diary of bogdan janski 1830

Transcription

diary of bogdan janski 1830
BOGDAN JANSKI
DIARY
1830 – 1839
FOTO
La scritta sotto la foto
Servant of God, BOGDAN THEODORE JANSKI
Founder of the Congregation of the Resurrection DNJC
Apostle to the Polish Immigrants in France
Died in Rome, July 2, 1840
Age 33 years
BOGDAN JANSKI
DIARY
1830 – 1839
with footnotes
Edited and arranged by
ANDRZEJ JASTRZĘBSKI
English translation by
Fr. FRANCIS GRZECHOWIAK, C.R.
ROME 2000
PRINTED WITH THE PERMISSION:
Of the Superior General
FR. SUTHERLAND MACDONALD, C.R.
Rome, June 6, 2003.
_____ * _____
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording taping, or any retrieval system, without the written permission of a member of
the General Curia of the Congregation of the Resurrection, Via San Sebastianello 11, 00187 Roma, Italia.
© Copyright 2003 by the Congregation of the Resurrection DNJC, Rome
English translation by Fr. FRANCIS GRZECHOWIAK, C.R.
The text was prepared for printing by Ms. LILIANA DRÓŻDŻ
CONTENTS
FORWARD
(Fr. Sutherland MacDonald, C.R.)…………………………………………………………XI
ABOUT BOGDAN JAŃSKI - THE SKETCH OF A PORTRAIT
(Andrzej Jastrzębski).....................................................................................................……XIV
CONCERNING BOGDAN JAŃSKI'S DIARY - EDITORIAL NOTE
(Andrzej Jastrzębski) ..................................……………………………………………XXXI
BOGDAN JAŃSKI, JOURNEY DIARY NOTES YEAR 1828..................................……………1
PRIVATE DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1828………………………………………….…………….13
DIARY
1830-1839
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1830…………………………………………………………………….21
APPENDIX:
I. FOR CLARIFICATION…………………………………………………………………..65
II. ORGANIZATION OF MY FUTURE LIFE…………………………………………….66
NOTE CONCERNING THE LIFE OF C.H. DE SAINT-SIMON HIS DOCTRINE AND
HIS SCHOOL…………………………………………………………………………………67
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1831……………………………………………………………………..72
NOTES:
1. A NOTE CONCERNING THE LIFE, AND WORK, OF F. M.-CH. FOURIER……….95
2. CONCERNING THE LIFE, WORK AND POLITICAL ACTIVITY
OF M. MOCHNACKI……………………………………………………………………100
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1832……………………………………………………………………99
APPENDIX:
I. MEMORANDA………………………………………………………………………......199
II. “BRIEF MEMOIRS FROM MY PAST, FROM CHILDHOOD
ACCORDING TO YEARS”………………………………………………………….….200
NOTES:
1. A NOTE DEALING WITH THE LIFE AND ACTIVITY OF FATHER
F. R. DE LAMENNAIS.....................................................................................................207
2. A NOTE CONCERNING THE POLISH LITERARY SOCIETY………………………208
VI
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1833……………………………………………………………………212
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1834………………………………………………………………….223
APPENDIX:
I. WHY I RETURNED TO THE HOLY CATHOLIC FAITH……………………….….243
II. MODERN TIMES………………………………………………………………………244
III. [CONFESSION]..........................................................................................................…245
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1835………………………………………………………………….249
APPENDIX:
I. [CONFESSION, continued].......................................................................................…….328
II. [PRAYER, SELF-ACCUSATION.]………………………………………………….….331
III. [CONFESSION] FROM FEBRUARY 2, 1835…………………………………….….332
IV. [CONFESSION] JUNE 13, FEAST OF ST. ANTHONY…………………………...333
V. CONFESSION ON THE BLESSED MOTHER'S BIRTHDAY,
SEPTEMBER 8, 1835............................................................................................…......335
VI. CONFESSION, SEPTEMBER 14, 1835 FEAST
OF THE EXALTATION OF THE HOLY CROSS…………………………………..335
VII. CONFESSION OF SEPTEMBER 21, FEAST OF ST. MATTHEW………………..336
VIII. OCTOBER 19............................................................................................................…336
IX. RESOLUTIONS..............................................................................................................337
X. NATIONAL SERVICE……………………………………………………………….…341
XI. BROTHERHOOD OF NATIONAL SERVICE………………………………….….342
XII. THE CONGREGATION OF SAINT PETER…………………………………………343
XIII. MY OBLIGATIONS AND VOCATION, A GENERAL
DESCRIPTION OF MY TEMPORAL WORKS………………………………….344
XIV. MY RELATIONS WITH THE EMIGRATION……………………………….345
NOTE:
LIST OF EMIGRANTS FROM DECEMBER 21, 1835………………………………….347
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1836…………………………………………………………….……351
APPENDIX:
I. PATRIOTIC MISCELLANEA..........................................................................................417
II. PREPARATION FOR CONFESSION TOMORROW, JANUARY 9, 1836……….....417
III. MY CONFESSIONS AND HOLY COMMUNIONS…………………………….……419
IV. ABOUT THE PRINCIPLES, GOALS AND STATUTES
VII
OF THE PATRIOTIC CONFEDERATION OF CATHOLICS ETC. …………….…..420
V. FOR SUNDAY, JULY 31………………………………………………………………421
VI. FOR MONDAY, AUGUST 15 THE ASSUMPTION
OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN.……………….………………………………………….423
VII. MY INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE BROTHERS, THE BEGINNING
OF OUR RESEARCH WORK……………………………………………………….426
VIII. OUR RELATIONS WITH THE EMIGRATION…………………………………...427
IX. FOR SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 9………………………………………………………428
NOTE:
A LIST OF THE EMIGRANTS FROM SEPTEMBER 25, 1836………………………..430
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1837…………………………………………………………………..437
APPENDIX:
I. QUESTION OF LIFE…………………………………………………………………….479
II. RESOLUTIONS................................................................................................................480
III. RESOLUTIONS HERE IN LA TRAPPE........................................................................481
IV. MOTIVES FOR SALARIED WORK………………………………………….…….483
V. DAILY PRAYER..............................................................................................................483
VI. RESOLUTIONS TO THANK GOD……………………………………………….…..484
VII. THOUGHTS, INSPIRATIONS, AND RESOLUTIONS…………………………..….484
VIII. PRAYERS AND MEDITATIONS………………………………………………..….485
IX. PRAYERS, MEDITATIONS, AND RESOLUTIONS…………………………………486
X. RESOLUTIONS, PRAYERS, AND REFLECTIONS…………………………………488
XI. THIRD CONFESSION………………………………………………………………..489
XII. CONFESSION IN SOLESMES.....................................................................................490
XIII. THE NATIONAL ISSUE……………………………………………………………..491
XIV. OUR POLITICS....………………………………………………………………..….491
XV. THE NATIONAL CAUSE………………………………………………………..493
XVI. FOURTH CONFESSION IN SOLESMES………………….........................................494
XVII. THE PILGRIM………………………………………………………………..…….494
XVIII. MY FIFTH CONFESSION IN SOLESMES………………………………….……...495
XIX. RESOLUTIONS............................................................................................................496
XX. RESOLUTIONS (AFTER ARRIVING IN PARIS)………………………………..…497
XXI. RESOLUTIONS (AFTER ARRIVAL IN PARIS)………………………………..….500
XXII. RESOLUTIONS (AFTER ARRIVING IN PARIS)……………………………..….501
XXIII. RESOLUTIONS (AFTER ARRIVING IN PARIS)……………………………..….503
XXIV. FURTHER RESOLUTIONS......................................................................................504
XXV. REASONS FOR LIMITING MY ACTIVITIES AND CONCENTRATING
ON THE BEST PROJECTS………………………………………………………….………506
XXVI. HOLY COMMUNION, DECEMBER 21. THE FEAST OF ST. THOMAS..............506
XXVII. FINAL RESOLUTIONSON ON THE DAY OF MY DEPARTURE FROM
SOLESMES, DECEMBER 21, THE FEAST OF ST. THOMAS……………….507
VIII
XXVIII. BEFORE HOLY COMMUNION ON SUNDAY, THE 24TH, AND
ON CHRISTMAS DAY, THE 25TH……………………………………………….507
XXIX. IN THE WEEK FROM CHRISTMAS TO NEW YEAR'S DAY………………..508
NOTES:
1. FRAGMENTS OF A BOGDAN JAŃSKI'S LETTER TO FRANCES GIERDOJĆ
WRITTEN FROM LA TRAPPE........................................................................................509
2. A LIST DRAWN UP BY B. JAŃSKI OF POLISH EMIGRANTS LIVING
IN TOULOUSE AND MONTPELLIER IN 1837……………………………………..511
3. A LIST OF POLISH EMIGRANTS LIVING MAINLY IN PARIS IN 1837,
WHOM B. JAŃSKI INTENDED TO CONTACT…………………………………….513
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1838……………………………………………………………...……516
APPENDIX:
I. CONFESSION OF JANUARY 6......……………………………………………………608
II. CONFESSION OF JANUARY 13……………………………………………………..608
III. CONFESSION OF FEBRUARY 3……………………………………………………609
IV. CONFESSION OF FEBRUARY 24………………………………………………….609
V. [ORDER OF THE DAY]………………………………………………………….......609
VI. [RULES FOR BEHAVIOR IN THE HOUSE]……………………………………….610
VII. [CONFESSION] OF JULY 6………………………………………………………..612
VIII. DAILY REMINDER.....................................................................................................614
IX. THE MOST IMMEDIATE PLANS………………………………………………….614
X. WITH TUROWSKI BEFORE LEAVING FOR LA TRAPPE…………………...……..615
XI. [NOTES FOR CONFESSION]……………....................................................................616
XII. FOR MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1838…………………………………………….616
XIII. VIGIL OF THE BIRTH OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY. 1838……………….617
XIV. CONFESSION..............................................................................................................617
XV. SEPTEMBER 22 - WITH MIKULSKI………………………………………………618
XVI. FOR CONFESSION BEFORE SAINTS SIMON AND JUDE…………………….618
DIARY FOR THE YEAR 1839…………………………………………………………………..621
APPENDIX:
I. IN THE PAST YEAR, 1838.……………………………………………………………..696
II. THE QUESTION: WHETHER WITH A NEWSPAPER.…………………………….696
III. INITIAL THOUGHTS AND INSPIRATIONS AT LA TRAPPE……………………697
IV. REFLECTIONS ON PAST SINS……………………………………………………698
V. CATEGORIES OF THE FUTURE……………………………………………………699
VI. INSPIRATIONS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT ON PENTECOST SUNDAY……………700
VII. A LOOK BACK AT THE PAST…………………………………………………….702
VIII. UNTIL THE NEXT CONFESSION………………………………………………..703
IX. COUNSELS FOR THE REMAINING DAYS IN LA TRAPPE………………….....704
X. AGAINST NEGLECT IN WRITING LETTERS……………………………………..704
IX
XI. WHAT IS CONVERSION?…………………………………………………………….705
XII. RESOLUTIONS, MEDITATIONS IN THE DAILY REMINDER…………………706
XIII. CONFESSION OF SATURDAY, JULY 27………………………………………..709
XIV. [OUR PROFESSION OF FAITH]…………………………………………………….710
XV. CONFESSION OF AUGUST 10……………………………………………………713
XVI. A THOUGHT ABOUT DEDICATING MYSELF.…………………………………..713
XVII. CONFESSION ON SEPTEMBER 8……………………………………………....714
XVIII. CONFESSION ON NOVEMBER 10…………………………………………….715
XIX. CONFESSION ON THE FIRST SUNDAY OF ADVENT, 1839……………….....715
XX. CONFESSION FOR THE SECOND SUNDAY OF ADVENT…………………….716
ANNEX
AGNES JAŃSKA, TO HER SON THEODORE………………………………………….. 719
THE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION FOR RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
AND PUBLIC EDUCATION……………………………………………………………..
720
SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………………………. 723
XI
Forward
The basic principle of the Charism of the Congregation of the Resurrection is
that of the Unconditional Love of God. For Resurrectionists, it is God's unconditional
love which calls us, forms us, and gives us the strength to go through the trials, difficulties, failings, and death experiences that we encounter in life. It is God's
unconditional love that redeems us, through his Risen Son, Jesus Christ.
Bogdan Jański, in his diary, lives and explicates that Charism of the Unconditional Love of God. I don't think that Bogdan ever envisioned that his jottings would
be put forth to so great an audience as this publication portends. In fact, he would be
embarrassed, not by the brutal truth of the diary which in itself is a part of his
character; but maybe in human terms to have so many made aware of his human
weaknesses and lest he cause others to be weak in their own response to God.
There have been some in the Congregation who have read the Diary who have
said that maybe it should not be published in its entirety. However, it was the
direction of the XXX General Chapter of the Congregation in Rome in 1999 that the
Diary be published in its totality. This product is the result of that decision. The
English version has been translated by Fr. Frank Grzechowiak, C.R.
This present edition is part of the critical edition that was commissioned by the
Congregation from Mr. Andrzej Jastrzębski: the critical apparatus is only in the Polish
publication. The work was begun in 1987 and finally completed in 1999. Fr. Andrew
Gieniusz, C.R. arranged the technical computer layout of that document: Fr. Tadeusz
Kaszuba, C.R. has worked with Mr. Jastrzębski in the initial stages and has proof-read
the original text: Ms. Liliana Dróżdż Secretary in the Generalate has spent countless
hours on manuscripts, typing, making the index, and putting the final version of the
original into the computer, and she has arranged the set-up of the English edition. To
all of these persons, the Congregation is indeed grateful. We have also to thank
Bogdan Jański. It is part of his life in its stark-naked reality. As I said, I'm sure he did
not know that all this was going to be public not only in the Community but in the
whole Church. When Bogdan came from Warsaw to Paris to study on a scholarship,
part of the requirement was that he report to the sponsors in Warsaw. So, he
developed
a précis of his time and sent that back at the required time, or as best he could. I think
we have to thank the government at that time for requiring such a procedure. It is my
own conjecture that this is what led him in part to continue to record the events of his
life as well as the necessity to keep a personal growth record as was required by the
Saint Simonists. Probably this process developed also into more of an assessment of
his life as well after his re-conversion.
XII
Like the situation of the Apostle, Paul, we are left only to conjecture about the
details of the process of Jaski's re-conversion to Catholicism. The Diary is insufficient
here. Yet, after Bogdan's renewed fervour in the faith, we find him both an evangelist
and still a sinner. Maybe the Diary doesn't record the specific significant event that we
would like, but it does produce evidence for us of the continual conversion of Bogdan
Jański. After the event of his return to Catholicism, he was still the same Bogdan
Jański, a passionate, generous, and socially conscious man graced by God and
responding to God, but overwhelmed on occasion by sinful enticements. He does
bring, though, the same fervour that he had when he espoused the Saint Simonists to
his Roman Catholic crusade, and not much later he is encouraged to transform this
into a religious Congregation in the Church. The Diary of Bogdan Jański is a
multifaceted phenomenon. It is the story of a man's life. It is the story of the
Unconditional Love of God. It is the confession of a man who trusts in the
Unconditional Love of God. And it is the process of conversion of a man who comes
back to Catholicism, yet remains human and a sinner.
Bogdan, throughout his life, was committed to the betterment of all people in
society. His zeal, his acceptance of the of the Unconditional Love of God in his life,
his desire to respond to God's love personally, as well as his conviction that a group of
like-minded people could work towards this purpose became the objective of his life.
So he formed such a group with the objective that these members could pursue their
own conversion and be socially active in whatever could benefit society. Soon,
Bogdan was being called by men like Montalembert to establish a religious
congregation to this effect.
Bogdan, like Abraham, Moses, and in our perspective, even Jesus in some guarded respects, never saw the promises fulfilled. We, who come later in history , see the
fruits of these foundations or these promises. There are still promises to fulfill.
Bogdan Jański is the Founder of the Congregation of the Resurrection, yet he did
not live to know it as such.. Resurrectionists live the Charism that was given to
Bogdan Jański: we struggle with the weaknesses of nature, we strive to form human
religious community, and we work towards the betterment of society in a Christian
form wherever we can. As Bogdan did, we invite others to join us as members or
affiliates.
Sutherland MacDonald, C.R.
Superior General
Rome, 17. 02. 2001.
ABOUT BOGDAN JAŃSKI
The Sketch of a Portrait
The Diary of 1830-1839 is an unusual diary, as was its author unusual. Written
prompted by a deep personal need, not meant for publication, it is very personal, very
sincere, and moreover authentically religious. It was written by a lay man, Bogdan
Jański, who died in the 34th year of his life.
Outside of members of the Congregation of the Resurrection, who see him as
their founder, and outside a small group of historians who occupy themselves professionally with the Great Emigration, in fact he continues to be unknown to the wider
body of educated Polish society. Only a few eminent individuals who were his
contemporaries, such as Adam Mickiewicz, recognized in him a person of exceptional
spiritual dimensions.
Few, but in their own way weighty, witnesses have been preserved until our
day. According to these, he exercised an exceptional influence upon people who associated with him. Almost without exception they emphasize the spell of his personality,
which captivated everyone who came close to him. This spell manifests itelf in his
diary, and undoubtedly will increase in the measure that he becomes known as a man
with a fascinating and dramatically impressive spiritual biography. One may possibly
discover in him something unknown, but which nonetheless seems close to him, for
he knows of it from his own life, and it speaks to his sensibility. He will discover a
person who both before and after his death was not properly appreciated, and was
even quickly forgotten.
The primary source enabling one to acquire a knowledge of the personal and
spiritual life of Bogdan Jański, as well as of his social and religious involvement, are
his truly miraculously preserved personal notations.These are mainly personal notes,
collected under the conventional title Diary 1830-1839, which also include texts
dealing with various matters. For our representation of him, Jański's letters cannot be
omitted. They are preserved in their original version, in draft form as well as final
copies.
When one spends a longer time with their author by way of these texts, one
must ultimately acknowledge that he is dealing with something which possesses
literary or rhetorical structure - with something that captivates us with the authenticity
of confidences, the clarity of his voice. Moreover, it reminds us, as it were speaks to
About Bogdan Jański
XIV
us, about our own ambitions, hopes, and disappointments. It exposes our life's
failures, leaving behind the same unsatisfied hunger, and finally the hidden desire to
be better.
When one reads the personal notes of Jański, he gets the impression that he
was spared nothing that was human; that from moral depths he was raised to mystical
heights. He died of consumption. He lived only a short while, but he experienced
much.
It is the duty of an investigator - a historian of literature - to present objectively, in the measure of his strenuous efforts and acquired knowledge, a picture of the
life and activity of Bogdan Jański - to present the elements, activities, circumstances
and situations in an historical, customary and cultural context, which, together with
the entire rich endowment of Jański's human nature, contributed to developing his
personality.
On the pages of his Diary, Jański states clearly that it was God who threw him
to the ground and cast his yoke upon him. The earnestness of these statements is such
that even a skeptic, but one of good will, will accept the truth of these statements, and
will react with respect for Jański's narrative, when he speaks of the grace of
conversion. Therefore, it remains for us to make use of these documented witnesses in
the form of his entries, notes, which have been left by him, as well as the remembrances of those who knew him, in order to extract the truth about him.
To the most precious and exceptional personal documents of Jański found in
the Diary 1830-1839 belong the texts which are provided with the author's own titles,
such as "Brief remembrances of my past life from my childhood according to the
years" (from the year 1832), and "Looking at the past" (from the year 1839);
moreover the "Examinations of conscience", and "Resolutions of amendment". At
least some of these texts, if not all, bear the clear mark of confessions.
In the intention of the author these were meant only and exclusively for
himself - for no one else. Examining these documents in every way, from the formal
side as well as that of context, we ascertain that this diary, along with the adjoining
writings is a work that is thoroughly personal, and intimate, in a moral, religious, ansd
spiritual sense. It was written with the idea of personal rebirth. It has also been
indicated that the diary, along with the confessions and the purposes of amendment,
by its very nature, and the character with which Jański endowed it, was not meant for
external use. The author wrote it exclusively for his own spiritual needs, for selfcontrol and self-instruction.
The sense of truthfulness of these documents is all the greater when not
fettered by some insinuations. In these documents are noted the most revealing -
The Sketch of a Portrait
XV
without any sense of tabu - confidential secrets reaching into the depths of the most
personal experiences and affairs, even the most embarrassing. It would be very
difficult to find a similar authentic record, in which grace and sin are represented is
such a decisive and yet discrete manner. Jański's great personal courage with regard to
himself shocks and amazes.
The above mentioned "looking at the past” was written on a small piece of
paper during the retreat which he made at the former Cistersian monastery at La
Trappe in May of 1839, more than a year before his death. This is an extraordinary
document of spiritual autobiography. In it the author divides his whole 32 years of life
up to then into two periods. The first period is that of the first 16 years "as a child and
as a student" without any expansion; the second, also "16 years from the time when I
left school". Let us recall the more important facts from that first period.
Bogdan Jański was born on March 26, 1807, in Lisowo, near Grojec, as the
oldest son of not wealthy parents of noble descent. By spirit and temperament he was
a son of the Masovian land. His father, Peter, was a soldier of Napoleon, and tenant of
national lands, later the owner of property received by way of a dowry. His mother,
Agnes Hryniewicka occupied herself primarily with housekeeping and raising three
boys (a fourth died as an infant). What worried her most was the concern of
supporting them. It seems that her marriage was not a happy one, and undoubtedly
such also was Bogdan's childhood and early youth. In his "student" period he was a
pupil in the provincial school in Pułtusk which was directed by the Benedictines, and
which enjoyed eminent renown by reason of the high level of teaching. He did fairly
well in his studies. He was capable and quick-witted. He loved to play, and even
wasting time and playing truant. Undoubtedly for that reason he neglected his studies,
and so he was not promoted to the third class. However he managed to apply himself
to study to such an extent that he won a prize.
When he was 12 years old he experienced a sad vacation: his parents separated.
He lived in one room, and either studied or played truant. For the first time he refused
to take part in a carousal. "Suddenly he became religious, hard-working, and modest,"
even "ultra-religious". In 1822 he achieved the secondary school certificate. He
acquired solid knowledge, the knowledge of foreign languages and mathematics, in
which he excelled. Poverty at home forced him to go to work. He accepted a position
of collaborator, or associate, in the school where he had been studying up to now,
"taking delight in teaching."
Jański entered into a second period. To this period he attributed all of the facts
pertaining to his departure from the faith, his perseverance in infidelity, and hsi return
to the faith of his fathers. He listed these facts in chronological order, noting at each
consecutive year the interior changes that were taking place in himself, his age at the
About Bogdan Jański
XVI
time, and a laconic record of his physical condition. It is precisely this document that
can be of service to us, as a kind of itinerary of Jański's interior and exterior life.
In making this division, with full awareness Jański indicated the turning point
dividing the two periods. As it were its symbolic sign was Jański's enrollment, "since
leaving schools", in September of 1823 at the Royal University of Warsaw, in the
most popular department among students, that of Law and Administration.
This turning point indicated to Jański the violent change that took place in him
at that time: "a revolt of body and spirit against God". In his diary he admitted: "When
and how the evil in me began I cannot remember... This I remember: that it was at that
time that the revolt of body and soul against God began." Basing ourselves on what
the author tells us, we can determine with great certainty that this interior, total
change took place in the 16-17th year of his life, and that it might involve several
phases in its course. There is a strong indications that one of these reasons was the
awakening of his sexual impulses, which made its presence felt with great force in the
still unformed awareness of a man reaching maturity and unprepared to deal with this
new situation. An amazing chage was taking place in Jański's spirituality and
carnality. Parents, or rather his mother, and his teachers, were responsible for the
upbringing of the child, and later the boy, and were to serve as a model of his
religious life. However the time came when Bogdan assumed responsibility for
himself. He submited all their efforts to form and educate him to a severe scrutiny.
With the arbitrariness that is proper to young people, under the influence of the vital
forces awakening within him, he rejected their authority, and even more than that,
showed contempt for those whom he had previously respected, honored, and loved.
Even toward his mother, whom he disarmed by his "endearments", and whom later he
would remember as "good, and holy", he manifested a lack of affection and coldness.
Her final unfinished letter to her son, a splendid witness to her maternal concern,
anxiety and shrewdness, he would keep with himself until the end of his life.1
In this crisis of maturing, Jański began to make himself aware of new possibilities, new tasks, in which somewhat older colleagues and friends played a part. At
that time he formed a friendship with Leopold Thaddeus Bronisz, three years older
than himself, "an atheist", who, as Jański would mention, "being a companion of raptures, innocence, and youthful fire, was a companion of errors, weakness and
licentiousness." It is precisely to this atheist that he owes the fact that "by a single breath from his soul, along with the spirit of the age, he poured into my soul a
different spiritual direction, and a loftier and more appropriate organism prepared for
1
Cf. appendix: Agnes Jański to her son Theodor.
The Sketch of a Portrait
XVII
it." And this was affected by that "blind fate" in the person of "dear" Bronisz, who had
"a good heart".
Not without meaning is the fact that in Warsaw before the uprising, the
Catholic Church did not enjoy authority; that an atmosphere of anti-clericalism prevailed, favoring anti-religious and anti-Church prejudices.
In such an atmosphere, undoubtedly under the influence of that "atheist",
doubts with regard to the sense of religious faith began to sprout in Jański's mind.
This gave birth to its negation. He became an apostate: he renounced faith in Jesus
Christ, and membership in the Church. In order to somehow fill the void that resulted
in his heart, he accepted from his colleagues and friends a way of life, freeing himself
from the prejudices of religious faith and ethical bonds as infringing upon human
nature.
The revolt of his spirit against God grew in Jański in the measure that unbelief
grew within him. During the time of his university studies he became acquainted with
the prominent and fashionable "bible of materialism", a name given to the Systéme de
la Nature (1770) of Paul Thiry d'Holbach (1723-89), a French philosopher of the
enlightenment, the author also of a few other works, such as Systéme social (1773)
and La Moral universelle (1776). Holbach claimed that all of nature is a material
organism governed by determinism and expediency; that we get to know it by
experience, which is the one source of human knowledge. According to Holbach the
idea of God is simply an anthropomorphic creation of blind, unenlightened intellects,
and the sole rational ethics is the ethics of hedonistic-determinism.
Not only did Jański reject Christianity, but with euphoria he began to propogate anti-Christianity. He rejected faith in a world of spiritual values, in a sense of
responsibility, in all independence of the intellect. He submitted to the gods of the
enlightenment, accepting Holbach's materialism, his and Diderot's determinism, the
sensualism of Condillac, and the hedonism of Helvetius. He became a fatalist. In his
diary he speaks of "fatal relationships with people", of the already mentioned "blind
fate"; about this, that "circumstances independent of us, as well as already revealed or
hidden qualities in us, determine the limit of our fortune and meaning." He accepted
as "fatal" the "afflictions" which he encountered. In his diary he writes: "I submitted
to him, the captive of an evil mind - without seeking any deliverance."
While studying political economy at the university Jański confirmed himself
even further in materialism, naturalism, and atheism.
In the course of his studies there came to light in him - according to words of
his friend, Louis Królikowski - "the most remarkable abilities", "abilities that are truly
rare." This Królikowsk, the son of freed peasants, seven years older than Jański, later
a famous utopian and "fervent revolutionist", one of the architects of Polish social
About Bogdan Jański
XVIII
opinion, characterized his friendship with Theodore Olechowicz and Bogdan Jański
as follows: "The bond of our friendship was love of our fatherland, instruction and an
apostolate in the strict sense of the word. Everything was in accord with our ideas at
that time. Jański accompanied and helped us. As a result of that community of Spirit
and goal, all of our abilities, feelings, and boldness to undertake anything for the
salvation of our country grew stronger."2
In those university years Louis Królikowski was absorbed mainly in the cause
of the people and their liberation. A materialist - like Jański - in the theory of
knowledge, he passionately read the Sacred Scriptures, treatises of Fathers of the
Church, especially St. Augustine's Kingdom of God. He had a truly mystical cult for
Jesus Christ, following his divine teaching, in which he saw the only solution to the
social question. Królikowski and Jański, united by a strong friendship, together discussed, read, and planned great undertakings. Undoubtedly this led to the point where
Jański, who not long before that had renounced Christ, "begins in those years to respect Christ," as he recorded in his "Looking back at the past."
We understand now what Jański was thinking when he noted in his diary that
he was "overcome by the sense of an extraordinary mission, of greatness", a sense of
some "special mission", a "sense of his own power", that he visualized "the most
arrogant projects", "imaginings about the power of my will and my influence upon
others" - the prediction of charismatic abilities. Along with such an attitude, he
nourished contrasting feelings of hatred and contempt for what was pedestrian,
commonplace or small. When a few years later he would see his one-time friends in
their normal, common, ordinariness, he would say like Catullus in the famous couplet:
"I love and I hate, I respect and I despise! O how varied is my present self!" (Notes to
the Journey Diary, November 14, 1828).
Jański saw himself as "a master of revolutionism". He reacts without ceremony, and even with contempt, for those who are "simple revolutionists out of hatred
for tyrants; I for the good of mankind." He has such a "good opinion of himself" that
it reaches "an apogee of pride." In his Diary he writes: "I ascribe to myself an extraordinary mission." He manifests an egocentricity that is totally unrestricted. He stands
by his own ego, and at the same time by the world. He covets it. He wants to reform
it, change it into something better. He falls into a conflict which cannot be unraveled.
He lords it over others, holds himself aloof from them. He steeps himself in pride. He
feels a distaste for simple work. Zeal in the fulfillment of obligations declines in him.
Jański's confining egocentrism leads him to laziness and lust.
2
E. Callier, Bogdan Jański, Poznań 1876, Part 3, p.6.
The Sketch of a Portrait
XIX
According to Jański a revolt of the flesh against God was parallel to a revolt of
the spirit. In any case both oppositions supported one another. In 1823 he experienced
a romance with a certain noblewoman, whom he would meet once again in Płock
before leaving Poland. This experience left in his memory an impression of "heavenly
sensations", but also cravings. This became for him a challenge to activity. He felt
himself to be a disciple of ancient and modern hedonist philosophers, Aristippus and
Anacreon, Helvetius and Holbach. For according to them "rapture is good", "a man's
purpose is to enjoy life, and one enjoys it only by way of the senses." As a result he
professes a moral liberalism, permissivity. Debauched in life, he deprived himself of a
sense of shame. He frequented a house of ill-fame. In his diary he hints at a "disease",
which however did not restrain him from further forays and adventures in Warsaw,
and later in Paris and London. Undoubtedly disapproval on the part of honest women
caused Jański to be touched to the quick in his ambition. He could not abide them.
The above-mentioned Królikowski wrote that "Jański did not know how to control his
lust. Not only did he not consider this a sin, he even pretended that it was a human
need, very appropriate, especially for higher intellects, among which he counted
himself most flatteringly. (E. Callier, ibid.)
Jański was on the down grade: carousing and getting drunk with Bronisz. He
was living a merry life. He drank from the skull of a dead man, sang loose songs,
indulged in extravagances, excesses, and demonstrated his light- heartedness. He felt
a sense of humor, was inclined to tell jokes and engage in pranks. Eloquent and
exceedingly gregarious, he possessed the secret of directing converaations, and
discussions. One day he would say of himelf "an ambitious idler".
In spite of his success in society, he suffered from poverty. He had to work,
and he did not wish to do so. He would rather play the part of a lord. At that time in
the life of Jański nothing could be small, gray, vague, or without meaning, for he had
a passionate, lively nature, craving greatness. He fascinated those who surounded him
with ever greater corruption. He scandalized others, and at the same time achieved no
small success. With all of this, recalls Janowski3 "young Jański, smooth cheeked,
diligent and very sociable" was a man who was by nature good, ready to help, about
which more later.
In 1827 Jański received his Master's degree. At the same time his closest
friends Królikowski and Olechowski completed their studies. They decided to pursue
further studies in Paris. They departed, leaving Jański, who shortly began to work as
an advocate, or lawyer. In that year Jański made the acquaintance of Alexandra
3
John Nepomucene Janowski, a university colleague of Jański, later co-founder of the
Democratic Society in th emigration. Cf. E. Callier, op.cit. p.14
About Bogdan Jański
XX
Zawadzka, the daughter of a colonel in the Polish army. According to Królikowski
"he made the acquaintance of this young lady in a house of ill-fame in Warsaw, where
she was available to everyone."4 In the following year, when Alexandra was with
child, Jański undertook to marry her in church in spite of the fact that he considered
himself to be an atheist. Thereby, on her account, he assumed a moral indifference.
Moreover, in conjunction with this wedding, in his notes he confirms that he "received the Lord's Body and Blood from the hands of the pastor". He committed a
further profanation, "after "profaning holy things" in 1824.
What forced Jański to such behavior? "I was attracted to her by a good
sentiment, by a desire to extract her from an abyss" he wrote. "Weakness, vanity,
contempt (I lost reason, will) for society were, in the end, the only reasons for keeping
my promise to her, and for doing good to one whom not only did I not love, but one
whom I could not stand." In a letter to his brothers he justified himself: "My word
given, the anticipation of marital affairs, and perhaps a certain individual weakness
moved me to do this." It is difficult to determine unilaterally what Jański understood
when he spoke of "a certain, individual weakness." Perhaps this means a weakness in
relation to women? And perhaps, for Jański, a significant goodness which manifested
itself as irresistable to the pressures exerted by "my sturdy one", that is Alexandra, his
future wife. Aside from that, he wished to show, to take a position, even to
demonstrate his disgust with the hypocritical society which treated such a "fallen
virgin" with scorn.
The step taken by the both of them proved to be tragic in its consequences: it
helped neither him nor her. Alexandra, restored to society by her marriage, was left to
herself after her husband's departure - in spite of temporary help from her family. In
April of 1829 she gave birth to a son, to whom she gave the name: Alexander (after
her father), and Theodore (Bogdan, after her husband). After some time she gave her
son to her family, and returned to her former way of life.
The epilogue of this sad marriage, requiring strict examination, will be
Alexandra's decision to enter the institute of the Sisters of St. Martin in Wrsaw,
indeed with a proper dowry. Alexandra outlived her husband. In 1839, the son,
Alexander Bogdan, "only took care of the barns” of the Grabowski family. What
happened to him after that is unknown.
Next Jański, having received a government stipend for further studies abroad
after winning a contest, set out on his way immediately after the wedding. In spite of
4
E. Callier, op. cit. Part three, p.8 - Another unauthenticated written draft places Alexandra
Zawadzka in the Sas Gardens, where Jański found her crying as a result of being seduced
- a typical statement in the style of the romantic age.
The Sketch of a Portrait
XXI
his effort to maintain contact with his wife by way of letters, and in spite of the
assurances that he would return, he did not keep his promise. He felt responsible for
Alexandra, but for a thousand reasons he did not return to Poland.
The matter of the marriage was, and remained, an open wound in Bogdan's
heart until the end of his life. In his diary we read: "A woman ruined my entire greatness. Humbled pride, humbled reason, the impossibility of correcting a mistake
troubled me constantly." In a state of profound depression, but with "a feeling of hope
for a successful future” which aroused in him a vision of "heaven at the setting of the
sun" he left his native land - forever, as it turned out later, at the same time bidding
farewell to his youth forever.
Jański, 21 years old, took with him to Paris the baggage of plans for studies,
but also cares and anxieties. His exact intellect demanded rational justification, such
as a response to the question about the sense of life. Neither materialism nor atheism,
which at one time evoked in him a philosophical exaltation, were of any help to him,
for they were not in a position to help in dealing with the anxieties that troubled him
to the limits of his capacity. He was searching for a compromise between materialism
and spiritualism, by way of eclecticism, Scotch philosophy - but that attempt was not
successful. Still further he steeps himself in drunkenness, drowning the "concern", the
existential restlessness, in forgetfulness and carousing in the Paris saloons and
brothels. At the time Paris was considered a Babylon: "Here there is the greatest
pomp, and the greatest shabiness; the greatest virtue and the greatest vice. Everywhere
there are posters dealing with venerial diseases - noise, clamor, rumble, and more mud
than you can imagine - one loses himself in this swarm, conveniently in this respect
that no one asks how anyone lives [...] How many charitable women! - They chase
after people [...]"5 None of the contemporary European capitals - outside of London had so many "ladies” as Paris. In this great city it was easier for them to conduct their
business, primarily in order not to die of misery, hunger, exhaustion.
Jański became a man "of weak and unstable character" (L. Królikowski). In his
diary he notes the names of th women from Corinth. On them he wastes the money
which he acquired with such difficulty. He borrows money, and falls into debt. And in
this way he finds himself living in misery. "Poverty in the highest degree” he writes in
his diary. He was so desperate that he thought of suicide.
In this time of extreme collapse he came in contact with the radical and
fashionable movement of the saintsimonists. They proclaimed a new era for mankind,
5
Correspondence of Frederick Chopin. Collected and compiled by Bronisław Edward
Sydow, Warsaw, 1955, Vol. I, p.187. A fragment, cited from a letter of Chopin to his
friend Norbert Alphonse Kumelski. The letter is dated November 18, 1831.
About Bogdan Jański
XXII
a new morality, and a so-called "new christianity". By all means, however, nonchristians exploited the images of Roman Christianity in order to annex new disciples.
They also helped Jański to escape from his hopeless situation, and even assured him
of material support. Królikowski, who at that time was living in Paris, and for some
time kept his friend from the years at the university at his home, assures us that "he
had fallen into even greater debauchery, and then into debts and indigence, which
drove him to the saintsimonists"... that when he joined them, "he did so from financial
necessity." (E. Callier, op. cit., pp. 7, 10).
Jański, initiated into the doctrine of Saintsimon, began to be reborn. He
accepted their social radicalism, their hierarchical organization, in which he would
within a short time - as the first foreigner, a Pole - occupy a significant position. Like
them, Jański also took a stand against Revelation and "papism". He tried to satisfy his
deep religious need in the neo-Christianism and pantheism which was being
propagated by his new friends. In London, where, as the holder of a scholarship, he
was pursuing further studies, he propagated a saintsimonism modified by his French
friends among the economists, lawyers and philosophers. He felt himself to be an
apostle by conviction, called to great tasks, to bring happiness to mankind. Wishing to
perfect mankind, he must first perfect himself, free himself of prejudices and habits,
especially those of the flesh, which was a special requirement of th saintsimonist
doctrine. To this end he began to write a diary - to perfect himself, to maintain a daily
control over his actions.
