‪ .‬صحجت ‪ٍ٘ ٦‬ت‪٧ٙ‬ی صطیح ‪٦‬‬
‫ثی پطز‪ ٨‬أخطاً ضا‪ٙ٪‬كبی ح‪ِ ّٛ‬عیّ‪ ٩‬ث‪٧‬ز‪ ٨‬اؾت ‪٠ ٦‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬زض ای‪٧٤ ٣‬ق ثحج ثبیس ٔ‪ ٛ‬لب‪ٟٜ‬‬
‫ثكطیّت ضا ‪٠‬یسا‪ ٢‬ل‪ ٛ١‬ذ‪٧‬ز زا‪٤‬ؿت ‪ ٦‬اظ تمصّجبت ٌطزی ‪٘ ٦‬ط‪٪٦‬ی پط‪٪‬یع ٔطز‪٪ .‬سي ؾبیط‬
‫‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪ ٦‬ازیب‪١٪ ٢‬ی‪ ٣‬اؾت‪ .‬زض ای‪ ٣‬ثحج ثبیس ‪٠‬ؿئ‪ٜ٧‬یّت ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬جی ضا اضائ‪ ٩‬زاز ‪ ٦‬ثبیس ٍ٘ت ٔ‪ ٩‬زض‬
‫‪١٪‬چ‪ٔ ٧‬بضی ‪٧٪‬یّت ‪٪‬یچ ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬جی زض ذؽط ‪١٤‬ی ثبقس‪.‬‬
‫ث‪٥‬س‪ ٨‬زی‪ ٣‬اؾال‪ ٞ‬ضا ثطای ٍ٘ت‪ ٧ٙ‬ثب ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٞ‬ا‪٤‬تربة ٔطز‪ ٨‬ا‪ .ٞ‬چطا؟ ل‪ّٝ‬ت زاضز‪ .‬ل‪ّٝ‬ت ای‪٣‬‬
‫ا‪٠‬ط ای‪ ٣‬اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬زض زی‪ ٣‬اؾال‪٤ ٞ‬یع ‪٠‬خ‪ ٛ‬ث‪٧‬زیع‪ّ٠ ٞ‬ب‪٠‬ی ‪٤‬یؿت ٔ‪ ٩‬صبحت اذتیبض ثبقس ‪ِ ٦‬سضت‬
‫زض زؾت ا‪ ٦‬ت‪١‬طٔع زاقت‪ ٩‬ثبقس‪ .‬زی‪ ٣‬اؾال‪٠ ٞ‬تم‪ ُّٝ‬ث‪ ٩‬ثكطیّت اؾت ‪٪ ٦‬سي ای‪٠ ٣‬ص‪٪‬ت پیكجطز‬
‫ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬یّت زض ‪ ٩١٪‬لب‪٠ ٟٜ‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬ث‪٫‬عیؿتی ‪ ٦‬پیكجطز ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬یّت لصبض‪ ٨‬ی آ‪٧٠‬ظ‪٪ ٨‬بی زی‪ ٣‬اؾال‪ٞ‬‬
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‫‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪٤ .‬فط ث‪ ٩‬ای‪٠ ٣‬ؿبئ‪ ٛ‬ث‪٤ ٩‬فط ‪ ٣٠‬ثطای ٍ٘ت‪ ٧ٙ‬ثب ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٞ‬زی‪ ٣‬اؾال‪٥٠ ٞ‬بؾجتطی‪ ٣‬ازیب‪٠ ٢‬ی‬
‫ثبقس‪ .‬تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت اؾال‪ ٞ‬ؼ‪٧‬ضی اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬حتی ثی زی‪٥‬ب‪٤ ٟ٪ ٢‬جبیس زض ِجب‪ ٚ‬آ‪٫٤‬ب التطاظی زاقت‪٩‬‬
‫ثبق‪٥‬س‪ .‬ث‪١٫‬ی‪ ٣‬قٕ‪ ٛ‬ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٟ٪ ٞ‬اظ اٌطاغ ٘طائی احتطاظ ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س ‪ ٦‬ضا‪٦ ٨‬ؾؽی (ذیطاال‪٧٠‬ض‬
‫ا‪٦‬ؾؽ‪٫‬ب) ضا ا‪٤‬تربة ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪ .‬ا‪٤‬مٕبؼ ای‪ٌٕ ٣‬ط زض ‪٤‬فطیّ‪" ٩‬پطاتیتیبؾب‪٧٠‬ت پبزا"‬
‫(‪ )Pratityasamutpada‬ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٞ‬ر‪٘ ٨٧ٝ‬طی ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪ ٧ٜ٦ .‬ای‪ ٩ٕ٥‬ث‪٧‬زیع‪ٕ٥٠ ٞ‬ط ‪٦‬ر‪٧‬ز ذسا ‪٦‬‬
‫ض‪٦‬ح ‪٠‬ی ثبقس ا‪٠‬ب آ‪ ٢‬ضا ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ‪٠‬ی زا‪٤‬ی‪ ٟ‬چ‪ ٢٧‬اظ پیكجطز ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬یّت ح‪١‬بیت ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫ثطای ‪ٕ٠‬ب‪ ٩١ٜ‬ثب اؾال‪ ٞ‬الظ‪٠ ٞ‬ی ثی‪٠ ٩ٔ ٟ٥‬ط‪٦‬ضی ث‪ ٩‬ا‪٦‬ظبق ‪ ٦‬اح‪٧‬ا‪ٜ‬ی ٔ‪ ٩‬زض آ‪ ٢‬اؾال‪ٞ‬‬
‫ـ‪٧٫‬ض ٔطز ثٕ‪٥‬ی‪١٪ .ٟ‬ب‪٥٤‬س زی‪ٝٔ ٣‬ی‪١‬ی ‪٠ ٦‬ؿیحیّت‪ ،‬ؾطچك‪ ٩١‬اؾال‪ٌٝ ٟ٪ ٞ‬ؿٍ‪ ٩‬ت‪٧‬حیسی آز‪٦ ٞ‬‬
‫اثطا‪٪‬ی‪٠ ٟ‬ی ثبقس‪ٌٕ .‬ط ت‪٧‬حیس‪ ،‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬ب ضا ثؿ‪٧‬ی ٌٕط ز‪٤‬یبی ‪٠‬تحّس ‪٦ ٦‬احس ؾ‪٠ َ٧‬ی ز‪٪‬س‪ٌٕ .‬ط‬
‫ز‪٤‬یبی ‪٦‬احس ‪٤‬بقی اظ لّیس‪٦ ٨‬حسا‪٤‬یّت شات ‪٠‬ؽ‪٠ ُٝ‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬ؼجُ تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت زی‪ ٣‬اؾال‪ ٞ‬ز‪٤‬یب یٕی‬
‫اؾت ‪ ٦‬ت‪٫٥‬ب اتحبّز ر‪٫‬ب‪٤‬ی ض‪٦‬یّ‪ ٩‬زضؾت ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٠ ٢‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬اؾال‪ ٞ‬زض ؾؽح لب‪ ٟٜ‬ثكط ز‪٦‬ؾتی ضا‬
‫تط‪٦‬یذ ‪٠‬ی ز ‪٪‬س ‪ ٦‬آ‪ ٢‬ضا آض‪٠‬ب‪ ٢‬ثكطیّت ‪٠‬ی زا‪٤‬س‪ .‬آ٘ب‪٪ ٨‬ؿتی‪٠ ٩ٔ ٟ‬ؿ‪١ٝ‬ب‪٤‬ب‪ ٢‬ث‪ ٩١٪ ٩‬ی ا‪٤‬جیبء‬
‫التّبز زاض‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت آ‪٫٤‬ب ضا اظ آ‪ ٢‬ذ‪٧‬ز ‪٠‬ی زا‪٥٤‬س‪ .‬ا‪٠‬ب ِج‪ ٛ‬اظ ـ‪٧٫‬ض اؾال‪٠ ٞ‬طز‪ ٞ‬اظ تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت‬
‫آز‪ ٦ ٞ‬اثطا‪٪‬ی‪ ٟ‬ض‪٘ ٦‬طزا‪٤‬س‪ ٨‬ث‪٧‬ز‪٤‬س ‪٪ ٦‬طد ‪٠ ٦‬طد ٘طیجب‪ٙ٤‬یط ارت‪١‬بق ‪ِ٦‬ت ث‪٧‬ز‪ .‬زض ‪١٪‬چ‪٦ ٧‬ظمی‬
‫ث‪ ٩‬پیك‪٧ٙ‬ئی حعطت ‪٠‬ؿیح‪ ٩ٔ ،‬پیى‪١‬جطی ث‪٤ ٩‬ب‪٠ ٞ‬ح‪ّ١‬س (ل) ـ‪٧٫‬ض ذ‪٧‬ا‪٪‬س ٔطز ‪٦ ٦‬ظك ضا‬
‫ز٘ط٘‪٠ ٢٧‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪ ،‬لّطث‪ ٩‬ضا ثط ‪٠‬ی ٘طزا‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬ا‪٦‬ظبق ضا ؾط‪٦‬ؾب‪٠‬ب‪٠ ٢‬ی ز‪٪‬س‪ ،‬ت‪٧‬ر‪ ٩‬قس‪ ٨‬ث‪٧‬ز‪ .‬زض‬
‫‪١٪‬چ‪٦ ٧‬ظمی حعطت ‪٠‬ح‪ّ١‬س ـ‪٧٫‬ض ‪ ٦‬اؾال‪ ٞ‬ضا تج‪ٝ‬یه ٔطز‪ .‬ای‪ٍ٘ ٣‬تبض حعطت ‪٠‬ح‪١‬س(ل) ٔ‪٩‬‬
‫اص‪ ٛ‬اؾال‪ ٞ‬تٕبٌ‪٧‬ی احتیبد ‪٤‬بزاضا‪٘ ٦ ٢‬طؾ‪ٙ٥‬ب‪ ٦ ٢‬ثیچبض٘ب‪٠ ٢‬ی ثبقس ‪٠‬طز‪ ٞ‬ضا ثؿ‪٧‬ی اؾال‪ٞ‬‬
‫ٔكب‪٤‬س‪ .‬زض آ‪ ٢‬ثط‪ ٩٪‬اظ ظ‪٠‬ب‪ ٦ ٢‬تحت آ‪ ٢‬قطایػ ‪٤‬ب‪٠‬ؿبلس پیى‪١‬جط اؾال‪ ٞ‬اظ رب‪٠‬م‪ ٩‬لبزال‪٩٤‬‬