It was in London, in December of the year 1830, that he learned of the
outbreak of revolution in Warsaw. This made a great impression on him. He thought
of returning to Poland. However it seems that the saintsimonists, accepting
cosmopolitanism as their view, dissuaded him from this intention by attempting to
weaken his patriotism.
In Paris, after his return form London, he was experiencing a subsequent crisis,
possibly the greatest up to then. This was brought about in part by the split in the
saintsimonist movement. The ideal, moral and organizational havoc among the
saintsimonists became a personal havoc for Jański. This was all the more painful
because, as he mentions in one of his letters from 1836, he had placed in these
apostles and their teaching "the trust that belongs only to Christ." In that same letter
he adds that breaking with the leaders of this movement "plunged me into a most
unsettled and painful state."
In turn, the failure of the uprising in Poland and the uncertain lot of those
closest to him - his father and his brothers, awakened in him a feeling of helplessness.
Already since December of 1831 he had not received his stipend from Warsaw. "I was
in such a pitiable state that I could earn either too little or nothing at all." He fell into
The Sketch of a Portrait
XXIII
debt. He was in a state of psycho-moral collapse. Desperation returned, thoughts
about taking his life, about running away somewhere, even to America. He was
restless, wavering "between bestiality and despair." "I cannot open my heart to
anyone." He is overcome by an scute sense of loneliness. He is seized by an
"impotence as great as moral death."
Stunned by all this, he must nevertheless still have the means to live. He helped
a Frenchman, Burgaud des Marets translate Adam Mickiewicz's Conrad Wallenrod
into French. He wrote historical and journalistic articles for French newspapers. He
published news from Poland. The would-be saintsimonist cosmopolite re-polonizes
himself, becoming involved in the life of the Polish emigration. And he does not cease
to interest himself in metaphysical questions, manifesting a tendency to reflection in a
high degree. He moves toward an acknowledgement of the primacy of spirit over
matter, and moves away from pantheism, and consequently from fatalism. This is the
first intellectual step in the direction of conversion.
He was the witness of tempestuous political, social and economic events, as
well as cultural and artistic sensations. He experienced historical convulsions such as
the famous "three days of glory" - the revolution of 1830 when, in place of the
dethroned king Charles X, Prince Louis Philip was named king of France, and the
constitutional monarchy was assured. The middle-class which was growing rich
gained a voice. Bankers, who contributed to the growth in meaning of the bourgeoisie,
played an ever increasing role. A free press was active. Ostentatious political trials
were held, repression in the form of edicts was employed, and severe fines were
levied. Gradually the working class gained a voice. Its appearance in the first (1831)
and second (1834) uprissing in Lyons caused social unrest. A cholera epidemic was
rampant in Paris in 1832. A series of severe battles began on June 5, 1832, and also an
uprising in April of 1834. Socialist views began to spread. Along with the growth of
industry, capitalism was born. Anarchy crept in along with the production of material
goods, bringing with it the impoverishment of the masses.
After the July monarchy, romanticism reached full flowering in the area of
culture, proclaiming the priority of faith and sensation over reason.
Jański came in contact with novelties in religious and ecclesiastical life. Right
after the July revolution of 1830, stemming from the inspiration of the famous religious writer, Fr. Lamennais, the L'Avenir movement was born. It agitated the
contemporary laicism, and above all caused unrest and protests among the Gallican
members of the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in France. The movement declared
fidelity to the teaching of the Catholic Church and its Head, but also postulated a
division between Church and State in the name of freedom and the welware of
interested groups. Jański studied the writings of the leaders and advocates of this
movement: "reading d'Eckstein allowed me to become acquainted with a somewhat
About Bogdan Jański
XXIV
different catholicism." Writings of the leading promoters of religious rebirth in
France: Lamennais and his closest collaborators, such as Fr. Gerbet, Fr. Lacordaire,
Count Montalembert and others, as well as the historical studies of René François
Rohrbacher dealing with the Church, opened Jański's eyes to intellectual and moral
values of Catholicism. "My mind turned to Christ, and I entered into a relationship
with a few people, friends of Lamennais." Reading Goethe's works on the immortality
of the soul lifted Jański up high. He elaborated his opinions on the topic of
Catholicism. The religiosly disposed Mickiewicz, with whom he lived for a while,
"comfirms me as it were in my opinions" by his personal example (Diary 1835, Mss,
p.242, ACRR).
However Jański's opinions changed, and were not always the same as those
convictions which move the will... For a long time yet both my recent ideas and the
issues and projects which were agitated here among my former French friends, tore
apart and disturbed my soul" (in a letter of 1836 to Louis Królikowski, which it seems
was not sent). Once he accepted Catholicism intellectually; at another time he
fashioned it, mitigated it, and even considered his "catholicism as compromising
himself" (Diary, December 6, 1834). He began to pray and go to church, but on
almost any occasion "ventured into relations with women." Complex meandering,
mental and moral zigzagging are marked along the way: "throughout the year a
terrible, constant weakness of both soul and body" (ibid. p.243). He acknowledged a
need for "a revolutionary emancipation of the Church", returned to republicanism, to
the mysticism of Saint-Martin, but "only in intention, for in thoughts and actions there
is absolute nothingness" (ibid.).
He continued to work for bread, writing popular scholarly articles for French
periodicals, occupying himself with editorial work in Januszkiwicz's publishing
house, and with the shipment of various Polish books. "At the same time there is work
dealing with the spirit, internal and personal; at the same time constant anxieties,
distress, mystical storms all day and all night, yearning for the Kingdom of God, and
seeking the way to it finally terminated in physical weakness: my lungs broke down. I
was already diagnosed as a consumptive, and many consigned me to death!
Meanwhile, after two months of extreme weakness in bed, I arose healthy, even
healthier than ever before. That was in August. At the end of that year, 1834, I
resolved to return completely to the universal unity of the Church of Christ, and I
fulfilled my resolution (in a letter to L. Królkikowski: ACRR 8590, pp. 1069-1073).
Before it came to reconciliation with God, Jański had to pass through internal
changes, which lasted a long time, for as long as seven years. In this period he noted
in his diary moral weaknesses, falls, manifestations of egoism, pride and sensuality,
wishing to get to know himself thoroughly, so that in this way he might be able to rise
The Sketch of a Portrait
XXV
from degradation by his own efforts, thanks to the keenness of his intellect and his
exceptional inclination to reflection. He did not succeed until he convinced himself
that he must seek help outside of himself, and not just within himself. The awareness
of his own limitations was a painful wound to his oversensitive pride. His blind egocentrism, closing itself to God and people, burst and was disarmed. His interior
opened itself to prayer, an acknowledgement of evil, a resolution of amendment, and a
desire to unite in Holy Communion, along with the practice of charity.
Jański's Diary indicates successive phases, periods of his spiritual rebirth.
Stumbling along this way, he gradually began to take stock of who he was, who he is,
and what he ought to do. However the awareness of his own moral misery was
nevertheless pervaded with an awareness of the goodness and mercy of God the
Father. From 1832 a process of intellectual conversion began, in which, as was
mentioned above, reading of the works of the French promoters of religious renewal
and contact with them, especially with Adam Mickiewicz, played a significant role.
The dramatic experiences which preceded, and perhaps even caused the illness into
which Jański fell, along with the almost fatal illness, and the unexpected recovery,
might have hurried that process. There no longer was any reason to delay the time of
return to God's mercy, to unity with the Church of Christ. This first reconciliation
with God followed at the end of 1834 and the beginning of 1835. It was the first moral
conversion. This was his confession from his entire life, together with the reception of
Holy Communion. Jański's diary speaks of this.
Reborn spiritually, Jański was happier than ever before. This first general
confession and his first Holy Communion since conversion elicited in him joy and
unlimited gratitude toward God, who had granted him the desired peace. The 11th of
January, 1835, was for him a "day of joy and hope". His fault became a happy fault,
for it brought him divine mercy. As a result he then felt most himself. However he
would not really be himelf if he did not share this joy with others. He would not really
be himself if he did not express his gratitude to God by his life. His diary speaks of
this as well.
In that diary we also find Jański's accusations and laments that he fails, that he
falls, giving in to temptations of the flesh, that he suffers, that the demon of pride
continually gains the upper hand over him. Precisely because of pride and sensuality
he experienced the strongest, most intense, interior struggles. As a result he turned to
God by way of ejaculations full of intensity and prayerful zeal. He was passing
through agonies as a result of inconsistency in his behavior, not knowing initially that
he was passing through a process of purification, which gradually was freeing him
from the lack of truth and love, from egotistic inclinations, instincts and passions. He
was experiencing metanoia.
About Bogdan Jański
XXVI
However, in this process of drawing close to God, Jański was also drawing
closer to himself, to his own identity, not locking himself within himself, not limiting
himself to a dialogue with God. He became involved in the service of others, fellow
Poles, emigrants. Already in the period of breaking his contacts with the
saintsimonists he became involved in the turmoil of life in the Great Emigration.
Initially he was engaged politically in the work of the emigrant committees in Paris.
However soon he was alienated by the political programs which, rather than unite,
separated the emigrants into various factions mutually combatting one another.
He experienced that famous "Polish hell", a parody of polishness. By temperament he did not feel that he was a politician. Practically he had missed his calling
as a professor at the Politechnic Institute. He felt that he was called to be a socioreligious activist. For this he possessed unusual charisms: He was able to win over
associates, and convince them. He undertook cultural, journalistic, and editorial
activity. In the year 1833, of which he left no notes in his diary (aside from daily
notes) he worked very closely with Adam Mickiewicz, with him, editing the
"Pielgrzym Polski - Polish Pilgrim", which after July passed into his hands
exclusively. He was then translating into French his great friend Adam's "Books of
the Polish nation and the Polish pilgrims". He worked as a proof-reader (for, among
other works, Pan Tadeusz - Mr. Thaddeus) and engaged in editorial work for the
publishing firm of the already mentioned E. Januszkiewicz. He became involved in
the work of providing assistance to the emigrants - their names fill many of the entries
in his diary from 1832 to 1839.
By way of contact with Polish emigrants, he became more and more aware of
they mental, moral, and religious status, and not just of their material status. Their
"being torn out of” the natural environment, i.e. their native country, resulted in their
living in a state of continual depression. Living among strangers, they felt estranged.
They experienced their situation deeply as profoundly not normal. Deprived of moral
moral bases, they engaged in duels about almost any foolishness. They committed
murders, fell into psychic illnesses, entered into conflict with the law, initiated brawls
and quarrels. The picture of the Polish emigration in its first years is disheartening!
Jański's conversations with Adam Mickiewicz as well as other Poles who were
close to him had to move in the direction of establishing a spiritual diagnosis of the
emigration and seeking means to remedy its needs. Some emigrants, themselves
engaged morally and religiously, saw the need to organize such a society, such a "new
monastic order", which by the moral stature of its members, and by its members'
practice of ethical and religious values, might reach out to the wider circles of Poles,
especially in France, but also to their countrymen in Poland. To this end, in December
of 1834, an Association of United Brethren (a Society of United Brethren) was or-
The Sketch of a Portrait
XXVII
ganized. This union proved to be unstable, and soon fell apart. However the idea itself
consumed the mind and heart of Jański, which were already filled with the thought of
a "brotherhood", of a "new congregation". The seeds of this were already hidden in
Jański's resolutions written in his diary under the date of November 12, 1835. It still
remained only a step whch needed to be taken, so that the idea might take on flesh.
It seems that it is not irrelevant to recall here the notation of Fr. Paul Smolikowski: "I heard from the lips of Fr. Kalinka, who undoubtedly heard it from others in
the emigration, that the United Brethren gathered every Friday for Mass; and after
Mass at the home of Mickiewicz they read the Sacrred Scriptures, and discussed
means of rescuing their homeland. Once Mickiewicz, more than usually tormented by
the sad news that was coming to him from Poland, and by what was happening in the
emigration, cried out: "There is no other salvation for Poland. A new Congregation is
needed. But who will found it? A saint is needed for this. I? I am too proud. You? (to
Plater) You are too much of an aristocrat. You (to Zaleski) are too much of a
democrat. Jański will found it." (Smolikowski, vol I, p.41). We can acknowledge this
to be a "golden legend" of Polish romanticism, in which however there is something
of historical truth. Mickiewicz rcognized Jański and his charism, and offered him help
in realizing his idea.
In February of 1836, on the first Sunday of Lent, a brotherhood arose consisting of the first enthusiasts for the work of God. Jański dedicated himself heart and
soul to the development of this brotherhood, sparing no efforts to maintain it. With
time the brotherhood obtained a house, which received the name of the House of
Jański. The charismatic gift of attracting people to the idea of a brotherhood
manifested in Jański the nature of an apostle. He himself, distinguished by an
uncommon intelligence, the culture of his personal life, religious zeal of heart for his
neighbor, carried the cross daily, meeting with the arrogance of his fellow Poles and
their foolishness, with their ignorance in matters of faith. He experienced many
disappointments and disillusionments and did not avoid being scolded by them.
At the same time he suffered from his personal weaknesses and the errors of
his past. More and more rarely did he become irritated, exasperated. More and more
frequently did he study patience. He bore with himself better. He took into account
that what he was doing, he no longer was doing of himself and for himself, but by the
will of God, who had simply designated him for apostolic service. Jański had that
awareness which obliged him to work for the religious and moral rebirth of his fellow
Poles, to establish a staff of priests, the framework of which he began to form in
Rome, and which would become a support to the emigration, the nation, and the
Church.
From the time that Jański entered upon the way of a stiff "battle with satan, the
world, and the flesh" he would not withdraw from it, and would stay with it to the
About Bogdan Jański
XXVIII
end. He recognized that he was weak; but he also knew that in this weakness his faith,
hope, and love were also being perfected. Sometimes he felt "a very foolish urge to
seek significance among people", "the urge to aappeal to others." Sometimes he was
beset by the " lustful memories from the past, thoughts that he had not enjoyed the
sensual pleasures and the world as much as he might have" (a note in his diary, June
19, 1838). However it is with ever-greater peace that he accepts vexation on the part
of pride and the flesh as the original corruption of human nature, without permitting
them in his life.
In the already mentioned "looking at the past", reflecting upon it and recapitulating, Jański noted that from 1823 - when he was 16 years old - he lived 12 years
outside the Church, and for 9 years did not believe in Christ; that from that year, for 7
years he remained in total irreligion (infidelity); and moreover for 5 years he was a
materialist and atheist.
In order to further clarify his spiritual portrait it is possible to add that Jański,
formerly an opponent of "papism" and revelation, accepted the Church with all of its
strength and weakness, in its natural and supernatural dimensions. He was aware of its
errors, and at the same time of its historical mission. In the work of covnersion as a
lay apostle, he experienced many hindrances on the part of his fellow countrymenemigrants, who had been turned away from the Church by the brief of Gregory XVI.
He understood well the importance of their objections. And so he intended to conduct
a "consultation" in Rome dealing with the brief "a public announcement of which
could be of great benefit." However he did not manage to accomplish this, for within
a short time he died. In the last years of his life Jański was a person completely
different from what he was during his time at the university. In the biblical sense, he
cast off the garment of the "old man" and, like the prodigal son, put on the garment of
"a new man".
Considering the life and activity of Bogdan Jański from the perspective of our
time, we may have the impression that he accomplished little; indeed that he could not
have considered, developed, and accomplished much. Humanly speaking, he lived too
short a time to be able to bring his work to fulfillment. He died at a moment in which
his House was experiencing many upheavals. He was spared the feeling of failure,
when a considerable number of his companions and followers switched to the camp of
Andrew Towiański - and that not without the influence of Adam Mickiewicz!
Jański, who had a clear awareness that Providence had chosen him to be an
apostle, and committed to him the taks of religious and moral conversion of his fellow
Poles, dying trusted tht Providence unconditionally. To it he commended the work
which had just begun, which by the will of that Providence he was not allowed to
direct it to its end. A contemporary of Jański, Frederick Ozanam spoke the words
The Sketch of a Portrait
XXIX
which can with conviction be referred to a Pole: "We are here to fulfill the will of
Providence. That will is fulfilled day after day, and one who dies leaving his work
unfinished , is as far advanced in the eyes of the highest justice as one who has the
possibility of finishing it completely."6
In the initial period of my work on the Diary of Bogdan Jański, I met with
great assistance from the Foundation Centro Incontri e Studi Europei in Rome. To the
directors of this institute, the secretary, Mrs. Wanda Gawrońska, and the Chairman,
the architect Mr. Robert de Luca, who showed me unusual, truly sincere kindness, I
owe the outstanding conditions for living and working. I offer to both of them an
expression of my deepest gratitude.
I offer a most sincere expression of gratitude to Mister Christian Zimerman,
who in conjunction with my work assured me not only comfortable conditions during
my stay in Paris, but also by his gesture arranged for me to continue my scholarly
research by overcoming unforeseen difficulties.
I thank Professor, Mrs. Caroline Lanckoroński from the bottom of my heart for
her unexpected assistance. Thanks to her I was able to finalize my work in Rome.
Here the initiator and intercessor was Doctor Wojciech Biliński, an adviser at the
Embassy of the Republic of Poland to the Vatican. I thank him most sincerely for this.
I think with pleasure of the sincere hospitality of Doctor Stefan Frankiewicz,
Ambassador of the Republic of Poland to the Apostolic See. Thanks to the conditions
which he provided for me, I was able to labor peacefully on the work of Jański. I ask
him to accept my words of most sincere gratitude.
I sincerely thank Sister Aline Merdas, RSCJ for her assistance in checking the
French text occurring in the Diary of Bogdan Jański, and its translation into Polish.
In the the course of the last stage of my work in Paris I was assisted by the
historian and author, Mr. Christopher Rutkowski, as well as his co-worker at the
Polish Library in Paris, Mr. Witold Zahorski. For this I offer them my most sincere
thanks.
For friendly assistance, counsel and hints in editorial matters I offer thanks to
the Editor, Anthony Podsiadów.
I incurred a debt of gratitude toward many co-workers in libraries, archives,
and various cultural institutions. I mention especially the National Library, the
University Library, the Library of the Institute of Literary Research - in Warsaw, the
Jagiellonian Library, the Princes Czartoryski Library, and the Library of the Polish
6
A statement of F. Ozanam cited from Callistus Morawski Frederic Ozanam, Warsaw,
1955, p.21.
About Bogdan Jański
XXX
Academy of Science - in Kraków, the Library of the Papal Institute of Ecclesiastical
Studies in Rome, the Polish Library in Paris, Archevęchę Catholique de Paris Archives historiques and Bibliothęque Nationale.
I express special words of thanks to Priest of the the Congregation of the
Resurrection in Rome for having offered me the task as editor of the diary of Bogdan
Jański. I offer sincere thanks to the Assistant General of the Congregation, Father
Gregory Treder, C.R., as well as to the secretary of the archives of the General House
of the Congregation of the Resurrection, Mrs. Lillian Dróżdż, for her work in
connection with the technical preparation of the diary.
Above all, I am grateful to the late Father John Iwicki, C.R., archivist of the
Congregation, who encouraged me in my editorial work. Thanks to his initiative, in
the end - for a little less than 150 years later - the diary of Jański was compiled and
prepared for publication.
Andrzej Jastrzębski
ABOUT BOGDAN JAŃSKI'S DIARY
Editorial note
The autographs of the diary of Bogdan Jański, published here for the first time,
constitute a portion of his writings which the Congregation of the Resurrection has
preserved in its archives in Rome (ACRR) at via San Sebastianello 11.
Under the date December 12, 1839, Jański, extremely ill at the time, before
leaving Paris, to which he intended to return from Rome, and which he was to leave
forever, noted in his diary: "I am arranging papers all day". These papers were kept in
"a low red cupboard which is situated on the right side of Bogdan's room." This
cupboard contained "an accumulation of cartons and various papers pertaining to
Bogdan himself" - his confidant, Edward Duński, wrote to Charles Królikowski on
March 20, 1840 (ACRR 35331). In a following letter to the same Królikowski,
overseer of the Paris house at rue Vavin 13, Duński informed him: "Bogdan reminds
you of his papers and the cabinet with ascetical books etc., which you are to keep as
they have been up to now" (March 27, 1840; ACRR 35532).
Edward Duński delivered "various papers pertaining to Bogdan himself" - who
died in Rome on July 2, 1840 - that same year from Paris to the Roman cloister. He
did this upon instructions from the Elder Brother, Peter Semenenko.
In this way Jański's archives were safeguarded by his closest co-workers: Peter
Semenenko, Jerome Kajsiewicz, Edward Duński and others. They treated with reverence the papers left by Jański, which they understood to have value as witness, the
rank of a spiritual testament. Thus, it is impossible to imagine that they might freely
penetrate Jański's archives. They kept in mind the words directed to Królikowski:
"keep them as they were up to now."
Father Jerome Kajsiewicz, his would-be monographer, emphasized the value
of Jański's archives: "Should God grant favorable conditions and his grace for this,
later we will publish a lengthier account of the entire spiritual process which took
place in our dear deceased brother throughout his entire life, especially from the time
of his departure from Poland. For he had the custom of writing everything down for
himself, and the Congregation has inherited his papers. and preserves them in its col-
About Bogdan Jański‟s Diary
XXXII
lection." This passage is taken from the handwritten memoirs of H. Kajsiewicz,
"written in the year 1850."1
The contents of Jański's archives consisted of a few copy books, along with a
multitude of loose pages and cards. They are arranged side by side, it would seem
haphazzardly. The author did not include any page numbers. Only in 1960 were they
given page numbers in the
consecutive order which was then being used, and which they retained up to now. No
change was made in this consecutive order, even when obvious errors were discovered in it. Thus, there are instances where an already even numbered side (verso)
preceded an uneven numbered side (recto). After completing the pagination,
pressmarks were added.
Jański's entire archives is included within pressmarks 8428 (page 1) to 8654
(pager 1060). The diary itself, which is a part of these archives, bears the pressmark
8627, and includes pages 104-965.2
The external appearance of the autographs which make up the diary is
extremely varied, when it comes to the kind of paper, its color and its format. The
texts are recorded on yellowish paper, but also on light blue and blue paper. Once on
thick, and another time on thin, and even on tissue paper. The paper size differs,
sometimes bigger and sometimes smaller, the largest measuring 27 x 23 centimeters,
and the smallest 11 x 7 centimeters.
Jański's handwriting, careful and readable in letters addressed to officials, in
private notes is very often careless and twisted; it is slanted, rough, and not always
distinct, so that sometimes one does not know whether in a given place the letter "_"
or "_" was being used. We meet with spaces so narrow that the letters of a given verse
cover a preceding verse, so that the contour of these letters is obliterated. A special
difficulty encountered in reading the text was due to notes that were written on both
sides of a thin sheet of paper. The author used pen and ink, rarely an ordinary or an
indelible pencil. Therefore reading Jański's writing offered various difficulties which
could not be solved in all cases. Almost as a rule he used abbreviations, that is he
shortened words. Sometimes he did not finish a sentence.
1
2
H. Kajsiewicz, "Beginnings of the Congregation of the Resurrection, written in 1850
(ACRR 7496, p.11)
In the Catalogue of the Congregation listing archival material of it founders, the
collection of Jański's handwritten documents is preceded by archival collections of Peter
Semenenko and Jerome Kajsiewicz. In 1960, for exclusively technical reasons,
pagination was begun, and then in turn the autographs of Semenenko and Kajsiewicz were assigned numbers (the last number was 8426), and only after them Jański.
Editor's Comments
XXXIII
Cases where the autograph was damaged are rare. There are instances of ink
stains, blots and holes from an extinguished cigar.
Jański began writing his diary - without any introduction - on Tuesday,
October 28, 1830 in London, and he continued writing it with interruptions for ten
years. Before he left Paris, on December 13, 1839, he managed to write in his diary at
the end of the day: "God, help me!" As it turned out later, these were the last words he
wrote in his diary. A continuation of the diary was halted irrevocably.
As a form of personal expression Jański chose the diary, that is a form of notes
from day to day, and recording not so much the course of external events as above all
his own experiences, thoughts and aims.
As already mentioned, the author began writing his diary in London, where he
was living on the basis of a scholarship. In Paris he experienced a profound spiritual
and moral crisis, the result of a loss of faith, and a sense of life. Unexpectedly he
found help from the saintsimonists in Paris. He joined them, becoming their zealous
co-religionist, and an apostle of the new faith. He wished to be worthy of the name
saintsimnist, and so he had to free himself "from habits and prejudices". "In order to
destroy their control over my thoughts and actions, it will definitely be beneficial to
be aware of each of my days." "What I write and will write, I write for myself."
Three days later he notes in his diary: "I acknowledged that it would be
necessary to control my feelings, thoughts and actions daily", until "by such strict
control and reasoning, by designating the individual future acts of my life, I become
stronger, more religious" (the latter cittion is from November 17, 1830).
From the draft of a letter written in French in December of 1830 in London, he
tells Talbot, one of the saintsimonist "father"s: "As of a month and half ago I began
writing a diary in order to perfect myself and in order to achieve daily control over my
actions, so that they may be found to be in harmony with that one feeling, thanks to
which I unite myself with our holy faith."
Here we discover the purpose for which Jański began writing his diary. The
officially declared morality of the saintsimonists required personal morality on his
part, especially in the area of sex. However almost a year later Jański dramatically
experienced another crisis of ideas, occasioned by the division in the saintsimonist
movement, which was definitely realized in November of 1831. He put aside writing
the diary, which was to be for him an instrument of moral rebirth. The faith of the saintsimonists proved to be an illusion, and so continuation of the diary seemed to
lose sense in his eyes. And yet Jański would return to it: on March 7, 1832 he notes:
"I am writing this diary the first time since February 25th," and in May he wrote: "I
am gathering first of all remnants of recollections from a month ago."
About Bogdan Jański‟s Diary
XXXIV
On June 8, 1832 he notes: "I remind myself that I am writing such small items
in these memoirs because I am not doing anything great. As a result, for me who wish
to live interiorly and analyze my actions, every trifle has extreme importance."
At this time Jański involved himself in the affairs of the Polish emigration,
which were often, and at the same time extremely ascetically, written up in the Diary.
In spite of his generous participation, he did not cease to feel the need, which
tormented him to the depths of his being, for finding some sense in his life. In the
name of this need, he immersed himself in the study of the work and writings of the
enlightened Catholics who were centered about the newspaper "L'Avenir". As a result
of pressure from Rome, the editorial staff was disbanded. In the name of this need, he
continued his diary, and writing it became for him something in the nature of an
imperative.
A gradual process of conversion was taking place. On January 4, 1835, he
writes: "I am beginning to continue writing my confession and this diary." A little
later, on October 25 of that year, he emphasizes the following tasks: "reminding
myself of the time spent in the last week, reflecting upon my mistakes, writing the
preceding notes." On one occasion, (toward the end of December, 1835) he states: "I
also completely neglected these notes controlling my life." Keeping up his diary
gradually took on an almost sacred significance. In June of 1834, while staying in the
Abbey of Solesmes, he prays: "O God, once again you give me the will and the
strength to begin anew to write this daily and detailed control of my life... so that I
might persevere very strictly in this practice, and that I might fulfill it as well as
possible, for my own spiritual benefit, Your glory, and my eternal salvation." On May
25, 1839 he resolves: "From now on I will take account of every hour, of almost every
minute, and I ought to write this as a memorial, and as a lesson. O God, help me to
accomplish this."
As already mentioned, Jański wrote the diary with interruptions, and sometimes these were notable. He accused himself of neglecting it, of putting it off due to
laziness, for coffee, a pipe, and unnecessary conversations. But he also mentions that
he could not continue the diary due to sickness and fatigue. Such a longer break was
sometimes caused by fellow Poles, refugees living far from Paris. They looked to him
for help and advice. Jański went to visit them. A great deal of time was spent in work
as a source of income, for bread. He noted such intervals in his diary. He safeguarded
his notes by keeping them in a private archive. Thanks to this individual cards and
papers from the first years of the diary were preserved. Jański would refer to these
Editor's Comments
XXXV
toward the end of his life in his jottings. One can say that everything he wrote for his
diary was not thrown away, was not lost.3
While preparing B. Jański's diary for publication, we can base ourselves only
on what has been preserved, or rather on what has been carefully preserved. It seems
to be a useless discussion as to whether the diary was diminished with detriment to it.
Among the diary entries drafts of Jański's letters were included, which did not
formally belong to the diary, and these are not the subject of my closer analysis.
Apparently the same was true of original letters addressed to Jański, which were
found outside of the scope of the diary, and which have already been published in
part.4
In approaching an analysis of the diary we must keep in mind that Jański wrote
it solely for himself, for his own use, and for no one else. Moreover he wrote it with
inner freedom, not hampered by any literary discipline. He was aware of selection. He
3
4
Cf. K Górski: Bogdan Jański's religion before conversion. "Our Past". vol. 10, 1959, pp
249-276. Professor Górski had knowledge of the autographs of Jański's diary form
personal inspection. He also knew the work of Fr. Paul Smolikowski, C.R., History of the
Congregation of the Resurrection (written in accord with handwritten sources. A new
edition, reworked and completed. Vol. I, Kraków 1925). The professor judged that
Smolikowski "took advantage of these precious materials, which I also had available, but
he also used others, which apparently have been lost..." He referred to a fragment in
Jański's record cited by him: "in the records (i.e. in the diary) today, this text is lacking"
(p.250). This is the text: "January 8 (Saturday, 1831, London) at a meeting of Owenists,
toward the end of my discussion with them, and especially with Owen himself, some of
his former students, especially women, hardly permitted me to speak, contradicting their
master, explaining our teaching to him, and urging him to become a saintsimonist. After
this conference Owen told me that he would soon go to Paris in order to talk with our
main fathers" (P. Smolkikowski, op. cit. p.7). Professor Górski was not aware that this
text was not a fragment from the diary, but rather a draft of a French letter which Jański
wrote to the saintsimonists, and which Fr. Smolikowski translated in part, preceding his
translation with the remark that Jański "was informing about his mission in London" (loc.
cit. p.6) Jański's letter to the saintsimonists is dated January 19, 1831. (ACRR 8626, pp
70-81)
The [Polish] Letters of Bogdan Jański were collected and published on the basis of the
originals, and commented on by Fr. Bolesław Micewski, C.R. C.f. Bibliography. Letters
of Peter Semenenko to Bogdan Jański in Letters, Vol.I, Rome, 1980; Vol.II, Rome, 1986.
Archival collections of Jański include not only his autographs, but also original
manuscripts in someone else's writing. These are, among others, French letters, and many
Polish letters of emigrants. They wrote to Jański - about which he himself writes in his
diary - Adam Mickiewicz, Peter Semenenko, Jerome Kajsiewicz, Joseph Hube, Valerian
Wielogłowski, and others. Their letters, which should be in the archival collection of
Jański, are not there. They were taken out and transferred to other parts of the archives of
the Congregation
About Bogdan Jański‟s Diary
XXXVI
wrote what he wanted to write. He may have placed the written sheets in cardboard
boxes, placing diary entries as well as non-diary entries one on top of the other, within
the bounds of practical possibility, while respecting both chronological and
synchronous principles. In this way, more or less, the notes accumulated, following
one upon another in such an order and such an arrangement, as was established by the
author himself. As one can see, Jański recognized that it was unnecessary to paginate
them. The sequence of notes and their arrangment possess a decided author's character
which was ultimately "sealed" 120 years later by a pagination that was not that of the
author. This assertion is not weakened by sporadic chronological deviations, which
we notice when we study the sequence of the notes accepted by the author. Neither is
it weakened by the, few, diary entries which have separate pressmarks, other than the
pressmark 8627. Indeed, they were combined with the aggregate of notes included in
this signature, and were accepted in this edition of the diary.
Checking the notes included under the pressmark 8627 to which the general
title, Diary 1830-1839 was given, we find that it is made up of 3 different kinds of
notes.
The first kind of notes includes notes of various length, which are dated, and in
which the author turns to himself, talks with himself, and speaks about himself, with
the thought of his own personal moral rebirth. These are soliloguies in the form of a
diary, written one day after the other. The author intended the diary to be a means to
help him understand and perfect himself. It was written with exceptional sincerity and
honesty. There is no trace of posturing here. These are notes which make up the
personal diary, an intimate journal. The personal trend of the diary was intensified,
gathering strength, intensity and fervor. In time it would widen its scope to include
matters that are not personal, but in which the author participated personally: matters
dealing with the Polish emigration, the birth of the Brotherhood of National Service.
"I am writing this diary in order to know something about the organization of the
brotherhood" (June 14, 1836) - also to establish the house which would receive the
name "House of Jański" Thus the first kind of notes constitute a personal, private,
diary. The author himself did not qualify his confidences in this way. He was satisfied
with the simple word diary", sometimes using such titles as "notebook",
"remembrances", "notes".
A second kind of entries, written on loose, individual cards, consists of
remarks, observations, reflections etc., which did not belong to the personal diary, but
which - not necessarily all of them - were mentioned or signaled in it.
It is not easy to qualify this second kind of notes. If it came to gathering them,
we would receive something like, what is usually called, a conglomerate. What is not
here! Here we have notes dealing with various things, as e.g. moral, religious,
ascetical, personal and not personal reflections, extensive autobiographical notes, such
Editor's Comments
XXXVII
as: "Brief recollections of my past", or "Looking forward to the future". Further: a
profession of faith: "Why I returned to the holy Catholic faith." In that group we find
many texts of confessions or examinations of conscience; further "Motives " for a
good life, and "Reminders". Also observations pertaining to organizational matters,
dealing with the organization of the brotherhood, the House; and also "My lessons for
the brothers", "Rules for behavior in the house", and the anticipated publication of
"Our profession of faith". Here we meet with Jański's remarks and rflections on the
topic of country, patriotism, the Polish emigration, such as:"National Service",
Patriotic miscellanea", "The national question", "our politics" etc.
There are also letters dealing with the presence of Polish emigrants. We might
add also his plans and projects for the future. Jański placed this type of notes in the
diary in chronological order mixed with synchronous order. An example of this may
be a case belonging to the second type of notes, a text entitled "Confession of
September 14, 1835" from page 293 of Jański's autograph, which he placed in the
diary on page 295 of the original, with the date "Monday, September 14, the Feast of
the Exaltation of the Holy Cross". He localized, that is, in view of the same date, he
placed two different texts next to one another, in the same place and time
(synchronization), which is indicated not only by the dates given, but also by the page
number. Another example of convergence.
The text already mentioned: "Why I returned to the Holy Catholic faith", found
on pages 244-247, under the date December 28, 1834, Jański placed in the Diary
before page 248, which contains notes dated from the 25th to the 31st of December of
that year. The last example: Jański wrote short notes entitled "for clarification"
(p.112) from November 5, 1830, as well as "organization of my future" (p.113) from
November 23rd of that year, and localized both texts which were outside the diary on
page 110 of the diary, where we read: "I set down on a separate sheet some problems
to be clarified." It seems that Jański's intention was to synchronize these non-diary
texts with texts of the diary, which were indicated, and as it were forecast, in them.
However this intention was not entirely realized by the author. A number of undated
texts of the second kind, which Jański wrote in the years 1837-1839, and which we
find on the border of the diary for 1839 remained.5
5 Jański, rummaging through his papers, could have overlooked something, e.g. he could
have put some note in an improper place. However, the number of such pages improperly
localized is comparatively few. On the other hand it is difficult to discern Jański's
omissions when he placed texts which were purposely selected side by side, and which he
left on the edge of his archives. Such texts are, for example: "Our profession of faith"
from August 1, 1839, pages 844-847 (the next page, 488, is empty), "Resolutions of
November 12" from 1835, pages 849-851, and "National service" from December 4,
About Bogdan Jański‟s Diary
XXXVIII
A third class of notes embraces all the notes which the author made use of for
purely practical purposes: to simplify his work, not to waste time, or for the sake of
memory. He undertook various occupations and matters connected with public,
publishing activity. He was engaged in providing help for his emigrant-fellow Poles.
His obligations and interests were increased constantly. In order to meet these
obligations, and fulfill them better, he began to make a note of them on separate cards
- especially from the year 1836, when he embraced the idea of establishing a
religious-lay brotherhood. This is the case with the notes, which we will provisionally
call "daily notes". These are daily notes with a schedule of occupations, an "order" of
the day, in which he planned definite occupations for the following day, for the next
few days and weeks, and even for a few weeks. "I am writing down tasks for
tomorrow" he noted under the date of August 17, 1838. He noted days, even hours of
appointments. Some of the occupations he noted, he chose for a specific purpose
giving them collective mini-titles, such as: "important tasks. "very important tasks",
"things to be done", "the most urgent needs", "works before departure", "buy",
"Accounts", "My primary intentions" etc.
In the group of these notes we find cards with notes reminiscent in outline of
pages from a calendar, from a church calendar, since for some time Jański provided
the list of works forseen for a given week with captions such as: "Works for the first
week of Lent", "The fifth week after Pentecost", "The week after Easter", "The second
week of Advent" etc. We might also mention here notes which included
recommendations, dispositions, tasks and obligations, or instructions which Jański
established for his brothers and disciples.
Thus, these were memory notes, provided for immediate use, cards with notes
positioned vertically in at least two rows, or also in various configurations. Moreover
he also used various distinguishing marks in the text, such as underlining, spaces,
italics, wavy lines, parentheses, brackets, etc.
It would seem that such cards with recommendations or dispositions which had
already been realized, were no longer useful, superfluous, and thus could be thrown
out. That was not the case. Jański kept these notes, spread them out currently in the
diary in just any chronological order. It seems that the author's intention was to use
the preserved daily notes at some time in the future. We know that he did not manage
to complete the writing of the diary. Burdened by various urgent matters, he could at
1835, pages 852-853. Here it is clear that these texts are not numbered sequentially, and
their pagination, which does not stem from the author, did in fact perpetuate the status
quo. These texts selected by Jański are united by an idea, a thought in common, so that
transferring some page from this whole to another place - and that is what happened in
the case of page 851, would be an altogether a priori attempt.
Editor's Comments
XXXIX
least provide daily notes. It is precisely these that could be, and undoubtedly were, for
him something of a substitute for the unwritten diary. He thought that having
preserved the daily notes, he could, on the basis of these, recreate past events, and in
that way make up for what was in arrears in the dairy. He did this at times.
Now we are able to note that quite frequently daily notes and diary notes have
the same date as an entry in which, at least in part, we find the same information. In
turn, in some cases gaps in the diary can be clarified by way of the content of the
daily notes for a particular date. Thus such notes can, at least in part, complete some
of the gaps in the diary. And, the other way around, gaps in the daily notes can in
some measure be implemented by way of the diary. Thus both kinds of notes, daily
and diary, formally independent of one another, indicate unintended imnplications,
useful for interpreting the entries, and enriching them with regard to information.
When interpreting Jański's diary its historical context must be taken into
account. Thus, we must remember that he wrote the diary solely for himself, and for
his own use. In an opposite case, one could freely explain the distinctive features of
this diary, considering it to be a literary composition composed of three different kinds of notes, or perhaps "discovering" in it a new - other than a personal diary composed of daily notes - an individual diary of tasks to be accomplished! However
these would be interpretations foreign to Jański's mind.
We need to remember, sometimes Jański wrote that he must look into the diary
in order to note something. At that time he might have had in mind above all the
personal diary. However it cannot be excluded that at any given moment, thinking
about the diary, he might also have in mind notes not belonging to the diary, but
which had been placed there, that is notes of the second, or especially the third kind.
Thus he could in globo consider all of his notes as diary, to which he had not given a
specific name, since he did not feel such a need for himself, recognizing it as
something obvious. The Congregation of the Priests of the Resurrection, which had
"inherited Jański's papers", treated the aggregate of autographs as his diary. This
became a tradition in its history enduring to our time.
In the present edition of the diary, to which, as already mentioned, Jański did
not give a specific name, it receives the title which we have already indicated: Diary
1830-1839. Likewise, the yearly titles stem from the editor: Diary of the year 1830,
Diary of the year 1831, etc. up to the Diary of 1839.
There still remain to be discussed notes from the fringe of the diary, to which
Jański did not give a name, and names which were given by the editor on the basis of
historical indications partially preserved by the author. At issue here are "Notes for
the diary of the journey" (ACRR 8591, pp. 1140-1145; 8599, pp. 210-211) and "Inti-
About Bogdan Jański‟s Diary
XL
mate notes" (ACRR 8591, pp. 1133-1139) - all of which were written before the end
of 1828.
Jański prepared draft notes for his journey diary of that year. He wanted to
fulfill the obligation placed on him by the Politechnic Council of the Government
Commission in Warsaw. He had received an official document dated September 29,
1828, containing "Instructions and obligations for mister Bogdan Jański, master of
law and administration, as a candidate who is being sent abroad in order to prepare
him to become a professor of the Politechnic Institute." One of his obligations was:
"Moreover he shall keep a Diary of his journey, writing in it his scientific
observations, and everything worth remembering." (ACRR 8495, p.3; Cf. Annex in
the present edition). Such observations were to serve Jański in writing the "Journey
Diary" in a proper form.
He wrote such observations during his journey from Warsaw to Poznań, and
recorded in very concise words the impressions of his journey, especially in Turin,
Berlin, Lipsk, and Frankfurt on the Main. These are simply austere notes, pertaining
most frequently to architecture, farms, mementos, and monuments of Polish, as well
as German national culture.
Already during his voyage, for first in Poznań, he began to write, by way of a
conventional diary, his intimate memories, which ultimately filled only a few pages of
his notebook. He amplified these at various times and places during his brief voyage.
They are filled with a very personal content, such as strictly private remarks
pertaining to his marriage, accompanied by a remark about "fulfilling ridiculous
parish formalities", about "receiving the Body and Blood of Christ from the hands of
the pastor", and "it is consummated". Jański added there, with some irony, "as during
the day, so also at night, one had to do things only pro forma," words which express
the moral indifference of the author who, at that time, considered himself to be an
atheist.
One can presuppose that under the influence of nostalgia, an inner need, and
under pressure by reason of his painful experiences, Jański assumed the attitude of
one writing intimate details, at least something reminiscent of a confidential diary.
And this was a literary form which had become popular in the world of romantic
literature. The formation of new concepts of human personality, emphasizing
individualism and personal experience influenced this in no small measure. This
intimate diary, written by Jański in a tone of melancholy and sentimentality,
constitutes an event without precedence or continuity in the notes of the author. Jański
closed this notebook with the word "Welcome!", as though he wished to bequeath it
to someone (ACRR 8591, pp. 1133-1136, 1138-1139).
Editor's Comments
XLI
When Jański arrived in Paris for the first time, that is on November 18, 1828,
further noting of observations and impressions for the purpose of completing the
journey diary was superfluous. We do not know whether he prepared the "Journey
diary" for the Politechnic Council in a suitable form.
In 1829 Jański was not thinking of something like a diary. He decided to write
a personal diary only early in the autumn of 1830, while he was staying in London. In
December of 1839, the author's departure from Paris to Rome, and his death in July
1840 - which was already mentioned - brought about a final break in the continuation
of the diary.
In 1891, a Polish reader could recognize for the first time original fragments of
Bogdan Jański's diary, selected by Fr. Paul Smolikowski for his History of the
Congregation of the Resurrection. Fr. Felix Szreder, C.R. a biblical scholar undertook
an attempt to interpret the whole of Jański's diary; however the work which he completed in 1941 did not go beyond the stage of an introductory composition. In 1958
Professor Charles Górski of the University of Nicholas Copernicus in Toruń
published some until then unknown fragments of the diary in his work.
Fr. Bolesław Micewski, C.R. undertook the task of preparing the whole of the
diary for print. In this he was guided by his own concept of the work. Fr. Micewski
prepared the text of the diary on the basis of the autograph, and clarified it with
footnotes in 1985. A xerox copy of this version of Jański's diary was made and was
made available to people interested in his life and activity. Fr. Micewski included
many citations from the diary in his biography, Bogdan Jański, founder of the
Resurrectionists, 1807-1840, which he published in 1983, anticipating in this way his
final study of Jański's diary. Fr. Casimir Wójtowicz, C.R. prepared a selection of
thoughts from Jański's writings: Wisdom of Service - Thoughts, Wrocław, 1991.
Recently in her work The Surviving Crown, Warsaw 1995, (in the chapter on Bogdan
Jański), Sister Alina Merdas, RSCJ, cited significant fragments from the writings of
Bogdan Jański. We might add that chapters of her book: A Picture of the era and
Menezjanism - constitute a reliable introduction to the religious creativeness not only
of C. Norwid, but also of B. Jański.
In February of 1987 the Superior General and General Council of the Congregation of the Resurrection in Rome decided that B. Jański's diary should be elaborated
by a lay person with editorial qualifications. This task was committed to Andrew
Jastrzębski from Warsaw, who was granted complete freedom in consulting the
archives and in elaborating a concept for publishing the diary.
In the editorial task of preparing the diary of B. Jański, the following principles
were accepted:
1. The transcribing of the diary was to be based on existing autographs.
About Bogdan Jański‟s Diary
XLII
2. The texts of the diary are presented in chronological order. These are
preceded by slight daily notes, which, in the original, were written together, divided
into days and weeks, but were not divided into any further fragments.
3. All the texts - with the exception of the daily notations - are presented in
ordinary type, but the daily notations are in smaller type. The personal diary is presented here as a record independent of other entries.
4. Non-diary texts, in large part mentioned in the diary of a given year, are
placed at the end of this diary in a separate section called Supplement.
5. In the margin of the text, its origin is noted in th form of a fragment: the
number of the signature with a line, under which the sign of the page of the autograph
is cited (e.g. 8627/426); the arabic number noted in the margin indicates the page of
the autograph, together with which the signature is not repeated.
6. In dating the entries it was decided to indicate in the usual manner the day
(or name of he day), name of the month, and eventually the year, with which the notation of the author is always given first , then - if not complete - in square brackets the
remaining elements of the notation (e.g. Wednesday [January 12] or 12 [January,
Wednesday]; dates are distinguished by italics.
7. In the diary, under the same date, occasionally two similar versions of a
fragment occur cited on different pages: the first, earlier (?) version of the fragment, is
marked by the + sign before and after to differentiate it from the fragment of a later
(?) version. Jański preserved two versions of the fragment similar in content. In the
same way individual fragments, sentences or words, which were written by the author
on the margin of the notes without indicating their place in the original, were
introduced into the text by the editor.
8. In every case the square brackets used in the diary indicate an intervention
of the editor. He is the source of all the reconstructions of works (e.g. Ung =
U[mschwu]ng). As a rule clarification of words that are little known, when they
appear for the first time, as well as Polish and foreign phrases, and finally Polish
translations following immediately after texts in other languages, is given in square
brackets. I cite fragments of B. Jański's French letters according to the translation of
Professor Stephen Meller; translation in ACRR.
In the present edition are found all of the diary notations written by Jański.
Only one fragment was not included, which neverthless the author himself left out of
the diary. This is the text mark by the pressmark 8601, page 350, without any note of
the year: "May 13, which until recently disturbed my peace, hindered my activity, and
poisoned my emotions? - Madness, ambition, lack of experience and habits."
Editor's Comments
XLIII
From the notes of a different kind those texts were selected for the Appendix
which the author himelf marked in his diary, as well as those which, in the estimation
of the editor merited special attention. Other texts were omitted, since for the most
part they repeated wording of the author already included in our edition. In that case
one can say that the Appendices represent a selection of reflections, or considerations
of Jański, made by the editor.
From the entries of a third kind, only a few notes, of little significance, which
the author did not date, were left out.
Great efforts were made to make sure that the text of the diary would be
faithfully reproduced in print, and that it would retain all of the proper characteristics
of the author's language and style.
Therefore the following were retained:
archaic forms, departing from present-day Polish, e.g. "wspomnął, pomięszany, sąmnienie, mięszkanie, fragmenta, strunica, zobaczemy, tłomaczyć, czyniemy.”
a consonant in position before another consonant: "szkarpetki, Szląsk, szlady,
szlub, zeszle, nadeszle"
the ending -ą in the accusative of feminine nouns: "kompanią, emigracją,
pensją, propozycją, na mszą, na lekcją.
former adverbial forms: poboczno, jednastajno, możebno, piechoto, po trochę.
dialectical forms: chiba (meaning chyba), posełam, jachał, spiemy, etc.
The author often uses często after a negation of the fourth case, although at
times he uses the second case.
The author sometimes uses words forms such as: zniósłem, spółeczeństwo,
tlómaczenie.
Variant forms are sometimes used in the text: e.g. chrześciański/chrześcijański,
sławiański/słowiański.
In some places in the text syntactical or morphological errors have not been
corrected.
In a limited measure the author's underlining and spacing of words has been
preserved.
Changes
Jański, in writing his diary, usually strove for precision and conciseness in his
statements. For this purpose he used various methods, thanks to which these
expressions sometimes took on a telegraphic character (e.g. in the area of daily notes).
About Bogdan Jański‟s Diary
XLIV
He used elipses, that is in a sentence he omitted words which could often be
inferred on the basis of the wider context.
A favorite trick of Jański was the abbreviation of words; moreover he used his
own system of abbreviation.
The principle was accepted that abbreviations used by the author be silently
developed in accord with the contextual meaning, or substituted by the proper words where this was possible - without using square brackets. In doubtful cases some
abbreviations were retained.
And thus: the one letter abbreviation p. can pertain to such word forms as pan,
pani, panna, państwo, pater, and the like. The abbreviation x or ks. can refer to a
ksiądz, księcia, or księży, and even księstwa. The same is true of the abbreviation ś. or
św. which might relate to świętego, świętej, świętych, and also to mszy, komunii,
patrona kościoła etc. Words like ks. Giedrojć, out of context, were preserved since it
is unknown whether this refers to księcia or księżnej.
The author of the diary used one-letter abbreviations of names or surnames,
which in obvious instances was replaced by the proper words, and in doubtful cases
the proposed explanation was placed in square brackets, sometimes with a question
mark. Examples: F.L. = [Fanny Lebert]; A.M. = [Adam Mickiewicz].
For Jański the manner of abbreviating certain words was characteristic; e.g. na
śnie = na śniadanie; pwienie = postanowienie (on this abbreviation the author sometimes used a wavy line ~); niebnie = niepotrzebnie; wści = wiadomości; ndowy =
narodowy; rty = rozwinięty; wny = wewnętrzny; zny = zewnętrzny; ony = ogólny;
stsim = saintsimonizm, etc. And in these cases we do not use square brackets.
All main, collective, or serial numbers following arabic numerals (e.g. 8 miu,
9ciu, 7ro, 3ciej etc) have been replaced by the proper words, in certain cases taking into
account the proper sound of the developed version, as for example ośm or osiem, et
al.
The orthography and punctuation was modernized. The pause used in the
autographs was replaced by all of the writer's marks, especially the period, comma,
semicolon. Other punctuation marks were retained in accord with the original (e.g. the
question mark, the exclamation point.)
All the titles of the periodicals and titles of book stores, as well as the names of
institutions and organizations were verified. Individuals mentioned in the diary were
identified, and geographic names were verified.
It should be emphasized that in the diary no factual errors were found. In
Jański's accounts one is struck by his reliability and accuracy of expression.
Andrew Jastrzębski
JOURNEY DIARY
NOTES1
Year 1828
I received the Instruction [of the Education Commission]2 on Friday, 8591
1140
October 10.
1
2
The title, "Journey Diary," and the sub-title, "Notes", as well as the following “Private
Diary. Year 1828”, derive from the editors. In the first case, they relied on the
Government Instruction "for Mr. Bogdan Jański" (cf. Appendix), which laid the following obligation on him: "Moreover, he shall keep a Diary of his journey, noting in it
his scholarly observations and anything worthy of memory." The subtitle follows the
practice of the author himself, who used the word "notes" for some of his remarks written
in draft form, which are like those in the "Journey Diary." The original manuscripts, with
notes from the journey, were not given page numbers by the author, and are not included
in the basic collection of the "Diary" (with the archive number 8627). They were given
two archive numbers (8591 and 8599), and received incorrect page numbers. The text of
these manuscripts is located on five sheets of different sizes. They were written on both
sides, either in ink, indelible pencil, or ordinary pencil. The hand written notes are
compressed, crammed together; in places they have become faded, and even erased, with
the passage of time. As a result, there are gaps in the text now being presented, which by
mutual agreement are marked by periods. Places where the notation is illegible are
marked in the same way.
The arrangement of the notes, which the author most probably composed straight
away, as it were on the run, is chaotic. These notes were not always dated, and very often
the date given is incomplete. As a result, it was necessary to reconstruct the text, and to
shift the notes about with regard for the chronology. Some doubts concerning
abbreviations used by the author, and certain words whose meaning is not clear, are
indicated by a question mark in brackets.
Bogdan Jański, a Master of Law and Administration, "as a candidate to be sent abroad in
order to prepare him to become a professor of the Polytechnic Institute," received an
official letter from the Government Commission for Religious Denominations and Public
Education of the Kingdom of Poland dated September 29, 1828. The letter contained
"instructions and obligations" for the period of graduate studies outside of Poland, mainly
in Paris. Cf. the text of this instruction in the Appendix.
JOURNEY DIARY
2
A Letter of Recommendation [from Minister Stanislaus Grabowski]3 October 13, Monday. I was to leave on Friday, October 17.
[October] 20 - Left Warsaw on Monday.
[October] 21, Tuesday - Left Serock, near Zleciały; moved to Pękowo. I am
feeling weak.
[October] 22, Wednesday - [to Kozłów]4.
[October] 23, Thursday - Przewodowo; wedding5.
1141
[October] 24, Friday - Departed from Pękowo.
Płock: Cathedral, a factory for women's dresses; an appeal [needed
money]; friends6.
3
4
5
6
An open letter of recommendation, in both Latin and French, from the Government
Commission for Religious Denominations and Public Education of the Kingdom of
Poland, recommending the holder of a scholarship, Theodore [Bogdan] Jański, to
authorities at universities outside of Poland. The letter is dated September 29, 1828, and
is signed by the Minister of the Commission, Stanislaus Grabowski, and the Secretary
General, Edward Rakietty. The original is found in ACRR 8495, p.152.
In the original manuscript, the notes under October 21 and 22 are smudged, and in some
places are illegible. Relying on data from the Private Diary, which carries greater weight
chronologically, (Cf. November 5, 1828, Berlin), the following conjectures were made:
The note from October 22, "To Pękowo, I am weak," was moved to the 21st of October,
and [to Kozłów] was put in its place. Pękowo and Kozłów, a few kilometers apart, are
villages northwest of Pułtusk. In 1828, after their wedding, Francis and Caroline, nee
Zawadzki, Grabowski ran a farm on leased property in Pękowo. Caroline was
Alexandra's sister. They were the daughters of Isabel, nee Łaszowski, and August
Zawadzki, a Colonel of the Polish Army. At the time, their father was staying in Kozłów
with his brother-in-law, Matthias Łaszowski, who was the village squire.
The wedding of Alexandra Zawadzki and Bogdan Jański took place in the parish church
in Przewodowo, near Pękowo. Cf. Private Diary: November 5, Berlin.
Płock - One of the oldest cities in Poland, it was known as early as the middle of the 9th
century. From that time it was the seat of the Mazovian province, and temporarily the
residence of kings. In 1075 it became an episcopal see. After the second partition of
Poland (1793), Prussia occupied Płock along with other cities. In 1807, it was the
departmental seat of the principality of Warsaw. When the Kingdom of Poland was
created in 1816, it became the capital of a province. This led to gradual economic and
cultural development. The Płock Scientific Society came into being in 1820.
The Romanesque cathedral (tum) was rebuilt in Renaissance style, and later as
Neo-Roman. In the empire Chapel of the Kings, one can see the sarcophaguses of kings
Władysław Herman, and Bolesław Krzywousty, designed by Zygmunt Volga, professor
of the Department of Education and Fine Arts at the University of Warsaw.
YEAR 1828
3
1140
[October] 25 - left Płock on Saturday.
Gombin: church with monuments, new, in new style .....monument. Town 1141
hall.
1140
[October] 26 - left Gombin on Sunday.
1141
Gostynin: a beautiful area, Evangelical church, and a Catholic church in a
small forest.
Rakutowo: about 100 settlements, a more numerous array of huts; fizys
[shape], dress, peasant dwellings.
Kowal: houses, windowpanes. - My head hurts.
Włocławek: quite large [a city], business, churches, cafes. Gros[s]
V[a]e[d]tke, with Mr. Palmer7.
A fall.
Nieszawa at night, U[mschwu]ng [a sudden change] of course.
Służewo Małe, before the money was dug up.
[October] 27 - left Służewo on Monday.
1140
T[h]orn [Toruń]: Toruń stone, citadel (Brusch), Festung [fortress], ..... 1141
bridge, town hall, houses8. A mold used to fashion an image of Copernicus
made of gingerbread, population, a Prussian soldier, Polish Jews. Post-office.
Kamolein9. Did not see a money exchange. Friedländer10.
7
8
9
The author mentions names of his friends in Płock in the Private Diary.
Włocławek - One of the largest cities of Poland at the time of the Piasts. The first paper
factory in Poland was built here in 1799.
In the author's manuscript we have the note Gros velte, This undoubtedly refers to the
abovementioned paper factory which was established by Gotfryd Gross and the soap
factory established by Vaedtke in 1825.
Palmer - an unidentified person.
Toruń - Once an old settlement; in the 14th century it became a commercial market
belonging to the Hanse. In the years 1793-1820 it had been annexed by Prussia, and
belonged to the Principality of Warsaw only in the period 1807-1815. This is the
birthplace of Nicholas Copernicus, and of Jański's acquaintances Samuel Bogumił Linde
and Francis Skarbek, professors at the University of Warsaw.
Franz Brusch von Neuberg (1767 - May 15, 1809), an Austrian colonel. He was Chief
of the General Staff with the 7th Corps of the army led by Archduke Ferdinand. After
capturing Warsaw in 1809, the Austrian armies moved on to the castle at Toruń, where
the government of the Principality of Warsaw sought refuge. Colonel Brusch perished
when the city was taken. Archduke Ferdinand erected a monument to his memory,
situated in the courtyard, at the bridge abutment.
Kamolein - In a letter to his wife (Berlin, November 6, 1828), Bogdan Jański notes: On
the trip from Płock to Toruń "I made the acquaintance of two Frenchmen. One especially,
Mr. Camolen, a young businessman from Brussels, became a good friend...
JOURNEY DIARY
4
A quintal of gingerbreads costs about 10 dollars.
A gingerbread-maker from Toruń made one large one for 30 dollars, as a
1140
gift from a Jewish speculator to a Polish major. Bäcker Gasse [Piekarska Street]
and Altthorn strasse [Old Toruń Street]. The house of Copernicus, where there
is a self-portrait, made when he was still a young man, with the inscription:
Clarissimus et doctissimus Nic[olaus] Cop[ernicus] Can[onicus] Varm[iensis].
Astronomus incomparabilis. Anno 1593.
[The most illustrious and most learned man, Nicholas Copernicus. Canon at
Warmia, incomparable astronomer. In the year 1593.]
A French general offered 60 dollars. Visited with Mr. Mathiesus.
1141
Schnellpost 8 Silbergroschen de Danzig a Konin, 8 Silbergroschen de
Bomberg a Berlin.
[Fast mail-coach, 8 silver coins from Gdańsk to Konin, 8 silver coins from
Włocławek to Berlin.]
1140
Left Toruń at 2 o'clock.
1141
Gniewków.
1140 [October] 28 - Left Gniewków on Tuesday.
1141
Inowrocław: churches, Jewish [synagogue], Evangelical church.
Pakość: small churches, dams - caution is necessary. A beautiful forest, a
lack of wood.
1140 [October] 29 - Left Pakość on Wednesday.
Near Gniezno we began [?] to sway.
Gniezno: environs, cathedral, architecture of the houses. Episcopal See.
The people are quite clever.
1140
In Gniezno. The silver tomb of St. Adalbert, resting on 6 eagles; the
figure is on a couch, leaning on his right arm, a book in his left hand, etc.
1141
10
David Friedländer (1750-1834) was active in the cause of emancipation of Jews, who
were subjected to a variety of petty annoyances and restrictions in Prussia under
Frederick the Great. He contributed to the break-down of social and legal barriers
imposed upon his fellow Jews and gradually obtained equality of rights for them. He was
the first Jewish city councillor in Berlin, established a free school for the Jews, was
co-founder of the magazine "Meassef," and obtained permission to open a Jewish printing
house.
YEAR 1828
5
14 chapels, full of old monuments. In the chapel of the Circumcision of
Christ, statues of Zachary, St. Joseph, Christ, etc., and a Pole, shaven, and with
a great moustache, leaning forward. [The year] 1646 on the chapel11.
[October] 30 - left the village beyond Gniezno on Thursday.
1141
Pudwitz [Pobiedziska]: Jewish, small.
Posen12: crowded, houses, a dam, city hall, shape of the houses, Archbishop's residence, hotels, churches, book stores.... citadel. - Wineries, obstacles
barring the way to the center, Wilde. - An open fire in the stoves, ... 2
fountains13. A city hall, with kings14 in the various rooms. Hotels.....etc. ....
11
12
13
In Gniezno, the seat of the first Polish Metropolitan See (1000), the cathedral bears the
name of the Most Holy Virgin Mary, and was erected by King Mieszko I prior to 977. In
one of the chapels dotting the side aisles of the cathedral, the Lubieński chapel, also
called the Chapel of the Presentation (Circumcision), in a stuccoed altar of the late
baroque there is a picture of the Presentation of the Child Jesus in the Temple, bearing the
date 1646.
Poznań - a principality which dates from the middle of the 10th century, later rebuilt and
fortified by Mieszko I and Boleslaus Chrobry. From the 10th and beginning of the 11th
century, it was the capital of Poland. Situated next to the principality, are the cathedral
enclave and the Śròdka market place. In 968 the Episcopal See was established, and the
building of the cathedral began. In the following centuries, the city became one of the
main commercial centers in Europe (East-West). The second partition of Poland resulted
in the Prussian occupation of the city. In the years 1806-1815, together with Greater
Poland, it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. By a decision of the Congress of Vienna,
Great Poland and Poznań its capital achieved status as an integral part of the Prussian
State. The king at that time, Frederick Wilhelm III Hohenzollern, bore the title of Great
Prince of Poznań. The office of King's Deputy was established, with residence in Poznań.
The office was conferred upon Prince Anthony Radziwiłł, the husband of Princess Luisa
Hohenzollern. The chief president of the principality, at that time Johann Baumann, was
nominated by the king of Germany.
In 1821, archiepiscopal sees were established in Gniezno and Poznań. The cathedral
of Saints Peter and Paul is located in the cathedral enclave. The body of Bishop Andrew
Szołdrski (+1650) is entombed in a silver coffin in one of the 12 chapels within this
shrine, that is, in the chapel of the Most Holy Virgin Mary. Mieszko I and Boleslaus
Chrobry, the first rulers of Poland, were buried in the center of the nave. It wasn't until
1837 that their remains were transferred to the Golden Chapel, which, in the years
1837-1838, was furnished with their statues. These were etched in bronze by Christian
Daniel Rauch (Cf. below, footnote 18).
2 fountains - Marcellus Motty tells us that "in former times what was considered to be the
best water came from the regent's courtyard, i.e., the post-Jesuit building - water which
the Jesuits brought in from a spring outside the city, as well as water from the fountains in
the Old Market which also came from springs. Thus, I can remember how, when I was
still young, servants were told that to draw drinking water they were to go to the line, that
is, to the college or to the pipe, that is to the market, where water from the fountain
flowed from pipes." (Walks Through the City, Warsaw, 1957, Vol. I, p. 211).
JOURNEY DIARY
6
Pielarski [?], Listecki [?]. Money exchange 8. Königlich [royal], König [king],
fountains.
1145
The [cathedral] church in Poznań, a totally ordinary structure, tapestry,
2[?] columns, 2 pedestals, a high altar. Monuments, Szołdrski, Radzi[ejjowski?]. Organ, dormer window.
I did not see the doors15 in Gniezno,
in Poznań - the tomb of the kings, the parish
church, in the townhall [?] I did not take note.
Schöneman.
Bauman.16
1144 [October] 31 - left Poznań on Friday, at 12.
1145
Jankowice. Engeström. Sz[osa] Chwałkowska... Bruce with Prusimski17
Bytyn: a village, small, wealthy.
Pniewy: small Jewish town.
Silna: a village.
Międzyrzecz: Kreisstadt [district town].
Moraczewski18
14
15
16
17
18
The city hall. At the end of the 13th century this was expanded in Renaissance style.
Portraits of Poland's kings hang in the rooms of the hall.
"I did not see the doors in Gniezno." This is a reference to the famous bronze doors
(c.1170 A.D.) on which scenes of the life and death of St. Adalbert are depicted.
Johann Baumann (1767-1830), a Prussian bureaucrat mentioned above in footnote 12,
was chief president of the Great Principality of Poznań 1825-1830. During his
administration, in 1828, great grounds and building projects were initiated. This was
connected with the building of the fortress.
Jankowice - a village in the jurisdiction of Poznań, the property of Engeström, obtained
as a part of the marriage dowry of his wife Rose Chłapowski.
Lawrence (Lars) Engeström (1751-1826) - chancellor of Sweden; former secretary of
the Swedish King Gustave III. As charge d'affaires in Vienna, he made the acquaintance
of a number of Poles. One of these Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, later obtained for him the
right to Polish citizenship. Court Chancellor under Gustave IV. Husband of Rose
Chłapowski. In 1824, he left government service. He spent the rest of his life in
Jankowice, where he died on August 19, 1826.
After Engeström's death, his widow Rose managed the estate. Matilda Bruce, a
foster-child born in Sweden, remained in her care from childhood. According to the
records, Matilda was exceptionally beautiful, and was related to the Swedish royal Waz
family. Matilda married Maximilian Prusimski (born in 1800). Jański made a note of their
marriage at the time of his journey from Poznań to Berlin in October 1828. A son,
Edmund, was born to the Prusimskis (in 1830). But the marriage did not last. Maximilian
re-married; and the divorced Matilda married Hertzog, a doctor in Poznań.
This undoubtedly refers to Jędrzej Moraczewski (1802-1855). His family belonged to the
landed gentry in the jurisdiction of Poznań. He pursued higher studies in Leipzig and
Heidelberg, and, in 1827, at the law school in Warsaw. It is possible that Jański made his
YEAR 1828
7
About stage-coaches.
Kamieński.
About passagierstubach [rooms for travelers], (Nowicki).19
About stubach [rooms], about lying down, and the sound of horns.
November 1, Saturday.
Breakfast in Międzyrzecz.
November 2, Sunday - spent the night in Frankfurt [on the Oder].
Left Frankfurt, arrived in Berlin20.
19
20
acquaintance at that time. In 1829 Moraczewski received a master's degree in both laws.
In that same year he was co-editor of "The Universal National Gazette" in Warsaw, and a
translator (in 1827, in Wrocław, he published the "Elegies and Verses of Albius
Tibullus"). He took part in the November uprising, and was an agent of the National
Government in Germany. In later years he gained prominence as a social worker and
nationalist, as well as a historian and journalist, collaborating with the Polish press in the
Principality of Poznań from 1834 to 1839.
Kamieński - the name is closely associated in the manuscript with the name of
Moraczewski, and points unequivocally to a Leo Louis Felix Kamieński (18061873), an
editor, publisher, bookseller and printer who, in cooperation with Jędrzej Moraczewski,
founded a bookstore and publishing house in Poznań in the Old Market.
The note about the passagierstubach, or rooms for passengers, and the mention of
Nowicki concurs with the account of Marcellus Motty. It approximates, and to some
degree clarifies, the meaning of Jański's statement. In 1836, Motty left Poznań for studies
in Berlin: "The first conductor with whom I rode was a Pole named Nowacki, a short,
ruddy individual [...] The first stations on this journey were: Gaj, Pniewy, Kamionn and
Górzyn. In Pniewy, as I remember, we always took delight in the excellent coffee [...] as
well as the brahmins and dancing girls, the elephants and tigers, the palms and the
temples which were depicted in magnificent colors on the wall hangings of the room for
passengers." (M. Motty, op. cit., vol.I, p.184).
Berlin after the Congress of Vienna - The capital of Prussia, and the primary residence of
King Frederick Wilhelm III from 1797 to 1840, in the Brandenburg province. Seat of the
university which was founded in 1810, as well as of academies, schools and military
institutes. Carl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841), one of the most distinguished architects
of the first half of the 19th century, employed the style of both classicism and
romanticism, and contributed to the architectural splendor of Berlin. Among others, he
built: the New Guardhouse (the Royal Guardhouse), a theater and concert hall, the
(Schauspielhaus), the castle bridge, a new Wilhelm Street, and the war memorial on
Kreuzberg.
Along with Schinkel, Christian Daniel Rauch (1777-1857) played an important role in
the embellishment of Berlin. He was a famous sculptor who, at the request of the king,
planned and executed the monument to Queen Luisa, as well as statues of participants in
the war of liberation, Generals Scharnhorst, Bülow, and Blücher, which are situated in the
Guardhouse square in Berlin. In close cooperation with Schinkel, Rauch participated in
the erection of the monument on Kreuzberg.
1144
JOURNEY DIARY
8
November 3, Monday.
At the exposition,
at Hegel,
the city, monuments.
November 4, Tuesday.
At the theater, Königstrasse [King Street].
At Kreuzberg. At Bent[h]'s.
Kreuzberg21 behind the Halle Gate [Hallesche Thor]. A Square surrounded by a lattice, in the form of an octagon with eight towers, on an
octagonal marble base with five steps; made of cast iron in separate
furnaces by Rauch. One enters by walking up 10 steps.
1142
King....., Rauch, up 4 steps.....Scharnhorst22 ..... surrounded by a cast
grating.
Inscription on the base:
Der König dem Volke, das auf seinen Ruf hochherzig Gut und Blut dem
Vaterland verbrachte,
den Gefallenen zum Gedechtniss,
den Lebenden zur Anerkennung,
den kunftigen Geschlechtern zur Nacheiferung.
1143
21
22
In Berlin, an Opera House [Operenhaus] was constructed in the Greek style;
museums came into being, as well as an observatory, banks, exchanges, an arsenal
[Zeughaus], a gas works operated by an English firm, textile and other factories,
Gewerbsinstitut [an Industrial Institute], whose director, Benth, refused to allow Jański to
enter the building, even "to look at the machines."
In view of the high standard of teaching, and especially the unprecedented success of
the lectures of the philosopher George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (17701831), the
University in Berlin drew many students and auditors, among these many Poles,
especially from the territories annexed by Prussia.
Kreuzberg, a sandy hill near Berlin at the southern end, on which, in the years 1818-1821,
a national monument was erected to commemorate the war of liberation. Upon the
summons of Frederick Wilhelm III, An mein Volk [To my People], on March 17, 1813,
the German nation went to war against Napoleon. This monument, in the form of a
Gothic tower, was designed by Schinkel. it was made of cast iron, contained 12 symbols
of victory set in niches, which were executed by Rauch, among others.
Gerhard Johann von Scharnhorst (1755-1813) – a Prussian general, distinguished
re-organizer of the army; participant in the war of liberation. He was mortally wounded in
the battle of Gross Görschen. A national hero commemorated in, among other things, a
marble statue sculptured by Rauch.
YEAR 1828
9
[The King to a people, who, at his call, generously gave blood and life for the
Fatherland; in memory of those who died, as a mark of recognition to the living, as an
example to future generations.]
A gothic tower with towers on five levels, 12 figures depicting ancient
leaders or gods of victory; it is constructed with something like 12 windows,
with an inscription beneath each as follows:23
1143
Gross Görschen den 2 Mai 1813
Culm 30 August 1813
23
Under the niches containing the 12 symbols of victory, the places and the dates of the
battles are indicated. Jański noted these dates and places on a sheet of paper. Gross
Görschen den 2 Mai 1813 - a village on the Saale, west of Leipzig and south of Lützen
where, on May 2, 1813, in a battle (called "the battle of Lützen) Napoleon won a victory
over the Russian-Prussian armies; however, the victory was not decisive.
Culm, August 30, 1813 - a village in Czechoslovakia noted for the battles between the
French and the Russo-Prussian allies that were fought there on the 29th and 30th of
September, 1813.
Dennewitz 6 7bre 1813 - in the manuscript: Denkewitz. A village in the Prussian
district of Potsdam. On September 6 (7bre is a French abbreviation for September) 1813,
the Prussian general, Friedrich Wilhelm Bülow defeated the armies of Napoleon. For this
the king conferred on him the title: Graf von Dennewitz.
Leipzig 18 8bre, 1813 (8bre - a French abbreviations for October) - from October 16
to 19 1813, near Leipzig, stubborn battles were fought in which soldiers of many nations
participated (hence the name, "battle of the nations"), and which ended in the defeat of
the Napoleonic armies.
Wartenburg 13 8bre 1813 - a village in the Prussian district of Merseburg, where, on
October 13, 1813 French forces suffered losses in a battle with the Prussian army.
La Rothiére February 14, 1814 - a village in the French department of Aube. On February
14, 1814, the Prussian general Blücher defeated the French armies, forcing Napoleon to
retreat to the Seine.
Paris March 30, 1814 - The battles around Paris which were fought on March 30
ended early on the 31st of March with the surrender of the French capital to the allied
armies of Prussia, Russia, Austria and England.
Bar sur Aube, February 27, 1814 - a locality south of La Rothiére, where Blücher
gained a victory over the Napoleonic forces on February 27, 1814.
Laon, March 9, 1814 - a city northwest of Reims, where Prussian generals Blücher
and Bülow defeated the French armies on March 9, 1814.
Belle Alliance, June 18, 1815 - the name of a tavern on the road from Brussels to
Genappe in the province of Brabant. Here, on June 18, 1815, the Anglo-Prussian army
defeated Napoleon decisively, forcing him to abdicate. This battle, known as the Battle of
Waterloo, is called the "Battle of Belle Alliance" in German historical literature.
Gross Beeren August 13, 1814 - a village near Potsdam. The Prussian general
Blücher, at the head of a Silesian army defeated Napoleon on August 13, 1814.
Katzbach 26 August 1813 - On the left bank of the Oder in Silesia (Kaczawa) the
Prussian general Blücher emerged victorious in a battle against the French forces on
August 26, 1813.
JOURNEY DIARY
10
Dennewitz 6 7bre 1813
Leipzig 18 8bre 1813
Wartenburg 13 8bre 1813
La Rothière 14 Febr. 1814
Paris 30 Mars 1814
Bar sur Au[b]e 27 Febr. 1814
Laons 9 Mars 1814
Belle Alliance 18 Juni 1815
Gross Beeren 13 August 1813
Katzbach 26 August 1813
1144 November 5, Wednesday
At Gans, Jaeger, Fuchs24.
At the exposition.
At the zoological and anatomical displays.25
In the Schauspielhaus [theater].
[Thursday, November] 6
Letters. At the Opernhaus [Opera].
At the diorama of Gropius.26
[Friday, November] 7
At the porcelain factory.27
24
25
26
27
Eduard Gans (1792-1839) - a representative of the philosophical school of jurisprudence.
From 1828 he was a full professor of the faculty of law in Berlin. He was the author of a
number of treatises. His principal merit was the compilation and publication of the
lectures of Hegel under the title A Philosophy of History. He was co-founder of "Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik".
Jaeger - the German name means literally "huntsman, trapper"; but it may be the
name of an unidentified person.
Johann Fuchs (1774-1856), one of the outstanding mineralogists of the 19th century,
a doctor of medicine and a member of the Academies of Science in Berlin and Vienna.
The University of Berlin possessed a number of rich collections: zoological, anatomical,
mineralogical, etc.