‫صحجت ٔطز ‪ِ ٦‬یب‪ ٞ‬آ‪ ٢‬ضا ‪٦‬ـیٍ‪٪ ٩‬ط ا‪٤‬ؿب‪ ٢‬ت‪٧‬صیً ٔطز‪ .‬اؾال‪ ٞ‬ت‪١‬ب‪ ٞ‬ل‪٥‬بصط ارت‪١‬بق لبزال‪،٩٤‬‬
‫‪٠‬تحّس ‪ ٦‬ظب‪ ٣٠‬ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آضا‪٠‬ف ضا زض ثط ‪٠‬ی ٘یطز‪ .‬ت‪٫٥‬ب ‪٠‬ؿئ‪ ٩ٝ‬ای ٔ‪ ٩‬احطات ‪ٍ٥٠‬ی ض‪٦‬ی ت‪١‬سّ‪٦ ٢‬‬
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‫تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت اؾال‪٠‬ی زاضز‪٠ ،‬ؿئ‪ ٩ٝ‬ر‪٫‬بز اؾت ا‪٠‬ب ز‪ٜ‬ی‪ ٛ‬آ‪ٍ٥٠ ٢‬ی ث‪٧‬ز‪ ٢‬ایس‪ ٨‬ر‪٫‬بز ‪٤‬یؿت ث‪ ٩ٕٝ‬لس‪ٞ‬‬
‫ق‪٥‬بذت ٌ‪ٝ‬ؿٍ‪ ٩‬ر‪٫‬بز ث‪٧‬ؾی‪ ٩ٝ‬ویط ‪٠‬ؿ‪١ٝ‬ی‪ ٦ ٣‬حتی ث‪٧‬ؾی‪٘ ٩ٝ‬ط‪٪٦‬ی اظ ذ‪٧‬ز ‪٠‬ؿ‪١ٝ‬ب‪٤‬ب‪٠ ٢‬ی ثبقس‪.‬‬
‫آ‪٫٤‬ب ‪٧٠‬ظ‪٧‬ق ضا زضؾت زضْ ‪ٕ٤‬طز‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬ؾ‪٧‬ء تٍب‪ ٟ٪‬ضا ضا‪ ٨‬ا‪٤‬ساذت‪٥‬س‪٦ .‬اِمیّت ای‪ ٣‬اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬ر‪٫‬بز‬
‫‪٦‬ؾی‪ ٩ٝ‬ایؿت ثطای ‪ّ٠‬بث‪ ٩ٝ‬ثب ثی لسا‪ٜ‬تی ‪ ٦‬ثی ا‪٤‬صبٌی‪.‬‬
‫زض آئی‪ ٩٥‬ای‪ ٣‬ت‪٧‬ظیحبت ‪ٕ٠‬ب‪ ٩١ٜ‬ثی‪ ٣‬ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٦ ٞ‬اؾال‪ ،ٟ٪ ٞ‬آؾب‪ ٢‬ث‪٥‬فط ‪٠‬ی‬
‫ضؾس ‪٥٠ ٟ٪٦‬ؽّی‪٪ .‬ط ز‪ ٦‬ض‪٦‬ی اص‪ ٛ‬ثطاثطی‪ ،‬لسا‪ٜ‬ت‪ ،‬ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬صٍب ‪ ٦‬اتحّبز ر‪٫‬ب‪٤‬ی تأٔیس‬
‫٘صاقت‪ ٩‬ا‪٤‬س‪٪ .‬ط ز‪ ٦‬ت‪٥‬ف ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬جی ضا ثی اؾبؼ زا‪٤‬ؿت‪٪ ٦ ٩‬سایت ث‪ ٩‬پط‪٪‬یع اظ آ‪ٔ ٢‬طز‪ ٨‬ا‪٤‬س‪ .‬ث‪٥‬فط‬
‫‪٪‬طز‪٦‬ی ای‪٠ ٣‬صا‪٪‬ت تم‪ٝ‬ی‪ ٟ‬زضؾت ثط ‪٠‬ج‪٥‬بی اذالَ ‪٠‬ی ت‪٧‬ا‪٤‬س ٔی‪ ٦ ٩٥‬لسا‪٦‬ت ضا ضیك‪ٔ ٣ٔ ٩‬طز‪،٨‬‬
‫رب‪٠‬م‪ ٩‬ثكطی ضا پیف ثجطز‪ .‬ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٦ ٞ‬اؾال‪٪ ،ٞ‬ط ز‪ ٦‬لّیس‪ ٨‬ثط ای‪ ٣‬ا‪٤‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬ل‪ّٝ‬ت ؾبیط ‪٠‬كٕالت‬
‫ر‪٤ ٦ ٛ٫‬بزا‪٤‬ی اؾت‪ .‬ث‪٥‬بثطای‪ ٣‬ت‪٧‬صی‪٠ ٩‬ی ق‪٧‬ز ٔ‪ ٩‬ض‪٪‬جطا‪٪ ٢‬ط ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت ؼجُ ‪٦‬ـیٍ‪ ٩‬ذ‪٧‬ز‪،‬‬
‫پیط‪٦‬ا‪ ٢‬ذ‪٧‬ز ضا ث‪ ٩‬ضا‪ ٨‬ضاؾت ‪٪‬سایت ٔ‪٥٥‬س تب ثكطیّت ثب ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آضا‪٠‬ف زض ٔ‪٥‬بض ‪١٪‬سی‪ٙ‬ط ظ‪٤‬س٘ی‬
‫ٔ‪٥٥‬س ‪١٪ ٦‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یعث‪ ٩‬پیف ثط‪٦‬ز ‪٦‬زض ‪٠‬طا‪ ٞ‬ثكط ز‪٦‬ؾتی ضیك‪ ٩‬ز‪٦‬ا‪٤‬س‪.‬‬
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‫اخالقیات جیٌی ٍ ّوشیستی هسالوت آهیش‬
‫*‬
‫زٔتط ‪٦‬یطؾب٘طری‪٣‬‬
‫چکیده‪ :‬چ‪٠ ٢٧‬ؽب‪ٜ‬مبت ‪ٍ٠‬صّ‪ ٛ‬زض ظ‪٠‬ی‪ ٩٥‬تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت ‪ ٦‬آ‪٧٠‬ظ‪٪ ٨‬بی اذالَ ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ری‪ٌ ،٣‬طصت‬
‫ثیكتطی ‪٠‬ی ؼ‪ٝ‬جس ‪ ٦‬ظ‪٠‬ی‪ ٩٥‬آ‪ ٢‬ذی‪ٝ‬ی ‪٦‬ؾیك ‪٘ ٦‬ؿتطز‪٠ ٨‬ی ثبقس‪٠ ،‬ب زض ای‪٥‬زب ٌّػ ث‪ ٩‬ایس‪٨‬‬
‫‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز زض اذالِیّبت ری‪٥‬ی ثؿ‪٥‬س‪٠ ٨‬ی ٔ‪٥‬ی‪١٪ .ٟ‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع‬
‫زضای‪ ٣‬ثط‪ ٩٪‬اظ ظ‪٠‬ب‪٤ ٢‬ؿجت ث‪٪ ٩‬ط ظ‪٠‬ب‪ ٢‬زی‪ٙ‬طی ا‪١٪‬یّت ثیكتطی زاضز ‪ ٦‬ث‪٥‬بثطای‪ ٣‬زض ؾؽح لب‪ٟٜ‬‬
‫‪٠‬ؽطح اؾت‪ .‬ا‪٠‬ط‪٦‬ظ ذك‪٤٧‬ت‪ ،‬ر‪٥‬بیت‪ ،‬زض‪٦‬ن‪ٔ ،‬ی‪ ٦ ٩٥‬لسا‪٦‬ت‪٠ ،‬حیػ ؾطتبؾط ر‪٫‬ب‪ ٢‬ضا ٌطا‬
‫٘طٌت‪ ٦ ٩‬ؾبی‪ ٩‬ق‪ ٞ٧‬ذ‪٧‬ز ضا ثط رب‪٠‬م‪ ٩‬ثكطی إٌ‪٥‬س‪ ٨‬اؾت‪ .‬ثطای ر‪٘٧ٝ‬یطی اظ ‪٤‬بث‪٧‬زی ثكط ‪٦‬‬
‫ر‪٫‬ب‪ ٦ ٢‬ثطای تط‪٦‬یذ ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آقتی زض ای‪ ٣‬ز‪٤‬یب الظ‪٠ ٞ‬ی ثبقس ٔ‪ ٩‬ثكط ضا ‪٠‬ت‪٧‬رّ‪ ٩‬ای‪ ٣‬ا‪٠‬ط‬
‫ثؿبظی‪ ٟ‬تب ز‪٤‬یبی ذ‪٧‬ز ضا ثسؾت ذ‪٧‬ز ‪٦‬یطا‪٥ٕ٤ ٢‬س‪.‬‬
‫ثبیس یبزآ‪٦‬ض قس ٔ‪ ٩‬او‪ٝ‬ت ‪٠‬طز‪ ٞ‬ر‪٫‬ب‪ ٢‬پیط‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬جی ‪٠ ٦‬ؿ‪ٕٝ‬ی ‪٠‬ی ثبق‪٥‬س ا‪٠‬ب اظ ض‪٦‬ح‬
‫‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ذ‪٧‬ز ‪٤‬بآق‪٥‬با‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬زض ثی ذجطی ‪٤ ٦‬بآ٘ب‪٪‬ی ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ .‬چ‪٥‬ب‪٤‬چ‪ ٩‬ثت‪٧‬ا‪٤‬ی‪ ٟ‬ت‪٧‬ر‪ ٩‬آ‪٫٤‬ب ضا‬
‫ث‪ ٩‬ر‪٥‬ج‪٪ ٩‬بی ‪٠‬خجت ‪ ٦‬ؾبظ‪٤‬س‪ ٨‬زی‪٠ ٦ ٣‬طا‪ ٞ‬قب‪٠ ٢‬جص‪ ٚ٦‬زاضی‪٦ ٦ ٟ‬ازاض ث‪ ٩‬پیط‪٦‬ی اظ آ‪ ٢‬ثٕ‪٥‬ی‪ٟ‬‬
‫قبیس زض ‪٤‬ی‪ ٛ‬ث‪٪ ٩‬سي ٔ‪ٕ١‬ی ٔطز‪ ٨‬ثبقی‪ .ٟ‬ث‪٥‬بثطای‪ ٣‬زض ای‪٥‬زب زض ‪٧٠‬ضز ٌ‪ٝ‬ؿٍ‪١٪ ٩‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت‬
‫آ‪٠‬یع ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز زض زی‪ ٣‬ری‪٥‬ی ث‪ ٩‬ثحج ‪٠‬ی پطزاظی‪.ٟ‬‬
‫*ضئیؽ ثرف ‪٠‬ؽب‪ٜ‬مبت ری‪٥‬ی‪ ،‬زا‪٤‬كؿطای لب‪ٜ‬ی ‪ٜ‬م‪ ٛ‬ث‪٫‬بزض قبؾتطی ز‪ٝ٪‬ی‬
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‫آ‪٧٠‬ظ‪٪ ٨‬بی اذالِی ری‪٥‬ی زاضای ز‪ ٦‬ر‪٥‬ج‪٠ ٩‬ی ثبقس‪ ،‬یٕی ثب ض‪٦‬حب‪٤‬ی‪٠ ٦ ٢٧‬طتبظب‪٦ ٢‬‬
‫ز‪٠٦‬ی ثب ل‪٠ ٞ٧١‬طز‪ ٞ‬اضتجبغ زاضز‪ .‬پیط‪٦‬ی اظ لس‪ ٞ‬ذك‪٤٧‬ت‪ٍ٘ ،‬تبض ‪٤‬یٓ ‪ ٦‬ضاؾت‪٠ ،‬حس‪٦‬زیّت‬