Diorama - a picture painted onto a transparent material or glass which, as a result of
artificial lighting from both sides, gives the impression of three dimensions. The painter
Karl Wilhelm Gropius (1793-1870) introduced such a diorama in Berlin on October 20,
1827, and with this presentation initiated a permanent exhibition of paintings. He was
considered to be the originator of decorative painting, and held the position of inspector
of the royal theater.
Commissioned by the Prussian King Frederick II, in 1763 a Pole, Jan Ernest Gockowski
(1710-1775), established a porcelain factory in Berlin. Beginning as an assistant in the
YEAR 1828
11
Wilhelmsplatz [Wilhelm Square].
Oranienburg Thor [The Oranienburg Gate].
[Saturday, November] 8 - left Berlin at 6 PM.
1145
8599
210
Sunday, [November] 9 - left for Leipzig28 at 2 o'clock.
In Leipzig, in the Reichenbachsche Garten [the Reichenbach Garden], a 211
monument to Poniatowski, on the banks of the Elyster:
"Here, in the waters of the Elyster, Prince Joseph Poniatowski, commander-in-chief of the Polish armies, Marshal of the French Nation, afflicted with
three mortal wounds while covering the rear of the great French army, and the
last to leave the battlefield, reached the end of a life dedicated to honor and
country on October 19, 1813, at the age of 52.
This modest memorial, was erected and sprinkled with his own tears by a
Pole for a fellow Pole, by a soldier for his Commander."
(Hic in fluctibus Elyster[ae] Josephus Poniatowski, Princeps, dux
exercitis Poloniae praefectus, Imperii Gallici Marescalcus, tribus mortalibus
vulneribus tactus, et ultimus a proelii campo cedens, vitae gloriae et patriae
sacratae die 19 8bre A[nno] 1813, aetatis impleto 52.
Populus populari, duci miles hoc monumentum suis lacrimis irrigatum
posuit.)
28
trade, he later made a fortune by establishing a famous shop specializing in fancy goods.
He ran into financial difficulties and died a pauper.
Leipzig - From 1165, a city famous especially for autumn and spring fairs, but also
known for its musical traditions; it was a center for publishers and book-sellers.
From the Paris letter which Jański wrote to his wife Alexandra on December 24,
1828: "I left Berlin November 8. Within 18 hours I had moved comfortably by fast coach
through Potsdam and Wittenberg – the latter took pride in the fact that Martin Luther
once lived there, and in the beautiful monument erected to his memory - on to Leipzig.
Since I could not connect with a stage coach that was going further, I remained there for a
day and a half. In itself it is difficult to believe that such pedestrian surroundings became
the grave of the might of that child of fortune [Napoleon], and of the commander [Joseph
Poniatowski] who, rightly or wrongly, was loved by the Poles. The latter's grave is an
inconspicuous brook, marked only by a simple stone bearing an inscription."
Prince Joseph Poniatowski (1763-1813), commander of the Polish army of the
Principality of Warsaw, a marshal of France, drowned in the Elster while trying to swim
across. He was 50 years old.
JOURNEY DIARY
12
[November] 10 - left Leipzig on Monday, and arrived in W[eimar]29 at 6.
November 12, Wednesday - left for Frankfurt [am Main] at 5 in the evening.30
13 [November, Thursday].....
14 November, Friday - [Frankfurt-am-Mein] - bridge, streets, roofs. Met
Łyśniewski31 here; at the theater.
15 [November, Saturday] .... 4 P.M.; the hotel is expensive.
16 [November] Sunday - [from Frankfurt-am-main through] Mainz,
Kaiserlautern, dinner..... At night in Sa[a]r brü[c]ken. - Vorbach [Forbach],
Fouligny, Metz.
29
30
31
Weimar - From 1579 the capital of the Weimar princes, and from 1815 capital of the
Grand Duchy of Weimar. It was an artistic and cultural center. The following lived and
composed there: the painter Lucas Cranach, Johann Sebastian Bach, Herder, Wieland; but
especially Frederick Schiller (+1805) and Johann Wolfgang Goethe, who lived here from
1782 to the time of his death, that is, March 22, 1832.
In the same letter to his wife Alexandra, Jański writes: "Like a bird I flew through
Weimar, the capital of German elegance, and through the beautiful encircling region of
Goth."...
The manuscript does not note the date November 11. The notes that follow, from
November 12 to 16, written with pen and pencil, are meager, twisting, partly obliterated,
very difficult to read, and in places unintelligible. Obscure passages and gaps can be
cleared away in part by referring to a fragment which we cite, and which comes from the
rough draft of Jański's letter of December 25-26, 1828 addressed to his wife Alexandra:
"14 [of November] I arrived in Frankfurt-am-Main. Not knowing where to go, I chose a
room in a nearby post hotel. If I had not been in the capital of polite and formal
expressions, I would have said: Let the devil take this frankfurtian hotel and its host! For
I ask you: Is it right to charge more than 3 ducats for 2 days of a room, linens, breakfast,
table d'hote dinner and tea in the evening? What could I do? I had to pay. [...] I left
Frankfurt on the 16th. I passed through Mainz by night. [...] In Saarbrücken we made our
first contact with the custom officials. [...] After passing through Metz, Verdun, Chalons,
Chateau Thiery and Meaux, I arrived safely in Paris on November 18th."
In a letter to Michael Jaroszewski dated December 13, Jański summarized his stay in
Prussia: "I arrived in Paris on the 18th [of November], having left the capital of Prussia
on the 8th [of that month]. Prussia left me with a very agreeable impression by reason of
the works of art and industry, as well as by reason of a few people I came to know,
friends of Louis [Królikowski] and Theodore [Olechowski], now deceased."
This may be Gaspard Łyśniewski, who later participated in the November Uprising, or
Ignatius Łyszniewski from Poznań, who later participated in the Uprising as captain in
the 21st infantry regiment.
8591
1145
PRIVATE DIARY
Year 1828
8591
Warsaw October 10, Friday after the Tuesday
Poznań, 31 octobre 1828 1133
session, I received a summons from the Council
of the Polytechnic Institute1 to serve as a government emissary for the Institute
of technology. I also received an Instruction of the Educational Commission.
On Monday, October 13, I received a further open letter of recommendation
from the minister. Everything was speeded up so that I might leave by the
Kalish coach on Tuesday the 14th. However, friendly and economic concerns
1
In 1825, a Polytechnic Council was created in Warsaw. Its task was to form a Polytechnic
Institute. To this end, the Council, with its President Count Louis Plater at its head, set up
a preparatory school for students, which, in time, would become the actual Institute.
Further, the Council secured government stipends to study abroad for candidates who,
having finished their studies, were to assume positions as professors of the Polytechnic
Institute. In 1827 it selected two students to pursue commercial studies: Anthony
Barciński and Joseph Puchniewicz. The latter died shortly after reaching Paris. Bogdan
Jański, who was selected to take the place thus vacated, left for Paris toward the end of
1828. As the holder of a government scholarship, he was obliged to maintain correspondence with a member of the Polytechnic Council, Professor John Cantius
Krzyżanowski, and to send him bi-monthly reports concerning topics "which had occupied his attention since the last report, the progress that he had made, as well as
observations about his own qualifications and further plans." Over and above his
scholarship stipend, Jański received funds with which to buy books that he needed;
however, he was obliged to turn these over to the library of the Institute after finishing his
studies. There was another special fund to cover registration fees. Jański was also obliged
to send semester reports to the Council - in May and November - describing some factory
or machine. This explains the emphasis in the Journey Diary on factories which he
visited, as well as commercial installations which he inspected, etc. [Cf. Alexander John
Rodkiewicz, The First Polish Polytechnic Institute, Kraków - Warsaw, 1904, pp. 37-39.].
PRIVATE DIARY
14
prolonged my stay in Warsaw, to the extent that, although I had informed my
superiors that I would leave Warsaw on Friday, October 17 by coach to Poznań,
it was only on Monday, the 20th, about two o'clock in the afternoon that, using
Kwiatkowski's2 horses, I was able to leave the place where I was staying on
Marszałkowski street, about 8 miles within the region of Pułtusk. (It cost me 46
złotys and 20 grosze to hire the horses). I spent the 18th [of October, Saturday]
completing the ridiculous formalities at the parish.3 On the 19th [of October,
Sunday], I received the required dispensation from Fr. Starzyński.4
Can I ever forget the farewells to people in Prague - people with whom I
was bound by ties of long-standing relationships, a common education, and
1134 even a number of shared sentiments? Can I ever forget the marks of affection
they showed me during those last days of my stay in Warsaw? Unfortunately,
along with such marks of affection, there was also some stubbornness, a certain
lack of forbearance and understanding, as they strove to influence my decision.
But it happened. I have drunk the cup of
Berlin, November 5
bitterness prepared for me by my weakness
Brüderstrasse No.43
and fatal relationships with people.
When I left Serock, on Tuesday the 21st, my mind was plunged in deep
distress. There were no incidents along the way, except for the loss of our
wheels between Serock and Dzierżenin. We arrived in Pękowo at about 2 in the
afternoon. The absentee landlords,5 soon came to greet us. However, a weak
stomach did not allow me to accomplish quickly what I intended to do. It was
only on the following day [Wednesday the 22nd] that I went to Kozłów. The
character of the people with whom I became acquainted will stick in my mind
6
1135 without any need to write about it. It was their will that the act be further post2
3
4
5
6
Theophil Kwiatkowski (1809-1891) of Pułtusk, the son of wealthy parents, proprietors of
a brewery, an alcohol distillery, and an apartment house. From 1825 he was a student in
the faculty of science and fine arts at the University of Warsaw. A painter, and a
participant in the November uprising. After 1832, he was an emigrant in France. He
studied painting in Paris, where he met Bogdan Jański.
Formalities required by the parish in order to contract a marriage.
"The required dispensation", that is, an indult, or dispensation, here: permission granted
by an ecclesiastical authority, the retraction of an ecclesiastical prescription, which was
granted in certain special cases. - Fr. Paul Straszyński (+ 1847), a doctor of theology, a
prosynodal judge, a Canon of the Warsaw Chapter and, from 1836, Bishop of Sejny.
"The absentee landlords" are the already mentioned landlords from Pękowo, Francis and
Caroline, nee Zawadzki, Grabowski.
"The character of the people with whom I became acquainted...in Kozłów." It is possible
that Jański was left with a unfavorable impression after meeting Alexandra's parents, that
is, Augustine and Elizabeth, nee Łaszowski, Zawadzki, and Elizabeth's brother Matthias
Łaszowski.
YEAR 1828
15
poned to the following day. And so, it was only on Thursday, the 23rd, having
received the Body and Blood of the Lord from the hands of Fr. Prusiński, the
pastor of Gzy, who was substituting for the pastor of Krzyków, that the act was
consummated in Przewodowo, in the presence of the witnesses, Matthias
Łaszowski and Augustine Zawadzki.
Once again, at night, as during the day, it was only "pro forma" that I was
required to complete the act.
I left after lunch on October 24th. In
Leipzig, November 10
spite of all my thoughts and bitter feelings, at
Böttcher Gäschen No. 43
our parting in Strzegocin, I recognized that I
was still very weak. However, if I was moved by my Twardosia,7 I was probably equally moved by her sister Caroline, an angel of goodness and innocence.
Before the sun set, a beautiful sky filled me with a sense of hope for a
successful future. Moving west under a full moon, I struggled with sadness and
an onset of sentiments, my mind occupied with earthly memories and emotions, 1136
but also with heavenly ecstasies. I arrived at last, and almost mechanically
managed the transfer to another coach at Kołoząb. The first night of my
journey, spent at an inn in Płońsk, was quite uncomfortable. I reached Wośniki
in time for breakfast. I did not meet the innkeeper, [Michael Szreyber], 8 but I
was well received by the domestics, and left with feelings of affection for
Michael, and a memory of his hospitality.
Frankfurt am Mein.
Do you wish to know something of the
November 14, Hotel
history of my life up to now? Read these few
de Paris ans Paradeplatz 1137
pages. I am forever beginning, forever making
some new changes. Will I never move along a regular road toward a single lofty
goal?
I finally left Woźniki, on October 25th in the morning. It is the rainy
season, and the melancholy lowlands in the southeast section of Płock filled my
heart with pedestrian emotions, as I continued to struggle with the as yet
unextinguished sparks of enthusiasm and ideals. The prospect of polonized Germans spoke to my soul.
I arrived in Płock at eleven. Who is the first person I should have visited
there? Surely the one who was once a companion of my transports, my innocence youthful zeal, but who was also my companion in error, weakness and
7
8
"Twardosia" - the playful name by which Jański referred to his wife Alexandra.
Michael Szreyber from Zalesie, in the province of Płock; in 1824, at the age of 20, he
1138
began to study Administration at the University of Warsaw. According to the "Warsaw
Courier" of October 14, 1827, nr. 276, he finished the course in 1827, having earned a
master's degree in Administration. Lord of the manor.
PRIVATE DIARY
16
sensual pleasures. he was the one sent to me by blind fate to be like that magical
rod which Moses would use to bring forth water from the rock; the one who,
with a single breath of his soul, in the spirit of the age, filled my soul with a
new and more noble spiritual direction, loftier, better suited to the organism
prepared for it, and who even today continues to cause me to question the level
of my thoughts, intentions and actions? It is no wonder that this fate is blind. -I soon found my dear friend, Leopold Thaddeus Bronisz.9 Of what will my
present meeting with him remind me? His kindness, my own tender sentiments
in remembering, as well as my incapacity to detect the state of soul (he too is a
man). He saw me as someone quite uninspired; he saw me as sad, and he led me
back. The quiet Swinarski; Sadkowski, with his affected dignity in word and
movement; John Grzybowski, a recent acquaintance, an image of the generality
of today's youth; Jaworowski, a bank teller, a man of the old school - these are
the individuals with whom I spoke.10 These are all modern people. I love them
and hate them.11 I esteem them and despise them. O how heterogeneous is my
present self!
9
10
11
Leopold Thaddeus Bronisz - born c.1804 in Charszewo, in the district of Lipno; a close
friend of Jański; after graduating from the school in Pułtusk, at the age of 20, he enrolled
in the School of Law at the University of Warsaw in September of 1824. His father was a
nobleman, court clerk, and Lord of the manor.
Swinarski - this individual is not identified.
Sadkowski - very probably Ferdinand (1802-1853). After he finished school in 1821,
he worked for one year as an assistant at the provincial school in Pułtusk. In 1822, he
enrolled in the law school at the University of Warsaw, completing the course in 1825
with a master's degree. While he was still a student, he served as a legal apprentice in the
office of the Attorney General. In the years 1827-1835, he was an advocate with the Civil
Tribunal of the province of Płock; until 1847, a lawyer in the Appellate Court; and in the
following years, almost to the time of his death, counsel for the defense in the Warsaw
Departments of the Governing Senate. He wrote treatises on the law of succession and
defense pleas. He died in Warsaw.
John Grzybowski (1800-1881) - born in the district of Płock, the son of a tenant
nobleman. He began the studies of law and administration at the University of Warsaw
when he was twenty years old. In 1823 he received a master's degree in law. He took part
in the 1831 uprising; in January of that year he signed the proclamation of the province of
Płock expressing his readiness to take part in the uprising. When the uprising failed he
went into exile. In 1849 he fought with the Polish Legion in Hungary. When the
Hungarian uprising was put down, he was interned at Szumlo, and from there he came to
Liverpool, in 1851, along with other companions. He died in Kraków.
"I love them and hate them..." - the beginning of a famous couplet by Caius Catullus, a
Roman poet of the first century B.C. : "Odi et amo. Quare id faciam, fortasse requiris.
Nescio. Sed fieri sentio et excrucior." In the Polish translation of Zygmunt Kubiak: "I
love and I hate. How is this possible? - you ask. I do not know how it is possible. I feel
that it is, and I suffer."
YEAR 1828
17
I met Prusinowski, my old colleague,12 at Sadkowski's residence. How
1139 many similar sad impressions am I experiencing! Circumstances independent of
us, as well as our own revealed or already hidden qualities, determine the fate
of our fortune and significance. I also met a noblewoman, who revealed a secret
which caused me to blush; she was a witness of an action which is constantly on
my mind, and which, however earthly it might be, is constantly mingled with
heavenly sentiments, as if it wished to tell me that these are only the
consequence of the former.
Good-bye!
12
Undoubtedly John Prusinowski, who, in 1824, at the age of 20, began his pharmaceutical
studies in the school of medicine at the University of Warsaw. In November 1830 he
received his master's degree in pharmacy. As a pharmacist be took part in the campaign of 1831. From 1833 to 1847 he was the proprietor of a pharmacy in Przedbórz.
PRIVATE DIARY
18
DIARY
1830 – 1839
DIARY
20
DIARY
Year 1830
8601
March 6, [Saturday] 1830
Rich in experience - having passed through so many trials, so many 393
ways of feeling, thinking and acting, should I not profit from the lessons of the
past? Is it not about time to change this troublesome, contemplative [given over
to empty considerations] and impotent life to a life of sensible, as well as
energetic, reflection and activity? I propose to take an account of my past life in
order to harmonize my memories and my convictions. Here let us see, first of
all, how I should go about occupying myself efficiently, and then what works I
should undertake.
1. Finish the remaining correspondence as quickly and completely as
possible [the manuscript breaks off here]
completed – completed
346
March 28 [Sunday] 1830
I was warned that I shall receive an official reprimand for failing to fulfill
my obligations.1 I am indeed unfortunate! O dear! Work, work! I cannot allow
myself to waste a single moment. My immediate goal shall be to study
geography, history, and commercial law.
[Monday, March] 29
What should I work at first? How should I distribute my work?
1
According to the "Instruction of the Polytechnic Council," Bogdan Janski was obliged to
send to Warsaw monthly reports dealing with his studies and research papers. The
Secretary of the Council, Dionysius Lanckoronski, called this to his attention, in a letter
written to Anthony Barciński, the holder of a scholarship, on March 16, 1830.
DIARY
22
1. Materials dealing
with commercial law
2. Materials dealing
with commercial
geography
3. Materials dealing
with the history of
commerce, especially
the latest developments
- legal problems
and the relations
between one
person and another
- a sketch of
political economy
- methods used in
presenting history
and geography
2
Technonomy
concerning trade...
separately
_________________________
1. Principles of political economy
The condition of commerce in France,
2. Principles of commercial law and administration
"Revue Commerciale"3
3. Commercial geography and its most recent history.
4. Goguet4
Suspend all historical, statistical, and philosophical studies which do not
lead immediately to the achievement of these goals. In a word, make:
a. commercial geography
b. history of commerce
and wealth
1.Systematic outline of
c. commercial law
d. political economy
e. studies of legislation,
philosophy of law,
ideology, etc.
2. Collect French literature concerning
the above in the greatest possible detail.
exegetical
lexical
legislative
historical
philosophical
8627 October 26, 1830, London.
104
Throughout this entire day I accomplished practically nothing of which I
might be proud. Why? Indeed, I am inspired by the notion of sacred unity, the
2
3
4
Technonomy - principles guiding the technology of processing raw materials in industry
and crafts.
"Le Revue Commerciale, Journal d'economie publique" - a Paris publication, dedicated to
matters dealing with commerce; published in the years 1828-1830.
Antoine I. Gouget (1716-1758) - a French jurist and councillor in Parliament; author,
among others, of De l'origine des lois... 3 volumes, Paris, 1820.
YEAR 1830
23
full sense of which will bring happiness to the human race; indeed, it is my
concern and my obligation, my mission, to contribute to this great work, at the
cost of all my strength, my whole life.5 And so, why?
Habits and prejudices, acquired in that turbulent time of my life which
preceded my rebirth are the reason why. In order to destroy these, it will surely
be useful to control my thoughts, actions, and feelings each day. 6 How many
times have I begun to do this! How many times have I resolved to do this! Why
is it that I have not yet done so effectively on a regular basis? I know the
reason: today I am able to account for my entire past life, and can determine my
future, for I know the past and the future of all things - I love and worship the
great God.
Indeed, under his inspiration, I wish to, I should exert care to use that one
means to conquer the old man within me. What I am writing now, and what I
will write in the future, I write for myself. Today I see the society that surrounds
me in another light. I regard public opinion differently. That fact will lead me to
accomplish my purpose with greater constancy and sincerity. I write for myself.
Let everyone who is [like] me read what I write. Such a one knows me. He
shares my feelings. Let him read. I will not hide anything of myself or about
myself. The opinion of those unfortunate sons of the past, or of those who are
unfaithful does not sway me. They cannot judge me, but I can judge them.
My thoughts are still shallow, my mind heavy, and it often continues to
exert itself only on the surface! Would that its whole life might become a life in
God - as soon as possible! And my actions? How often my actions are far from
what they should be! How often my feelings render me unworthy! O God, when
will I begin to live wholly in you, through you, for you? Today, I still find it
difficult to remain with you for any length of time; but the time will come - and
that time is not far off.
October 30, Saturday
5
6
This declaration is a statement of Janski's saintsimonist faith. In order to understand the
pathetic ardor of Janski, his enthusiasm for the doctrine of Saint-Simon, it is necessary to
get acquainted with this school of thought, and also to study the profile of its patron, a
fascinating individual. He was, at the same time, a philosopher and historian, as well as
the founder of a socialistic utopia. Concerning the life of C.H. de Saint-Simon, his
doctrine and school, cf. the separate note at the end of the 1830 Diary.
Jański confirmed this "control" in a letter to the saintsimonist Father, Talabot, written in
December 1830: "For the past month and a half I have begun to keep a diary, for the purpose of perfecting myself, controlling my actions day by day, so that they might be
brought into harmony with that single sentiment by which I commit myself to our holy
faith." (ACRR 8626, p. 22).
DIARY
24
Three days have passed. Did I live these days under the holy inspiration
of religious unity? No! Habit is still there, as well as prejudice and trivial concerns. I recognized that it is necessary for me to control my thoughts, feelings,
and actions every day. Nevertheless, inspired by religion, full of love and hope,
I must, I will, fulfill my mission. For me this is an obligation. Here is where I
will find happiness. That thought, that feeling, which in germ governs my
whole life, will in fact surpass all of its manifestations, and my life will be none
other than its true image.
It is already noon, and I should write a letter to my [saintsimonist] family.
What joyous, and at the same time, what sad feelings this act awakens in me!
Hope, lively sentiments, energy and reflection. I must scan the two newspapers
I borrowed. Notes from the Exposition of Doctrine.7 A letter to my wife, and
one to Lebert.8
It is 12:30 at night. What did I accomplish today? Nothing! This afternoon my mind was in a so-so condition, and I spent an hour in meditation. I was
in good shape, and had to make the most of this. Dinner. Barciński9 came. I
7
8
9
This refers to Exposition de la Doctrine de Saint-Simon (An Exposition of the Doctrine of
Saint-Simon), which includes 17 lectures by A. Bazard, which he gave in the period from
December 17, 1828 to August 12, 1829. The texts of these lectures, representing Year
One of the Exposition, appeared in Paris in August 1830. Year Two of the Exposition,
including 13 lectures also by Bazard, which he gave in the period from November 18,
1829 to June 1830, was published in December 1830. Therefore, Jański had available a
copy of the August edition of An Exposition of the Doctrine, which, for the disciples of
Saint-Simon, presents a noteworthy transition from a philosophical to a religious era. A
third edition of An Exposition of the Doctrine, edited and revised, appeared in 1831.
Jański's wife, mentioned previously, Alexandra (Alex), nee Zawadzki. Françoise (Fanny)
Lebert, Jański's lady friend in Paris from 1829, then the friend of Philip Walter, with
whom she associated almost to the end of his life (Cf. 1831, note 54).
Anthony Felix Barciński (1803-1878) - a university colleague of Jański. The son of a
tradesman. From the age of 16, he began to work to support himself. After finishing the
provincial school in Lublin, he became a collaborator there. In 1823, he enrolled in the
mathematical section of the department of philosophy at the University of Warsaw. Due
to his extraordinary talent, even during the course of his studies he was able to teach
analytical geometry and algebra in the Preparatory School for the Polytechnic Institute.
He was also a tutor at the Chopin boarding school. In 1826, he received a degree of
Master of Philosophy, and obtained a position as private tutor in the Preparatory School.
Selected for the position of professor of accounting, bookkeeping and commercial
correspondence in the future Polytechnic Institute, he was granted a government stipend,
and was sent abroad for further studies in October 1827. At the School of Commerce in
Paris, he completed a three year course in one year. To familiarize himself with the
various systems of trade and industry, he visited Germany, France, Holland, Italy and
Switzerland. In England he met B. Jański, who won him over to the saintsimonist
movement. When he returned to Poland in 1831, he was employed by the Bank of Poland
YEAR 1830
25
went for a walk with him. His remarks about my past life were most unflattering. I will have to give this some thought. Two hours of reflection and
anxiety. Tea - It seemed that I was good for nothing. I wasted another evening
with Barciński - and when will things be better? Tomorrow I absolutely must
write to Paris.
Sunday, [October] 31
I got up late - it was already twelve o'clock - with a heavy head. Nevertheless, I did raise my heart to God, thought about my mission, and considered
what value I should give to opinions of me on the part of those who are unfaithful. This reinforced my sense of mission. It also soothed the anxiety which
Barciński's not too well considered remarks had awakened in me, and which I
had refuted only weakly. I now have a livelier sense of the value of my past, as
well as of my present obligations and future aspirations. Feeling somewhat
stronger, and putting aside idle contemplation, I now wish to get down to work.
I still devoted two hours before dinner, that is from 12 to 2 o'clock, solely
to meditation. I reflected first on my past moral worth, and on my relationships
with individuals with whom I had closer ties. As far as I can judge, the latter
were totally dependent on my moral principles which, for the good of humanity,
prompted me to make my external life a big lie. This was a direct result of the
fact that the energy of my will had been undermined by the antecedents [by
prior circumstances], and by my failure to discern the intellectual and moral
basis for relationships in a society which lacked unity. But if I was guilty - for I
was aware of the abyss into which I had fallen - I did not have sufficient desire
to, that is, I could not, extricate myself. Yet it was their fault too, for although
they could not have been completely devoid respect and goodwill for me, they
did nothing to help me. A truly religious person should never regret his past - it
was the condition for his vocation.
in Warsaw, and remained there until the end of the uprising. In 1833 he accepted the
position of professor of mathematics at the Provincial Grammar School, and of
descriptive geometry in courses for teachers in secondary schools. In 1834 he married
Isabel Chopin, the sister of Frederick. In 1841 he became superintendent of the Provincial
Grammar School, as well as a member of the Chief Examining Commission. Due to ill
health, he resigned from his career of teaching, and for three years, from 1843, he acted
as office director in the Government Commission of Revenue and Finance. In 1848, even
after he retired, he was named director of the Board Governing Steamboat Shipping on
the Vistula. An eminent expert of commercial arithmetic and bookkeeping, he was the
author of a few books and papers in this field, e.g., On the London Stock Exchange, (1826), On Commercial Accounting, (1833), A Popular Explanation of the Fundamentals
of the Arithmetic, (1834).
DIARY
26
Second: How should I behave toward these people in the future? I must
make them aware that my habits are changed for the better; that my general
reasoning and ideas, which they respect, have carried over into my public and
private acts, into the total aggregate of my thoughts - in a word, into my
behavior, and that, as a result, I continue to be animated by one and the same
feelings, so that they who had ceased to trust the sincerity of my feelings might
once again be convinced of their sincerity and strength; and that people who
had not lost trust in me, might extend it to the point where it embraces my
whole being.
Third, with regard to grades of friendship: there is a need to avoid scorn,
indifference and partial respect. There is need for well-wishing and performing
good works - for complete respect and total trust - for saintsimonist
brotherhood. If I sincerely desire to win associates, I cannot hold the first in
contempt. On the other hand, if I strive to be worthy of the least ones, while
possessing one of the former, I am not, and surely will not be, unworthy of him;
in fact, I can truly be regarded as a friend, to the degree of sympathetic unity.
However, I must remember that true friendship is the ultimate bond between
individuals. Therefore, in the first instance, it is necessary to take into consideration the character of these individuals, as well as the social proprieties
which they acknowledge - in such circumstances one cannot behave as one
would in the saintsimonist family - requiring as little as possible, and yet doing
the most good.
Fourth: As a result of yesterday's talk, the resolution to act openly with
regard to Barciński. However, he does not yet belong to the family, with roots in
the successful future of humanity.
November 2, [Tuesday]
It is past 11 o'clock in the morning. The other night I had quite a long
conversation with Burke10 concerning the progress of the human race, and to a
certain extent I was satisfied with it. I thought about it a great deal yesterday.
Once again this morning I began to write a letter to the family. Before lunch, a
walk with Barciński. In conversation with him my attitude was not a proper
one. In the evening, I visited with Hume.11
10
11
Edmond Plunkett Burke (1802-1835) - An English Lawyer, and an expert on Roman and
civil law. An associate of the London periodical, "The Law Magazine", established in
1828 as a quarterly law review.
Joseph Hume (1777-1855) - Son of a Scotch skipper, he spent seven years as a medical
student in India; an English lawyer and political writer. Rector of the University in
Glasgow for one year, and then a professor at the University of London. From 1812, a
member of the House of Commons, known for his radical views. In 1832, after the failure
YEAR 1830
27
Early this morning, I was in better condition morally. An important 107
thought occurred to me concerning the nature of my present activities. My
obligation here at present is to spend more time on theological rather than
priestly study - first, to strengthen myself, infusing my mind and actions with
feelings that stimulate me; next, with an eye to my future priestly mission,
which should consist mainly of a remote influence on my people by way of
scholarly works. And if, in time, I find someone who can take my place at least
in part, I might be able to do more priestly work. However, both here and in
Germany, speaking with someone who is more capable about our teaching, I
need to talk like a theologian and a priest - using an intellectual as well as a
friendly approach. I must keep that situation in mind during the rest of my
voyage, and mention it from time to time in letters to the family.
With regard to Barciński, I should not allow any one of his thoughts,
feelings, or actions to slip by without measuring them according to the criterion
of saintsimonism. I must strive to form him, at least as an individual, without
touching the issue of hierarchy for the time-being. With him, as well as with
others, I must keep in mind that I should not conceal even the least thought that
might contribute to their improvement, or make them my competitors in
scholarly work. I should pay no attention to a tendency to ascribe a certain merit
to themselves on this account, for it is not they, but I, and my superior, who can
make such a judgment. They will only be able to make the judgment when they
are qualified to become members of the family. Neither should I pay attention to
the judgment of the general public, ascribing scholarly merit to one of my
immature sons, if (as I might expect) the individual were to desire to possess
that honor. In that situation, I should rather support him with my whole mind
and heart, even if I did not to receive from him even the slightest recognition in
external society as a result of my works. To someone more mature I might even
explain my theory of competition, or rather cooperation. Then, perhaps, he will
accept the hierarchy, and will not strive for individual recognition by external
society. Instead he will seek recognition for the family, and only within the
family for individual recognition, which is measured by other standards than
those by which the public judges.
The following are the degrees that separate candidates: 1. those who are
higher than liberalists, who grasp intellectually the need for, and the existence
of, future unity; 2. philanthropists who see the need for unity; 3. those who have
accepted the historical and religious views; 4. those who have accepted the
latter, and wish to act as individuals guided by these views; 5. together, but as
of the November uprising in Poland, in a famous debate dealing with the Polish cause, he
emerged as its advocate, and spoke against Russian repression.
DIARY
28
far as possible secretly; 6. those who accept the hierarchy openly and
completely.
After dinner I went with Barciński to hear a lecture by Mr. Morgan.12
Along the way, it suddenly struck me that my relations with the saintsimonist
family were public, while there was some need to keep them secret. As a result,
I lost peace of mind until I was able to clarify my ideas in this regard.
Consequently, I found myself less capable of conducting a good conversation
with the people I had just met: Mr. Mac Culloch, Dr. Rou, and a third person, a
professor of Greek.13 Since I was not able to make a proper impression, once
again the question: why? disturbed me. Now I know why. I know how to remain
calm and how to preserve presence of mind. I need to improve, as much as
possible.
November 3, Wednesday
There is always need for improvement. Why is it that day by day I see no
improvement in myself? Why do I find no peace and hope in my life? When I
got up today I was in a pretty good frame of mind; but after breakfast, and after
reading the papers, once again I felt that I was good for nothing. I need to
believe that tranquility, hope, happiness, and the fulfillment of my most sacred
obligations are possible for me; that, having sanctified and harmonized my
whole life, they are already there within me. If this is so, why do I approach
every single task without experiencing this sacred harmony?
1142 + [November] 5, Friday
Visited Barciński in the evening; discussed plans concerning astronomy.
108
Friday, November 5
The day before yesterday, I accomplished almost nothing. However, the
ideas I had conceived previously must have had an influence on the calm I felt.
12
13
August Morgan (1806-1871) - mathematician, Professor at the University of London, and
a member of various academic societies.
John Ramsay Mac Culloch (1789-1864) - a student of D. Ricard at the University of
Edinburgh. From 1828 to 1831 professor of political economy at the University of
London. The author of treatises which were translated into French and Germam. His main
works are: Principles of Political Economy (1825), and Dictionary of Commerce and
Commercial Navigation (1830). He published A. Smith's An Inquiry with a biographical
foreword and footnotes in 4 volumes (Edinburgh, 1828).
Dr. Rou - an unidentified person.
George Long was the only professor of Greek and ancient literature at the University
of London at that time.
YEAR 1830
29
At 2 o'clock I went to visit Mr. MacKay.14 In conversation with him I was able
to maintain a proper stance. However, his manner was cold and indecisive. I
didn't know how to explain this or what attitude I should take, and this disturbed
me. But I soon remembered what my attitude should be with regard to external
society. This helped me to recall the principles that are to govern my behavior
in relation to it. I do not always need to behave like a priest, or insist on my
mission, relying for the most part on theological activity. In dealing with each
new individual, I need to consider his position, and yet take advantage of my
relations with him, especially on the intellectual level. I must try to influence
that position, and yet observe particular restraint in this respect.
I spent the evening with Barciński; there is a closer union between us.
Alcohol helped to raise my spirits. I experienced both a keen awareness of my
principles, and an eager readiness to fulfill my mission.
Thursday, [November 4] began well for me. I was able to free myself
from an obligation that was weighing on my mind: the slight, but unfulfilled,
obligation to read some of the books which I had borrowed from Mill, Hayvard15, and Burke, as well as a need to return these to their owners. This led to a
14
15
Robert William Mackay (1803-1882) - An English philosopher; he published articles and
scholarly dissertations in periodicals.
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), the son of James - An English philosopher, logician and
economist. He studied under the direction of his father from the time he was three years
old. When he was ten, he read the works of Plato and Aristotle in the original language,
and when he was sixteen, the works of Locke, Berkley, Hume, Bentham, and his father.
When he became acquainted with French culture, he became its staunch admirer. He
abandoned legal studies and became an official of the East India Co. He preferred to
spend free time in France. He died in Avignon.
He represented a more developed utilitarianism than that of Bentham, distinguishing
the quality and quantity of what people find good and pleasing. As an economist, he
considered that a person is not only a producer and a mechanical element in economic
processes, and that the human needs, and the status of the worker require government
intervention in order to curtail the abuses and defects of laissez-fairism.
In his earlier years, he was in personal contact with Saint-Simon. He read Comte. In
1827, when he was 27, he underwent an internal crisis, developing an aversion to
scholarly work, and to the views in which he was reared. However, he conquered
intellectualism, accepting, and developing, a theory of emotional factors of intelligence.
In 1830, while still young, he joined a group of "philosophical radicals" which had no
success. In that same year, while living in Paris, he met with the Fathers of saintsimonism. He enjoyed a reputation as a "holy rationalist", and was considered to be one of
the most interesting people of his century, known for his nobility of character. He postulated the need to preserve and respect the opinions and views of the minority, and also
insisted that women be granted the right to vote.
DIARY
30
certain sense of inner freedom. I need to work at this. I need to strengthen this
sense by manifesting it at frequent intervals, and by unifying and energizing my
life.
My conversation with Mill was too self-seeking. I recognized how such
conversation can help, but also how it can hinder me. I need to examine this
more closely, discerning its results, and the ways to profit by its continuation. It
influenced me in two ways: First, because it was full of reasoning, it provided
me with a sense of intellectual accomplishment; also, it had the character of an
intellectual exercise, and so it filled me with the pleasure that I experience in
the latter. Second, it convinced me that if I am to profit by such conversation, I
must prepare my arguments beforehand, taking care to make them more
scientific and coherent; then in the course of the conversation I will be able to
summarize my opponent's thoughts and single out his main points of
opposition. I can then indicate to him why he came to these conclusions, and go
on to refute his position decisively on the strength of some of my own primary
and proven principles. Considering the radical reason for some of the main concepts that exist in the minds of present-day thinkers in external society, how
imperfect their harmony is, and how any sense of need to unify the actions of
their individual lives was lacking, (something that is impossible without uniting
them with those of the entire universe and accepting religious unity as personal
unity) - I became convinced that in my discussion with those who are not
called, I need to make it a rule not to waste time on useless sympathy with
them, and to reflect with them on only a single segment of past phenomena.
Meanwhile, I should go on improving my own mind, and if possible, prepare
them for initiation - but not convert them. Initiation is for those who are called.
I spent yesterday evening [Friday] with Barciński. I intended to read
16
Mill's Political Economy with him, and, by means of our shared reflection, to
create a genuine political economy: recognizing the reason why our present false contemporary economy is in error; from the sense of great unity drawing a
whole series of concepts about wealth and commerce; discussing, bringing
together, and uniting some of the concepts already accepted. We both had the
16
Abraham Hayvard (1801-1884) - lawyer and publisher, editor of "The Law magazine" from 1829 to 1844. An essayist, as well as a translator of Plato, and J. W. Goethe
(Faust in prose).
Elements of Political Economy, a work written by James Mill especially for his son, John
Stuart. James Mill (1773-1836) - Son of a Scotch shoemaker. An English economist,
historian, and philosopher. Once he became acquainted with Bentham, he became his
propagator. He published works based on the theories of Bentham and Ricard. One of the
main representatives of the Liberalism of his time. He contributed to the establishment of
the University of London in 1828.
YEAR 1830
31
same intention. I did not insist on bringing it to fruition, and Barciński had
nothing to say in that regard. He comes on strong in revealing his older ideas or
a few new ones - stronger than me. However, in the matter of unifying his life,
in his feeling for God, and the need to manifest Him through every act of his
life - in this he is weak, weaker than I am. Therefore, I need to use his strength
as a model, at least in part; but I must put it to a different use, and influence him
to make a different use of it. In every meeting with him, immediately after our
initial greeting, I need to adopt a religious tone; in which case then, either he
will unite with me completely, or we will recognize how we stand in relation to
one another.
I did not accomplish all that I had intended to do this evening, even
though I was properly prepared. Why? - Here, while I was reflecting on a
response, even after I had come to a decision and had adopted a suitable plan
for my further conduct with regard to Barciński, I suddenly hit on an idea
concerning the way I should behave in the future with relation to external society: what position I should desire and what kind of position I should take in its
regard - and I set down on paper certain problems that require clarification.17
This was not a good action on my part, for after planning something well, I
should always strive to fulfill the original intention rather than occupy myself
with a work that was not intended and go on considering other ideas connected
with it. Yet it was good, for I was able to reduce practically an hour's reflection
to some sound points; and since I had neither the desire nor the obligation to
explain these ideas immediately, I did not waste time adapting the results of my
reflection to any continuation of such notions.
Why then, (there was a lengthier interruption here which developed out
of the association of other ideas - another mistake), why, when yesterday I had
such a good intention to spend time with Barciński, why did I not fulfill that
intention? I needed to speak with Barciński about settling a few urgent ideas,
concerned with finding a solution for some of my present critical financial
problems. I could have spoken with him about this later, and I wanted to do this;
but at the time I did not have sufficient will to do so. A lack of decision, a lack
of courage and strength, resulted in my allowing him to begin an ordinary conversation. I became quite, though not completely, interested in what he was
saying, and, as a result, I freely abandoned my original intention. On the other
hand, I was not fully attentive to the story of his interesting youth, lacking both
the decision and the will to listen to him, as well as a proper stance in his
17
"Problems," that Bogdan Jański felt "required clarification" are preserved in the Roman
archives on a separate sheet of paper with the title "For clarification." This text is
presented in the Appendix to the Diary for the Year 1830 before the footnotes.
DIARY
32
regard. I wondered why I did not speak with him about my needs, and
weakened even further, feeling that it was necessary to examine my
conversation with Mill. Further, I realized that Barciński nurtures some bad
feelings about his past and I wanted to reveal my judgment about this, but my
concern was not a proper one. My mind was functioning well, but I lacked
strength of will, and my feelings were too weak, detached from my religious
unity. Consequently, I should never allow myself to nurse such murderous
arriére-p enseés [hidden thoughts]; as soon as I become aware of them I must
decide either to resolve them immediately or leave their revelation for later. At
all times I must have a decisive will, take a proper stance, and retain a strong
sense of my mission, along with all I should be doing to further it. Every word,
thought, and action should be a clear expression of my intense feeling - for I am
alive, and aware of how I am living - why then should I manifest my life in any
other way than the way in which I am living?
I returned home at about eleven. My feelings were somewhat in turmoil
but my mind was resolute - I wanted to do some intellectual work. I erred by
not being sufficiently energetic in choosing a definite subject in this regard.
After a half hour of idle musing I fell asleep peacefully.
Today I did not rise immediately - this is another area in which I need to
improve. Why should I waste a few hours every morning?
After rising, I experienced a similar lack of decision, dormant feelings,
and a sense of useless activity. I wasted an hour reading all kinds of foolishness
in the "Times".18 I took a walk, and then got down to writing these few lines. As
yet I have not accomplished anything today, even what needs to be done as soon
as possible, the letters - I did not write them. At least I examined myself, and
took account of my status since the last time that I touched pen to paper. I
accomplished what I most wanted to do, and at least I am at peace. Such is the
secret of peace and happiness: maintain a lively sense of your active life, give
your thoughts and actions a sense of life, do what desire and obligation require
of you - fulfill your mission.
+ Saturday, [November 6]
I thought about haste in making decisions etc. I began a letter to Paris. I
was supposed to visit Hayward - rain. Barciński was here for dinner - before
that we spoke about money (I was supposed to accompany him on a visit to
18
"The Times" - a London newspaper established in 1785.
YEAR 1830
33
Pleszewski19, but it was after four when I arrived). I spent the evening with
Hayward and Someres20; we talked until twelve.
[November] 7, Sunday
It was late when I arose. I wanted to begin work before noon. Lunch. To
Hayward, and with him to the club.21 Barciński (Mill) in the evening.+
November 7, Sunday. After one o'clock.
The day before yesterday, after writing the above, and after a walk and
dinner, I went to visit Barciński in the evening, with the notion of reading Mill
with him, discussing what we had read, and then formulating a theory about
wealth. I wanted to talk to him about my financial concerns. I had the desire to
do this, but again without any firm decision. As a result, I allowed him to begin
telling me about his past, and we spent the entire evening in conversation on
this point. At this point I was in better condition than the day before yesterday;
but since I still did not have the desire I ought to have, and therefore was not
doing what I wished to do and what I ought to do, what followed? The result
was that I could not be entirely content with the way I spent my time, and I
spent it badly. Nevertheless, now I was considering his words and feelings from
the proper point of view. When I returned home, I paused to consider these once
more. After some reflection I came to the following conclusion about Barciński:
by reason of his organization and the circumstances of his previous life, his
moral character is such that he reacts with extreme intensity to every single
feeling.
+ With regard to my plans to stay in Paris, as these are ins[spired] by the
saintsimonists. Tasks at the club. How to reach a quick decision. Tasks in Lon-
19
20
21
The Pleszewski mentioned by Jański is most probably the same person mentioned by
Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz in his Diary: "Pliszewski, born in Raczyn, a carpenter, a very
industrious person, who works with a master carpenter, and earns up to 6 pounds a week;
a delightful, friendly, and warm hearted person, who helps his own as much as he can,
even scoundrels who do not repay him." (Memoirs... a Diary of my stay abroad, from July
21, 1831 to May 20, 1841, Vol.I, 1831-1832, Poznań, 1876, pp. 525-526).
Undoubtedly John Somers-Coocks (1760-1841) – an English jurist, author of, among
others, A defense of the Constitution of Great Britain of Ireland (London, 1817).
This Club could only be the Literary Union Club. Jański, in a letter to Talabot (the first
from London), wrote that "I have been assured of an admission card to the best public
libraries, and I have been accepted into the Literary Union Club" [ACRR 8626]. The
members of this club, bearing the name Literary Union, were mainly writers, scholars,
and business men. They met at the Club for social purposes and reading; banquets were
held there as well as receptions for important persons.
DIARY
118
34
don: Owen, Taylor22, talks with Barciński, reflections on my conversation with
Hugo23; memories of the talk with Zubelewicz24 and the result of that talk; how
to present the idea of future scholarly works. - I lack decision, and this lack is
strength ened by the present openness to changes in nature. However, ultimately
I will not change the plans for my work. +
+In the evening. I Read Mill. A conversation. Astronomy. Monday, a talk
with Harwik.25 Barciński. The club. Burke.+
Monday [November 8]
22
23
24
25
Robert Owen (1771-1858) - an English social reformer, writer, and philanthropist; one of
the pioneers of the cooperative movement. As a partner of the textile factories in New
Lenark, he began his reformatory activity to improve the conditions of life and work for
the workers employed there. Toward the end of 1824, he and his followers left for the
United States. In the State of Indiana he founded a colony, to which he gave the symbolic
name of New Harmony, in the spirit of his constitutional reforms. As in New Lenark, so
in this new colony, Owen's project did not succeed. Moreover, his efforts to unite labor
unions in a federation, with the society of the future in mind also met with no success.
During the years 1830-1832, counting on the more affluent segments of English society,
he tried to institute a labor exchange in London. During Jański's stay in England, Owen
propagated his views tirelessly, proclaiming them at weekly public gatherings in London
and also by writing speeches and articles. He travelled extensively, twice to France.
The work of Owen, based on the principles of materialism of the French 18th century
and unsuccessful in practice, constituted one of the successive efforts to realize a
socialistic utopia.
Richard Taylor (1781-1844) - an English lawyer historian, and journalist, co-editor of
the "Philosophical Magazine" and "Annals of Natural History."
This could well be Gustav Hugo (1764-1844), professor of law in Getyndza, founder of a
school of the history of law, researcher of the historical sources of Roman law and
publisher of the same.
Florian Zubelewicz (other forms of the name are: Zebelewicz, Zabellewicz] (1801-1859)
- received a degree of Master of Philosophy from the University of Warsaw in 1823. In
1824 he won a prize for his competitive essay in the Department of Philosophy. In 1826,
he received a government scholarship, and was sent to France to study chemical
engineering; after completing his studies he was to assume the position of professor at the
Polytechnic Institute in Warsaw. He also spent some time in England. In February of
1831 he returned to Poland. From 1833 he was secondary school teacher in Płock, and
after that a teacher of commercial accounting and bookkeeping at the royal secondary
school in Warsaw.
Charles Ph. Hardwicke (?1799-1873) - according to Jański, a candidate for
saint-simonism. In his second letter to Talabot, Jański wrote of him: "For many years he
travelled throughout Europe and America as a commercial agent for a number of business
firms; at present he has settled here. From all I know of him, he seems to possess a great
talent for business. The (saintsimonist) doctrine finds all the more sympathy in him, since
he was once a victim of the present commercial wars, and went bankrupt" (ACRR 8626,
p. 64).
YEAR 1830
35
At home until noon. Conversation with Harwik. Barciński; we were to
visit Pleszewski. Amos26 - the club - Burke.
[November] 9, Tuesday
Spent the night with Barciński. An incident, grog. I wanted to go home. I
wanted to go to the club. I bought a newspaper - returned with him after five - a
walk from 3 o'clock, and conversation while walking. Dinner - before that only
the newspapers and a walk to the Guild-Hall.27
[November] 10, Wednesday
Slept at Barciński's. On the way home, I was lost in thought, and on the
street I fell again. Went home. I returned to Barciński's house at one, took the
newspaper, and remained until three. Went to visit Pleszewski. Dinner,
conversation with Falk.28 Went with Harwik to the "Morning Chronicle"29, and
then to Barciński. I met Zubelewicz there, greetings. Went home at ten.
Lorenz.30
+[November] 11, Thursday
Went for the newspaper at nine. With Syme.31 I thought about the recent
incident and myself. Dinner. Barciński and Zubelewicz - the first was sad; went
with the latter to visit Pleszewski at three. I was lost in thought, and there he
was telling me about his sojourn and return. Barciński's story about the
"Morning Chronicle". He was inefficient and weak, and I was sad. The
housekeeper. Cards; money from Zubelewicz. The night with Mary - only a few
times.
[November] 12, Friday
Went home at 8 A.M. Breakfast, snowshoes, dinner, gloves. Barciński - I
was supposed to go to the club; a walk. Came home at six.
26
27
28
29
30
31
Andrew Amos (1791-1860) - professor of English Law at the University of London.
Guild Hall - the London City Hall, in which the mayor (Lord Mayor) was chosen, and in
which lawsuits pertaining to his jurisdiction were tried.
Falk - Undoubtedly a contemporary name (Falck?) of one of the German writers of whom
Jański wrote in a letter to Thalabot: "I also know a few German writers who live here [in
London] at present, and before whom I also expressed my views" (ACRR 8626). - Jański
was seeking a loan from him.
"The Morning Chronicle" - a London newspaper that began publication in 1769.
Johann Friedrich Lorenz (1738-1807) - a German naturalist and mathematician. It is not
certain that this is the person Jański had in mind.
Perhaps John Syme (1795-1861), a Scotch portrait painter.
DIARY
36
[November] 13, Saturday, 11 A.M.
Newspaper in the morning. Went to visit Morgan at 12. To Hayward at
three. Dinner. After tea, to Barciński.+
119
[November] 13, Saturday. 11 A.M.
O God! How do I fulfill the mission which you have entrusted to me, the
fulfillment of which is my total responsibility, my complete happiness? Today is
the eighth day since that day when I judged myself to be strong, when I was
sure that henceforth my religious love would continue to manifest itself in every
phase of my life - and yet, what did I accomplish in this past week? Nothing! In
fact, my personal situation was lower than it had been; I was regressing.
Weakness and more weakness, empty contemplation, doting on single, often
antireligious, sentiments, my spirit in turmoil, indifference, apathetic indifference, in relations with the people with whom I was living - such is the history of
this past week. And yet, my present state is also dependent on the past. May this
be a new lesson for me, a new condition for my perfection. Faith, hope - energy.
O God! May the holy sentiment with which you inspired me, dwell in me
without interruption. Then my life will be an expression of your love, a means
to perpetuate your glory on earth, an effort to erect for you a temple in which all
people will love you, in which the whole world will honor you!
I will now collect my thoughts about this week - a week in which I
thought about you only infrequently - in an effort to develop my ability to keep
you in mind always and everywhere, in the very depths of my being, so that I
might more surely root out all of my bad habits and prejudices, whatever is left
of my former self, and to reach a better understanding of how I am to love and
honor you.
Friday [November 5] I spent the evening with Barciński. I have already
begun a sketch of my own life here; however, I postponed sketching his, for on
the basis of this and past conversations, I have concluded that it is a part of
Barciński's character to be deeply sensitive to individual impressions. He has a
vivid imagination; but all of his feelings, in fact his whole way of thinking is in
a state of confusion. His life is governed by very unfavorable memories and
feelings. When he speaks of something in his past, he does so with the kind of
feeling he experienced at the time, and he seems to feel the same way today. It
is total confusion, for there is nothing innate about his faith. There is only
indifference and scepticism, and the latter has not yet been reduced to its
ultimate consequences. Combined with his habits and prejudices are sentiments
that sanctify some of his friendly relationships and obligations; but, what is
their moral and intellectual basis? There is no such basis! Friday ended with me
thinking about Barciński's moral condition.
YEAR 1830
37
Saturday [November] 6th. As usual, I got up fairly late. First, I made the
above remarks about Barciński more precise. I also gave further thought to my
plans for a visit to Paris and my family next year, and to asking them for a small
sum in order to realize these plans. As I was considering these plans, I reached
some genuine ideas on this subject, religious ideas, ideas that somewhat
changed my desires in this regard - desires which I have been nurturing for
some time. There would definitely be a reason for going to Paris. Visiting the
family would certainly increase my love for them. But Why? How can I ask the
family for assistance to realize this purpose? Should I not now be making some
notable sacrifice in order to realize this plan, a sacrifice of time and money?
Alas, at present this is the primary means to further my religious work, and the
main condition for my religious perfection! If the family were in a position to
grant me this assistance, dare I accept it? Could not this money be used more
beneficially elsewhere? Without a doubt.
+ [November] 14, Sunday
I rose at eleven; until two I day-dreamed about the future professorship.
Vain desires to achieve fame in the eyes of the public. At two o'clock, dinner.
Hayward. Shee.32 The club. Barciński and Zubelewicz. Returned home at ten.
[November] 15, Monday
I rose before ten, and went to the library at one. Mac Culloch, Macpher33
son. Dinner at four. Barciński, conversation with him about work, capital, and
land. To Burke at eight-thirty, conversation about principles of government,
fraternal organization, and the character of the present epoch.+
[November] 15, Monday
Was there a change for the worse from the day before yesterday? Writing 120
the above, I understood that I must finally put a definite end to emotional
unrest, weakness of will, and imprudent behavior. Am I always to be anxious,
weak and imprudent? Is my future, like my past, to be lost to me, to humanity,
to the glory of God? No! Neither was the past lost if the future will be good.
But in order for the future to be good, I have to shake off past bad habits. Which
of them are still with me today? Idleness, slight ambition, a confusion of action
in contrast to my thoughts and feelings, and this leads to idle contemplation,
wastefulness and debauchery.
32
33
Martin Arder Shee (1769-1850) - a portrait painter who lived in London.
Mac Culloch, MacPherson - Cf. 1830, footnotes 13 and 38.
DIARY
38
Ten o'clock. How many very beautiful sentiments animated me momentarily? How many very excellent ideas passed through my mind? How many most
noble and wise plans? And yet, I have only to glance at my past, at my two and
a half month stay in London, at the almost two full years since I came to Paris
(first, living alone for one month; after that two months with Królikowski34, and
34
Louis Kròlikowski (1799 - the year of his death is unknown; it is only known that he died
at the home of his daughter in New York about 1879). At the time of his studies in
Warsaw, he was one of Jański's closest friends. A leading Polish utopian socialist.
Born of a peasant tenant family, he attended the school in Kielce along with Peter
Sciegenny, the son of a peasant, who later became a priest, and organized a plot against
the Tsar. He studied in the Department of Law and Administration at the University of
Warsaw, and received a Master's degree in 1827. For further studies he set out on foot to
Paris; there, toward the end of 1828, he met Bogdan Jański, who had just arrived from
Poland. It is difficult to determine whether it was Królikowski who called Jański's attention to saintsimonism at this time. We know from Jański himself that Królikowski as
acquainted with some of the saintsimonists. In May of 1831 he returned to Warsaw in the
midst of the uprising and made contact with the Patriotic Society, publishing articles in
"The Polish Gazette." Already at that time he felt that an armed uprising should be transformed into a social revolution. In July he moved to Kraków with his French wife, and
opened a boarding house for students there. Because of criticism that he employed people
who had been politically compromised, he was forced to close the boarding house; he
emigrated to Paris with his family. There he met Jański again. He came into contact with
the Union for Polish Emigration, as well as a group of Advocates of Social Responsibility
and Gatherings of Polish People. He edited "Zjednoczenie, a publication dedicated to the
union of all, through all, for all," propagating socialistic ideas in the spirit of the Gospel.
In 1840, in Paris, he published an indictment of the Polish aristocracy: "A pious lament in
behalf of the Czartoryski dynasty, sent from the land of oppression to her sons in
dispersion." In 1842, he purchased the Slavonic Bookstore in Paris. In 1842-1843 and
again in 1846, he published installments of a planned work, "Christ's Poland." In 1846,
together with John Czyński, he organized the Society of United Brethren. In 1847, he
joined forces with the French communist Etienne Cabet in a cooperative effort, involving
ideas and propaganda, proclaiming the need for revolution, and a war of the working
classes against their oppressors. In an article, "Socialism," citing Christian ethics, he
came out against the exploitation of one person by another. In the years that followed, he
interrupted his sociopolitical activity, but returned to it in the years 1862-1864, yielding
to the persuasion of John Czyński. Together with Czyński, he became involved in efforts
to form an association, a "National Fraternity of All Faiths." Toward the end of the sixties
he came out in opposition to the panslavists, and their participation in the congress that
took place in Moscow in 1867. He left for New York in 1871.
Initially a saintsimonist, then a cabetist and at the same time a Christian ethicist, but
also a messianist, ascribing a special historic mission to the oppressed Polish and Jewish
people, he exerted considerable ideological influence on the Polish emigration.
In a letter which Bogdan Jański wrote to Caesar Plater from Nevers in March of 1838,
he mentions L. Królikowski: "While still living in Paris, he married a French woman,
who held such sway over him that the entire "gouvernement temporel" [temporal power]
in the family rests absolutely in her hands. He can incur no expense (over and above his
YEAR 1830
39
then alone again. I experienced one catastrophe in April 1829, but seemed to be
more prudent through May and June. I lived with Lebert. After a second catastrophe in February, 1830, I entered into a relationship with the family, and then
spent three weeks without Lebert). As I recall my entire stay in Paris, from the
end of 1828 until my departure, and before that, my journey to Paris and my
stay in Warsaw, including my relationship with Alexandra, and prior to that,
living with Tur, the Cyprysińskis, the Jaroszewskis and Jaroszyński 35, and even
35
budget, for tobacco or beggars) without an all-out war or leaving himself open to a long
persecution afterwards. In a word, my compatriot walks around in a skirt, a slave, totally
devoid of freedom, something I did not know." (ACRR 8637 a). He had a son, Miłosław,
and a daughter whose name is not known.
Adalbert Tur (1800-1875) - after completing his studies at the University of Warsaw, he
worked as a clerk in the Government Commission of Revenue and Finance. At the time
of the November uprising he was serving as director of the Chancellery of the Chamber
of Deputies. After the uprising was put down, he es- caped from Poland, carrying with
him the archives of the Sejm which had been entrusted to his care. As a result of his
thoughtlessness, a part of the archives were confiscated by the police in Hanover. From
1834 he lived in England, and remained there until death. Until 1838 he supported
himself on an allowance which he received from the British government. He participated
in the life of the emigration as a member of the Committee of the Entire Polish
Emigration, and from 1838 he was a member of the Union in London. In 1834 he
endorsed a declaration condemning the politics of Adam George Czartoryski, and in 1856
the act rejecting tsarist amnesty.
The Cyprysińskis, brothers, Anthony and Vincent.
Anthony Cyprysiński (1806-1860). In 1824 he began simultaneous studies at the
University of Warsaw in the departments of Philosophy, Medicine, and Law and Administration. In his second year he received a gold medal for his competitive essay in the
field of medicine. He supported himself by tutoring, among others at the Zamoyskis. He
was considered one of the most talented students. He was an editor. In December of 1830
he was appointed a member of Grand Duke Constantine's Scrutiny Committee, called to
study the activities of the secret police. After the failure of the uprising, he was arrested
by Paskiewicz, but was set free thanks to the efforts of Count Andrew Zamoyski. Until
1854 he was the head of the chancellery overseeing the estates and business affairs of the
Zamoyskis, as well as plenipotentiary for the Zamoyski estates. He introduced collection
of rents from the peasants on the estates. He provided employment for university
colleagues to whom the tsarist authorities had denied work. He went to Paris to collect
materials left by his brother Vincent.
Vincent Cyprysiński (+ December 2, 1835). Studied in the school of the Piarist
Fathers in Warsaw. Edited a school publication "The White Liberal Hat"; this led to his
expulsion from school, and in the end from Warsaw. He continued his studies in Płock,
was active in the Academic Society, and arranged sightseeing tours. In 1823 he began to
study law at the University of Warsaw. He was considered to be a brilliant student and an
eccentric. He took part in conspiratorial gatherings. In 1830, he received a Master's
degree in Law. In the uprising he was a captain in the National Guard as well as an active
member of the Democratic Society, a member of the editorial staff of "The Polish
DIARY
40
before that, my relations with Bronisz, Cyprysiński, the Danilowskis and
Ziemecki36, up to the time when I began my critical tasks, once I had started to
think about and to sense that there were needs other than my own, of people in
my immediate surroundings - how very many experiences, and how great the
lack of improvement!
36
Gazette", and a co-worker of J.N. Janowski. After the collapse of the uprising, he lived in
exile in Strasburg working with J. Lelewel. Expelled from that city by the French police
in 1832, he surfaced in Poitiers. He was a member of the Polish National Committee, and
maintained his contacts with the Polish Democratic Society. He initiated and elaborated
an "act of protest" against Adam Czartoryski, dated July 29, 1834. In the balloting for the
first Centralization, he was chosen a member by an absolute majority of votes; however,
because of increasing ill-health he was forced to resign. He devoted himself with
extraordinary dedication to organizational work in behalf of Centralization, among others
by editing "Young Poland", "Circular Letters of the Correspondence Commission", and
"TDP Circulars". Worn out by these efforts, and the consumption that was eating him up,
he died in Poitiers.
The Jaroszewskis - brothers Andrew, Joseph, and Michael, sons of Joseph, and
Bogumiła Theophila, nee Hryniewiecki, the sister of Agnes Jański, and so first cousins of
Bogdan Jański.
Andrew Jaroszewski (+ 1859), a Master of Law from 1829, and lecturer from 1837,
then head of the section in the Law Department at the Bank of Poland.
Michael Jaroszewski (+ January 14, 1870), a member of the landed aristocracy. He
received the degree of Master of Law in November od 1824. In 1837-1839, he served as
assessor at the Criminal Court in Warsaw; in 1840-1847, he was a clerk for special
charges with the Government Commission of Justice; in 1848-1858, a judge in the
Appellate Court of the Kingdom of Poland; in the years 1859-1860 he served as the
president of the Civil Tribunal in Warsaw; in 1863, a member of Department IX of the
Senate.
Henry Jaroszyński (1805-1877) - Heir of the Tywrów and Nowokonstantynów
estates. In 1826 he received the degree of Master of Administration. July 13, 1827, he
sent the Grand Duke Constantine the first volume of his Polish translalation of Political
Economy, written by the vice-president of the Russian Academy, Heimrich Storch, with
the request that he obtain the Tsar's permission to dedicate this translation to him.
Nowosilcow gave an unfavorable evaluation of this translation. Jaroszyński was a
marshal of the nobility of the vineyard district from 1829 to 1831. At the time of the
January uprising, by order of the Russian authorities, he was forced to sell his estate. He
moved to Warsaw, where he died. Henry Jaroszynski's brother, Edward, was a close
friend of Zygmunt Krasiński. Bogdan Jański considered Henry to be a very close friend.
Leopold Thaddeus Bronisz - Cf. footnote 9 of the Private Diary.
The Danilowskis - companions of Jański's youth. One of them, Joseph Danilowski
(1809-1847), was from Pułtusk. He participated in the November uprising as a captain in
the rifle brigade. From 1832 he was an emigrant in France.
Ziemecki - This could possibly be John Ziemecki, who, at the age of 22, enrolled in
the Department of Fine Arts at the University of Warsaw in September of 1820. In 1825
he received the degree of Master of Architecture and Surveying; in 1829 he worked as a
territorial engineer, and later as a provincial engineer in Radom.
YEAR 1830
41
There is some progress here, even some great and rapid progress; in fact,
progress in the most radical reason for such, and no other, life - in feelings and
in theories. Moreover, I eliminated holiness from all my obligations, that is,
what external society regards as holy. Moreover my actions paid no attention to
the counsel of exerience: that my life was full of confusion, great turmoil,
weakness and imprudence - this too was a condition for this progress in my
feelings. Yet, today feeling and theory cannot, and will not, see any further
change, only progress. I have now come to believe. As a result, I wish to honor
the great God, the knowledge, love and worship of whom embrace all that a
person can possibly desire. He is the source of all happiness and responsibility,
of the most perfect Person, a Person with an unlimited future. It is with the full
force of faith, conviction, and sympathy that I feel and desire what I say that I
feel and desire.
I have erred! Just now I erred, when I wished to make the counsel based
on past experience the source of future improvement; indeed, that concept
belongs to my past. The very fact that I could only count on my experience
explains why, in spite of all such experience, until now I never made any
improvement. I paid no attention to the deep feelings, profound thoughts, and
great hopes which would have effected a complete change for the better in me down to even the least aspect of my life. I erred yesterday, when I allowed
myself to be overcome by grief, by a sense of my own weakness, and when, by
means of recalling my past, I tried to establish some definite partial principles
to govern my behavior, some particular ways to improve. O God! Once again I
forgot about you! How difficult it is to pass from a life that is devoid of faith
and worship to a life that is inspired by religion!
Should not the pure and simple elevation of sentiment to my God, the
God of my future, along with a simple reminder of my mission, be sufficient to
bring peace, comfort and discernment into my life? Should my past not be
justified in this way, and my future filled with life, wisdom and power?
I need, yes, I need to unify my life and set it in order. I need to extermi- 122
nate the irreligious sentiments present within me, and see to it that my thinking
is both orderly and scientific, and that my behavior is prudent. I need to exert
very strict control over each day of my past life, and at the same time to employ
the strictest reasoning to decide beforehand what each day of my future is to be
like. I must be convinced that I cannot neglect this means to improve my life. I
should not, I will not, neglect it. However, not because I once momentarily
experienced beautiful sentiments and noble thoughts, for my behavior has never
corresponded to these. And not in order to benefit by counsel based on personal
experience, but rather because I know, love and worhsip the great God; because
religious sentiments govern all of my thoughts, feelings and interests. This is
DIARY
123
115
42
not due to personal conviction, or to any vision of my personal life and the
corresponding sentiments, but
rather to the revelation of all that exists, all that directs, regulates and forms my
entire life.
Peace to the past. I wish to enter, in fact I do enter, a future full of life,
wisdom, and power. All my past dreams, all the idols of my younger days, I
leave you behind forever. I no longer seek scholarly titles, fame in my native
land, joy in dissolute company, the embrace of a prostitute, dancing to a lively
tune, or the lure of riches. These are no longer for me! I leave you: academies
and boudoirs, drawing rooms and parliaments, and revelling in philanthropy.
The lifeless temples of humanity are now too small for me. Now I wish to live
in the temple of the great God, and to call all humanity to follow me into this
temple of God which is everything. In this temple I find all that I had loved
most rapturously, all that I had considered to be most true, all the most beautiful
things that I once wished to accomplish. Now, all my desires are satisfied; all of
my thoughts and actions are invigorated and integrated.
And so, peace to the past, since for me it gave birth to such a beautiful
future. Error, restlessness, weakness and imprudence are no longer possible for
me, because where I live, and in the way I live, there is harmony, power and
wisdom. For I love the true God, and His love embraces all of life's charm,
everything a person can and should want, all that concerns me, all that obliges
me. It is impossible for error to exist in me. I could possibly forget who I am, or
that I have made mistakes; yet this does not come from me. My will, my whole
life, should be a manifestation of God. I write: "should be," for I do not yet
venture to write: "is an expression of God." The deed and the will, born of love
for the true God, cannot be erroneous. Already, in advance, I know the cause of
the error I am capable of committing. Despair, anxiety, or weakness can never
follow upon such an error. I need only raise my heart to God and error becomes
the condition for good; the correction has already been made. From now on, can
my sentiments, can my life, be other than religious?
+ [November] 16, Tuesday
Reflection on my conversation with Burke. Rain, and once again
day-dreams. Dinner. Zubelewicz, and the evening with Barciński. A fall.+
[November] 17, Wednesday, 10 A.M.
After writing the above the other day, I was not in the mood for writing
letters. Went to the library. On the way, I gave further thought to the past week:
Why, in that time, did I not live as I should? Why wasn't every moment of my
life animated by religious fervor? Why did I forget about God? Because I did
not strive to make every though and deed an intense manifestation of my
YEAR 1830
43
religious sentiment. But why did I fail to manifest this sentiment? Precisely
because I had forgotten about God, and my religious sentiment was not
sufficiently intense. What conclusion should I draw from this? That my organic
sentiment should inspire every act of my life, and should continue to animate
me. Once imbued with this sentiment, having renewed it, and having been
reborn by means of it, I must make sure that I do not withdraw from its influence for even a single moment. Then, immediately and beforehand, I must
designate its manner of expression within a certain period of time. Moreover, I
must specify how I will spend one or another day; and after these days have
passed, I must render an account of them. Then, once again, under the influence
of this holy sentiment, I must designate the order of my thoughts and actions
beforehand, so that by means of strict control of my past actions, by planning
and specifying individual future actions of my life, I might become stronger and
more religious.
+ [Wednesday, November] 17
I Left for home at eight. I began my diary. I gave some thought to future
projects in Warsaw, lectures at the Welfare Institute, at the Recourse37, at the
University. I slept. Hat. Barciński. At Barciński's place, a discussion about net
profit and prices. Went home. Tea. Whist.+
124
[November] 18, Thursday, 10:30 in the morning.
Yesterday passed without accomplishing anything. Lack of a decision on
the part of the will and weakness. Here I would like to continue what I began
yesterday.
A few days ago, on Monday [November 15], once again I thought about
my relations with the external society, especially with reference to sexual
functions. I came to the conclusion that, here too, I can expect true delights only
to the extent that I can have this type of relations with one or more women who
are faithful. While in the library, I skimmed the editions of Smith prepared by
Mac Culloch, and MacPherson's38 Annals of Commerce. Although I spent only a
37
38
The Welfare Institute - the Warsaw Welfare Society established in 1814 in Warsaw, an
philanthropic Institute whose purpose was to provide material aid for the poor, and also
the building where persons cared for by the Institute lived.
Recourse - a local social club. The Mercantile Recourse functioned in the area of
Warsaw from 1821. The New Recourse was established in 1827; members included
scholars, artists, owners of land or houses in Warsaw, as well as merchants, accountants,
business agents, and manufacturers. Jański may have had this New Recourse in mind.
Adam Smith (1723-1790) - English economist, and one of the architects of classical
economy in England; an advocate of economic liberalism, a concept of natural order (the
DIARY
44
few hours at this task, and actually obtained a surface knowledge of these
works, I would have profited more had I immediately put down on paper the
information acquired and my observations. On my way home, I intended to stop
at two houses of prostitution to search for an umbrella which I lost the other
day. Financial concern counselled me to do this. However, the shame of
renewing such dishonorable acquaintances, together with a sense of my own
dignity, and perhaps, in part, weakness of will urged me to drop the idea - yet,
in the end I decided to add further to the financial and physical waste incurred
by my lapse on Saturday!
Dinner, after tea to Barciński. Discussion about land and capital. I, a
person who is considered to be dedicated primarily to the study of political
economy, need, desperately need, to put in order, settle, and formulate some of
my sainsimonist ideas on that subject. At seven to Burke. There I met Mr.
Neate.39 We talked about: recent events in France40, principles of government,
the organization of society, the nature of this present epoch and the status of the
working class, especially in England. The questions were not arranged in right
order, nor were they stated with proper precision. Finally, I was not at my best
intellectually. As a result, we reached no definite conclusions, and I ran on
about things that need not have been mentioned, so that I am undoubtedly
regarded as a "reveur," an "esprit inquiet" [dreamer, a restless soul], without a
proper education.
39
40
law of nature). Initially he taught literature and rhetoric in Edinburgh; from 1751, professor of logic, and from 1752, professor of moral philosophy in Glasgow. Mac Culloch,
cf. above, footnote 13.
David MacPherson - an English economist, author of Annals of Commerce... vol.4,
London, 1804. In this work, the author published statistics for the most important
commercial departments in 1795.
Charles Neate (1806-1879) - a lawyer, economist and politician from Lincoln's Inn in
London.
A reference to the July 1830 Revolution, and its consequences. On July 26, King Charles
X, a firm advocate of reaction, issued the so-called "ordonanse", which announced the
dissolution of the House of Deputies, new elections with certain restrictions (e.g.,
decreasing the number of deputies, and depriving portions of society of their right to
vote), and the restoration of censorship. The outraged citizens of Paris protested against
this violation of the Constitution of 1814, and started a revolution that lasted three days
(July 27-29) and took over control of the city. As a result, Charles X abdicated, and left
France for Edinburgh. On August 7, 1830, Louis Philip, the Prince of Orleans, was
proclaimed "King of France" in Paris. The July Revolution evoked a socio-political
resonance: a part of the Belgian Kingdom of Nederland, where, on October 4, the independence of Belgium as a sovereign and independent monarchy was announced.
Indirectly, this influenced the November uprising in the Kingdom of Poland.
YEAR 1830
45
Tuesday morning [November 16]. Reflected first on my conversation
with Burke, and recognized that I made a big mistake, both by getting involved
in that conversation, and by directing it the way I did. First, I did not keep my
resolution: to avoid entering into an initial conversation with people who are
not prepared, that is, people whose sentiments are not in sympathy with our
cause. Second, even if they were somewhat prepared, or at least not very much
opposed, the conversation could not be carried on except along scientific lines,
using arguments supported by specific facts - and I am convinced that in this
respect I have a long way to go. Therefore, I should have settled upon topics of
lesser importance, which would have been more pleasant for them and more
profitable for me. Third, since there was no strong decision of the will on my
part, or a proper state of mind, I definitely should not have touched on such
matters. But it happened - and now I feel even more strongly what I should
have felt then: the way to accomplish my mission, which is indicated by its very
nature. Further, on Tuesday I pondered the need to understand eastern
legislation, and went on to think about my historical projects until one o'clock.
Dinner. There was a heavy rain. I had promised to visit Zubelewicz in order to
go to the parliament41 with him. In spite of the rain I wished to keep my
promise, and so I went. Zubelewicz changed the plans, and so I remained with
Barciński. Once again we talked about political economy; and once again felt
the same need in this regard as I did yesterday. When Zubelewicz and Barciński
went to dinner, I took another helping of alcohol, and this lifted my spirits
somewhat. I thought about yesterday's conversation, and in general about ways
to reconcile myself with external society. Having raised my heart to God, and
remembering the family, I was humbled by my weakness, and felt animated to
adopt a constant manner of conduct inspired by love.
+ [November] 18, Thursday
Breakfast at nine; at 10:30 to the diary. At 12 I visited Mac Culloch, and
spoke with him about political economy in our country, as well as in Germany,
France and England, and about statistics. At 1:30 I visited Mackay. We spoke of
the cholera-morbus [the epidemic of cholera]42; I borrowed Smith. I left for
41
42
Parliament - The meeting place for the House of Commons in Westminster Hall, and the
seat of the High Court.
In 1830-1831, an epidemic of cholera, which began in Orenburg in 1829, swept across
Russia, and moved on into Europe, arriving in France from England in 1832. Many
articles and publications dealing with this epidemic appeared in England and France.
Jański refers to this event in the article Le Choléra-morbus et les empereurs d'Austriche
et de Russie, which was printed in "Le Globe" (1831, nr. 212).
DIARY
46
home at three, and read a little of Smith. I spent the evening with Hayward. I
was depressed. Our conversation dealt with saintsimonism.
[November] 19, Friday
A sad situation. I rose late, went to get a newspaper at twelve, was back
home at one, and day-dreamed until three. At 3:30 downhill. Arak. Harwik. I
went out to look for a girl, and remained with her from 6 to 8:30. Went to visit
Barciński and slept for an hour. We spoke of the nobility etc.
[November] 20, Saturday
I went out at eleven with the library in mind, but it was closed; to the
club, the "Revue Encyclopedique," Schlegel.43 At 2:30 I went to see Barciński.
We talked about his status, as well as his intentions with regard to
saintsimonism. Dinner. Rum. Hayward. To Cary44, and spent the evening there.
A feast; a bad mood.