‫زض ل‪ ٛ١‬ر‪٥‬ؿی‪٠ ،‬حس‪٦‬زیّت زض احتیبربت ذ‪٧‬ز‪ ،‬احتطا‪ ٞ‬ث‪ ٩‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ‪٪‬ط ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز ظ‪٤‬س‪ ،٨‬تٍّٕط‬
‫ل‪١‬یُ ض‪٦‬ظا‪ ٩٤‬ثطای ‪٠‬ست ٔ‪٧‬تب‪ ،٨‬قطٔت زاز‪ ٢‬زی‪ٙ‬طا‪ ٢‬ث‪٧‬یػ‪ ٨‬ض‪٦‬حب‪٤‬ی‪ ٢٧‬زض وصای ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز‪ ،‬اظ‬
‫ا‪١٪‬یّت ‪٦‬یػ‪ ٨‬ای ثطذ‪٧‬ضزاض ‪٠‬ی ثبق‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫لس‪ ٞ‬ذك‪٤٧‬ت ‪١٫٠‬تطی‪ ٣‬اص‪ ٚ٧‬اذالِیبّت ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ری‪ ٣‬ق‪١‬طز‪٠ ٨‬ی ق‪٧‬ز ‪٦ ٦‬ـیٍ‪٪ ٩‬ط‬
‫پیط‪ ٦‬زی‪ ٣‬ری‪ ٣‬اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬اص‪ ٛ‬لس‪ ٞ‬ذك‪٤٧‬ت ضا زض ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ذ‪٧‬ز ثٕبض ث‪٥‬سز‪.‬‬
‫زی‪ ٣‬ری‪ ٣‬ذؽبة ث‪ ٩١٪ ٩‬ی ثكطیّت ‪٠‬ی ٘‪٧‬یس ٔ‪ ٩‬لس‪ ٞ‬ذك‪٤٧‬ت ضا ‪ٌّ ٩٤‬ػ زض ‪ّ٠‬بث‪ٛ‬‬
‫ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬ب ث‪ ٩ٕٝ‬زض ِجب‪ ٩١٪ ٚ‬ی ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬زات ظ‪٤‬س‪ ٨‬ضلبیت ٔ‪٥٥‬س ‪ ٦‬ث‪٪ ٩‬یچ ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز ظ‪٤‬س‪ ٨‬ظطضی‬
‫‪٤‬طؾب‪٥٤‬س‪.‬‬
‫پط‪٦‬اظح اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬چ‪٥‬ی‪ ٣‬تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت پط‪٦‬ضـ ز‪٥٪‬س‪ ٨‬ی‪ ،‬ایس‪ ٨‬ی ‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع‬
‫‪ ٦‬تكٕی‪ ٛ‬ز‪٥٪‬س‪ ٨‬ارت‪١‬بق ؾب‪٠ ٟٜ‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬ثب پیط‪٦‬ی اظای‪ ٣‬آ‪٧٠‬ظ‪٪ ٨‬ب ‪٠‬ی ت‪٧‬ا‪ ٢‬اظ ‪٤‬بث‪٧‬زی ثكط ‪٦‬‬
‫ر‪٫‬ب‪ ٢‬ر‪٘٧ٝ‬یطی ٔطز‪.‬‬
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‫ّوگزایی عدالت آهیش‬
‫*‬
‫پط‪ٌ٦‬ؿ‪٧‬ض قب‪٠ ٨‬ح‪ّ١‬س ‪٦‬ؾی‪ٟ‬‬
‫چکیده‪ٙ٤ :‬بض‪٤‬س‪ّ٠ ٨‬ب‪١٘ ٩ٜ‬ب‪٠ ٢‬یٔ‪٥‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬ا٘ط اظ ٔؿی ثر‪٧‬ا‪٪‬ی‪ ٟ‬تب ‪٩١٪‬ی ‪٠‬كٕالت ز‪٤‬یب ضا زض یٓ‬
‫ٔ‪ ٩١ٝ‬ثیب‪٥ٔ ٢‬س‪ ،‬ا‪٪ ٦‬ط چیعی ٔ‪ ٩‬ثر‪٧‬ا‪٪‬س ‪٠‬یت‪٧‬ا‪٤‬س ث‪٧ٙ‬یس؛ ‪٠‬خال ٌّط‪ ،‬ثیچبض٘ی ‪٦‬ویط‪٩١٪ .٨‬ی ای‪٣‬‬
‫تمجیط‪٪‬ب ث‪ ٩‬ربی ذ‪٧‬زقب‪ ٢‬زضؾت ‪٪‬ؿت‪٥‬س ا‪٠‬ب آ‪ٝٔ ٢‬یس ‪٦‬اغ‪٨‬ای ٔ‪٧٠ ٩‬ضز ‪٤‬فط ‪٠‬بؾت «ثیلسا‪ٜ‬تی»‬
‫اؾت‪ .‬ث‪٥‬بثطای‪ ٣‬ثطای ؾال‪٠‬تی ‪٪‬ط قرصی ‪٪ ٦‬ط ٌطِ‪٩‬ای ثبیس لسا‪ٜ‬ت ضا ارطا ٔطز ‪١٪ ٦‬چ‪٥‬ی‪ ٣‬ث‪٩‬‬
‫ربی ‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬حط‪ ،‬ثبیس ثط ‪١٪‬عیؿتی ز‪٦‬رب‪٤‬ج‪( ٩‬یب ‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬تّبث‪ )ٛ‬ثیكتط ت‪٧‬رّ‪ ٦ ٩‬تأٔیس‬
‫ٔطز؛ ثربؼط ای‪٩١٪ ٩ٔ ٣‬ی ‪٠‬ب ‪٠‬ر‪ َ٧ٝ‬یٓ پط‪٦‬ضز٘بض ‪٪‬ؿتی‪ .ٟ‬زض ‪٫٤‬ذا‪ٜ‬جالو‪ ٩‬چ‪٥‬ی‪٧٤ ٣‬قت‪ ٩‬قس‪٨‬‬
‫اؾت ‪ :‬ظ‪٠‬ب‪٤‬ی ٔ‪ ٩‬حعطت ل‪ٝ‬ی(ق)‪٠ ،‬ب‪ ٜٓ‬اقتط ضاث‪ٌ ٩‬ط‪٠‬ب‪٤‬ساضی ‪٠‬صط ‪٥٠‬ص‪٧‬ة ٔطز‪ ،‬ثطای ا‪٦‬‬
‫‪٤‬ب‪٩٠‬ای ‪٧٤‬قت ‪ٍ٘ ٦‬ت‪« :‬زض ‪٠‬یب‪ ٢‬ضلیت ت‪ ٧‬ز‪٘ ٦‬ط‪ ٨٦‬ثیكتط ‪٦‬ر‪٧‬ز ‪٤‬ساضز؛ یٕی اظ ٘ط‪٫٪٦‬ب‬
‫ثطازضا‪ ٢‬زی‪٥‬ی ت‪٪ ٧‬ؿت‪٥‬س ‪ ٦‬ثب ت‪ ٧‬یٓ ٔیف ‪ ٦‬یٓ زی‪ ٣‬زاض‪٤‬س؛ ٘ط‪ ٨٦‬زی‪ٙ‬ط پیط‪٠ ٦‬صا‪٪‬ت ثی‪ٙ‬ب‪٩٤‬ا‪٤‬س‬
‫ٔ‪ ٩‬آ‪٫٤‬ب ‪٤‬یع اظ ‪ٜ‬حبؾ ‪٠‬ر‪ َ٧ٝ‬ذسا ث‪٧‬ز‪ ٢‬ثب ت‪٧٥١٪ ٧‬ق ‪ٟ٪ ٦‬ر‪٥‬ؽا‪٤‬س‪٪ ...‬یچ٘ب‪ ٨‬ث‪ ٩‬ضلیت ذ‪٧‬ز‬
‫‪ ٣٠ ٩ٔ ٧ٙ٠‬ث‪ ٩‬ل‪٧٥‬ا‪ ٢‬حبٔ‪ ٟ‬ق‪١‬ب ‪٥٠‬ص‪٧‬ة قس‪ ٨‬ا‪١٪ !ٞ‬یك‪ ٩‬یبزت ثبقس ٔ‪ ٩‬ا٘ط ٔؿی ث‪ ٩‬ث‪٥‬س٘ب‪٢‬‬
‫ذسا ـ‪٥ٔ ٟٝ‬س‪ ،‬آ‪ٙ٤‬ب‪ ٨‬ذسا اظ ؼطي ث‪٥‬س٘ب‪٠ ٢‬ف‪ ٞ٧ٝ‬ذ‪٧‬ز‪ ،‬ضِیت آ‪ ٢‬ـب‪٠ ٟٜ‬یق‪٧‬ز‪».‬‬
‫*ضییؽ ؾبثُ ثرف ثبظض٘ب‪٤‬ی‪ ،‬زا‪٤‬ك‪ٙ‬ب‪ ٨‬اؾال‪٠‬ی ل‪ٝ‬ی‪ٙ‬ط‬
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‫ثطای ‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع زض رب‪٠‬م‪ ،٩‬حعطت ل‪ٝ‬ی(ق) ٌطظ‪٤‬س ثعضٖ ذ‪٧‬ز ضا‬
‫چ‪٥‬ی‪٦ ٣‬صیت ٔطز‪« :‬پؿط‪ !ٞ‬شات ذ‪٧‬ز ضا زض ‪٠‬طا‪٦‬ز‪ ٨‬ذ‪٧‬زت ‪ ٦‬زی‪ٙ‬طا‪٠ ٢‬یعا‪ِ ٢‬طاض ثس‪ .٨‬یم‪٥‬ی‬
‫چیعی ٔ‪ ٩‬ت‪ ٧‬ثطای ذ‪٧‬زت ‪١٤‬یپؿ‪٥‬سی‪ ،‬ثطای زی‪ٙ‬طا‪٤ ٢‬یع ‪٤‬پؿ‪٥‬س‪ .‬ثط ٔؿی ـ‪١٪ ٣ٕ٤ ٟٝ‬ب‪٤‬ؽ‪٧‬ض ٔ‪٩‬‬
‫‪١٤‬یذ‪٧‬ا‪٪‬ی ٔؿی ثط ت‪ ٧‬ـ‪٥ٔ ٟٝ‬س‪ .‬ثب ‪٠‬طز‪١٪ ٞ‬ب‪٤‬ؽ‪٧‬ض ضٌتبض ٔ‪ ٩ٔ ٣‬ز‪٦‬ؾت زاضی آ‪٫٤‬ب ثب ت‪ ٧‬ضٌتبض‬
‫ٔ‪٥٥‬س؛ ‪٧٠‬اضزی ٔ‪ ٩‬ثط ‪٠‬طز‪١٤ ٞ‬یپؿ‪٥‬سی ثطای ذ‪٧‬زت ‪٤‬یع ‪٤‬پؿ‪٥‬س‪».‬‬
‫ثب چ‪٥‬ی‪ ٣‬ض‪٦‬قی ‪ ٦‬ا‪ٜ‬جت‪ ٩‬ثب ل‪ٔ ٛ١‬طز‪ ٢‬ثط آ‪٫٤‬ب‪٠ ،‬یت‪٧‬ا‪ ٢‬زض رب‪٠‬م‪ ٩‬ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آضا‪٠‬ف ضا‬
‫ثطِطاض ٔطز تب ؾطا‪٤‬زب‪٪ ٞ‬ط ٌطز ای‪ ٣‬رب‪٠‬م‪ ٩‬ثت‪٧‬ا‪٤‬س زض ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آقتی ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫ثمس اظ ثحج‪٪‬بیی زض ‪٧٠‬ضز ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آقتی ‪ ٦‬تٍب‪ ٟ٪‬ثی‪٣‬االزیب‪٤‬ی‪ ،‬حب‪ ٚ‬ا٘ط ‪ٙ٤‬ب‪٪‬ی ث‪٩‬‬
‫ت‪٥‬ف‪٪‬بی ‪٠‬تّبث‪ٔ ٛ‬ك‪٧‬ض‪٪‬ب ‪ ٦‬یب تطؼ ح‪ ٩ٝ١‬ت‪٧‬ؾػ ٔك‪٧‬ض‪٪‬بی اثطِسضت ثی‪٥‬ساظی‪٠ ٟ‬ی ثی‪٥‬ی‪٩ٔ ٟ‬‬
‫پیب‪٫٤ ٞ‬ذا‪ٜ‬جالو‪ ٩‬زض ای‪٧٠ ٣‬ضز چ‪٥‬ی‪ ٣‬اؾت‪٪« :‬ط٘ع ذ‪٧‬زت ر‪ ٗ٥‬ضا قط‪٦‬ق ‪ »٣ٕ٤‬یب ای‪٩ٔ ٣‬‬