[November] 21, Sunday
I rose at ten. At eleven I went out intending to visit Owen. Met Barciński
and Zubelewicz, and went with them to St. James Park, and stayed there until
one. We talked about the reform of Parliament, Napoleon, etc. I spoke with
Barciński about my wastefulness; his response was degrading. Dinner. Rum. At
four a few verses concerning my memories here. Tea at five with Falk at the
Strand. To Barciński at 6:30; we spoke about his joining me in the course of the
next half year. At eleven home. Supper.
[November] 22, Monday
Arose at ten in good condition. Breakfast. Newspaper. Meditation. To
Hayward at one, to Senior, and then to Tufnel.45 (Thought about moving; to the
43
44
45
"Revue Encyclopédique" - a monthly review, one of the most dignified French, or even
european, magazines, printing 60,000 copies. Its founder and editor-in-chief was Jullien
de Paris (actually Marc-Antoine Jullien). From 1818 the full title of the periodical was:
"Revue Encyclopedique ou Analyses Raisonnées des Productions les plus Remarquables
dans la Littérature, les Sciences et les Arts."
Schlegel - famous name of two German brothers: August Wilhelm (1767-1845) - a writer,
linguist, and translator (among others, of Shakespeare); one of the creators of Indian
philology; lived in London, where he studied Sanskryt - and Friedrich (1772-1829) a
philosopher, writer, and translator of ancient Indian literature.
Henri Cary (1804-1870) - a London jurist.
Nassau William Senior (1790-1864) - a teacher of political economy; in the years 18251833 a professor at Oxford; author of a new form of political memoirs.
Henry Tufnell (1805-1854) - An English jurist and politician.
YEAR 1830
47
club - a French newspaper). Dinner. Barciński; talked with him about his status,
about my idea. Came home at eleven. After supper Mac Culloch about taxes.
[November] 23, Tuesday
Got up at nine; breakfast and the newspaper until 10:30. Took a letter to
my wife to the post office. To Barciński; talked about political events today.
Barciński wants to be active, if the action is in Poland. - Sad, because in the
letter to my wife I lied about my motive for a quick return. Dinner. At home in
the evening; a few lines about organizing my future.46
[November] 24, Wednesday
Rose at ten. Breakfast. To the library. I read Chitty.47 Felt better. To
Hayward, and went with him to Cooper;48 he was out. I Went back with
Hayward; got along with him quite well, but not on the proper level. Spent a
half hour thinking about my work, myself, the need to arrange and resolve some
legal questions. Dinner. Pipe. Read Vincens.49 Tea. Meeting with the latest girl.
To Barciński. He is always so stagnant. I did not act properly. I Need to shake
him up, and either learn something from him, or stimulate him. Cards. Home in
good condition, feeling a need for a quick decision. Supper. I read a little of
Mill. +
130
[November] 25, Thursday
Got up at nine; was in the library before eleven.
First a search of the catalogues. Indecision about my work. I have before me the
"Law Magazine" and Blackstone.50 The clock strikes twelve. I put aside Blackstone and the "Law Magazine." I would like to enter into myself and restore
46
47
48
49
50
The text with the title "The organization of my future" is located under point II in the
Appendix to the Diary, Year 1830.
Joseph Chitty (1776-1841) - an English jurist and writer.
Charles Purton Cooper (1893-1873) - an English jurist and writer, a lawyer and
bookseller. Bogdan Jański wrote of him to Thalabot: "I became acquainted with the
lawyer Cooper, whose literary fame us undoubtedly known to you (the saintsimonist
Fathers). The latter invited me to use his library, very rich in books in all modern
languages on the topic of the history and legislation of all countries. I am taking
advantage of his invitation" (ACRR 8626,p.23). It is possible that Jański did not realize
that it was James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851), an American novelist, who was
enjoying "literary fame" at the time.
Emill-Maria-Antoine Vincens (1764-1850) - a French economist, author, among others,
of a three-volume work entitled: Exposition raisonné de la legislation commerciale, Paris
1821.
Blackstone - Cf. footnote 52 below.
DIARY
48
harmony to my feelings. I returned to Blackstone and the "Law Magazine." Left
the library at four. Thoughts about arrangements for the evening, my legal
studies and relations with acquaintances. Dinner. A dream. Barciński was in a
bad, I in a good, frame of mind. Felt a need to write to the family. Left him at
eleven. Erred by not keeping my resolution. First fall - 6 sou, the second - 5
sou. Went home in bad humor.
[November] 25, Thursday
A week passed, and once again I have neglected to fulfill the plans I
made with such strong determination - plans which could, in fact, greatly
contribute to my improvement - I have written nothing here about myself. I did
not live constantly with God and by God. My active and intellectual life was not
a harmonious reflection of my religious sentiment. How much wasted time;
how many antireligious sentiments and actions in the course of this week!
I am now in the British Museum.51 A few legal volumes lie open before
me. It is 12:30. It was only a short while ago that my thoughts and my feelings
were: never again anxiety, never again weakness of will; always hope, and a
quick decision; always occupy yourself always with something definite. But can
such strength of will and such activity fill me with peace if it is not the
outgrowth of my religious sentiment? Can that joy, that hope, that peace be
alive and permanent in me if it is something other than religious? Yes, I will be
strong, peaceful, and prudent only if I am religious in each and every action of
my life; only if I conquer the habits and prejudices of my past; only if I
completely suppress the sentiments which sprang from it. If I continue to be
animated by one great and holy sentiment, with a sense of my mission, I will
generate in thought and act, within my whole being, a great and holy harmony,
along with power and wisdom.
Why does this past week seem to be so far away for me? I need to remind
myself about what happened in this time, what I did yesterday, in the same way
that I remember information about the Romans or Greeks which I learned in
51
The British Museum was established in 1753, and, at the time, was the only institution in
London with free admission. It included works of art, scientific collections, a library, and
the like. In his book entitled England and Scotland, Memoirs from a journey in the years
1820-1824, which was published in Warsaw in 1828, Krystyn Lach-Szyrma wrote: "The
library occupies a considerable part of the building. The public does not have direct
access to it; and rightly so, for a simple view of the exterior of books has no value. There
is a reading room, where any of the books is available. A person who desires a particular
book has only to present the title of this book on a card with his signature. But not
everyone without exception is admitted there. A letter of recommendation from a citizen,
to be presented to the librarian, is required" (Cf. op. cit. p.402).
YEAR 1830
49
school, as though this were not part of my life. That's it: It was not really my
life; this week I did not live religiously. How many of my thoughts, actions, and
sentiments this week were not really mine; even at this moment I feel no sense
of divine harmony between my past and the present moment.
I made a holy resolution eight days ago not to forget about God, to see to 127
it that my life would be nothing more than a manifestation of my religious sentiment. Once caught up in this sentiment, I should not allow myself to escape
from its inspiration; rather, I should put it to use immediately in order to clarify
my present situation, solve my problems, say peace to my past, and determine
my immediate future.
And so, I set aside the legal volumes and abandoned the work which I
had begun without any religious sentiment, determined to raise my heart to
God, and once again I found peace. I am now returning to the work undertaken;
but now I return with a new sentiment, resolved not to spend this evening in the
way I had intended. I will spend it trying to clarify my present situation, so that
the above resolution might prove to be more fruitful. I would like to free my
mind of turmoil and avoid any hasty actions. My life, this evening and always,
should be one of peaceful activity and harmonious work, a strong and wise
manifestation of lively faith - and so I wish to be fully alive, and wholly
religious. It is already 1:30 A.M.
130
[Friday, November] 26
I got up at ten. I was thinking that my sin is not a sin, but rather the result
of my unfortunate position in society. I am forced to decide to commit this sin
in spite of any consideration of health and money, up to the time when I can get
properly situated, and for as long as I fail to exercise proper care in seeing to it
that I have no money on my person. I wished to return the visits - shift of
attention. It is twelve o'clock; I am in the library. Blackstone-Lee, Hertslet52, the
"Law Magazine". I remained in the library until three, busy running through
Hertslet and Blackstone, and finishing the article On the study of Law in the
"Law Magazine." At three, to Hayward; discussed some points of law with him,
52
Sir William Blackstone (1723-1780) - an English lawyer, professor of law at Oxford,
later a judge. His fame was assured by his four-volume Commentaries on the Laws of
England, a classic work concerned with the form of the English State and law. Thomas
Lee (+ 1769), an English lawyer, collaborated in the preparation of the fourth volume.
That volume was published in London in 1829.
Lewis Hertslet (1787-1870) - an English lawyer and publisher of A Complete
Collection of the Treaties and Conventions, London, 1820; after 1829 the author expanded this work considerably.
DIARY
50
especially about procedure. I was home at four. I reflected on the need to clarify
my ideas about private law. Dinner at five. Kef. At 6:30, to the parlor with a
toddy, reading an article about codification.53 At nine I went to my room, where
I read an article on French procedure, another on pleading [judicial defence],
Mac culloch's Commers Law, and a little on notarized legacies and
primogeniture.54 Then, exhausted by analysis, I fell asleep.
[November] 27, Saturday
I got up at eight - that was good - ready to engage in detailed work, but at
the same time feeling a need to enter into myself. After breakfast and a bowel
movement, beginning at 9:30, I spent an hour thinking about my future in
Poland, and lectures at the Resurs, the Welfare Society, and the University;
about promoting learned societies; about the future in Germany; about a room
with sexual pleasures, life with students, and the need here to write something
to Skarbek55. - n.b. yesterday I felt an urge to write an article about law for the
53
54
55
Codification - signifies the systematization and combination of legal codes from a
specified sphere into a single whole; preparing a codex.
Primogeniture - in accord with English law a firstborn son is tied more closely to the
father than those that follow; he inherits property, but he may also inherit the title
connected with this property.
Frederick Florian Skarbek (1792-1866) - an economist, historian, novelist, dramatist,
translator and diarist. Professor of political economy at the University of Warsaw, patron
of Bogdan Jański. He studied in Żelazowa Wola on the family estate; his teacher was
Nicholas Chopin, the father of Frederick. In the years 1809-1811, in Paris, he studied
penal law and French literature, as well as chemistry, geology, and horticulture;
moreover, he studied political economy and administration privately. In 1818 he was
appointed assistant professor of political economy at the University of Warsaw, and later
was named a full professor. He lectured in the field of the theory of economics and the
science of administration, as well as in the field of finance and police law. As early as
1818 he taught in the School of Forestry. He was a member of the Society of the Friends
of Learning in Warsaw. Together with K. Brodziński and J.K. Skrodzki, he edited "The
Warsaw Diary." He travelled abroad, visiting welfare institutes and prisons from May to
October 1828. At the invitation of Tsar Nicholas I, in October 1830 he resided in
Petersburg, familiarizing himself with hospitals and arrangements for social welfare. He
was active in many spheres of social life, as a philathropist striving to improve conditions
in the prisons within the Kingdom of Poland. In 1846 he received the title of Count, was a
privy councilor, a senator, and a director of the Government Commission. After he was
removed from this position, he served for some time as the president of the Herald's
College in the Kingdom of Poland. Released from government service in 1858, he
dedicated himself to writing. He was the author of works in the field of political
economy, of text books for the use of students at the university.
YEAR 1830
51
Warsaw publication "Temis".56 I continue to feel the need to write something to
the family, as soon as possible, and to make arrangements for future works, now
and later - but first, and that immediately, I need to write something to the
[Politechnic] Council. – I skimmed through the "Law Magazine"; at 12:30 I
went to return it to Hayward. Before that, I went to the barber for a haircut. I
borrowed Cooper from Hayward, then went to see Barciński, but he was not at
home. I stayed with Elizabeth, and began to read Cooper. At 2:30 Barciński
returned, but he was in bad humor, as usual. I was not in very good condition
myself, for I had not yet decided what to do: to read Cooper, to write a letter to
the family, or to talk with Elizabeth. I went to Westminster, and then stopped at
Barciński's once again. I spoke with him about current events. For dinner (I was
supposed to go to Neate; but since I was not in good condition, having a lot of
work to do, I did not go). After dinner, a glass of toddy, [I began] to read
Cooper - until eight. To Barciński; cards, a toddy, a capitalist - in good humor.
Thoughts about relations with unbelievers in Warsaw, feeling a sense of
superiority in their presence; they are strangers to me. Back home - more of
Cooper.
132
[November] 28, Sunday
I woke up at ten. I lay in bed for a long time pondering my relations with
former friends and women. Breakfast. I was supposed to go to Barciński for a
lecture - I stayed at home. Exhaustion, the result of analysis, led to a need for
reflection; I reflected on works in the immediate future, on Cooper and how I
should talk to him; then I read until dinner. After dinner a toddy, Cooper. At four
to Barciński, a pipe - they came - cards. Barciński lied, telling me that he would
like to go to Paris to meet with our pope57, and claimed that I had not explained
the matter well enough (?!). To the divan. "Constitutionmel", "Gazette de
France.58 Rendezvous on Surrey Street. Chasing after girls. An encounter on
Goswell Street, moved all the way to Hatton Garden - 3 glasses of wine on
Bouviere Street, then accompanied her on returning. Back home at 11:30, a pipe
- fell asleep.
56
57
58
"Themis" - a legal periodical, established and edited by Romuald Hube in the years
1828-1830.
The "pope" of the saintsimonists, Enfantin.
"Le Constitutionnel, Journal politique et Litteraire" - a French newspaper with a large
circulation, published in Paris in the years 1815-1914. Co-founder of this liberal-legitimist organ was Marc-Antoine Jullien (pseudonym: Jullien de Paris).
"La Gazette de France" - The oldest French newspaper (from 1762); after the July
Revolution the organ for legitimists offering a generally moderate critique of the
government.
DIARY
52
[Monday, November] 29
I got up at nine in good condition. Breakfast. The "Times". At eleven to
my room and Cooper. I read until three and finished. During this time I spent a
half- hour thinking about my legal research papers in Warsaw. To Barciński. He
told me of his talk with Zubelewicz about succession - he feels better. Dinner,
pipe and toddy. Thoughts about prestige in relations with the unbelieving.
Rendezvous at Hatton Garden, wine, at St. Paul's Church until nine,
accompanied the return. An unfortunate waste of a sovereign59 - went home in
bad humor. Supper and to bed at ten.
[November] 30, Tuesday
Got up at ten; breakfast; the newspaper. Thought about conditions for
having sexual relations, and suddenly it was twelve. I wanted to copy a section
from Cooper, but it was late and my mind was dull - managed only one excerpt
dealing with the reforms he projects. To Hayward, returned the copy of Cooper
- spoke briefly about English judicial topics. To Barciński, a pipe; he had a
headache; spoke with him about doctors Gałęzowski and Brawacki60 and their
wives. At 3 o'clock to St. John Street. I waited a quarter of an hour; met Miss
133
59
60
Sovereign - an English gold coin, equal to one pound sterling.
Severin Gałęzowski (1801-1878) - doctor of medicine and professor of surgery at the
University of Wilno, participated in the November uprising. Future patron of the Polish
School at Batignolles.
John Brawacki (1785-1876) - From the district of Augustów. In 1809 he graduated
from the Univesity of Wilno as physician and surgeon, and shortly after that began a
period of military service in French and Polish hospitals. He participated in the battles at
the time of the retreat from Moscow of the remnant of the Great French Army. He fought,
among other places, in the vicinity of Lipsk. He was taken prisoner by the Russians and
was sentenced to exile. Ransomed, he returned to work in a hospital. In the army of the
Polish Kingdom with the rank of a staff-surgeon of regiment of infantry riflemen, and
later of a batallion of engineers. After 1828 he was retired from the service. During the
November uprising he was the head surgeon of the Institute of Orphans of War and
cholera hospitals. He participated in battles, among others, in the vicinity of Grochowice.
As an active member of the Patriotic Society, he participated in the events on the night of
August 15, 1831. He was arrested and brought before a military court, freed, and again
arrested and freed two more times. After the failure of the November uprising, he
emigrated to France in January of 1832, and took up permanent residence in Paris. As a
doctor, he helped the Polish refugees, and also during the cholera epidemic he offered
assistance to the residents of the Ile de la Cité. He was a member of the Polish National
Committee. After the French authorites confirmed his license as a doctor, he worked as
such practically to the end of his life. In 1848, as a result of his participation in the June
incidents, he was arrested and sentenced to deportation. This was changed to 5 years in
Sainte-Pélagie, a prison in Paris. In 1862 he lost his sight.
YEAR 1830
53
Hussban,61 who seduced me. Reflections on the depravity of women today.
Dinner. Toddy. To Hayward. I met Cooper, and was very happy with the
meeting. I did not mingle much with the others; it is better not to make
acquaintances and waste time if there is no purpose in doing so. Stopped to see
Mill for a moment; met Hayward and Burke, and then home. I could not fall
asleep until 2:30 - thinking about relations with the family, and about legal research papers.
December 1, Wednesday
I got up at nine. Breakfast, the newspaper, pipe.
Eleven - thoughts about a letter to the family, my new acquaintance with
Cooper, and settling down here. Went to visit Mackay; he was out; at the courts.
To Cooper. He showed me around his library from one until two. To Barciński.
Talked about my moving somewhere else and about a loan. He went out for a
lesson and to make inquiries, while I remained with Zubelewicz for some time.
Home. Dinner, pipe, day-dreams. To Barciński. They vetoed my move from
Humel Street, Supper, songs; read a little of Mill.
December 2, Thursday
I got up late. Intended to go to the library, and to visit Mackay and Cary. I
was not myself. Went for a walk - Hyde Park. Returned at dinner time. Returned
to the institution62 healthy and happy; pipe. Bought rum, a toddy - and dozed.
To the reading room. Returned; read Zacharia's63 "Zeitschrift" until twelve. In
this interval, supper.
December 3, Friday
I got up at nine. Breakfast with Falk for a pound and a half. Bought an
umbrella, boots, gloves. Home, a pipe etc. To Cooper, and there until four, read
Landrecht [National Law], and his [Cooper's] letters concerning mortgages.
Dinner, pipe, whist and toddy. To Barciński; cards and toddy; talk about trivial
matters, future travel. Sexual attraction on my way home. I must not take
money with me. Once again, I am occupied with trifles, I forget about God.
61
62
63
Miss Hussban - Perhaps a play on words. In English, "miss" is an unmarried young
woman, while "husband" is a married man.
Institute - this could be the London Institute, or the Metropolitan Institute, which were
rooms designated for reading of books, periodicals etc.
Karl Salomo Zachariä von Lingenthal (1769-1843), lawyer, professor in Leipzig,
Wittenberg, and Heidelberg; co-publisher, and editor, of the periodical "Kritische
Zeitschrift für Rechtswissenschaft und Gesetzgebung des Auslandes", which began
publication in Heidelberg in 1829.
DIARY
54
December 4, Saturday
I accomplished nothing at all. I got up at nine. Went to visit Cooper at
10:30, read the "Times"; went with him to the courts. Home at twelve, but
nothing at home. At one, a toddy before dinner, the "Times". To the institution,
and the "Monthly Review"64; to Barciński at 3:30; in a sad state (for, weighed
down by sins). At five I went to Cooper for dinner; met Bache65; talked about
law. Left with Hayward at ten; wanted to go home, but could not make up my
mind. - I did not meet Burke or Someres. To Hills.66 Went home at 11:30.
134
December 5, Sunday
I got up late. After breakfast, before eleven, Barciński came (with
Zubelewicz?). They told me a lie about a duel; I went with them to Pleszewski,
there we talked and talked until twelve. Embraces followed and socializing - I
with Miss Johnson and brandy. To dinner at two; a pipe. Before four to
Barciński, and cards to 5:30. Home, tea, thinking and reflecting on the whole
evening. I read a few issues of the "L'Organisateur"67, and recognized my
terrible neglect. At ten a glass of beer; to my room, and more pondering. After
extinguishing the candle, loss of illusions of grandeur. Fell asleep at 1:30.
December 6, Monday
I got up at ten; to Cooper at 11:30, and then to the courts. I met Cooper,
went with him to the library at Lincoln's Inn.68 To Neate; he was out; to Cary, I
found her [his wife] alone with little John Bull69; we talked about love-affairs
and various troubles. My attitude in this conversation was not a proper one. To
Barciński in order to read through Jacobs'70 report. Reflected on the way to live
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
"The Monthly Review" - a monthly magazine which was published in London from 1749.
Samuel Bache (1804-1876) - lawyer and a Unitarian pastor.
Possibly Walter Hills, An English lawyer, author, among others of The Law of Church,
London, 1837.
"L'Organisateur" - a French sainsimonist periodical which published the reports of
lectures given at meetings arranged by their disciples.
Lincoln's Inn - a Legal Institute, a foundation whose name derives from Henry de Lacy,
Count of Lincoln, councilor of Edward I, and propagator of the teaching of law. The
library of the Institute, dating back to 1497, and considered to be the oldest in London,
enjoyed the reputation of possessing the largest collection of books dealing with law.
John Bull - a witty name for a typical Englishman.
Sir William Jacobs (1762-1851) - an English merchant, parliamentarian, and agronomist;
according to J.U. Niemcewicz, he was in Poland in 1825, and visited him in Warsaw.
"Mr. Jacobs published a book about precious metals; he translated my Leiba and Siora
from the German; he is an expert in agriculture and mineralogy" (op. cit. p.88). In his
Uprising of the Polish Nation in 1830-1831, M. Mochnacki wrote that: "Jacobi, an
YEAR 1830
55
with strangers. At 4:30 dinner, pipe, kef. At seven a rendezvous with El[izabeth]. I was 15 minutes late. I erred by drinking tea and buying a cigar. I waited
until eight. A walk. I met a young lady from New Broad Street. One cannot visit
her without obtaining her father's permission. A walk - and an affair with a silly
girl. Another walk, and not much thought. Home at 10:30. Once again I
accomplished nothing.
December 7, Tuesday
I got up before ten; at 10:30 I was finished with breakfast, pipe etc.
Began to read Zacharia's "Zeitschrift". At 10:45 to Hayward, with him and the
sheriff of London, Mr. Whimboy, to Newgate.71 Of 19 young lads, up to 14
years of age, and even as young as 9, 9 were condemned to death; 2 of them
sailors, did not receive a pardon; some women, a Quaker.72 Back at twelve. Met 135
Mr. Bache; have an invitation for tomorrow. I was supposed to go to the
Chancery Court, and then on to the House of Deputies.73 Finally, at 12:20, went
home to write a letter to the family.
December 8, Wednesday
71
72
73
Englishmn, sent by his government to study agriculture abroad, presented a very sad
picture of our nation's agriculture." S. Kieniewicz, in his commentary on the work of M.
Mochnacki, states that "Lubecki wanted to win him [Jacobs] over to the idea of lowering
the duty on corn in England, which would have been a benefit to Polish agriculture.
Jacobs explained that even then the Congress Kingdom of Poland would not be in a
position to produce more wheat on its not very fertile land" (M. Mochnacki, The
Uprising..., op.cit., vol.I, pp.181, 362).
The sheriff - an administrative-executive official, maintaining order and seeing to the
execution of court decisions. In London the city appointed the sheriffs.
Newgate - one of the older London prisons.
As early as the middle of the 18th century, penitentiary problems occupied the minds of
philanthropists. John Howard 1726-1790), the author of several books on this topic,
stands out among these. Under his influence, the English parliament approved changes in
appropriate regulations which were meant to contribute to the improvement of the lot of
prisoners. The ideas of humane treatment for prisoners were then, and in the first decades
of the 19th century, being propagated throughout Europe. F.F. Skarbek, author of a
treatise On the moral improvement of culprits in prisons ("Warsaw Diary", year 1822,
n.6), showed interest in these questions.
A Quaker - a member of a protestant sect founded in the 17th century, widespread in
England and America. This sect held that the root of faith is individual inspiration; it
preached principles of peace, and also recommended simplicity in manners, speech and
dress.
The House of Deputies, or the Lower House – the hall for members of Parliament,
together with a gallery for the public. Next to this was the House of Lords, the Upper
House. Both of these houses were located in Westminster Hall.
DIARY
128
It happened. For more than three months in London I did not live like a
saintsimonist. I ought to start, today at least - with people with whom I can live
completely as a saintsimonist, with Barciński and Harwik. I should do
something with regard to Owen, with the gentlemen. I must not shock them, or
talk about politics or religion, but try to take advantage of conversations with
them, seeking detailed information, but not hiding my religion from them.
Announce it more boldly to others, urging them to read books that will help
them to get acquainted. A lesson for the future: If I had proceeded with greater
zeal and power, I might have been able to establish the church already. A lesson
for the future: Since the time is short, I can do little, but I should do whatever I
can. N.B. Talk with Morgan.
Yesterday, as I sat down to write a letter to the family, I received and
invitation from Cary. I found it difficult to respond; and having sent a letter that
was poorly written, this began to bother me somewhat. But I soon regained my
composure. It is cold in my room; I had to go to the parlor. I bought some rum grog, one glass. I went back to my letter, but by then it was time for dinner. I
read the "Times" for half an hour. After dinner I erred, going to visit Barciński
at seven - I should have finished the letter in one way or other - also, once again
his words about saintsimonism excited me; however, there was too much empty
talk about women. I left him at 10:30, and chased after them until 11:30.
Fortunately, I did not fall.
I awoke this morning. Barciński came at eleven. There was a piece in the
"Times" about the saintsimonists, the result of a discussion in the French House
of Deputies concerning pensions for Jewish priests. Barciński was frightened
again, for we were referred to as enthusiasts, and compared to the anabaptists.74
I gave him the third number of the "L'Organisateur" - I will have to finish with
him soon.
About twelve I went to New Broad Street with a letter from Harwik.
Back home - the thought of writing a letter to the family kept me from visiting
Cooper. It is close to one o'clock. I will eat dinner now; after dinner I will get
down to the letter, and send it out today. After dinner. The truth is: what stands
in the way of my living a fully religious life is the circumstance that I will not
be able to profess my faith publicly in Poland; therefore, even before I return, I
must be careful about revealing myself, either to Poles or to others. But apart
from all this, without revealing myself to the people with whom I live, what
have I done, what theological works have I prepared? To what extent have I
tried to appreciate the state of thought and the sentiments prevalent here? What
74
129
56
Anabaptists - members of a protestant sect which was founded in Germany in the 16th
century, preaching the reception of baptism only by adults.
YEAR 1830
57
have I accomplished where most could have been accomplished here, that is
among the followers of Owen? For, it is practically certain that any of the local
Liberalists75 who are close to us goes to Owen. What have I accomplished
among the radical liberalists here, to whom I had entry through Mill and
Morgan? To what extent have I managed at least to shake those viewpoints
which could not be given new life? - Oh! I have not accomplished anything
here! Out of my whole life here I did not live even one week as a saintsimonist.
Indeed, I did not live as a saintsimonist at all, since during the last more than 3
months I have not lived according to the sentiments of the hierarchy. "Tout cela
a été, tout cela était bien" [All that has happened, all this has turned out well].
Today I am more religious, more religious than when I left Paris.
Since at this time I am imbued with religious sentiment, I should not
withdraw from its influence for even a single moment. This is the condition for
a good life on my part.
On the 25th of last month I said the same thing to myself, yet I did not
keep my resolution even for that one day. A little later I will collect my memoirs
of the 5th, or rather of the 9th of November - right now I include here only
some of the brief notes that I made about my activities from the time of my
more fervent contact with this bit of paper. May whatever I write in the future
be especially dedicated to arranging my future.76 I need to live completely as a
saintsimonist.
136
December 9, Thursday
Yesterday, after I wrote the above I sat down with a toddy to write a letter
to the family. I wrote a few lines, became agitated about what I should write,
and finally dozed off at four. I slept until 5:30, and then dressed and went to
visit Hayward. On the way there I barely escaped having sexual intercourse, at
least I felt the urge. As I walked with Hayward, we talked about "irrevocabilité
des juges" [the irrevocability of judges]. Although I offered more solid proofs in
support of my position, I did not explain my views on this matter with perfect
calm. Visited Bache. First a conversation with Bache about writers on political
economy. My criticism of them was not what I would consider to be substantial.
75
76
liberalist - he speaks here of a disciple of economic liberalism in the first half of the 19th
century, and so of someone who preached noninterference on the part of the State in
economic conditions, in order to assure full freedom of activity for each and every economic entity.
These notes, written on a single sheet [ACRR 8627, p.111], have been distributed chronologically in the present Diary and are indicated by means of the + sign at the
beginning and end. The "arrangement of my future" which Jański mentions further on, is
related to "The Organization of my Future", cited in the Appendix, under II.
DIARY
137
58
We also spoke about centralizing industrial activities, and about the commercial
crises accompanying open competition - especially with Hayward. I erred: 1) I
spoke with him at length but did not attempt to acquaint myself with and
understand the other people present there; 2) in conversation with him I did not
make a sufficient effort to grasp his point of view, present my own, and then
conclude the conversation; 3) I attached myself too strongly to Parigot77,
recognizing his good intentions and so neglected others; 4) I could have derived
greater profit from my conversation with Bache if I had conducted it otherwise;
5) in general, I should have been calmer, more patient, firmer in stating my
position, and more open.
I came home at twelve, but could not fall asleep until 2:30. Today I rose
at ten o'clock. After breakfast etc., wrote a letter responding to Cary's second
invitation, and [a letter] to Neate - I took them to the post office. I returned at
1:30, and want to write a letter to the family. Yesterday I could have used my
time with Bache better if I had been animated by religious sentiment - then I
would have been calmer, more patient, bolder, and more certain in presenting
my views; in the future I must be more religious and, above all, be definite
about fulfilling hierarchical responsibilities. Hope! Living faith!
Another sexual failure. I should have reflected beforehand that my need
for carnal intercourse is often more imaginary than real. I must try to find
another remedy for moodiness, another way to lift my spirits, perhaps by the
use of alcohol, or by going to sleep. Even if this were a real need, should I not
take into account my present very critical financial situation? Even if the
situation were not so critical, wouldn't it be better to wait for something safer
and cheaper? In the future, when I am in the same mood as today prior to the
act, I ought to read these few lines - but in the end, it happened. Hope! Living
faith in the sacredness of my mission!
139
[December] 10, Friday
To Neate at 7:30 P.M. Merival78, Tufnell.+
137
December 10, Friday
Yesterday, after returning from the post office at 12:30, I wrote a short
letter to Thalabot79; but the rest of the time, until 3:45, was spent in anxiety and
77
78
79
Parigot - an unidentified person.
Herman Merivale (1806-1874) - a lawyer from Lincoln's Inn in London, a professor of
political economy at Oxford from 1837, later Under-Secretary of State for colonial
affairs.
Edmond Thalabot (died of the cholera prior to July 15, 1832) - a member of the college of
sainsimonist Fathers. In his first letter to Thalabot Jański reminded him that "on the day
YEAR 1830
59
reflection. I visited Barciński, and spoke with him about saintsimonism. He
went out for a lesson. I was elated but calm, because I was religious. I found a
card from Tufnell waiting for me. Dinner, Grog, etc. To the institution; read the
evening paper. I took the View of All Religions by Ross, 1653, and Lowe.80 On
my way home I met a young woman, and accompanied her all the way to
Goswell Road. Came home at eight depressed, wanting to have sexual
intercourse, pipe, grog - before nine I went out again, and spent a long time
running around unnecessarily. On New North Street it finally happened. Came
home at ten. Wrote these few lines, and another few lines of correspondence
with Thalabot - was asleep before twelve.
Today I got up late, just before ten. Received an invitation from Hayward
for a literary dinner tomorrow. The "Times", breakfast; it is already 11:45 - I
want to finish a letter to the family.
139
[December] 11, Saturday
81
The "Times" - a great impression. A letter to the family in the parlor. To
Barciński for shirts. In the evening, dinner at the club. Dr. Lardner.82
[December] 12, Sunday
Got up late. Zubelewicz and Barciński came, conversation, dinner.
[December] 13, Monday
[December] 14, Tuesday
[December] 15, Wednesday
Finished a letter in the evening.
80
81
82
of my reception, you situated me on the third level of our hierarchy. On your part this was
a favor, the greatest favor I ever received, from anyone, in my whole life" (ACRR 8627,
p.30).
Alexander Ross (d. 1654) - teacher, author of A View of all the religions in the world.
Joseph Lowe - English economist, author of The present State of England, London, 1822.
"Times" - a great impression - an allusion to the November uprising. In Jański's first letter
to Father Thalabot, mailed from London on December 16, 1830, he writes: "This morning
[Monday, December 13], the rumors which circulated here yesterday concerning a revolution in Poland were verified in the papers. This occurrence made a great, a very great,
impression on me."
Denis Lardner (1793-1859) - an English mathematician, physicist and astronomer,
professor of the philosophy of nature and astronomy at the University of London in the
years 1820-1840. Noted for his work as author of articles in the field of exact science
which appeared in the multi-volume English Encyclopedia from the year 1829 on.
DIARY
60
[December] 16, Thursday
Sent a letter to Paris. After that to Hayward; I paid Falk the money I
borrowed from him for dinner (that was on Wednesday). Tufnell visited me
Thursday in the evening.
[December] 17, Friday
Wrote letters of apology to Senior and Tufnell.
[December] 18, Saturday
In the evening I forgot about my rendezvous with Tufnell, but he came to
me.
[December] 19, Sunday
After breakfast to Barciński. Met Hayward on Fleet Street; a short walk
and a visit with him. Visited Hayward in the evening. To Morgan.
[December] 20, Monday
Went to visit Cooper, but he was out.
[December] 21, Tuesday
[December] 22, Wednesday
[December] 23, Thursday
Visited Hayward. Received a letter.
[December] 24, Friday
Received the money. With Frenkel in the Colosseum.83
83
Frenkel, actually Fraenkel, is the name of a Jewish banking family, residents of Warsaw
near the end of the 18th century. Their eminent representative was Samuel Leopold Anthony Fraenkel (d. 1863), the proprietor of the Banking House "S.A. Fraenkel", one of the
most illustrious bankers in the Kingdom of Poland, and even in the Russian Empire. He
was a long-term officer of the Warsaw Exchange. It seems that Samuel's son, Anthony
Edward Fraenkel (1809-1883), spent some time in London in 1830. He was a co-owner of
the Banking House, as well as a long-term officer of the Warsaw Exchange and later a
member of the Commercial Council, as well as of the Government Commission for
Internal and Spiritual Affairs. In 1839 he was raised to the rank of nobility in the
Kingdom of Poland and in 1857 received the title of Baron of the Russian Empire. At the
recommendation of the Warsaw Polytechnic Council he was also empowered to send
Jański the stipend due to him.
YEAR 1830
61
[December] 25, Saturday
Visited Pleszewski.
[December] 26, Sunday
Went to see Frenkel, but he was out. Dinner at home; wine, toasts.
Pleszewski.
[December] 27, Monday
Met Cooper. Received a passport. To Barciński. Visited Bache. Newspapers. Dinner. At Barciński. Committed a christian sin twice.
[December] 28, Tuesday
Volume I of [Exposition] de la doctrine84 was delivered to me. Evening
at Bache.
[December] 29, Wednesday
Received "L'Organisateur" and 6 copies of Transon's85 Sermons.
84
85
Colyseum (the Latin Colosseum, a contamination of the Italian il Colisseo, or Coliseum) the great rotunda, erected in the years 1824-1826 in London's Regent's Park, which was
designed to house the panorama. About the year 1829 artists painted the entire city of
London on the panorama. Visitors to the rotunda entered by three flights of steps unto a
platform to view the paintings.
Cf. footnote 7 of this Diary.
Abel Transon (1805-1876) - a member of the saintsimonist college. He preached the
"sermons" which became part of the collected Sermons, (Prédications), a journalist. In
1823, after a competitive examination, he received an honorary award in the field of
mathematics, and in 1825 he finished first at the Polytechnic School in Paris. Like many
of the students of this school, he succumbed to the influence of Saint-Simon's doctrine
and became one of its most zealous propagators. On the second Sunday of January 1832,
he severed his contacts with the saintsimonist school for reasons which he presented in
"Simple advice for saintsimonists". In the years 1832-1834, he became a follower of the
teaching of Fourier and his beloved disciple, along with Considerant and J. Lechevalier.
His return to Catholicism was due to the influence of Coëssin and Hoene-Wroński,
among others. As he admitted: "In the year 1829, inclined to reflect on the faults of this
social system, in which education and welfare are the privilege of a small minority, I
dedicated myself totally to the study and propagation of doctrines which promised to
remove this great evil. Thus, for several years, I was successively a follower of the views
of Saint-Simon, and a student of the famous Charles Fourier. From that time, that is from
1835, noting the imperfection of purely human doctrines, and ultimately convinced that
the Christian religion contains the conditions needed for every sort of progress, both
social and individual, I returned to the faith of my fathers. However, this return to
Christianity did not elicit within me the need to condemn my original flights of mind."
(Cf. J.B. Duroselle, The Beginnings of Social Catholicism in France 1822-1870, op. cit.
DIARY
62
[December] 30, Thursday
Received Barciński's profession of faith. Went to Cooper, to Pleszewski,
and then to Barciński. Home.
[December] 31, Friday
11 o'clock, at home; writing a letter to Thalabot.
p.106). In 1840 he lectured at the Polytechnic Institute in Paris, and in 1858,he was an
examiner at that school.
YEAR 1830
63
DIARY
64
APPENDIX
I.
November 5, [Friday] 1830
FOR CLARIFICATION
1. What should be, what will be, my position and behavior with regard to
people outside [the family] after my return to Poland:
a) with regard to former friends when I meet them, and on further
association with them;
b) with regard to my wife when I meet her, and then later;
c) with regard to colleagues;
d) with regard to new acquaintances, both literary and political;
e) with regard to students.
2. With what kind of works should I be occupied here, in Germany, and
then in Poland - initially and also in general +(the history of political economy
– of Poland)+.
3. Clarify my recent relations with Lebert: what kind of pleasant or
unpleasant memories are connected with these relations. How do I explain
these? Where was I wrong in my attitude toward her? What would it be, what
should it be? Why wasn't it such as it is today, and as it should be in the future?
4. In external society, what position should I wish to maintain with regard
to prestige and income?