‫«صجط ٔ‪ ٣‬تب زق‪٥١‬ت ا‪ ٚ٦‬ح‪ ٩ٝ١‬ثٕ‪٥‬س» پؽ ا٘ط ‪٪‬یچ ٔك‪٧‬ضی ٘ب‪ ٞ‬ح‪٩ٝ١‬ی ا‪ ٚ٦‬ضا ثط‪٤‬ساضز‪،‬‬
‫زی‪ٙ‬ط ر‪ٙ٥‬ی ‪٤‬ر‪٧‬ا‪٪‬س ث‪٧‬ز‪ .‬ثب چ‪٥‬ی‪ ٣‬ض‪٦‬قی ‪٠‬یت‪٧‬ا‪ ٢‬زض ؾؽح ثی‪٣‬ا‪ٝٝ١ٜ‬ی ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آقتی ضا ثطِطاض‬
‫ٔطز تب ؾطا‪٤‬زب‪ ٞ‬اضتجبؼبت ثی‪ٔ ٣‬ك‪٧‬ض‪٪‬بی ‪٠‬رت‪ ًٝ‬ث‪٫‬تط ق‪٧‬ز ‪ ٦‬ثصض ز‪٦‬ؾتی ‪ ٦‬ثطازضی زض‪٠‬یب‪٢‬‬
‫‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪ ٦‬اِ‪٧‬ا‪٠ ٞ‬رت‪ٔ ًٝ‬بقت‪ ٩‬ق‪٧‬ز‪.‬‬
‫‪ٙ٤‬بض‪٤‬س‪ّ٠ ٨‬ب‪ ٩ٜ‬اٌطاز ‪٘ ٦‬ط‪٪٨٦‬بی ‪٠‬رت‪ ًٝ‬ضا ؼ‪٧‬ضی ثط یٓ ‪٠‬خ‪ٝ‬ج ‪٤‬كب‪ ٢‬زاز‪ ٨‬اؾت ٔ‪٩‬‬
‫زض ظا‪٦‬ی‪٪٩‬بی چپ ‪ ٦‬ضاؾت آ‪ ٢‬ز‪٘ ٦‬ط‪« ٦ »٣٠« ٨٦‬ق‪١‬ب» ‪٦‬ر‪٧‬ز زاض‪٤‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬ثب ‪ ٟ٪‬زض اضتجبغ‬
‫‪٪‬ؿت‪٥‬س ‪٤ ٦‬یع ‪٪‬ط ز‪٘ ٦‬ط‪ ٨٦‬ثب ظا‪٦‬ی‪ ٩‬ثبال ٔ‪« ٩‬اهلل» ثبقس ‪٠‬طتجػ ‪٪‬ؿت‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫‪188‬‬
‫اهلل‬
‫ق‪١‬ب (٘ط‪)2 ٨٦‬‬
‫‪٘(٣٠‬ط‪)1٨٦‬‬
‫«ر‪٧‬ضد رُطزاَ» زض ٔتبة ذ‪٧‬ز «ص‪٧‬تا‪ٜ‬مسا‪٩ٜ‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی‪ »٩‬زض ‪٧٠‬ضز لس‪ ٚ‬حعطت‬
‫ل‪ٝ‬ی(ق) ‪٧٤‬قت‪ ٩‬اؾت ٔ‪٠ ٩‬ؿیحیب‪ ٟ٪ ،٢‬زض حیبت حعطت ل‪ٝ‬ی(ق) ‪٤ ٦‬یع ثمس اظ ‪ٌ٦‬بتف ث‪ ٩‬ا‪٦‬‬
‫لكُ ‪٠‬ی‪٦‬ضظیس‪٤‬س؛ ا‪ ٦‬ذ‪٢٧‬ث‪٫‬بی ‪٠‬ؿیحیب‪ ٢‬ضا ثب ذ‪٢٧‬ث‪٫‬بی ‪٠‬ؿ‪١ٝ‬ب‪٤‬ب‪ ٢‬یٕؿب‪ِ ٢‬طاض زاز‪ ٨‬ث‪٧‬ز‪.‬‬
‫(‪« )UNDP‬ثط‪٤‬ب‪ ٩٠‬ت‪٧‬ؾم‪٠ ٛٝ٠ ٩‬تحس» زض ؾب‪٠ 2222 ٚ‬یالزی زض «٘عاضـ ت‪٧‬ؾم‪ ٩‬لطة»‬
‫تأٔیس ٔطز ٔ‪ ٩‬ثطای ث‪٫‬تطی‪٧٤ ٣‬ق حٕ‪٠٧‬ت ثبیس ثط تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت حعطت ل‪ٝ‬ی (پسیسآ‪٦‬ض ‪٫٤‬ذا‪ٜ‬جالو‪)٩‬‬
‫تٕی‪ٔ ٩‬طز؛ ‪٤ ٦‬یع تصٔط زاز ٔ‪ ٩‬ز‪ٜ٦‬ت ثطای ‪ ٦ ٩١٪‬ثطای ضٌب‪٩١٪ ٨‬ی ‪٠‬طز‪ ٞ‬اؾت‪ ،‬ا‪ٜ‬جت‪ ٩‬ث‪ ٩‬قطؼی‬
‫ٔ‪ ٩‬لسا‪ٜ‬ت ضا ارطا ٔ‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫‪189‬‬
‫ایدُ بزابزی اًساى ّا در اسالم ٍ دیگز هذاّب شزقی‬
‫*‬
‫زٔتط ا‪ ٞ‬ا‪٦ ٞ‬ض‪٠‬ب‬
‫چکیده‪ٙ٤ :‬ب‪٪‬ی ث‪ ٩‬تبضید ر‪٫‬ب‪٤ ٢‬كب‪٠ ٢‬ی ز‪٪‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬إٌبض‪ ،‬ؾ‪٠ ٦ ٣٥‬صا‪٪‬ت ثی اؾبؼ ث‪٧‬ر‪٧‬ز‬
‫‪٤‬یب‪٠‬س‪ ٨‬ا‪٤‬س ث‪ ٩١٪ ٩ٕٝ‬آ‪٫٤‬ب زاضای ث‪٥‬یب‪٫٤‬بی ‪٠‬ؿتحٕ‪٠ ٟ‬ی ثبق‪٥‬س‪ .‬ای‪٤ ٣‬فط ‪٠ ٩ٔ ٟ٪‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪ ٦‬ازیب‪ ٢‬ثب‬
‫‪ ٟ٪‬اضتجبؼی ‪٤‬ساض‪٤‬س ‪٤‬فط زضؾتی ‪٤‬یؿت‪ .‬حّیّت ای‪ ٣‬اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬زض ؼ‪ ٚ٧‬تبضید ت‪١‬ب‪٠‬ی ازیب‪ ٢‬ثب‬
‫یٕسی‪ٙ‬ط زض ت‪١‬بؼ ث‪٧‬ز‪ ٨‬ا‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬حتی زاز ‪ ٦‬ؾتس ‪٥ٔ ٦‬ف ‪٦ ٦‬أ‪٥‬ف ثی‪ ٣‬آ‪٫٤‬ب ‪٦‬ر‪٧‬ز زاقت‪ ٩‬اؾت‪.‬‬
‫‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت ثط یٕسی‪ٙ‬ط تبحیط ٘صاقت‪٦ ٩‬زض و‪٥‬بی ‪ ٟ٪‬ؾ‪٫‬ی‪٪ ٟ‬ؿت‪٥‬س‪٪ .‬ط ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ‪٠ ٦‬طا‪ ٞ‬زض زضْ‬
‫حّیّت تالـ ٔطز‪ ٨‬اؾت ‪ ٦‬ث‪١٪ ٩‬ی‪ ٣‬ذبؼط اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬اضظق‪٫‬بی ‪٠‬كتطْ ثی‪ ٣‬آ‪٫٤‬ب ثچك‪٠ ٟ‬ی‬
‫ذ‪٧‬ضز‪ .‬اضظق‪٫‬بیی ٔ‪٠ ٩‬ی ت‪٧‬ا‪ ٢‬آ‪٫٤‬ب ضا اضظق‪٫‬بی ر‪٫‬ب‪٤‬ی ذ‪٧‬ا‪٤‬س‪٪ .‬یچ ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬جی حّیّت ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز زض‬
‫زی‪ٙ‬ط ‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت ضا تٕصیت ‪١٤‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪ .‬ا‪٠‬ط‪٦‬ظ‪ ٨‬ثب ‪٦‬ر‪٧‬ز ‪٠‬ؿبی‪ ٛ‬زؾت ‪٦‬پب٘یط‪ ،‬ای‪ ٣‬ذص‪٧‬صیت‬
‫‪٦‬ر‪٧‬ز زاضز ٔ‪٠ ٩‬طز‪ ٞ‬ث‪ ٩‬إٌبض زی‪ٙ‬طا‪٧٘ ٢‬ـ ٌطا زاز‪ ٦ ٨‬زض ثبض‪ ٨‬آ‪٫٤‬ب تحّیُ ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س تب ث‪٩‬‬
‫حّیّت ثطؾ‪٥‬س‪٠ .‬ؽب‪ٜ‬م‪ ٩‬تبضید ت‪١‬سّ‪ ٢‬ر‪٫‬ب‪٤ ٢‬كب‪٠ ٢‬ی ز‪٪‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬ض‪٦‬ایبت ‪ ٦‬ؾ‪ ٣٥‬ض‪٦‬حب‪٤‬یت ‪٪‬بی‬
‫‪٠‬رت‪ ًٝ‬زض‪ ٟ٪‬آ‪٠‬یرت‪ ٩‬ا‪٠‬ب ض‪ ٦ ٗ٤‬ث‪٧‬ی ‪ ٩١٪‬آ‪٫٤‬ب ‪١٤‬بیب‪ ٦ ٢‬ـب‪٪‬ط ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪.‬‬
‫*ضئیؽ ثرف ث‪٥‬یبز ‪٠‬ؽب‪ٜ‬م‪ ٩‬ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت‬
‫‪190‬‬
‫پیكطٌت‪٫‬بی ر‪٫‬ب‪٧٤ ٢‬ی‪ ٦ ٣‬پسیس‪٪ ٨‬بی ر‪٫‬ب‪ ٢‬ق‪٠ ،ٚ٧١‬ب ضا ث‪٠ ٩‬ؽب‪ٜ‬م‪٠ ٩‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪ ٦‬ازیب‪٢‬‬
‫ض‪ٔ ٢٧١٥٪‬طز‪ ٦ ٨‬ث‪ ٩‬ای‪ ٣‬زضْ ‪٤‬بئ‪ ٛ‬قس‪ ٨‬ای‪ ٩ٔ ٟ‬ثبیس اظ إٌبض ؾب‪٠ ٟٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪٠‬رت‪ ًٝ‬ث‪ٍ٤ ٩‬ك‬
‫ثكطیّت اؾتٍبز‪١٤ ٨‬بیی‪ .ٟ‬پیط‪٦‬ا‪٠ ٩١٪ ٢‬صا‪٪‬ت ثبیس ثطای اؾتّطاض رب‪٠‬م‪ ٩‬ص‪ٝ‬حز‪٧‬یب‪ ٦ ٩٤‬پیكجطز‬
‫‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع تالـ ‪ ٦‬آ‪ ٢‬ضا تّ‪٧‬یت ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ .‬ثبیس ؾمی ٔ‪٥‬ی‪ ٟ‬تب پیط‪٦‬ا‪٠ ٢‬صا‪٪‬ت ٘‪٤٧‬ب٘‪٢٧‬‬
‫زض یٓ تطیج‪٘ ٢٧‬طز ‪ ٟ٪‬آ‪٠‬س‪٠ ٦ ٨‬ؿبلی ‪٠‬كتطٔی ضا زض ای‪ ٣‬ضاؾتب ضا‪ ٨‬ثیب‪٤‬ساظ‪٤‬س‪ .‬پیط‪٦‬ا‪٠ ٢‬صا‪٪‬ت‬
‫ثبیس زض ا‪٠‬ط پیكجطز ٍ٘ت‪٧ٙ‬ی ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت قطیٓ ‪ ٦‬ؾ‪٫‬ی‪ ٟ‬ثبق‪٥‬س‪ .‬اظ آ‪٤‬زب ٔ‪ ٩‬تّطیجب ‪ ٩١٪‬ی‬
‫‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت زض‪٥٪‬س‪٦‬ؾتب‪٧٠ ٢‬ر‪٧‬ز ‪٪‬ؿت‪٥‬س ‪٠‬ی ق‪٧‬ز ٍ٘ت ٔ‪ ٩‬ای‪ٔ ٣‬ك‪٧‬ض ‪٠‬ی ت‪٧‬ا‪٤‬س ث‪٫‬تطی‪٠ ٣‬ح‪ ٛ‬ثطای‬
‫ثط٘عاضی ٍ٘ت‪٧ٙ‬ی ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت ثبقس‪٥٪ .‬س‪٦‬ا‪ ٢‬ثب پیط‪٦‬ی اظ ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ‪٠ ٦‬ؿ‪ ٓٝ‬ذ‪٧‬ز ‪٧١٪‬اض‪٨‬‬
‫آ‪٠‬بز٘ی ای‪ ٣‬ضا زاقت‪ ٩‬ا‪٤‬س تب ث‪ ٩‬حطي زی‪ٙ‬طا‪٧٘ ٢‬ـ زاز‪ ٦ ٨‬زض زضْ ‪ ٦‬ق‪٥‬بذت إٌبض زی‪ٙ‬طا‪٢‬‬
‫تالـ ‪٧١٤‬ز‪ ٦ ٨‬ث‪ ٩‬ض‪٦‬حیّ‪ ٩‬آ‪٫٤‬ب پی ثجط‪٤‬س‪٥٪ .‬س‪٦‬ؾتب‪٤‬ی ‪٪‬ب زض پی ای‪٪ ٣‬ؿت‪٥‬س تب ثسا‪٥٤‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬آ‪٫٤‬ب چ‪٩‬‬
‫ؾ‪١٫‬ی زض پیكجطز ا‪٪‬ساي ‪٠‬كتطْ زاقت‪ ٩‬ا‪٤‬س‪٠ ٩١٪ .‬صا‪٪‬ت ثط ا‪٤‬ؿب‪ ٦ ٢‬اذالَ ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی ا‪ٙ٤‬كت‬
‫٘صاقت‪ ٦ ٩‬ثط اضظق‪٫‬بی ر‪٫‬ب‪٤‬ی تبٔیس ٔطز‪ ٦ ٨‬ؾمی زاضز تب اذالَ ضا تط‪٦‬یذ ‪١٤‬بیس‪٠ ٩١٪ .‬ب ثبیس‬
‫ثسا‪٤‬ی‪ ٩ٔ ٟ‬ضا‪٪ ٨‬ب ‪٠‬رت‪ ًٝ‬ا‪٠‬ب ‪٥٠‬ف‪٧‬ض ‪ّ٠ ٦‬ص‪٧‬ز ‪ ٩١٪‬ازیب‪ ٢‬یٕی اؾت‪.‬‬
‫قٕی ‪٤‬یؿت ٔ‪ ٩‬ث‪٫‬تطی‪٦ ٣‬ؾی‪ ٩ٝ‬احجبت ای‪٠ ٣‬سلب ‪١٪‬ب‪٠ ٢‬ؽب‪ٜ‬م‪ ٩‬ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪.‬‬
‫ثبیس التطاي ٔطز ٔ‪ِ ٩‬طآ‪٠ ٢‬زیس ث‪٥‬یب‪ٙ٤‬صاض ٌٕط ٍ٘ت‪٧ٙ‬ی ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت اؾت‪ .‬زض ‪٦‬اِك ثط ‪١٪‬ی‪٣‬‬
‫اؾبؼ اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬ص‪ٝ‬ح حسیجیّ‪ ٩‬زض ؾب‪٠ ۱2۶ ٚ‬یالزی ث‪ ٩‬ا‪٠‬عب ضؾیس‪ِ .‬طآ‪ٔ ٢‬طی‪ ٟ‬ذك‪٤٧‬ت ضا‬
‫تحطی‪ٔ ٟ‬طز‪ ٦ ٨‬آ‪ ٢‬ضا حطا‪٠ ٞ‬ی زا‪٤‬س‪ .‬آیبت ‪ ٦‬احبزیج ثؿیبضی ثطای احجبت ای‪٠ ٣‬سلب ‪٦‬ر‪٧‬ز‬
‫زاضز‪.‬‬
‫‪٪‬ط ‪٠‬ؿ‪١ٝ‬ب‪٧٠ ٢‬ـً اؾت ث‪ ٩‬ثعض٘ب‪٠ ٢‬صا‪٪‬ت زی‪ٙ‬ط احتطا‪ ٞ‬ث‪ٙ‬صاضز‪ .‬ؼجُ آ‪٧٠‬ظ‪٪ ٨‬بی‬
‫اؾال‪٠ ٞ‬ؿ‪١ٝ‬ب‪٤‬ب‪ ٢‬ثبیس اظ پیط‪٦‬ا‪٠ ٢‬صا‪٪‬ت زی‪ٙ‬ط زل‪٧‬ت ٔ‪٥٥‬س تب ثب اتحّبز ‪١٪ ٦‬س‪ٜ‬ی زض تالـ ثطای‬
‫‪191‬‬
‫‪٤‬ی‪ ٛ‬ث‪ ٩‬حّیّت ؾ‪٫‬ی‪ ٟ‬ثبق‪٥‬س‪ .‬پیب‪٠‬جط لفی‪ ٟ‬ا‪ٜ‬كب‪ ٢‬اؾال‪٧١٪ ٞ‬اض‪ ٨‬ثط ذسا تطؾی‪ ،‬حُ ٘‪٧‬یی ‪٦‬‬
‫پیط‪٦‬ی اظ اذالَ حؿ‪ ٩٥‬تبٔیس زاقت‪ ٩‬اؾت‪ .‬اظ ایكب‪ ّٛ٤ ٢‬اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬ت‪٧‬صی‪ٔ ٩‬طز‪ ٨‬ا‪٤‬س تب ‪٪‬ط ٔزب‬
‫چیع ذ‪٧‬ثی زیسیس اظ آ‪ ٢‬اؾتٍبز‪ٔ ٨‬طز‪ ٦ ٨‬زضؼ ث‪ٙ‬یطیس‪.‬‬
‫زض ازیب‪٥٪ ٢‬س‪٠ ،٦‬ؿ‪ ٓٝ‬ؾیٓ‪٠ ٦ ،‬صا‪٪‬ت زی‪ٙ‬ط ‪٠ ٟ٪‬كبث‪١٪ ٩‬ی‪ ٣‬تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت ‪٦‬ر‪٧‬ز زاضز‪.‬‬
‫ثبیس اذتالي ضا ٔ‪٥‬بض ٘صاقت‪ ٦ ٩‬ث‪ ٩‬اتحبّز اضد ث‪٫٥‬ی‪ .ٟ‬ثبیس ‪١٪‬یك‪ ٩‬ثب ت‪٧‬ر‪ ٩‬ث‪ ٩‬حؿ‪١٪ ٣‬ز‪٧‬اضی‬
‫ثب یٕسی‪ٙ‬ط ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ٔ‪٥‬ی‪٠ .ٟ‬صا‪٪‬ت ای‪ِ ٣‬سضت ضا زاض‪٤‬س ‪٧٠‬رس اتحبّز ثبق‪٥‬س‪ .‬تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت ‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت ای‪٣‬‬
‫ِسضت ضا زاض‪٤‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬ایس‪١٪ ٨‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع ضا تط‪٦‬یذ ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ .‬ای‪ ٣‬ایس‪ ٨‬ای ‪٪‬ؿت ٔ‪٥٠ ،٩‬ف‪٧‬ض‬
‫‪٤‬فط ‪٠‬ب ‪٤‬یع ‪٪‬ؿت ‪.‬ظیطا ٔ‪ ٩‬ت‪٫٥‬ب اظ ای‪ ٣‬ضا‪ ٨‬اؾت ٔ‪٠ ٩‬ی ت‪٧‬ا‪٤‬ی‪ ٟ‬ر‪٫‬ب‪ ٢‬ث‪٫‬تطی ثؿبظی‪٦ .ٟ‬ر‪٧‬ز‬
‫ٌط‪ ٦ ٗ٥٪‬ت‪١‬سّ‪٫٤‬بی ‪٠‬رت‪٠ ٦ ًٝ‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪ ٦‬ازیب‪٤٧٘ ٢‬ب٘‪ ٢٧‬ث‪٠ ٩‬ب ای‪ ٣‬پیب‪ ٞ‬ضا ‪٠‬ی ز‪٪‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬ثبیس ث‪٩‬‬
‫ؾ‪٧‬ی اتحّبز ٘ب‪ ٞ‬ثطزاضی‪ .ٟ‬ای‪٠ ٣‬ؿئ‪ ٩ٝ‬ای اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬ثب ض‪٦‬حی‪٠ ٩١٪ ٩‬صا‪٪‬ت ؾبظ٘بض اؾت ‪٦‬‬
‫اذتالٌی زض آ‪٦ ٢‬ر‪٧‬ز ‪٤‬ساضز‪.‬‬
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‫ًظزیِ ٍ ًظام اقتصادی بَدائی‬
‫*‬
‫زٔتط ؾیبضا‪٠ ٞ‬یؿطا ‪٪‬ب‪ٜ‬سض‬
‫چکیده‪ :‬زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی ثط اص‪ ٛ‬ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آقتی ِطاض زاضز‪ .‬پبی‪ ٦ ٩‬اؾبؼ ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ث‪٧‬زائیب‪ ٢‬ضظَ‬
‫حال‪( ٚ‬أَ‪ ِٛ‬حال‪٠ )ٚ‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬حط‪٦‬ت ز‪٤‬ی‪٧‬ی ضا زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی ‪٦‬ؾی‪ ٩ٝ‬ای ‪٠‬ی زا‪٤‬س ثطای تٕبٌ‪٧‬ی‬
‫احتیبد ‪٠‬بزی ثكط ا‪٠‬ب ای‪٦ ٣‬ؾبی‪ ٛ‬ثبیس ا‪ٜ‬عا‪٠‬بً اظ ضا‪ ٨‬زضؾتی ‪ ٦‬زیب‪٤‬ت ثسؾت آ‪٦‬ضز‪ ٨‬ق‪٤٧‬س‪ .‬اظ‬
‫ؼطي زی‪ٙ‬ط زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی ث‪ ٩‬پیط‪٦‬ا‪ ٢‬ذ‪٧‬ز ت‪٧‬صی‪٠ ٩‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬زض ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ذ‪٧‬ز ِ‪٥‬بلت ضا ‪٠‬سّ‪٤‬فط‬