5. As I begin a record of my life, commenting on my past and the present
as related to it, I should first consider how many times I have made a similar
resolution and why. Why did I not keep it? Why do I make such a resolution
today, and why am I keeping it now? The solution to this particular
phenomenon is closely linked with the whole theory of my life.
6. There is a need to reflect on how to proceed further with Harwik with
regard to doctrine.
7. On what does speed of decision or strength of will depend? - Analyze
the phenomena of will, mind, and body.
8627
112
DIARY
66
II.
8627 November 23, [Tuesday], 1830
113
ORGANIZATION OF MY FUTURE LIFE
A. Live completely as a saintsimonist. The fulfillment of my mission is
my sole obligation, happiness.
B. Since my life should complement my mission, it will be suited:
a) to my faith, and so,
b) to the will of my Elders.
C. In organizing my works in accord with my faith, I
should consider:
a) that here, just like any other saintsimonist, I am involved in general relationships with external society, with unbelievers;
b) moreover, that I find myself in an all too special situation in Poland, where I will live,
c) that I still have many habits and prejudices to be eradicated.
D. Organizing my works, with these three considerations in mind, I will
arrange:
a) the constituent elements of my mission, and the individual methods of my work;
b) the stages in their fulfillment.
The last will involve the arrangement of my tasks for each new day.
NOTE
Concerning the life of C.H. de Saint-Simon, his doctrine and his school
(Cf. footnote 5).
Claude Henri, comte de Rouvroy de Saint-Simon (1760-May 19, 1825) was
born in Paris. He regarded himself as a descendant of feudal stock: "I am a descendant
of Charles the Great" (Histoire de ma vie). He was educated under the direction of the
famous encyclopedist, d'Alembert. He completed his military service, and participated
in the United States War of Independence. After returning to his own country, he
remained in the army. At the time of the Great Revolution, he was in Paris. Through
speculation with State property, he ensured excellent material conditions for himself.
He led a pompous life, arranged magnificent receptions, to which he invited artists,
scholars, politicians and bankers. He showed consistent interest in social studies;
moreover, he wished to dedicate himself to a career as a philosopher. In about 1802,
due to a lack of money, he abandoned his former life-style. In that same year, in
Switzerland, he published his first work: Lettres d'un habitant de Genéve a ses
contemporains (Letters of an inhabitant of Geneva to his contemporaries). He found
himself penniless. "Count de Sègur informed me that he had found a job for me in
Lombardy. The position was that of a copyist; it paid one thousand francs a year, for
nine hours of work daily. I worked at this for six months, doing my own personal
work at night. I was spitting blood."
In these difficult times, he found a helper in his former servant, Diard, "the
only person whom I could call my friend. ...For several years, I lived with him; he
provided for all my needs, and even covered the considerable cost of publishing my
book." 100 copies of the book were printed, under the title Introduction aux travaux
scientifiques du XIX siecle (An Introduction to the scientific works of the 19th
century). After Diard's death, he found himself penniless once again. Nevertheless, he
continued to advertise his book, preparing several copies, and sending them to
outstanding scholars with the note: "Sir, please be my savior: I am dying of hunger..."
His poverty led to a nervous breakdown. He was treated in hospitals for those
suffering from nervous disorders. In the period of his convalescence he received a
small yearly pension from his family. This allowed him to hire a secretary to assist
him in his work. In 1814, Augustine Thierry a 19 year old history teacher who was
destined to become a famous historian became his secretary. Auguste Comte, later a
famous philosopher, took his place in 1817.
In December of 1816, Saint-Simon began to publish a monthly magazine
entitled: "The literary and scientific industry, as associated with the commercial and
manufacturing industry; or, Opinions concerning Finances, Politics, Morality, and
Philosophy, of interest to all people devoted to useful and independent works." However, after publishing the fourth volume of "Industry," the magazine was discontinued
NOTES
68
due to lack of funds. The next undertaking of Saint-Simon was a periodical entitled
"La Politique," which came out in the year 1819. It also failed. In spite of this, in
November of 1819 he began to publish the periodical "L'Organisateur."
Saint-Simon gained considerable fame in France as a result of a lawsuit
accusing him of having insulted the royal family, which ended in acquittal. He published a new work in 1822-1823, Du Systéme Industriel (Concerning the Industrial
System), and in 1823-1824, Catéchisme des Industriéls (A Catechism of industrialists).
In 1823 Saint-Simon attempted suicide. His life was saved, and he lived two
more years after that. In that same year, Saint-Simon met Olinde Rodrigues, a descendant of the well-known Jewish banking family, a mathematician who, because of
his descentm was unable to pursue a university career during the period of restoration.
Rodrigues introduced his cousins, acquaintances and friends to Saint-Simon, and after
the death of the philosopher it was they who laid the foundations of the saintsimonist
school. These people were fascinated by the philosopher's personality; however it was
not they, but rather Saint-Amand Bazard and Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin who were
destined to play a deciding role in the spread of the movement, even though they
scarcely knew Saint-Simon. At the beginning of 1825 plans were made for a new
publication, "Le Producteur" (The Producer"), the first number of which appeared
only after Saint-Simon's death.
The last work written by Saint-Simon before his death in 1825 was Noveau
Christianisme, (The New Christianity. This became the best known of his writings
and, for the first saintsimonists, this was an ideological testament. Written in the form
of "Dialogues between a conservative and an innovator," it contained this message,
which was based on personal experience: "Listen to the voice of God who speaks to
you through my mouth: All people should be brothers to one another." He regarded
contemporary Christianity as corrupted by Catholicism and Protestantism, which, in
his opinion, were Christian heresies. Christianity must be completely reborn, in order
to become a universal movement tending to "improvement, in the shortest possible
time, of the moral and material existence of that most numerous class, the class of the
poor, in order to assure for humanity the highest degree of happiness attainable in the
course of one's life on earth." Saint-Simon bases himself here on his own idea for the
correct development of society: every new social system, replacing a system that has
become obsolete, constitutes a certain step forward in the development of society.
Therefore, the aim of the new Christians should be: "the fastest possible growth in the
welfare of the poorest class, which is the sole end of Christianity." Consequently, it is
necessary to provide, "for nations truly meriting their trust, leaders who are capable of
directing people's views in a way that makes it possible for them to evaluate wisely
whether the proposed political measures correspond to the interests of the majority, or
are contrary to such interests."
Jański was a student of political economy, or in the contemporary understanding, the study of the administration of a nation and society. It was soon after his
arrival in Paris that he came into contact with the school of Saint-Simon, which was
then enjoying the period of its greatest prosperity (1830-1832). Its fame had reached
even as far as distant Moscow, as Alexander Hercen writes in his memoirs. In the
spirit of their
YEAR 1830
69
prophet's teaching, saintsimonists set about spreading their views concerning the role
which a nation or society should play in the administration of earthly goods. They
spoke out in favor of a right which was meant to take the place of the right of
conquest (by the use of force), and of birth (by way of inheritance): "To each one
according to his ability, and to each ability according to its works." In the matter of
progress of people striving to assure their own happiness they ascribed a significant
role to art (artists), science (scholars), and industry (manufacturers). They proclaimed
their views in the columns of such periodicals as "Le Producteur," "Le Organizateur,"
the popular "Le Globe," and "Revue Encyclopédique." However, above all, they
propagated their teaching by way of the spoken word, by way of instructions which
were sometimes called "sermons."
It is not without significance that, even before he became acquainted with the
doctrine of the saintsimonists, Jański was experiencing an ideological and moral crisis
bordering on despair and involving an attempt at suicide. After he became acquainted
with the views of this school, the dazzling perspective they opened up before him
really shocked him. The idea of happiness for the human race aroused his enthusiasm,
and awakened in him the conviction that here and now he can, and truly wishes to,
realize the exceptional mission about which he had dreamed, and of which he had
some intuition during his years at the university. Moreover he experienced great
comfort in the thought that his morally reprehensible past - in the interpretation of the
saintsimonists - was "absolved", justified, by the fact that it was a necessary
preparation for a future having as its goal the happiness of the
human race.
The Diary of Jański for the years 1830 and 1831 presents formulas characteristic of the saintsimonist mentality, terms that relate to their ideological and organizational activity. It would seem to be absolutely necessary to attempt some general
examination of the hermetically significant terms of both orders, using a system such
as spaced underlining to distinguish them.
It has already been mentioned that the goal of the saintsimonist school was: to
provide happiness for the entire human race, all the people on this planet. The family,
that is the human family, already fulfills this purpose by means of priestly and
theological work, as well as by way of apostolic mission and associations or unions.
At the head of this family are leaders with the highest moral and intellectual
qualifications. Bazard and Enfantin were both recognized as such leaders, with the
title of "Father," (the latter also receiving the title of "Pope"). Subordinate to these two
was the college of twelve, twelve (initially) Fathers, constituting the first level of the
Hierarchy. Then there were lower levels: the second and third, and finally a preparatory level for "catechumens." Jański belonged to the third level; later, in May of
1831, he was raised to the second level. Above him were the Fathers of the College,
as well as members on the second level - all of these were called "Elders." The whole
family, composed of disciples, referred to as "the faithful," who rendered fraternal
services and assistance to one another (which is why they were called brothers and
sisters), constituted the internal society, one by reason of religious unity (church), and
animated by one holy sentiment, an organic sentiment activating members to positive
action, for the apostolate, in order to win for their doctrine and their communion
(community) new disciples, and from them to build new churches, disciples recruited
NOTES
70
from among the unbelievers, who constitute the external society. These new
Christians accepted an impersonal God, identified with matter, an optimistic religion.
The close cooperation between Bazard and Enfantin, harmonious up to now,
underwent a violent change. This was due, in large part, to the increasing differences
in their views concerning the role of women in society. Saintsimonists preached
equality of rights for women in society. But Enfantin went even further, espousing liberation of women, and their right to free love, thus undermining the institutions of
marriage and family. At a gathering of saintsimonists on November 11, 1831, Bazard
spoke out against the innovations of Enfantin and left the movement. This resulted in
a split. Enfantin remained on the field of battle with his followers, as their Father,
awaiting a woman-Messiah, to become for them the supreme couple. They continued
their activity, forming a community, at the Paris estate of Enfantin, Ménilmontant.
Enfantin and his companion, Michel Chevalier, were arrested by the French
authorities on December 15, 1832. This was the beginning of the end of the
saintsimonist movement.
From the notations in Jański's Diary (1830-1832) it is clear that he did not
sympathize with Enfantin, but rather stood on the opposite side. In any case, for
Jański, the split among the saintsimonists was a shocking experience.
Here it is worth mentioning that Zygmunt Krasiński ridiculed saintsimonism,
parodying their theories and practices in a scene depicting the ceremony of freedom in
his drama, The Non-Divine Comedy, which appeared in 1833, and was published (not
without Jański's cooperation) in Paris in 1835.
Even before the split in the saintsimonist movement, in June of 1831, d'Eichthal, one of the Fathers of the college, put together a complete list of members of the
hierarchalized family. This list includes 79 names, half of which are mentioned by
Jański in various places throughout his Diary. Moreover, for his own use, he drew up
a separate list of names of saintsimonists (ACRR 8600, p.305-306). Sébastien Charléty cites the list of d'Eichthel, on page 78 of his monograph, Histoire du saintsimonisme (1825-1864). The list of members of the family cited below is taken from
this page. Jański mingled with these people, and worked with them to achieve the future happiness of the human race.
"Here is the list:
The two highest Fathers, Bazard and Enfantin.
16 Fathers of the College (including Mrs. Bazard and Cécile Fournel): Bazard's
mother, Rodrigues, Margerin, Barrault, Michel, Fournel, Jules Lechevalier, Cécile
Fournel, Duveyrier, Carnot, Dugied, Talabot, Laurent, d'Eichthal, Transon, Cazeaux.
22 members on the second level: Isaac Pereire, Jallat, Ch. Lambert, Henry,
Simon, Saint-Chéron, Delatour, Lemonnier, Charton, Ollivier, Reynaud, Fuster,
Duguet, Baud, Rigaud, Pereire Sr., Guéroult, Caroline Simon, Julie Talon, Palmyre
Bazard, Claire Bazard, P. Leroux.
39 members on the third level: Lesbazeilles, Huguet, Metman, Bonamy,
Séguin, Rogé, Ernest Cazeaux, Buchez, Holstein, Bontemps, Mapolle, Courtey, Pin,
Béranger, Raymond Bonheur, Jules Ribes, Husson, Pouponnel, Cavel, Benoiste,
Jański, Maliński, Broët, Robinet, Nichet, Capella, Haspott, Clouet, J. Leroux,
Pecqueur, Rousseau, Botiau, Maurice, Bourdon, Sophie Lambert (the sister of
Charles], Eugénie Niboyer, Lise Véron, Caroline Thiébaut, Hortense Cazeaux.
YEAR 1830
Total members: 79."
71
DIARY
Year 18311
January 3 [Monday]. 12 P.M., [London]
Not desire to be perfect, but make an effort to be perfect. - Today I wrote
a second letter to the family; but, I labored all day over it, all the way to 8 P.M.
Why hide behind false pretenses, day-dreaming while performing a given task?
Why do I need to require that it be absolutely perfect?
At eight, to Owen. Consultation concerning the creation of a committee
to support Owen in the realization of his plans - 30 or more members were
enlisted; there are 67 in the Social Union.2 Owen spoke several times. He
protested that he is a practical man. He explained how today every social level,
every class, has its own separate world, and protested that he is trying to know
1
2
A situation occurring in the notes for 1831 is similar to that which occurred in the notes
for 1828: the notes in the draft copy are very short, terse, rarely put in the form of
sentences, and often illegible. As a result, here also it has been necessary to indicate by
dots the places in which it was not possible to read one or more words. The greater
number of the notes from 1831 are written out in Polish; some - for the first time - in
French. This is related to the lessons Janski was giving at the time. He conducted these in
French for students on the preparatory level, who were applying for membership in the
saintsimonist movement. Under the supervision of Fathers of the college who were assigned as directors to a specific level - e.g. Carnot, Guéroult, and Lechevalier - Janski,
along with students subordinate to him, was doing whatever research work they required.
Also from this time are notes in French relating to organizational matters, lectures,
instructional problems, etc. These notes often include an autobiographical thread, are
provided with a date and are framed in diary form. It is specifically these notes that have
been chosen for this Diary of the Year 1831. Manuscripts with the French text survived in
the form of single pages, while the manuscripts with the Polish text are preserved in the
form of a small notebook. In this notebook the author has also noted expenses for a
variety of personal needs, as well as debts to be paid. These latter notations, along with
French texts that are not part of the Diary, have been omitted in the present edition.
The second half of the 18th century in England saw the rise of labor unions dedicated to
the protection of the interests of industrial workers. In the beginning these were
proscribed and subdued by the current state authorities; although they gradually gathered
strength and influence, it was not until 1824 that the were legalized within restricted
limits.
8627
138
YEAR 1831
73
them all, and to create a common world. Why not say that every person has his
own world? Egoism - how is it possible to establish an organism within society?
- that is the whole question. Tomorrow I will have tea with Crellin.3
8600 7 février arrivé à Paris
323
[February 7, Monday,
arrived in Paris]
lire les ouvrages
[read the books]
fréquent[é] les enseignems
[attend lectures]
copier les correspondence
[copy correspondence]
toute les soirées occuppée a la doctrine
[every evening dedicated to doctrine]
jusqu'a dejeuner ordinairement rien fait
[ordinarily did nothing before noon]
Visits - inactivity.
I was supposed to write a response to Owen.
Hope of departure for England - hope for the cause of Poland - hope
aut.[?] in study.
In what kind of state am I internally?
Great confidence in the Elders.4
d'Eichthal's proposals5 - disturbances at the lessons.
8627 February 17, [Thursday] - in the library.
141
Already eight days in Paris. I could already have used at least 100 hours
productively - and with all the ease that I possess today - but yet such
inefficiency. Where does this come from? Humanity is suffering, humanity must
know greater happiness through us. Energy, energy!
3
4
5
John Victor Crellin - a lawyer who lived in London, a close associate of Owen. Janski
became acquainted with Crellin at the time of his journey to London and, thanks to him,
came in contact with a circle of "young English lawyers." Crellin took interest in the
doctrine of Saint-Simon, and according to Janski, "agreed almost entirely with our
doctrine." In February of 1831 he began instructions on this topic.
Elders - a title given to saintsimonists who belonged to the first level of the hierarchy; cf.
footnote 5 for the Diary of the year 1830.
Gustav d'Eichthal (1804-1889) - member of the saintsimonist college. Of Jewish origin,
he was a historian, writer, mystic, an expert on the teaching of Spinoza. Together with
Eugéne Rodrigues, he played an important role in assimilation of pantheism by the
saintsimonist movement. He maintained close contact with the English sympathizers of
this movement. In a letter to Thalabot Janski wrote that d'Eichthal "gave me fatherly
advice, urging me to pay attention to Christian customs, in order to understand that our
religion requires progress and not expiation (ACRR 8626, p.64).
DIARY
74
What can possibly be the reason for my coldness? I came here, and I have
not yet been received in the warm and friendly way I would wish; and that has
left me cold. Nevertheless, I know the sentiments, ideas and interests of my
family - if there is anything in their form that is cold, this gives me a new
reason for energy. I need to correct this.
Second, uncertainty about my future economic situation - this has
subsided.
Third, acknowledgment of my personal weakness - so many more reasons to
work, and so energy.
Fourth, a certain reserve, indecision with regard to external society and
the family.
Oh, as soon as possible, may every act of my life become a living
expression of my intense religious love!
March 7, [Monday] - finally a letter to Poland.
I took out a subscription to Galignani's6 publication. Essays dealing with
the teaching of Owen [for] d'Eichthal.
I am drinking grog, but it doesn't help.
Articles dealing with finances from the newspapers for Królikowski.
A few dispatches of books to England.
Visit to Roy[er]-Collard7, and his return visit. To Julien.8
6
7
John Anthony Galignani (1796-1873) - with his brother William (1798-1882), he was the
owner and director of the daily "Galignani's Messenger." This paper, which was printed
in English, was published in the Paris office of their firm. He achieved considerable
notoriety and recognition for his thorough study of the political and cultural agreement
between France and England.
Pierre Paul Royer-Collard (1763-1854) - lawyer, philosopher and statesman. Initially a
counsel for the defense in the Paris Parliament. From 1810 to 1813 he was professor in
the Faculty of Letters, where he was successful in teaching Scotch philosophy. He
preached confidence in sound reasoning, and acceptance of a natural view of the world
(by rejecting the radical solutions of materialism and materialism). He acknowledged that
there are truths which cannot be proved, but which are absolutely certain, and
introspection as a legitimate method of philosophy. On this basis Royer-Collard repudiated the teaching of the enlightened "ideologists" in France and, with his followers,
contributed to the dominance of Scotch philosophy there. In this action he was supported
by Théodore Jouffroy, and his former student Victor Cousin. He translated Thomas Reid,
the animator of Scotch philosophy.
In political life he performed the function of president of the House of Deputies.
Standing at the head of a group of moderate liberals who were called "doctrinarians",
advocates of a constituional monarchy, in 1830, in response to the March intervention of
Charles X in the House, he prepared a letter to the king in defense of the constitution.
After the fall of the king, the "doctrinarians" adopted a moderate course in politics, the
8600
323
YEAR 1831
75
Mrs. Huston, Hamilton9, English people.
I am beginning Demaistre.10
Response to....degrees.
Quelques relations avec une compatriote, et quelques questions correspondance. [Some relations with a compatriot and some questions correspondence.]
8
9
10
philosophy of the "golden mean" (juste milieu), as the characteristic method of behavior
for one ruling the bourgeoisie under King Louis Philip.
In the Diary, alluding to the Scotch philosophy, to the juste milieu, to restraint or
moderation in life, Janski had in mind the views of Royer-Collard, to which at that time
he felt an affinity.
Marc-Antoine Jullien (1774-1848) - Known under the pseudonym of Jullien of Paris, the
former secretary of Robespierrre, the founder and editor of "Revue Encyclopédique", a
Polophil, author, among others, of a life of Thaddeus Kościuszko. From 1828 a member
of the Society of the Friends of Learning in Warsaw. Jański published his articles in the
"Revue Encyclopédique".
Mrs. Huston - An English woman and follower of Owen. Hamilton - mentioned in a letter
which Jański sent to Crellin in Paris, on February 26, 1831: "Please, sir, relay our
expression of friendship to Mr. Owen. Thank him for the kindness he showed me,
introducing me to Mr. Hamilton. The latter left yesterday for Italy. He is well disposed to
our doctrine" (ACRR 8626, p.61). Possibly he may be referring to Prince Alexander
Douglas Hamilton (1767-1852). In the years 1806-1807 he was an envoy in Petersburg.
At that time visited Poland and "became acquainted with many Polish families, forming a
close friendship with some of these, which he maintains to this day. He is one of those
magnates from whom Poles traveling in Scotland experience caring hospitality" (K. LachSzyrma, op. cit., p.191P). He was known as a collector of works of art. In 1820, Prince
Hamilton presided at a public gathering in the county of Lanark, close to his estate. At
that time R. Owen wrote "A memorial for the region of Lanark concerning projects
whose purpose it is to alleviate the universal misery"...
Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821) - Count, French diplomat in the service of the King of
Sardinia, his ambassador to the capital of Russia, Petersburg, in the years 1802-1815. A
philosopher and politician. In his Considérations sur la France (1796), he presented a
theocratic doctrine. He considered that humanity had broken away from the primitive
unity of the world, and had fallen into suffering; however, by way of various forms of
suffering, such as wars, cataclysms, revolutions and the like, and as a result of of the
instigation and mysterious decree of Providence, it is moving toward its salvatrion
(providence) on the strength of progress. In this great historical process, the Catholic
Church and her Head have a unique role to play: all peoples will unite in one religion, and
so will achieve their end, by reintegrating themselves into the womb of primitive unity.
He was also of the opoinion that the infallible authority of the Pope was the key to rebirth
of religious order, an early forecast of intellectual and political ultramontanism (Du Pape,
1819). De Maistre, moralist and prophet, included his views in the famous Evenings in
Saint Petersburg, (Les Soirées de Saint-Petersbourg, 1821). He claimed, e.g., that "Orthodox religion is nothing more than hatred of Rome." It is a fact worth underlining that
the writings of de Maistre were especially studied by the saintsimonists who, like Eugéne
Rodrigues, found for themselve in them valuable premises, and so cited them readily.
DIARY
76
1. avril - Il faut que je me coordonne, formule, et developpe toutes les volées de 8627
la doctrine, le plus tot possible. Ce travail, je devais faire depuis longtemps - 96
aujourd'hui j'en suis capable.
Et toujours avoir sentiment vif et précis de ma mission, toujours agir,
avec prévoyance - organiser mon avenir immédiat et le plus proche.
Hier, j'y a manqué.
Faire un projet des moyens qui pourrait hater les progrés de la doctrine.
L'enseignement intérieur sur l'industrie.
Lettres à Crellin, à de Morgan, à Bache, à Tufnel, à Moustier11, à Neate.
Analyses de quelques ouvrages pour "Le Globe".12
Hayward - et pour Juien sur le christianisme et le millénisme.
Lettre à un Américain des États-Unis du Nord.
Concession au moment etc.
[April 1, (Friday)
I have to pull myself together, to formulate and develop all the ideas of the
doctrine as soon as possible. This is work that I ought to have finished long ago, but
today I am not in condition to do so.
And always have a lively and accurate sense of my mission, always act with
foresight - organize my immediate and impending future.
Yesterday I fell short of my mission.
Draw up a plan for ways that might speed up progress of the doctrine. Internal
instructions on the topic of industry.
Letters to Crellin, de Morgan, Bache, Tufnel, Moustier and Neate.
Analysis of some works for "Le Globe".
Hayward - and for Julien, concerning Christianity and milleniarism.
Letter to a certain American of the United States of North America. Confession
at the moment etc.]
11
12
Moustier - an unidentified person.
"Le Globe" - one of the leading French periodicals published in Paris in the years 182432. The co-founders and editors were Paul Dubois, a politician and inspector general of
the Sorbonne, and Michel Chevalier, who later, as an admirer of saintsimonism, opened
the columns his publication to its followers. "Le Globe" carried a sub-title: "Journal
Littéraire", later "Journal de la doctrine de Saint-Simon", and finally "Journal de la
religion saintsimonienne. Religion, science, industrie, association universelle."
The ideological program of "Le Globe" - evident from the title itself involved: "an
understanding of other nations, and an evaluation of their efforts toward perfecting the
great human family, are manifestly matters of great importance." Concern was also
shown for actualité et verité ("actuality and truth"). "Le Globe" played an important role
in the formation of romanticism; it bunched together believers and unbelievers, catholics
and protestants, who were united in politics by way of liberalism.
YEAR 1831
77
About April 1 [Friday]
One lesson rue Fran[cs] Bourgeois. Royer [Collard] is leaving.
Ballanche, vol.I13 read.
I am moving to the fourth floor.
Gurowski14 is arriving.
13
14
Pierre-Simon Ballanche (1776-1847) - a French poet and philosopher. In 1830 he
published his four volumes of Oeuvres completes. In essays from the cycle Palingenése
social (1827) he presented the history of mankind as a great process of gradual rising
from a primitive fall. Leading prepresentatives of the French cultural elite, such as,
Charles Nodier, Pierre Leroux, Edgar Quinet, as well as Félice-Robert Lamennais and
Catholic liberals were fascinated by this concept. Ballanche developed his historicalphilosophical ideas in his two-volume work Órphé (1827-1828) and, taking advantage of
accomplishments in Greek culture, he traced an evolutionary process in world history. In
La Vision d'Hebal, chef d'un clan écossais (1831), he summarized the historical
development of mankind in the spirit of his philosophy.
Adam Gurowski (1805-1866) - a political activist during the November uprising and the
great emigration - a journalist and panslavist.
He was the son of a Count's family, a resident in Greater Poland. He completed his
university studies in Germany. In Warsaw, before the uprising, he belonged to secret
associations promoting independence. After the outbreak of the uprising he served as
editor of the revolutionary paper "Nowa Polska" (New Poland), working with Joachim
Lelewel and Xavier Bronikowski. He was a radical member of the Democratic Society. In
the summer of 1831, wishing to rid itself of a troublesome journalist, the People's
Government sent him abroad with a mission to Paris. He arrived there in March 1831.
In the emigration, he was one of the most active organizers of Polish political life. At the
time of the rioting evoked by the cynical declaration of the Minister Horace Sébastian:
L'ordre régne á Varsovie ("Order reigns in Warsaw"). He was arrested on September 18,
1831, but was released upon the intervention of General Charles Kniaziewicz and the
editor of "Le Globe". He was a member of the Provisional Emigration Committee (the socalled "kaliski"). which was headed by Bonaventure Niemojowski. Then, together with
Joachim Lelewel and other partisans of the Paris community (also called the "Taranne"
community, from rue Taranne 12, where Polish emigrants gathered), he organized the
Permanent People's Committee (December 8-15, 1831) and was a member of that
committee.
On March 17, 1832, he resigned from that committee along with a group of his followers.
He also resigned from the Community, establishing the Polish Democratic Society,
together with John Nepomucene Janowski, Thaddeus Krępowiecki, and Father A.
Pułaski. In May of that same year he went to London as an emissary of a committee of
that Society, in order to counteract the manipulations of Prince Adam Czartoryski. In
January 1834, he was editing a monthly magazine "Przyszłość" ("The Future") (only one
issue), in which he expressed popular-republican views, in a spirit like that of the former
school of the saintsimonist Buchez. This met with vigorous opposition from Peter
Semenenko.
In Semptember of 1834, in the periodical "Augsburger Zeitung", and also in the "Gazette
de France", he published a political article in the form of an open letter, in which he
8600
324
DIARY
78
About 5 [April, Tuesday] - election to the second level - I am not content.
Arrack.
Lack of money. Boussonel15 is leaving on about the 15th. Article to
Julien.
A former lady friend.
In April I began to attend the course offered by Lerm[inier]16, and also to
hear Jouffroy.17
+ Constant minor unpleasantness in relations with people; too much pride
in the reaction.+
8627
96
15
16
17
declared that he has ceased to be a Pole, and that he requests amnesty from the Tsar. In
that same year, in Paris, he published a pamphlet entitled La verité sur la Russie et sur la
révolte des provinces polonaises, (The truth about Russia and the revolt of the Polish
provinces). In this pamphlet he contrasted an ever weaker Poland with the growing power
of the tsardom, judging that Poland had fallen irrevocably, and nothing could ever raise it
up again.
Among the emigrants this blatant national and sectarian apostasy called forth universal
indignation and condemnation. Bearing this stigma of a national renegade, Gurowski left
for Poland, where he surrendered to the Russian authorities. After a few years, in 1844,
Failing to realize any broader prospects there, he returned to Europe, visiting the western
countries and working as a journalist. In America he tried to obtain a position as a teacher
of foreign languages. He died a pauper in Washington.
Boussonel - an unidentified person.
Jean-Louis-Eugéne Lerminier (Lherminier) (1830-1857) - a lawyer, philosopher, and
journalist. In 1831, in the Collége de France, he began a series of lectures in comparative
law. An eminent speaker who enjoyed exceptional success, especially among the liberally
inclined young students. On April 8, 1834, Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz wrote in his Diary:
"Today a lecture on law given by the eloquent professor Lherminier... The hall was filled.
I saw there individuals with beards, strangely dressed; these were the followers of the
new sect of Saint-Simon" (op. cit., Vol II, p.311). Lerminier was the author of
Philosophie du droit (1831), Histoire des legislateurs et des constitutions de la Gréce
antique. Initially he cooperated with "Le Globe", but later associated himself with the
publication "Revue des Deux Mondes."
Théodore Jouffroy (1796-1842) - a follower of Victor Cousin, professor of philosophy in
the École Normale in the years 1819-1822. He propagated Scotch philosophy in France.
After 1830, on the basis of this philosophy, he and Minister Cousin elaborated a program
for teaching in secondary schools which resulted in Scotch philosophy becoming the
official doctrine of France for at least twenty years. A writer, translator, a member of the
Academy of Moral and Political Science, and a member of the House of Deputies. From
1824, he worked as a journalist (with Dubois and Damiron) as "Le Globe". The author,
e.g., of Mélanges philosophiques (1833), Cours d'histoire de la philosophie moderne,
Philosophie morale. These were lectures given in 1831 at the Paris Faculty.
YEAR 1831
98
99
79
3. avril - Il faut absolument, que je me forme le plus tot possible un milieu
d'action, des conversations particuliéres, des petits enseignements, un travail sur
les femmes.
[April 3, (Sunday). I must definitely create a milieu for activity as soon as possible,
some private conversations, short lectures, and an essay on the topic of women.]
5. avril, soir - dans la journée assez bien. J'ai travaillé avec Metman18 sur la
question de la famille. J'ai consacré quelques heures à la conversation de
Ruebes19, pendant diner et aprés assez bien. Il a commencé à me préoccuper la
pensée de mon indolence et de ma plus généreuse ambition du passé. Mais la
premier des étrangers je suis entré à la doctrine - et réellment quelles idées,
quels projets giganttesques, quel feu m'animaient-ils, mais à côté de celà, et
comme la condition de ma flexibilité, de ma perfectibilité, une espece de
faiblesse morale, qui me faisat de ne pas dominer les circonstances qui
m'entouraient, les hommes avec lesquels j'avais des relations - et de là le mécontentement de nos actions accomplies, de plus en plus grande hauteur de
celles que je me proposais à accomplir. De la baissement de mon activité, cette
rêveuse ambition - de là l'abysse du [scep]ticisme et du sensualisme dans lequel
je suis tombé - de là les fautes et les remords continuels - le grandeur des désirs
et la nullité des actes. Aujourd'hui tout est changé, je bênis mon passé, je m'en
donne plein d'enthousiasme et de puissance vers l'avenir - calme, espérance, vie.
Si je sens tout bonheur de ma vie d'avenir pourrais-je ne pas bénir celle du
passé?
[April 5 (Tuesday) evening; during the day things went quite well. I worked with
Metman on the question of the family. I spent a few hours talking to Ruebes, during
dinner and after; it went well enough. He began to fill my mind with thoughts about
my inadequacy, and my very intense ambitions in the past. I was the first foreigner to
become acquainted with the doctrine - and really, what ideas, what gigantic projects,
and what fire animated me! But aside from this, as a condition of my flexibility and
my capacity for perfection - a kind of moral weakness, which made it impossible for
me to control the circumstances that surrounded me, or the people with whom I had
personal contacts, which led to a lack of satisfaction with our accomplishments, and
an increasing arrogance with regard to what I planned to do. Hence a decrease in my
activity, unreal ambitions, and the abyss of scepticism and sensuality into which I fell
- this led to constant failures, qualms of conscience, the vastness of my desires, and
the nullity of my actions. Today all this has changed. I bless my past. I am filled with
enthusiasm and strength as I look to the future - peace, hope and life. If I feel such a
sense of happiness as I look to my future life, can I not also bless my past life? ]
18
19
Metmann - a saintsimonist of the III degree.
Jules Ruebes - a lawyer; in 1831, when he was 29 years old, he was a saintsimonist of the
III degree. He went mad.
DIARY
80
6. avril. Pour agir avec toute la puissance de la vie dans l'avenir, pour
harmoniser tout mon etre, il faut que j'aie la conscience, comment ait-il ressorti
de tout mon passé. On laisse paisible le passé, on de défait de tout remords si
l'on a la foi et l'energie pour l'avenir, l'espérance. J'ai.
[April 6, (Wednesday) - In order to act in the future with all the power of my life, in
order to bring my whole being into harmony, I must have an awareness of the way in
which that future flows from my past. The past is left in peace; we set aside all
reproaches, and we possess faith and energy for the future, hope. I have it.]
+ In May..... doubts. I would like to have a class in religion.+ In May 8600
Królikowski is leaving.
324
+ Ryb will be coming in May; friendly relations with him, offer him
advice. A conversation with Father Enfantin.20 I would like to teach classes in
20
Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin (1796-1864), bore the title of Father; the chief exponent of
saintsimonism.
The son of a banker, he studied at the Polytechnic School in Paris. As a commercial
traveller, he had been in Belgium, Germany and Russia. In 1821, he became a clerk at a
bank in Petersburg. In 1823, he returned to Paris, and worked as a cashier in the
Mortgage Bank. Together with a friend, Olinde Rodrigues, he studied the teaching of
Saint-Simon, and in the last two years of the latter's life he became his closest disciple.
He recognized that his life vocation was to be the propagation of the doctrine of
Saint-Simon. In 1825, he formed a partnership to maintain the periodical "Le
Producteur". As early as 1828, together with Bazard, he began to form the school of
Saint-Simon, enlisting new recruits. While Bazard was perfecting the philosophicalpolitical side of saintsimonism, Enfantin pursued a philosophical-social direction, giving
it a religious and visionary form. He called attention to the growing opposition between
workers and owners, and the need to socialize the means of production. The church of the
saintsimonists was organized on the rue Monsigny in Paris and in 1830 a hierarchy was
created with a division into lower and higher levels. Enfantin and Bazard received the
status of supreme Fathers. Father Enfantin, the exponent of an increasingly religiousmystical direction within the sainsimonist movement (and also for utilitarian purposes)
tended in the direction of establishing two people at the head of the hierarchy: a man and
a woman (prêtre and femme prêtre). In his opinion, this high priestly pair could, and
should, enter into the most intimate areas of the life of the "faithful" in order to help them
in their striving for a single goal.
He demanded the emancipation of women, to whom he granted freedom in the sphere
of sex. This became the cause for schism among the saintsimonists. In November of
1831, Bazard withdrew from the "church" along with his followers. In April of 1832, with
the remaining saintsimonists, Enfantin founded a commune in Mélimontant, in the
suburbs of Paris, a kind of patriarchal-socialistic worker community. Its activity was
interrupted by government authorities who arrested Enfantin and some of the people in
his entourage, accusing them of violation of the laws governing associations, and outrage
against public morals. The court sentenced him to one year in prison and imposed a
monetary fine. As a result, the saintsimonist community in Mélimontant was dispersed.
After getting out of jail in 1833, Enfantin left for Egypt, where he worked as an engineer
YEAR 1831
81
religion. Friendly relations with Ryb. I am especially happy. I have begun to
receive dernier des enseigner [final instructions].
About [Tuesday, May] 10 - pain [bread] for the first time etc.
Frytz21 is moving in.
I am beginning English lessons.
..., Dulaure22, bibliography, about paganisme [paganism] Saint[e] Croix.23
With Benoiste24 articles about Lerm[inier], disputes about destinée
[predestination], about a future life.
[Should I?] eat at Symon's.25
In June Holland26, Harwik. Received coldly, a foolish hope of money. Benet.27
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
building dams along the Nile. Upon returning to France, he received a position as a postal
clerk, and later worked in the railway administration in Lyon. In the peak period of
saintsimonism, the years 1828-1831, Enfantin gave lectures and published his works,
such as: Économie politique, et politique Saint-Simonienne (1831), La religion SaintSimonienne (1831), Morale (1832), Le Livre nouveau (1832).
Undoubtedly Fritz, whose name was entered in the list of saintsimonists by Jański.
Jacques-Antoine Dulaure (1755-1835) - a delegate to the Convention, a member of
various literary societies, and of the Société royale des antiquaires de France. A writer,
expert in Greek antiquities, and journalist. Author of: Divinités des génératrices, ou du
Culte du Phallus chez les anciens et les modernes, des cultes di dieu de Lampsaque, de
Pan, de Venus, etc. (1805), Histoire critique de la Noblesse ... (1790), Histoire physique,
civile, et morale des énvirons de Paris (1825).
Guillaume-Emmanuel-Joseph Sainte-Croix (1746-1809) - a baron; captain in the French
calvary and corps of grenadiers. From 1803, a member of the Académie des Inscriptions
et Belle-Lettres; an expert antiquary and a writer. He engaged in studies in the field of
ancient history, publishing the history of the ancient federated governments and
legislation, as well as religious cult. Among the books he published are: Recherches
historiques et critiques sur les mystéres du Paganisme (1784) and Observations sur le
temple d'Eleusis (1802).