‫زاقت‪ ٩‬ثبق‪٥‬س ‪ ٦‬زض ضا‪ ٦ ٓ١ٔ ٨‬زؾتیبضی ث‪ ٩‬زی‪ٙ‬طا‪ ٢‬ؾرب‪٦‬ت‪٥١‬سا‪ ٩٤‬ضٌتبض ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫‪٪‬سي زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی تكٕی‪ ٛ‬ارت‪١‬بق ؾب‪٠ ٟٜ‬ی ثبقس‪ ،‬ارت‪١‬بلی ٔ‪ ٩‬زض آ‪٠ ٢‬طز‪ ٞ‬ثب‬
‫‪ٕ١٪‬بضی ‪ ٦‬حؿ‪١٪ ٣‬ز‪٧‬اضی ثب‪١٪‬سی‪ٙ‬ط ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ .‬ث‪٧‬زا ‪٤‬فطیّ‪ ٩‬ؾط‪٠‬بی‪٠ ٩‬كتطْ ضا اضائ‪ٔ ٩‬طز‪.‬‬
‫ا‪٠‬ب ضای ل‪٠ ٞ٧١‬طز‪ ٞ‬ضا اؾبؼ ای‪ ٣‬ل‪ِ ٛ١‬طاض زاز ‪ ٦‬ثسی‪ ٣‬تطتیت ‪ ٩١٪‬پطؾی ‪٤ ٦‬فط ذ‪٧‬ا‪٪‬ی‬
‫‪٠‬طز‪٠‬ی ضا ‪ ٟ٫٠‬ق‪١‬طز ‪ ٦‬زض لی‪ ٣‬حب‪ّ٤ ٚ‬ف ؾط‪٠‬بی‪ ٩‬ذص‪٧‬صی ضا ثبؼ‪ٕ٤ ٛ‬طز‪.‬‬
‫*لع‪٧٠ ٧‬ؾؿ‪ ٩‬ی تحّیّبت تبضیری‪ ،‬ثرف ‪٠‬ؽب‪ٜ‬مبت زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی زا‪٤‬ك‪ٙ‬ب‪ ٨‬ز‪ٝ٪‬ی‬
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‫ؼجُ تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی ‪٥٠‬ف‪٧‬ض اظ اِتصبز ٌطا‪ٔ ٟ٪‬طز‪٦ ٢‬ؾبئ‪ ٛ‬ث‪٫‬ج‪٧‬ز ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬ب‬
‫‪٠‬ی ثبقس ا‪ٜ‬جتّ‪ ٩‬اظ ضا‪ ٨‬زضؾت‪٤ .‬فط ث‪ ٩‬ای‪٠ ٣‬ؿئ‪ ٩ٝ‬اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬ای‪ ٣‬زی‪ ٣‬ثطای أَِ‪ ٛ‬حال‪ ٚ‬ا‪١٪‬یّت ِبئ‪ٛ‬‬
‫قس‪ ٨‬اؾت‪ .‬ضظَ حال‪ ٚ‬پ‪٥‬ز‪١‬ی‪ ٣‬اص‪ ٛ‬اظ اص‪٪ ٚ٧‬كت‪ٙ‬ب‪ ٩٤‬ث‪٧‬زا ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬ؼجُ اص‪ ٚ٧‬اِتصبزی‬
‫زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی‪ ،‬تزعی‪ ٦ ٩‬تح‪ٝ‬ی‪٠ ٛ‬ؿبئ‪ ٛ‬اِتصبزی زض ا‪٤‬ع‪٦‬ا ‪ ٦‬پكت زض‪٪‬بی ثؿت‪ ٩‬ا‪ٕ٠‬ب‪ ٢‬پصیط ‪١٤‬ی‬
‫ثبقس چ‪ ٢٧‬ل‪ٕٝ١‬طز اِتصبزی ث‪ ٩‬ل‪٥‬بصط ٘‪٤٧‬ب٘‪ ٢٧‬اضتجبغ زاضز ‪ ٦‬ثبیس ثب زض ‪٤‬فط زاقت‪٩١٪ ٣‬‬
‫آ‪٫٤‬ب ثطضؾی ق‪٧‬ز‪.‬‬
‫ر‪٥‬ج‪٠ ٩‬خجت ‪٤‬فطیّ‪ ٩‬اِتصبزی زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی تالـ زض ر‪٫‬ت حُ ‪ ٦‬حّیّت ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪.‬‬
‫ر‪٫‬ب‪ ٢‬اِتصبزی ظائیس‪ ٨‬یٓ ؾطی ل‪ ٦ ٛ١‬لٕؽ ا‪ٜ‬م‪ ٦ ٛ١‬اضتجبغ ثب پسیس‪٪ ٨‬بی ر‪٫‬ب‪٤‬ی ‪٠‬ی‬
‫ثبقس‪ .‬ا‪٦‬ظبق ‪ ٦‬اح‪٧‬ا‪ ٟ٪ ٚ‬زض ‪٤‬تیز‪ ٩‬اِسا‪٠‬بت ‪٠‬رت‪٠ ،ًٝ‬طتّت زض حب‪ ٚ‬تىییط ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬زی‪٣‬‬
‫ث‪٧‬زائی ت‪٧‬صی‪٠ ٩‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س ٔ‪ ٩‬تالـ ث‪ ٩‬قٕ‪ٝ‬ی ص‪٧‬ضت ٘یطز ٔ‪ ٩‬ل‪٥‬صط ‪٧٪‬ی ‪٧٪ ٦‬ؼ ثط‪٦‬ظ ‪٥ٕ٤‬س ‪٦‬‬
‫ِ‪٥‬بلت ‪٠‬سِّ‪٤‬فط ثبقس‪٪ .‬سي ای‪ ٣‬تالـ زؾتیبثی ث‪٧٤ ٩‬ض ‪ ٦‬ض‪٦‬ق‪٥‬بئی ‪٠‬ی ثبقس ٔ‪٪ ٩‬ؿت‪ ٩‬ی ‪٠‬طٔعی‬
‫ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ثكط ضا تكٕی‪٠ ٛ‬ی ز‪٪‬س‪ .‬زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی ض‪٦‬ی پیكطٌت ‪٤‬یط‪٦‬ی ض‪٦‬حب‪٤‬ی تأٔیس ذبصّی ‪٠‬ی‬
‫٘صاضز‪.‬‬
‫ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٞ‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬ب ضا ث‪٠ ٩‬ؿئ‪ٜ٧‬یّت ‪٦ ٦‬ـیٍ‪ ٩‬ی ذؽیط آ‪٫٤‬ب ‪٠‬ت‪٧‬رّ‪٠ ٩‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪ .‬ای‪ ٣‬زی‪ ٣‬ثط‬
‫لس‪ ٞ‬آظاض‪ ،‬لس‪ ٞ‬ذك‪٤٧‬ت‪ ،‬ثطازضی‪٫٠ ،‬ط ‪٠ ٦‬حجّت‪ ،‬ؾرب‪٦‬ت‪ ،‬تٍب‪ ٦ ٟ٪‬ویط‪ ٨‬تأٔیس زاضز ‪٤ ٦‬بزا‪٤‬ی ‪٦‬‬
‫ر‪ ٛ٫‬ضا پبی‪٪ ٩‬ط ثسی ‪ ٦‬ذطاثی ‪٠‬ی زا‪٤‬س‪ .‬زی‪ ٣‬ث‪٧‬زائی تمبز‪ ٚ‬ثی‪ ٣‬زضآ‪٠‬س ‪٠ ٦‬ربضد ضا اؾبؼ‬
‫اِتصبز ؾب‪٠ ٟٜ‬ی زا‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬ای‪ ٣‬ض‪٦‬ـ ضا تط‪٦‬یذ ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪ .‬ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٞ‬ایس‪٠ ٨‬خجت ارت‪١‬بق ؾب‪ ٟٜ‬ضا زض‬
‫تم‪ٝ‬ی‪١‬بت ذ‪٧‬ز اضائ‪٠ ٩‬ی ز‪٪‬س‪ .‬ث‪ ٩‬لجبضت ظیط ت‪٧‬ر‪٥ٔ ٩‬یس‪:‬‬
‫"ظایف ل‪ٝ١‬ی زق‪٧‬اض اؾت‪ .‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ٔطز‪ ٢‬ل‪ٝ١‬ی زق‪٧‬اض اؾت‪ .‬اظ آ‪٠ ٢‬كٕ‪ٝ‬تط زؾتیبثی‬
‫ث‪ ٩‬ضا‪ ٨‬زضؾت ‪ ٦‬اظ ‪ ٩١٪‬زق‪٧‬اضتط زؾتیبثی ث‪٧٤ ٩‬ض ‪ ٦‬ض‪٦‬ق‪٥‬بئی ‪ ٦‬ثیساضی اؾت"‪.‬‬
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‫هباًی ّوشیستی هسالوت آهیش در دیي بَدائی ٍ جیٌی‬
‫*‬
‫زٔتط ‪٤‬یّط‪ ٨‬اثیبت‬
‫چکیده‪٧٘ :‬ت‪١‬ب ‪ ٦‬ؾ‪٧‬آ‪٠‬ی ‪٫٠‬ب‪٦‬یطا ‪٪‬ط ز‪ ٦‬زض ِط‪ ٢‬قك‪ِ ٟ‬ج‪ ٛ‬اظ ‪٠‬یالز ـ‪٧٫‬ض ٔطز‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬ث‪٥‬یب‪ ٢‬ز‪٦‬‬
‫‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ث‪٧‬زایی ‪ ٦‬ری‪٥‬ی ضا ‪٫٤‬بز‪٤‬س‪.‬چ‪٪ ٢٧‬ط ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت زض یٓ ظ‪٠‬ب‪ ٦ ٢‬قطایػ ‪٠‬كتطْ ظ‪٠‬ب‪٤‬ی ‪٦‬‬
‫‪ٕ٠‬ب‪٤‬ی ـ‪٧٫‬ض ٔطز‪٤‬س ‪٦‬ر‪ ٨٧‬تكبث‪ ٩‬ظیبزی زاض‪٤‬س‪ .‬ا‪ٜ‬جتّ‪ ٩‬ر‪٥‬ج‪٪ ٩‬بی اذتالي ‪٦ ٟ٪‬ر‪٧‬ز زاضز‪.‬‬
‫ث‪٥‬یب‪ٙ٤‬صاضا‪ ٢‬ای‪ ٣‬ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت ث‪ ٩‬ؼجّ‪ ٩‬اقطاي تم‪ ُّٝ‬زاقت‪٥‬س‪ .‬ا‪٠‬ب ثمساً ث‪ ٩‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ض‪٦‬حب‪٤‬ی‬
‫پطزاذت‪٥‬س ‪ ٦‬ضا‪٪‬ی تالـ زض ضا‪ ٨‬حُ قس‪٤‬س‪٪ .‬ط ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت زض ٌ‪ٝ‬ؿٍ‪ ٩‬زی‪٥٪ ٣‬س‪٦‬ئی ضیك‪ ٩‬زاض‪٤‬س‬
‫‪ ٦‬ؾپؽ ا‪٤‬كمبة پیسا ٔطز‪٠ ، ٨‬صا‪٪‬ت رسا٘ب‪ ٩٤‬ای ضا ث‪٧‬ر‪٧‬ز آ‪٦‬ضز‪٤‬س‪.‬‬
‫زض ثس‪ ٦‬ـ‪٧٫‬ض زی‪ ٣‬ری‪٥‬ی ‪٠ ٟ٪‬خ‪ ٛ‬ث‪٧‬زیع‪ ٞ‬تم‪ٝ‬ی‪ ٟ‬تطْ ز‪٤‬یب ضا ‪٠‬ی زاز ‪ ٦‬ت‪٫٥‬ب ث‪ ٩‬تط‪٦‬یذ‬
‫اذالَ تٕی‪٠ ٩‬ی ٔطز‪ .‬زض ‪٪‬طز‪ ٦‬زی‪ ٣‬تح‪ ّٛ١‬ض‪٤‬ذ ‪ ٦‬ا‪٤‬س‪٠ ٨٦‬كتطْ اؾت‪ .‬ای‪ ٣‬ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت ظ‪٤‬س٘ی‬
‫اظ ت‪ٜ٧‬س تب ‪٠‬طٖ ضا ؾٍط ض‪٤‬ذ ‪ ٦‬ا‪ ٟٜ‬حؿبة ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س ‪ ٦‬ثطای ‪٤‬زبت آ‪ ،٢‬اظ ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ‪٠‬ی ٘صض‪٤‬س‪.‬‬
‫*ضئیؽ ‪٠‬طٔع ‪٠‬ؽب‪ٜ‬مبت ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪ٝٝ١ٜ‬ی زی‪٥‬ی‪ ،‬زا‪٤‬ك‪ٙ‬ب‪ ٨‬ت‪٫‬طا‪٢‬‬
‫‪195‬‬
‫ث‪٧‬زا ثطای زؾتیبثی ث‪٤ ٩‬زبت‪ ،‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی قطاٌت‪٥١‬سا‪ٔ ،٩٤‬طزاض ‪٤‬یٓ‪ٍ٘ ،‬تبض ‪٤‬یٓ ‪ ٦‬ذ‪٧‬ا‪٪‬ف‬
‫ثی آالیف ضا پیك‪٫٥‬بز ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س یم‪٥‬ی اذالَ حؿ‪ ٩٥‬ضا تط‪٦‬یذ ‪٠‬ی ز‪٪‬س‪.‬‬
‫ث‪٧‬زا ‪٠‬ی ٘‪٧‬یس ٔ‪ ٩‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬ب ثبیس ‪١٪‬یك‪ ٩‬ث‪ٌٕ ٩‬ط ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬بی زی‪ٙ‬ط ثبق‪٥‬س ‪ ٦‬ثطای ؾمبزت‬
‫آ‪٫٤‬ب ثٕ‪٧‬ق‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫زض ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ری‪، ٟ٪ ٣‬اذالَ ث‪٥‬یب‪ ٢‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪ .‬ثؽ‪٧‬ضیٕ‪ ٩‬حتّی لجبزت زض ثطاثط‬
‫آ‪ ٢‬ثی ا‪١٪‬یّت ‪٠‬حؿ‪٧‬ة ‪٠‬ی ق‪٧‬ز‪ .‬زی‪ ٣‬ری‪٥‬ی ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آضا‪٠‬ف ضا تّ‪٧‬یت ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س ‪ ٦‬ض‪٦‬ی‬
‫ض‪٦‬حب‪٤‬یّت تأٔیس ‪٠‬ی ٘صاضز ‪ ٦‬پیكجطز ا‪٪‬ساي ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی ضا ‪٦‬ـیٍ‪٪ ٩‬ط ری‪٥‬ی ‪٠‬ی زا‪٤‬س‪.‬‬
‫‪٪‬ط ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت ض‪٦‬ی ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آضا‪٠‬ف تأٔیس ‪٠‬ی ٘صاض‪٤‬س ‪٪ ٦‬ط ‪٧٤‬ق ذك‪٤٧‬ت ضا ث‪ ٩‬قسّت‬
‫‪٠‬حٕ‪٠ ٞ٧‬ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ .‬ث‪٧‬زا ‪٠‬متّس ث‪ ٩‬الت‪١‬بز ث‪ٍ٥‬ؽ ثكط ‪٤ ٦‬یط‪٦‬ی ض‪٦‬حب‪٤‬ی ا‪٠ ٦‬ی ثبقس‪٪ .‬ط ز‪٠ ٦‬ص‪٪‬ت‬
‫ث‪٧‬زائی ‪ ٦‬ری‪٥‬ی تأٔیس ذبصّی ض‪٦‬ی ‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ .‬آ‪٫٤‬ب ٌّػ تكبث‪ ٩‬ث‪٩‬‬
‫تبضیری ‪٤‬ساض‪٤‬س ث‪ ٩ٕٝ‬تكبث‪ ٩‬ث‪ٌٕ ٩‬طی ل‪١‬یُ ‪٤‬یع زاض‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬زض پیكجطز ا‪٪‬ساي ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی قطیٓ ‪٦‬‬
‫ؾ‪٫‬ی‪٠ ٟ‬ی ثبق‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫‪196‬‬
‫هذّب جیي ًظزیِ آًیکاًتاٍاد (‪)Anekantavad‬‬
‫ٍ ّوشیستی هسالوت آهیش‬
‫زٔتط آ‪٤‬یٕب‪٤‬ت ٔ‪٠٧‬بض ری‪٣‬‬
‫*‬
‫چکیده‪ :‬حس‪٦‬زاً ز‪٪ ٦‬عاض ‪ ٦‬قكصس ؾب‪ِ ٚ‬ج‪ ٛ‬ؾ‪٧‬آ‪٠‬ی ‪٫٠‬ب‪٦‬یطا ؼی ؾر‪٥‬ب‪ ٢‬ذ‪٧‬ز اـ‪٫‬بض زاقت‪:‬‬
‫"ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ‪١٪ ٩١٪‬ب‪ّ٤‬سض ‪ ٟ٫٠‬اؾت ٔ‪ ٩‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ث‪٥‬س‪٠ ٣٠ .٨‬ی ذ‪٧‬ا‪ ٟ٪‬ظ‪٤‬س‪ ٨‬ث‪١‬ب‪ ،ٟ٤‬لی‪١٪ ٣‬ی‪،٣‬‬
‫زی‪ٙ‬طا‪ ٟ٪ ٢‬اظ ای‪ ٣‬حُ ثطذ‪٧‬ضزاض ‪٠‬ی ثبق‪٥‬س‪ .‬احؿبؼ ثّبی ذ‪٧‬ز‪ ،‬لّیس‪ ٩١٪ ٨‬لب‪١ٜ‬یب‪ ٢‬اؾت‪.‬‬
‫‪٪‬ط ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز ظ‪٤‬س‪ ٨‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ذ‪٧‬ز ضا ز‪٦‬ؾت زاضز ‪ ٦‬اظ ‪٠‬طٖ ‪٠‬ی تطؾس‪٪ .‬ط ٔؿی اظ ‪٠‬ب ‪٠‬ی ذ‪٧‬ا‪٪‬س‬
‫اظ زضز ‪ ٦‬ض‪٤‬ذ آظاز ثبقس‪ .‬زض ‪١٪‬چ‪٦ ٧‬ظمی ‪ ٣٠‬ثبیس چ‪٥‬ب‪ ٢‬ثؿط ثجط‪٧ٔ ٩ٔ ٞ‬چٕتطی‪ ٣‬ظطضی ث‪٩‬‬
‫ٔؿی ‪٤‬طؾب‪."ٟ٤‬‬
‫ؾ‪٧‬آ‪٠‬ی ‪٫٠‬ب‪٦‬یطا ‪١٪‬یك‪ ٩‬ث‪ ٩‬پیط‪٦‬ا‪ ٢‬ذ‪٧‬ز ت‪٧‬صی‪٠ ٩‬ی ٔطز ٔ‪ ٩‬زض ر‪٫‬ت تالـ زض ضا‪٨‬‬
‫حُ‪ ،‬زض لّبیس زی‪ٙ‬طا‪٤ ٢‬یع تحّیُ ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ .‬آ‪٫٤‬ب ضا زضْ ٔ‪٥٥‬س ‪ٌّ ٦‬ػ ث‪ ٩‬لّیس‪ ٨‬ذ‪٧‬ز اتٕبء ‪٥٥ٕ٤‬س‪.‬‬
‫ا‪ ٦‬ث‪ ٩‬پیط‪٦‬ا‪ ٢‬ذ‪٧‬ز ایس‪ ٨‬صجط ‪ ٦‬تح‪ ٦ ّٛ١‬ثطزثبضی ضا ا‪ّٜ‬بء ‪٠‬ی ٔطز‪ .‬ث‪ ٩‬آ‪٫٤‬ب تم‪ٝ‬ی‪٠ ٟ‬ی زاز ٔ‪ ٩‬ث‪٩‬‬
‫*اؾتبز ٌ‪ٝ‬ؿٍ‪ ٩‬ری‪ ،٣‬زض زا‪٤‬كؿطای لب‪ٜ‬ی ‪ٜ‬م‪ ٛ‬ث‪٫‬بزض قبؾتطی‪ ،‬ز‪ٝ٪‬ی ‪٧٤‬‬
‫‪197‬‬
‫لّبیس ‪ ٟ٪‬احتطا‪ ٞ‬ث‪ٙ‬صاض‪٤‬س‪ .‬ا‪ ٦‬ایس‪ ٨‬تح‪ ٦ ّٛ١‬ثطزثبضی ضا زض ؾبئط قئ‪ ٢٧‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ال‪ ٟ‬اظ ‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت‪،‬‬
‫ارت‪١‬بق‪ ،‬ؾیبؾت ‪ ٦‬حتی ل‪ ٦ ٟٝ‬ازة ‪٠‬متجط ‪٠‬ی زا‪٤‬ؿت‪ٌٝ .‬ؿٍ‪ ٩‬ا‪٤‬یٕب‪٤‬تب‪٦‬از زی‪ ٣‬ری‪ ٣‬ث‪٩‬‬
‫‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع تك‪٧‬یُ ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س ‪١٪ ٦‬چ‪٥‬ی‪٠ ٣‬ك‪ َّ٧‬ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آضا‪٠‬ف‪ ،‬لس‪ ٞ‬ذك‪٤٧‬ت ‪٦‬‬
‫لسا‪ٜ‬ت ارت‪١‬بلی ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪ ٞ٧٫ٍ٠ .‬ا‪٤‬یٕب‪٤‬تب‪٦‬از ‪١٪‬ب‪١٪ ٢‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪.‬‬
‫‪٠‬ص‪٪‬ت ری‪ ٣‬قسیساً ثب ذك‪٤٧‬ت ‪ ٦‬ـ‪ ٦ ٟٝ‬آظاض ‪٠‬رب‪ٍٜ‬ت ‪٠‬ی ‪٦‬ضظز‪ .‬ای‪٠ ٣‬ص‪٪‬ت ٔب‪٠‬الً‬
‫ؼطٌساض ص‪ٝ‬ح ‪ ٦‬آقتی ‪٠‬ی ثبقس‪ ٩ٔ ،‬زض تط‪٦‬یذ ‪١٪‬عیؿتی ‪٠‬ؿب‪١ٜ‬ت آ‪٠‬یع ‪ّ٤‬ف ذ‪٧‬ز ضا ایٍبء ٔ‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫‪198‬‬
‫هباًی اخالقی سیست هسالوت آهیش ادیاى ٍ هذاّب ٌّد‬
‫‪٠‬ح‪١‬س ‪٤‬صط اصٍ‪٫‬ب‪٤‬ی‬
‫*‬
‫چکیده‪٠ :‬كٕ‪ ٛ‬لس‪ ٞ‬تٍب‪ ٟ٪‬ازیب‪ ٢‬ث‪ ٩‬ذبؼط ت‪٧٥‬ق ‪٤٧٘ ٦‬ب٘‪٤٧‬ی آ‪٫٤‬بؾت‪٪ .‬ط چ‪ ٩‬تمساز ‪٠‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪٦‬‬
‫ازیب‪ ٢‬ثیكتط قس اذتالٌ‪٫‬بی ثیكتطی ـ‪٧٫‬ض پیسا ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س‪ .‬ث‪٤ ٩‬فط ‪٠‬ی ضؾس ٔ‪ ٩‬تٍب‪ ٟ٪‬ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬ت‬
‫زض ٘صقت‪ ٩‬زق‪٧‬اضتط ث‪٧‬ز‪ ٦ ٨‬ا‪٠‬ط‪٦‬ظ‪ ٨‬آؾب‪٢‬تط ثبقس‪ .‬زض ٘صقت‪ ٩‬قی‪ ٨٧‬تمب‪ ٛ٠‬ثی‪ ٣‬ازیب‪٠ /٢‬صا‪٪‬ت‬
‫‪٦‬اثؿت‪ ٩‬آ‪٧٠‬ظ‪٪٨‬بی زض‪ ٢٦‬زی‪٥‬ی‪٠ /‬ص‪٪‬جی ث‪٧‬ز ‪ ٦‬ازیب‪ ٦ ٢‬پیط‪٦‬ا‪ ٢‬آ‪٤‬ب‪ ٢‬ل‪٠٧١‬بً یٕسی‪ٙ‬ط ضا تح‪ٛ١‬‬
‫‪١٤‬یٔطز‪٤‬س‪ .‬ازیب‪٠ /٢‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪٧٤‬ث‪٥‬یبز ‪٠‬یذ‪٧‬اؾت‪٥‬س ثط ازیب‪٠ /٢‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬ز تٍ‪ َ٧‬پیسا ٔ‪٥٥‬س ‪٦‬‬
‫ازیب‪ ٢‬ؾ‪٥‬تی ‪٤‬یع ت‪١‬ب‪ ٞ‬ت‪٧‬ا‪ ٢‬ذ‪٧‬ز ضا صطي حٍؿ ‪ِ٧٠‬میت ذ‪٧‬یف ‪٠‬یٔطز‪٤‬س ‪ ٦‬زض ای‪٥٠ ٣‬بظل‪٩‬‬
‫ؾمی زاقت‪٥‬س ‪٧٠‬ر‪٧‬زیت ذ‪٧‬یف ضا حٍؿ ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ ،‬ث‪١٪ ٩‬ی‪ ٣‬ر‪٫‬ت‪ ،‬تبضید قب‪٪‬س ‪٤‬عاق‪٪‬بی ‪٠‬ؿت‪١‬ط ‪٦‬‬
‫٘ؿتطز‪ ٨‬ازیب‪ ٢‬ث‪٧‬ز‪.‬‬
‫* محقق و نویسنده‬
‫‪199‬‬
‫ازیب‪ ٢‬زض ٘صقت‪ ٩١٪ ٩‬قئ‪ ٢٧‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ‪٠‬طز‪ ٞ‬ضا زض زؾت زاقت‪٥‬س ‪ ٦‬حع‪٧‬ضقب‪ ٢‬زض ‪٩١٪‬‬
‫صح‪٪٩٥‬ب ا‪ٙ٤‬یع‪٨‬ای ِ‪٧‬ی ثطای ض‪٪‬جطا‪ ٢‬آ‪٤‬ب‪ ٢‬زض حع‪٧‬ض ‪٦ ٦‬ر‪٧‬ز زض صح‪ٌ ٩٥‬طا‪ ٟ٪‬ؾبذت‪ ٩‬ث‪٧‬ز‪ .‬ثب‬
‫٘ؿتطـ ت‪١‬س‪٠ ٢‬ىطة ظ‪٠‬ی‪ ٦ ٣‬اظ ‪٠‬یسا‪ ٢‬ث‪ ٩‬زض ضٌت‪ ٣‬ازیب‪٠/٢‬صا‪٪‬ت اظ صح‪ ٩٥‬ظ‪٤‬س٘ی ثكط ثب‬
‫ـ‪٧٫‬ض ضِیت ‪٪‬بی ِسضت‪٥١‬س ل‪ٟ٘ٝ‬طایی‪ ،‬لّ‪٘ٛ‬طایی‪ ،‬ا‪٠‬ب‪٤‬یؿ‪ ،ٟ‬ؾٕ‪٧‬الضیؿ‪ٜ ،ٟ‬یجطا‪ٜ‬یؿ‪٦ ٟ‬‬
‫ز‪ٔ٧٠‬طاؾی ‪ ٦‬ؾیؽط‪ ٨‬آ‪٤‬ب‪ ٢‬ثط ر‪٫‬ب‪ ،٢‬ازیب‪ ٢‬ث‪ ٩‬حبقی‪ ٩‬ضٌت‪ ٦ ٩‬ظ‪٠‬ی‪ ٩٥‬ثطای ث‪٦ ٩‬ر‪٧‬ز آ‪٠‬س‪٢‬‬
‫ازیب‪٠/٢‬صا‪٪‬ت رسیس ‪٤ ٦‬عاق ‪٪‬بی ثیپبیب‪٠ ٢‬یب‪ ٢‬آ‪٫٤‬ب اظ ثی‪ ٣‬ضٌت‪ .‬ض‪٦‬یٕطز اذالِی یٕی اظ‬
‫ث‪٫‬تطی‪ ٣‬ض‪٦‬یٕطز ‪٪‬بؾت‪ ،‬چ‪ ٢٧‬اذالَ ازثیبت ‪٠‬كتطْ ‪٧٠‬ضز ِج‪ ٩١٪ ٚ٧‬آز‪٠‬یب‪ ٢‬اظ ر‪ ٩ٝ١‬پیط‪٦‬ا‪٢‬‬
‫ازیب‪٥٪ ٢‬س اؾت‪ .‬ا‪ٜ‬جت‪ ٩‬ای‪ ٣‬ض‪٦‬یٕطز زض ثی‪ ٣‬آ‪٤‬ب‪ ٢‬تٍؿیط‪٪‬بی ٘‪٤٧‬ب٘‪ ٢٧‬زاقت‪ ٦ ٩‬ث‪٧‬زیؿ‪ ٟ‬ثط ای‪٣‬‬
‫‪٧٠‬ظ‪٧‬ق تبٔیس ثیكتط زاضز‪.‬‬
‫ای‪ّ٠ ٣‬ب‪ ٩ٜ‬ؾمی زاضز تب ثب ؼطح ‪٧٠‬ظ‪٧‬ق ‪ٜ‬ع‪ ٞ٦‬تٍب‪٪ ٟ٪‬ط چ‪ ٩‬ثیكتط ثی‪ ٣‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬جی‬
‫ضا‪ٕ٪‬بض‪٪‬بیی ضا ثطای ایزبز ‪ ٦‬اؾتحٕب‪ ٞ‬ای‪ ٣‬تٍب‪ ٟ٪‬اضائ‪ ٩‬ز‪٪‬سای‪ٍ٘ ٣‬تبض پیك‪٫٥‬بز ‪٠‬ی ٔ‪٥‬س تب‬
‫ض‪٪‬جطا‪ ٦ ٢‬پیط‪٦‬ا‪ ٢‬ازیب‪٠ ٦ ٢‬صا‪٪‬ت اظ ‪٤‬عاق ‪٪‬بی ٘صقت‪ ٩‬زؾت ٔكیس‪ ٦ ٨‬زض ٔ‪٥‬بض یٕسی‪ٙ‬ط ‪٤‬كؿت‪٩‬‬
‫ث‪ٍ٘ ٩‬ت‪ ٦ ٧ٙ‬تكطیٓ ‪٠‬ؿبلی ثپطزاظ‪٤‬س‪ .‬قبیؿت‪ ٩‬اؾت تب آ‪٫٤‬ب ثطای پیط‪٦‬ا‪ ٢‬ذ‪٧‬یف ٌط‪ٗ٥٪‬‬
‫ؾبظی ٔ‪٥٥‬س تب اذتالي ثب ازیب‪٠ /٢‬صا‪٪‬ت زی‪ٙ‬ط ضا ‪٤‬بپؿ‪٥‬سی ثسا‪٥٤‬س‪ ،‬ث‪٠ ٩‬كتطٔبت ثپطزاظ‪٤‬س‪٩١٪ ،‬‬
‫ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٫٤‬ب ضا ثطاثط ‪ ٦‬زاضای حّ‪ َ٧‬یٕؿب‪ ٢‬ثسا‪٥٤‬س ‪ ٦‬پیط‪٦‬ا‪ ٢‬ازیب‪ ٢‬زی‪ٙ‬ط ضا ‪٤‬یع ثطازض ذ‪٧‬ز ت‪ّٝ‬ی ٔ‪٥٥‬س‬
‫‪ ٦‬ض‪٦‬اثػ لبؼٍی ‪ ٦‬ا‪٤‬ؿب‪٤‬ی ثب آ‪٫٤‬ب زاقت‪ ٩‬ثبق‪٥‬س‪ ،‬تٕخط ‪ ٦‬ت‪٧٥‬ق ضا زض ر‪٫‬ب‪ ٢‬اؼطاي ذ‪٧‬یف ث‪٩‬‬
‫ضؾ‪١‬یت ثك‪٥‬بؾ‪٥‬س‪٪ ،‬ط آ‪٤‬چ‪ ٩‬ثطای ذ‪٧‬ز ‪٠‬یپؿ‪٥‬سز ثطای زی‪ٙ‬طی ‪ ٟ٪‬ثپؿ‪٥‬سز ‪ ٦‬آ‪٤‬چ‪ ٩‬ثطای ذ‪٧‬ز‬
‫‪١٤‬یپؿ‪٥‬سز ثطای زی‪ٙ‬طی ‪٤ ٟ٪‬پؿ‪٥‬سز‪ ،‬زض لی‪ ٣‬حب‪ ٚ‬ث‪ ٩‬التّبزات ذ‪٧‬ز پبیج‪٥‬س ثبق‪٥‬س‪ ،‬اظ ؼطح‬
‫‪٠‬ؿبئ‪ ٛ‬اذتالي ثطا‪ٙ٤‬یع ثی‪ ٣‬االزیب‪٤‬ی‪ /‬ا‪١ٜ‬صا‪٪‬جی رسا ذ‪٧‬ز زاضی ٔ‪٥٥‬س‪ ،‬زض ثطذ‪٧‬ضز ثب پیط‪٦‬ا‪٢‬‬
‫زی‪ٙ‬ط ازیب‪ ٢‬زض ا‪٧٠‬ض زی‪٥‬ی‪٠ /‬ص‪٪‬جی ث‪ ٩‬ذك‪٤٧‬ت ت‪٧‬ؾ‪٤ ٛ‬ز‪٧‬ی‪٥‬س ‪٤ ٦‬فطات ذ‪٧‬ز ضا ثب ٍ٘ت‪٧ٙ‬ی‬
‫‪٥٠‬ؽّی ‪٠ ٦‬ؿتس‪ ٚ‬زض اذتیبض زی‪ٙ‬طا‪ِ ٢‬طاض ز‪٥٪‬س‪٤ .‬رج‪ٙ‬ب‪ ٢‬ای‪٠ ٣‬ؿیط ضا ثب پط‪٦‬تٕ‪ ٛ‬اذالِی ازیب‪٢‬‬
‫‪200‬‬
‫ث‪ ٩‬حجت ثطؾب‪٥٤‬س ‪٫٤ ٦‬بز‪٪‬بی الظ‪ ٞ‬ثطای پ‪٧‬یبیی ‪ ٦‬پبیبیی ازیب‪٠ /٢‬صا‪٪‬ت ‪٠‬تج‪٧‬ق ذ‪٧‬یف ضا‬
‫تبؾیؽ ‪١٤‬بی‪٥‬س‪.‬‬
‫‪201‬‬

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