Martin Benoiste - A saintsimonist of the III level; a lawyer in Paris. He worked in the
Royal Commission. Jański visited him at his residence in Boulevard Montparnasse 26 bis.
François-Suisse-Jules Simon (1814-1896) - a saintsimonist on level II; a close associate
of V. Cousin. In later years he won recognition as a philosopher and statesman. He was
professor of philsophy at the École Normale, then later at the Sorbonne. A member of the
Academy of Moral and Political Studies.
Henry Richard Fox Vassal Holland (1773-1840), a British statesman. In the years 18301834 he served in the government of Charles Grey, a Whig of the House of Lords. He
fought for mitigation of the death penalty for theft, and for the abolishment of slavery. He
supported the emancipation of Catholics in Ireland, and manifested a lively interest and
sympathy for the cause of Poland. He was noted for his intellectual culture; his drawingroom was a gathering place for scholars and artists.
Benet - a religious brother and Anglo-Norman poet at the beginning of the 13th century.
Nothing is known of his life. Under his name a rhymed poem has survived, dedicated to
DIARY
82
With Benoiste.
I begin recherche [research].
Je continue, about property; a few words [?] about slavery Karn[ote?].
Kreuzer28 begun. Pastoret.29 The Orient - begun.
Kurte30 is reading a treatise on the future life to me.
Christianity; some inquiries. Bergier.31
Histoire de Philosophie par Cousin.32
The writings of Buchez.33
28
29
30
31
32
33
the life of Thomas a Becket, who came from a Norman family and was Archbishop of
Cantebury. It is possible that Jański intended to develop the "Benet" theme as a slogan for
some French periodical.
Friedrich Creuzer (1771-1858) - a German classical philologist, author of Symbolik und
Mythologie der alten Völker (1810-1812). He propagated a view of a primitive universal
revelation.
Claude-Emmanuel-Joseph-Pierre Pastoret (1756-1840), Marquis, professor of natural and
international law at the Collége de France. After the restoration he became a peer in
France, Speaker of the House of Peers, and chairman of the commission for the revision
of the legal code. A Minister of State, and ultimately Chancellor. Author, among others
works, of the ten volume Histoire de la Législation (1817-1827).
Victor Courtet (1813-1876) - a follower of Saint-Simon, economist and journalist.
Nicolas-Sylvestre Bergier (1718-1790) - A French theologian, apologist, and writer. He
defended the Christian faith against the philosophical doctrines of the Enlightenment. He
engaged in polemics with, among others, Holbache in his L'Apologie de la religion chrétienne (1769), and Examen du matérialisme ou réfutation du Systéme de la nature (1771).
He gained fame as the author of Dictionnaire théologique (3 volumes, 1788-1790), which
appeared in several editions in the 18th century, and also in the years 1826-1828. He was
considered one of the most outstanding defenders of the Catholic religion in the 18th
century.
Victor Cousin (1792-1867) - a French philosopher and politician, a disciple of RoyerCollard. From 1814, a professor at the École Normale. An adversary of the Restoration,
and a liberal. After the June 1830 Revolution a professor at the Sorbonne. He held
important positions in the state administration as Director of École Normale, Rector of
the University of Paris, and Minister of Education. He was a French Peer, a state
councillor, a member of the French Academy. He favored eclecticism in philosophy,
recognized the Scotch philosophy, and also studied the philosophy of history. He claimed
that God cannot exist without the world, just as the world cannot exist without God, since
great people, whole epochs and peoples reveal ideas; therefore, history must be
understood as a development of ideas. Among the lecturese he published: Cours de
Philosophie (1836), Cours de l'histoire de la philosophie moderne (1846-1848).
Joseph-Benjamin-Phillipe Buchez (1796-1865) - a Paris tax-collector, doctor of medicine,
philosopher and journalist. Together With Saint-Armand Bazard he established French
Carbonarism, and was a member of a masonic lodge. He discovered the doctrine of SaintSimon after the latter's death, and became a member of the saintsimonist school. He
began to write for "Le Producteur". However, already in 1829 he rejected the materialism
of this school propagated by Enfantin and Bazard. Gradually he came closer to
YEAR 1831
83
An idea about enseignement interieur [interior instruction].
Fourier.34
Hugo ..... Jus Zivile.35
I am to write an article about Poland. Lelewel36, Malte Brun37, pamphlets.
34
35
36
Catholicism, accepting belief in a Creator, as well as acknowledging Revelation, dogmas,
and their concordance with the idea of progress. In the introduction to his Histoire parlamentaire de la Révolution francaise (Vol. XVII, 1835), he placed special emphasis on
this concordance, and indicated the social character of catholicism. In the periodical
"L'Européen", which he established (1831-1832; 1835-1838: the first series bore the subtitle "Journal des sciences morales"; the second, "Journal de Morale et de Philosophie")
he addressed the issue of morality, which he considered to be the source of philosophy.
He argued that all the actions of people are explained by the conflict of egoism with
unselfishness. Mankind's purpose is to realize disinterestedness, and this can be achieved
by workmen's productive unions and social credit. He published Introduction á la Science
de l'Histoire our Science du dévelopment de l'humanité (Paris, 1833), and Essai d'un
traité complet de philosophie au point de vue du catholicisme et du progrés (1838-1840,
3 volumes). He was considered a pioneer of Christian socialism, who opened the way for
social Catholicism in France. He was a repubican by conviction; already in 1831, he was
offering the Polish emigrants the assistance they needed in order to obtain passports
under assumed names.
François-Marie-Charles Fourier (1772-1837) - The founder of a utopian socialistic system
called Fourierism, and the school of Fourier. Cf. the Note concerning the life and activity
of F.M-Ch. Fourier at the end of Diary for the year 1831.
Gustav Hugo (1764-1844) - professor of Law in Göttingen. In Germany he established
the so-called Historical School of Law. He engaged in research on the sources and history
of Roman Law. He edited "Zivilistischen Magazin" (1790-1837), and was the author of
Lehrbuch eines zivilistischen Kursus (1792-1802, 7 volumes). Among other works, he
published Jus civile antejustinianeum (1815, 2 volumes).
Joachim Lelewel (1786-1861) - Historian, political activist, exponent of Polish
democracy. He completed his studies at the University of Wilno, and for a short time
taught in the Krzemieniecki Lyceum. In the years 1815-1818 he was an assistant professor of world history in Wilno; after this he taught bibliography and served as a lecturer
in the Library at the University of Warsaw. After he was awarded a doctorate at the
Jagellonian University, he became a member of the Society of the Friends of Learning in
Warsaw. By open competition in 1821 he was appointed to the chair of world history in
Wilno; however, he was removed from this position in connection with a trial involving a
secret patriotic student society at the University of Wilno. He then returned to Warsaw.
Aside from his work in education, he maintained contact wtih clandestine organizations composed of university students. In 1828, he became a delegate to the Sejm, taking
his place there as a member of the opposition. During the November uprising he was a
member of the People's Government; at the same time was president of the Patriotic
Society. Up to this time he had published more than 150 scholarly works, in the field of
history, historical geography, numismatics, etc. After the failure of the uprising, he took
up residence in Paris on October 29, 1831. On December 15 he was chosen by the Paris
Community (that is, the General Assembly of Polish Emigrants gathered in Paris) to be
president of Permanent Polish People's Committee. Toward the end of 1832, for political
DIARY
84
+ For Symon - about commerce.
Comte, Storch, Dunoyer, Arnoud, Peuchet38, corporations - in good
condition.+
37
38
reasons, French authorities expelled him from Paris. He lived in the outskirts of Paris, at
the residence of General Lafayette, and helped to orgnize a secret masonic lodge, Zemsta
Ludu (Vengeance of the People), which was making preparations for the expedition of
Joseph Zaliwski. He kept in contact with the guerillas in Poland.
Expelled from France in 1833, he settled permanently in Brussells, where he engaged
in scholarly work and journalism. He continued to take part in the political life of the
emigration, trying to unite it around a program of activities dealing with independence.
He supported the Association of Polish People, and in the years 1834-1836, he was a
member of the organization "Young Poland". He supported Simon Konarski's expedition.
In 1837 he co-founded the Union of Polish Emigrants, and was a member of the ruling
body of this organization. In 1847 he was a member of the International Democratic
Society. In the years 1851-1853 he was a member of the Polish Historical-Literary
Society in Paris. By his lectures, as well as his historical and journalistic work, he
contributed to the intellectual development of many Polish romantic writers (e.g., A,
Mickiewicz). His research works and monographs, some of which were written in
French, and then translated into other languages, brought him recognition in the European
scholarly community.
Konrad Malhte-Brun (1775-1826) - A Danish-French geographer. In Paris, with mantelle,
he published Géographie mathematique, physique et politique de toutes les parties du
monde (1803-1807, 16 volumes in folio). From 1806 he was associate of the "Journal des
Débats", publisher of "Annales des voyages de la géographie et de l'histoire" (18081814), and from 1818 of "Nouvelles annales des voyages". His main work, Précis de la
géographie universelle (1810-1829, 8 volumes).
Comte, Storch, Dunoyer, Arnoud, Peuchet - names of authors of works in the field of law
and economics:
Charles-François-Luis Comte (1782-1837) - a French lawyer, politician, and
journalist. Collaborated with the economist Ch. Dunoyer (cf. below), with whom he established the periodical "Le Censeur". The author of, e.g. Traité des legislation ou
exposition des lois gens (1827).
Heinrich Storch (1766-1835), of German extraction, a Russian economist, teacher of
statistics, state councillor of the Russian government, and a member of the Emperor's
Academy of Science in Petersburg. Author of a work which appeared in French
translation: Cours d'économie politique, ou expositions des principes qui déterminant la
prosperité des nations (1815). This work was published again with a critical apparatus by
Jean-Baptiste Saye in 1823.
Charles-Barthélemy Dunoyer (1786-1862) - a French economist, co-founder of the
periodical "Le Censeur" in 1814; after the July 1830 revolution, a statesman and
administrator of the Royal Library in Paris. Among other works, he published L'industrie
et la morale considérées rapports avec la societé (1825), which appeared again in 1830
under the name Nouveau traité d'économie sociale.
Ambroise-Marie Arnould (1750-1812) - the author of Histoire générale des finances
de la France... (1806).
8600
310
YEAR 1831
85
Letter to Alex, Hayward.
travail sur la proprieté et sur
[a treatise on property and commerce]
l'industrie travail sur la legislation
[treatise on legislation]
travail sur le develeppement reli[treatise on religious development
gieux (question de la vie future)
(question of a future life)]
exposition en 5 séances
[lecture in 5 sessions]
Notes sur l'histoire
[notes about history]
travail sur la Pologne
[article about Poland]
[languages:] English, German, Italian.
_________
1. Poland.
2. Languages.
3. Gather objections and responses about various questions.
4. Finish Kreuzer.
In July
Finished reading Orpheus.
Italy
Margeryn.39
Closer acquaintance with Kurte.
Dissatisfied with women, with everything.
Influence of Lerminier - I only want philosophy.
Distrust of the Elders. Crisis.
Elections. I want to withdraw.
Reaction - a talk with Father Fournel.40
Tiéry.41
39
40
41
Jacob Poeuchet (1760-1830) - lawyer, professor of maritime and commercial law, as
well as author of works in the field of statistics, and especially of dictionaries, such as:
Dictionnaire universal de la Géographie (1799-1800), and Vocabulaire des termes de
commerce banque, manufactures, navigation marchande, finance mercantile et
statistique (1801).
Carl (Charles) Marie-Desiré-Hippolyte Margerin - a saintsimonist on level I in 1831; a
member of college, emissary of saintsimonism in Belgium. Along with B. Jański he
converted to the Catholic faith. An Editor of "L'Université Catholique".
Marie-Jérome-Henri Fournel - an engineer; a member of the sainstsimonist college (a
Father), co-editor of An Exposition of the Doctrine of Saint-Simon and author of
Bibliographie saintsimonienne (1833); director of a "group of workers", i.e. proletarians,
who constituted a separate group in the saintsimonist organization.
Augustine Thiérry (1795-1866) - writer and historian. In his early years he served as
Saint-Simon's secretary. He was interested in historico-social and philosophico-social
DIARY
86
A question of war. Skimmed through many works.
[Monday, July] 25 - I discontinue my work on war and am fully occupied with
Lermin - I accomplished nothing. I am very dissatisfied.
[Beginning?] of August
In the first days, an article will be published about Lermin. I am more
peaceful.
Continuing the work on war - Aristotle42, Greek and Roman antiquities.
Dans la réunion du degré préparatoire du 5 Août, sept membres de de 326
degré ont declaré a ma demande, leur désir de prendre [art aux travaux des
recherches. Leur noms sont: 1. Surblez, 2. Vaulquin, 3. Brailoi, 4. Selaries, 5.
Madolle, 6. Souza, 7. Raymond.
[At the meeting of the preparatory level on [Friday] August 5, at my invitation,
seven members of that level declared their desire to participate in the research work.
Their names are: 1. Surblez, 2. Vaulquin, 3. Bariloi, 4. Selaires, 5. Madolle, 6. Souza,
7. Raymond.]
[Saturday, August] 6 - I returned the notes on war to Guéroult.43 I was tired
when I returned. Heeren.44
Sunday, [August] 7 - after the sermon, a chronological work on Heeren.
Evening, went to bed early.
42
43
44
questions. He was of the opinion that: true history is the history of people; in historical
events, conflicts occur between ethnic groups; as time passes, within these groups there
develop tendencies to transform themselves into classes. In the spirit of romanticism he
wrote, e.g., Lettres sur l'histoire de France (1827), and Récits des temps mérovingiens
(1835-1840). Toward the end of his life he lost his sight. He enjoyed great popularity
among contemprary readers.
Aristotle (384-322) - Next to Plato, the most outstanding thinker of antiquity. In his
practical philosophy he considered the question of war (in Politics, Book 5).
Adolph Guéroult (1810-1872) - In 1832, he was a saintsimonist on level II. He left the
school of Enfantin and became a journalist, working, e.g., in "Le Temps", "Journal des
Débats", and "Republique". He published the Lettres sur Fourier et son école (18371838).
Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren (1760-1842) - a German historian, professor at the
University in Getyndza. He dealt with ancient and modern history. By his writings he
contributed to the development of the science of history. Among his works, conspicuous
by reason of the quality of its form and content, is Ideen über Politik, den Verkehr und
den handel der vornehmsten Völker der alten Welt, (1793-1812; 4th edition 1824-1826, 6
vols).
YEAR 1831
87
Yesterday, [Monday, August] 8, Régnier45 in the library and then Heeren. In the
evening Ballanche; exchanged many ideas about the formation of the epoch.
Today, [Tuesday, August] 9, I read Vision d'Hebal in the library. Later, I felt
weak. In the evening, these reflections.
Dans la réunion du 12 j'ai invité, au nom du P. Carnot en personne ainsi 279
quatre membres du degré qui voudraient s'occuper de ce genre de travaux a se
réunir dimanche suivante rue Monsigny.
[At the meeting on [Friday], August 12, in the name of Father Carnot46 personally, I
asked four members of the [preparatory] level who wished to occupy themselves in
this kind of work to attend a meeting next Sunday at rue Monsigny.47]
280
Le 14 dimanche ils sont venu a la réunion: 1. Menestrier, 2. Verolot, 3. Vrailoi,
4. Vaulquin, 5. Souza, 6. Raymond, 7. Dedupart, 8. Jules Mercier,48 9. Gueit.
Aprés leur avoir indiqué le but nos travaux, je me suis occupé immediatement de leur distribution.
Menestrier, Verolot, Jules Mercier n'ont pas pu prendre part. [...]
45
46
47
48
Adolph Régnier (1804-1884) - philologist, professor at Collége Saint-Louis, Collége
Charlemagne, and Collége de France. A member of the Académie des Inscriptions et
Belle-Lettres. Together with Ph. Lebas he published the Cours complet de lague
allemande (1830-1837)
Lazare-Hippolyte Carnot (1801-1888) - French journalist and statesman. At an early age
he studied the German language and literature. He attended Hegel's lectures in Berlin. On
his return to France he became a lawyer, and editor of periodicals that were becoming
radical. He declared himself a republican, and participated in the July 1830 Revolution.
At an early date he established connections with the saintsimonist movement, as associate
editor of "Le Globe", "L'Organisateur", and "Revue Encyclopédique". He became a
member of the college as one of the twelve Fathers. He was co-editor of An Exposition of
the Doctrine of Saint-Simon, and director of the saintsimonist research group. He came
out against the religious-mystical innovations of Enfantin. After the February revolution
(1848), he held the title of minister of education and cult. He was a member of the senate.
Author, e.g., of Sur le saint-simonisme, in the periodical "Académie des Sciences Morale
et Politique" (1837).
rue Monsigny - a street in Paris where Enfantin lived, and where the saintsimonist offices
and editorial bureau were located. On December 17, 1828, the first lecture on doctrine
was given in the room of Enfantin; the following lectures took place on rue Taranne 12,
where from December 31,1828, every two weeks on Wednesday the lectures of Bazard
and Enfantin were held.
Jules Mercier (d.1834) - a poet connected with the saintsimonist movement. He published
two small books: Le réveil de la France, ou Trois jours de la gloire, poëme (1830), and
Nouveaux chants saint-simoninnes (1833). He committed suicide.
DIARY
88
Mais d'un autre coté quelques unes de personnes, qui ne sont pas venus a
la réunion ont declaré leur désir de prendre part á nos travaux, savoir: 10. Surblez, 11. Madolle, 12. Jocquelin.
[Sunday, (August) 14 - The meeting was attended by: 1. Menestrier, 2. Verolot, 3.
Brailoi, 4. Vaulquin, 5. Souza, 6. Raymond, 7. Dedupart, 8. Jules Mercier, 9. Gueit.
After indicating to them the object of our work, I immediately set about
dividing it up. Menestrier, Verolot, and Jules Mercier were unable to participate in our
work. [...]
But, on the other hand, a few people who could not attend the meeting declared
their desire to participate in our work, namely: 10. Surblez, 11. Madolle, 12. Jocquelin.]
8627
146 [Tuesday, November] 29
I began eating at Steinhauser's49 with the Mochnackis50 and Gurowski - I
say nothing. With them for coffee, in the evening a walk through the gallery.
At the end of November, I visited with Dugied.51 Theater. Ryb is sick, and I - in
poultices.
[Thursday, December] 1 - I am beginning at Carnot. Liberalism. Still seeing
Ryb. I am looking through the latest copies of "Revue" in detail. I don't know
49
50
51
Steinhauser - a German who conducted a boarding house or "cook-shop", where he
offered a common table (table d'hôte) at 30 francs a month. Polish emigrants took
advantage of this inexpensive restaurant, with their discussions often changing it into a
little Sejm.
The brothers Maurice and Camille Mochnacki:
Maurice Mochnacki (1803-December 20, 1834) - literary critic, romantic theorist,
political activist and historian of the November uprising. Cf. the note dealing with the
life, creativity, and political activity of M. Mochnacki, at the end of the Diary for the year
1831.
Camille Mochnacki (1806-August 18, 1833) - student at the Warsaw School for
Officer Cadets; an editor and a member of secret societies. He participated in the November uprising, was promoted to the rank of major, and received the Golden Cross
Virtuti Militari. After the uprising, he arrived in Paris on November 2, 1831. He had a
hand in organizing the Literary Society under the direction of J. Lelewel. French
authorities sent him to a camp for Poles in Avignon. He became a member of their
council, and in its name acted as a delegate in matters of reorganization in negotiations
with Lelewel's committee in Paris. Thanks to recommendations from General Lafayette
and the Franco-Polish Committee, he obtained permission to live in Paris. He participated
in disputes that arose among the emigrants, and was worn out by them. Sick and harassed
by poverty, at the recommendation of his doctor he left for Hyéres together with his
brother Maurice. There he died of consumption.
Pierre Dugied - member of the saintsimonist college.
YEAR 1831
89
whether I should return to Poland, or what I should do here - sometimes I want
to return.
Carnot gives me no money. I am not smoking a pipe, only cigars. I want
to be a teacher at Soltyk's.52
[Monday, December] 12
J'entre dans la rue des Marais porté vers isolement - la réunion à la rue
Monsigny possible. [I enter the rue des Marais, inclined to isolate myself - the
meeting at rue Monsigny is possible.] After dinner for coffee, the evening with
Camille [Mochnacki]. I am pretending to work on Fichte.53 I usually spend the
whole day frolicking.
Walter54 will be arriving. I take a few pamphlets in order to review them.
In general, I feel very weak.
52
53
54
Roman Sołtyk (1791-1843) - a lieutenant-colonel in the Polish armies of the Duchy of
Warsaw, he participated in the Napoleonic campaign. In the years prior to the November
uprising, he was a member of secret societies. At the Sejm in 1829, he presented a plan to
enfranchise the peasants. During the uprising he organized the National Guard, was a
commander of the artillery, and worked his way up to the rank of brigadier general. As
delegate to the Sejm, he presented a resolution to dethrone Nicholas I. Initially a follower
of J. Lelewel, he was vice-president of the Patriotic Society. He wrote a book on the
November uprising: Précis historique, politique et militaire de la révolution du 29
novembre (Paris, 1833), and also reports from the campaign of Napoleon en 1812 (Paris,
1836). He had two children: Helen and Roman.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) - A German philosopher. He occupied the chair of
philosophy in Jena, but lost that position when he was accused of atheism. During the
Napoleonic wars, in the years 1807-1808 in Berlin, he presented a series of fervent Talks
to the German People. In philosophy he passed through an evolution from rationalism to
mysticism, and from autonomous to religious ethics, ultimately recognizing the primacy
of God over the ego. Initially he espoused humanitarianism, but he ended in nationalism.
His views, arranged as a system, he presented in popular fashion in Bestimmung des
Menschem (1800).
Jean Francis Philip Walter (1810-1847) - A Polish-French chemist. His father was a
merchant in Kraków. Prior to the November uprising, he received a doctorate in
philosophy at the Jagellonian University. During the uprising, in 1830, he was a
lieutenant, an aide-de-camp of the general staff. After the uprising he left for France, and
took up residence in Paris. He worked very closely with a French pharmacist and chemist,
Joseph Pelletier (1788-1842), discoverer of quinine among other things. Later he became
a director of chemical experiments in the Central School of Arts and Crafts in Paris. A
Knight of the Legion of Honor. His brother Leo was a doctor.
F. Walter and B. Jański became sincere friends, for the latter, the longest friendship
during his stay in Paris. It seems that in the first phase of acquaintance Fanny Lebert was
an intimate friend of Jański, but later moved on to F. Walter, and stayed with him permanently. Over a period of time, F. Walter carried on a correspondence with Jański's
DIARY
90
The Literary Society.55 Sometimes, in the evening, I visit Fanny, sometimes Carnot. I go to bed early.
One Sunday I read Damiron.56 I go for Buchez. I come back home early. I
want to read Hugo's57 poems, Lelewel, "Morgenblatt"58, occasionally the
Sermons. Sometimes I take a walk in the evening.
55
56
57
devoted friend, Valerian Wielogłowski (cf. Philip Walter, Letters... to Valerian
Wielogłowski 1836-1844, Poznań, 1927).
The Literary Society was established in Paris on December 24, 1831, upon the initiative
of J. Lelewel, as the Literary Society of Polish Exiles. Its purpose was to propagate Polish
culture in the west, and to acquaint Europe with the history of Poland and its literature by
means of translations of the most eminent of Polish authors. J. Lelewel planned for about
50 volumes of translations, which would be undertaken by the language departments into
which the society would be divided. The Society counted a little over thirty members,
emigrants and a few French polonophils. The president of this society was J. Lelewel. His
assistant was M. Mochnacki, and the secretary as Joseph Mayzner. Lelewel's plan,
favoring the works of Polish writers of the 18th century but also including, to a lesser
degree and not too aptly, some of the romantic writers, met with opposition from
Mochnacki. The activity of the society proved to be short-lived (cf. The Emigration Letters of Joachim Lelewel, vol. I, p.10, and The Letters of Maurice Mochnacki and his
brother Camille, in Writings, Vol. I, Poznań, 1863).
Information concerning the establishment and membership of the society was provided
by "Le Constitutionel, Journal du commerce, politique et littéraire", Monday, January 9,
1832, Number 9 [page 2]. From this source we learn that B. Jański belonged to the
society.
The following is the French text from "Le Constitutionel": "Les Polonais réunis en France
ont formé, le 24 Décembre 1831, et sous la présidence de M. Joachim Lelewel, une
Société littéraire des réfugies polonais ... Ce sont: MM. Bartholomé Beniowski, Léonard
Chodzko, Jean Czyński, Kasimir Dobrowolski, Antoine Gorecki, Jean Grotkowski, Adam
Gurowski, Antoine Hłuszniewicz, Bogdan Jański, Albert Kazimirski, Joseph
Kondratowicz, Thadé Krempowiecki, Joseph Maliński, Joseph Meyzner, Maurice
Mochnacki, Camille Mochnacki, Julien Mrozowski, Antoine Oleszczyński, Wladislas
Oleszczyński, Jean Kasimir Ordyniec, Valérien Pietkiewicz, Pluzanski, Michel Skibicki,
Jules Słowacki, Roman Sołtyk, Albert Sowinski, Charles-Edouard Wodzinski, Louis
Wolowski, Kasimir Wolowski, Adam Wolowski, Louis Zambrzycki, Georges Zenowicz."
Jean-Philibert Damiron (1794-1862) - French philosopher, a disciple of V. Cousin,
professor at the Sorbonne and member of the French Academy. He was an associate and
editor of "Le Globe". In this periodical he published many articles, which were collected
and published under the title Essais sur l'histoire de la philosophie en France au XIX
siécle (1828, third edition in 1834).
Victor-Marie Hugo (1802-1885) - a French writer, politician, and member of the French
Academy. He was the leading writer of romanticism. From his rich and diverse literary
legacy, the following were outstanding works, published by the author before 1840, while
Jański was still living, should be mentioned: Collections of poems entitled Odes et
ballades (1826), Les orientales (1829), and a lyrical masterpiece Les Feuilles d'automne
(1831); of his prose, the novel based on the history of Paris in the Middle Ages Notre
Dame de Paris (1831); from works for the theater, Cromwell (1827), with a foreword that
YEAR 1831
91
There are days, especially after a sermon by Transon, when I think of
returning to rue Monsigny.
I do not foresake rue Monsigny often, and perhaps only to fortify myself.
Impressions after the sermons. Talks with Benoist.
I am reading Gerbet59, the "Correspondant," and the "Revue Européenne".60
58
59
60
is a manifesto of romanticism, Hernani, or The honor of Castille (1830), and Ruy blas
(1838).
"Morgenblatt" - the full title is "Morgenblatt für gebildete stände", a German priodical
which was published by the famous firm of Cotta in Stuttgart and Tübingen in the years
1807-1865. Articles which were published in the so-called Appendices dealt with current
intellectual life, literature and the arts. These were noted for their high intellectual level,
and were meant for educated readers.
Philippe-Olympe Gerbet (1798-1864) - Philosopher, theologian, and one of the revivers
of French Catholicism. He was ordained after finishing his studies in 1822. He became
acquainted with Felicité de Lamennais, and, with him, issued the publication "Mémorial
catholique" in 1824, and later, in the years 1830-1832, the periodical "L'Avenir" ("The
Future"). In his publications he defended Lamennais when he was attacked, but withdrew
his defense when the views of his master were condemned by the Pope. He dealt with the
rejection of the Catholic Church by Lamennais in Réflexions sur la chûte de la
Monseigneur de Lamennais (1836). He continued writing articles , and from 1836 edited
the periodical "L'Université Catholique". He was professor of homiletics, and taught at
the Sorbonne in Paris. He was appointed Vicar-General in Amiens, and then Bishop.
In the field of philosophy, he gave a critical evaluation of Descartes' system of
philosophy, as well as his justification of motives for the foundations of faith. He based
himself on traditionalism, and spoke in favor of the so-called "common sense". In
theology he placed great emphasis on the Eucharist and Penance in their sacramental
dimensions, and explained their emotional role in religious experience in such works as
Considérations sur le dogme générateur de la pieté catholique (1829, third edition 1839),
and Vues sur le dogme catholique de la penitence (1836). He was a social radical, who
spoke out in the defense of workers' rights. He preached religious-philosophical conferences which appeared in print: Conférences de la philosophie catholique, Introduction á
la philosophie de l'histoire (1832). In later years he moved somewhat away from
radicalism, but did not cease to be an ecclesiastic who was especially sensitive to social
injustice. His Conférences... and Catholicisme et decalogue (1835) enjoyed popular
acclaim.
"Le Correspondant" - A Paris newspaper published from March 10, 1829, to August 30,
1831. The editors gave this paper a new title: "Revue Européenne", but retained the
former sub-title: "Journal religieux, politique, philosophique et littéraire". It was
published from 1831 to November 1834, and periodically in 1835, from April to October.
The editors of this new monthly advanced liberal Catholic views, and supported "Liberté
civile et religieuse pout tout l'univers". They were also legitimists. Such authors as
Charles Montalembert, Julien Michelet, and others wrote for this monthly. As A.
Mickiewicz wrote: "They edidted a periodical that was among the best in France from the
literary and historical standpoint"; but he did not hesitate to add: "It holds to the center,
moving alternately to one or the other side: in theology, it more often follows the school
DIARY
92
I am beginning to drink grog in the evening. I am calmer, since I have
come to recognize the superiority of intellect over nature. I am hoping to
distinguish myself after my return.
of Lammenais, but in politics it leans toward the side of "The Daily Paper" [i.e., "La
Quotidienne", a royalist publication]" (citations from an article by A. Mickiewicz On
French Catholic newspapers with reference to the cause of Poland, published in "The
Polish Pilgrim" of February 5 and 9, 1833).
YEAR 1831
93
DIARY
94
NOTES
1. A note concerning the life, and work, of F.M.-Ch. Fourier
(cf. footnote 34)
Fourier was the son of a rich merchant. He engaged in commerce and, as a
tradesman, lived in Germany and Holland. In Lyon he established a business firm
dealing with colonial wares. He was an adversary of the Jacobins, and barely escaped
their vengeance with his life. He spent two years in military service, after which he
moved back into the field of commerce. His free hours were spent in reflection on the
nature of man and his destiny, as well as on possibilities for enhancing the lot of
mankind. To a degree seldom encountered, he demonstrated an exceptional gift for
observing contemporary socio-political conditions. From such observation, as well as
from personal experience, he drew the conclusions contained in his greatest work
Théorie des quatre mouvements et des destinées genérales (The theory of four
movements, and of general destinies) published in 1808. From that time he lived
alternately in Besançon and Paris. After 1826, he took up permanent residence in
Paris. He published other works, such as: Le nouveau monde industriel et sociétaire...
(1829), Piéges et charlatanisme des deux sectes Saint-Simon et Owen... (1831), and
La fausse industrie... (1835). He died in poverty.
The central point of Fourier's philosophy was his concept of a personal God.
Matter and mathematics limit his creative will by their independent existence. God
must remain in harmony with the laws of mathematics which are proper to him, and
which manifest themselves in creatures by his creative will. All together, God has
twelve passions, among which is the passion for variety; in a certain sense, he is a
social person who requires collaborators in a variety of functions.
He himself is subordinate to the laws of nature, and in creating the world "in his
own image and likeness", God subordinates it to these laws. The God of Fourier is a
God who is more anthropomorphic than the God of Christianity. God created the
world to serve a purpose, fashioning it in such a way that, in the end, universal
harmony would be achieved. The recognition of natural laws and the codices on
which the created world depends, consists of recognition of the destinies leading to
this harmony. Fourier believed that he had uncovered these codices, and in so doing,
had uncovered the plan of God.
In his theology uncovering the plan of Providence, he relied on a mystical and
theosophical theory related to medieval philosophy, to the Cabala, and to the ideas of
natural law which were propagated by rationalists of the 18th century.
Keeping to this theory concerning God and the human person, Fourier plunges
into the sphere of socio-politico-economic life, and subjects it to a penetrating
analysis and criticism. In contemporary civilization he exposes the economic
structure, its commercialism and fiscal stringency, as well as its anarchism in
commerce and production, leading to economic, political and social crises. He
DIARY
96
uncovers the illusions of political economy, and claims, e.g., that banks represent
"freedom to practice usury", and commerce, "freedom to lie". In his opinion, every
class is the enemy of another class; the interests of the rich are incompatible with
those of the poor. The government, in its dependence on the rich, causes the poor to
be deprived of their political and social rights, since these are the privileges of the
rich.
In order to prevent such anomalies, it is necessary to develop "without revolution"
a social structure which relies on agricultural-commercial communities, called
"phalanxes". Every phalanx should consist of 1620 persons, who live in a common
dwelling called a "phalanstery". In each such phalanstery the following obligations
would be in force: work in common, which should be a pleasure, common possession
of products and their proper distribution, a common education of children, etc.
Fourier's project with regard to the phalansteries was never realized, and attempts to
do so proved to be complete failures.
In spite of its fantastic nature, Fourier's theory won some followers. Among
these, the main continuer was Victor Considérant, an editor and propagator of his
master's teaching in France, as well as in the United States, where settlements on the
model of Fourier were established.
2. Concerning the life, work and political activity of M. Mochnacki
(cf. footnote 50)
After finishing Linde's Lyceum in Warsaw, in 1821 he enrolled in the Faculty
of Law at the University of Warsaw. He was accepted into the secret society, the
Union of Free Poles, where he met K. Bronikowski, W. Heltman, J.B. Ostrowski and
S. Goszczyński. Together with Law, to which he did not apply himself overly, he
gave himself enthusiastically to a study of literature and philosophy, the works of
Goethe and Schiller, I. Kant, the two philosophers of the romantic period, J.G. Fichte
and F.W. Schelling, as well as others. In 1822, he was punished for slapping a police
officer, and then expelled from school.
In 1823 he was arrested for belonging to the Union of Free Poles, and put into
a prison which was formerly a Carmelite monastery. After eight months, he was released, at the price of bringing charges of liberalism against the educational system.
This price proved fatal in its consequences, and weighed heavily on his future life and
political career. At the insistence of his parents, he worked as a censor until 1827.
This too was accounted as a sin by his adversaries. He began to pursue the profession
of literary critic, working together with a university colleague and friend, Michael
Podczaszyński, at "The Warsaw Daily" in which he published his treatises, such as:
Concerning the spirit and the sources of poetry in Poland (1825), and Some observations on romantic poetry (1825). As a result of these works, he became an advocate of
romanticism. He gained authority as a theorist of this new literary trend in disputes
with the classicizing writers of Warsaw. In the years 1826-1830, he was an associate
working with such romanticist organs as "The Polish Gazette", and "The Polish
Courier" - and a member of the editorial staff of the latter. He was awarded a master's
YEAR 1831
97
degree at the University of Lwów, in 1829. He reviewed and evaluated not only
contemporary literary events and trends, (On the Sonnets of A. Mickiewicz, 1827,
Concerning Polish literature in the 19th century, 1830) but also theatrical and musical
performances. He propagated the view that literature is a reflection of "national
spirit", and performs a service function in this regard.
The outbreak of the November uprising tore him away from the work he had
been doing until then as a literary critic. He became one of the most active political
figures and journalists. On December 1, together with his editorial colleague and
friend, K. Bronikowski, on December 1, he organized the "Patriotic Club". A year
later, he joined A. Gurowski on the editorial staff of the leftist rebel periodical
"Young Poland".
Completely immersed in the political climate, he demanded radical action,
which required dictatorship and stirring up the masses. He accused the highest
government authority in the Kingdom, the Administrative Council, of actions hostile
to the revolution. As an ordinary soldier, he took part in the revolutionary battles, and
was seriously wounded at Ostrołęka. For his efforts he received an officer's epaulets
and the Golden Cross Virtuti Militari. On January 19, 1831, after the fall of the
dictatorship of General J. Chłopicki, whom he accused of treason - which caused K.
Bronikowski to distance himself from him - he organized a meeting of the Patriotic
Society. The purpose of this meeting, among other things, was to bring pressure to
bear on the Sejm. By the spoken and written word he was constantly stirring up
people to continue the battle for independence.
After the failure of the uprising, together with his brother Camille, he worked
his way to France, and reached Paris on November 3, 1831. Shortly after that, on
November 6, he took part in the inauguration of the Temporary Emigration
Committee, directed mainly by "the group from Kalisz", headed by B. Niemojowski.
A little later, together with A. Gurowski, he withdrew from the Committee, and in
anonymous pamphlets (dated November 18 and 25) he protested against a committee
consisting of people seeking authority "who had lost the revolution." He was secretary
at meetings of the Paris Commune (December 8-9) which created the Permanent
Polish People's Committee, under the leadership of J. Lelewel. He was not elected as
an officer of the committee since he did not receive a majority of votes. Instead, he
became a member of the Literary Society, established by J. Lelewel in December to
acquaint the West with the achievements of Polish culture.
However, Mochnacki did not agree with Lelewel in the matter of how the
program of the society was to be realized, and so he withdrew. In the following month
he left Paris, and from January 11 to the end of March he resided in Metz, living in
poverty. At that time he helped to organize a welfare performance, taking part in J.
Hummel's Piano Concert. While still in Metz - and not avoiding participation in
social life - he went about preparing materials for a history of the uprising. In the
summer of 1832, he returned to Paris, and shortly after that came out against
Lelewel's Taranne Committee, with its center on rue Taranne, thus creating a split in
the Paris Commune, and creating a secessionist group called "Voban" (from their
meeting place, the Hotel Voban) in opposition to "Taranne". "Voban" chose General
J. Dwernicki, the head of this committee, to be the leader of the Polish emigration.
Mochnacki did not become a part of this committee.
DIARY
98
From July 1832, he worked together with Michael Podczaszyński, editor of the
periodical "A Diary of the Polish Emigration", where he included A few letters to the
editor relative to some topics dealing with the national uprising, and other materials
bearing on the revolution. He wrote The Revolt of the Polish Nation in the years 1830
and 1831. He finished volume I in the middle of 1833 (the year his brother Camille
died), and volume II followed in July of 1834. Mochnacki wanted his Revolt... - "a
masterpiece of Polish romantic prose (S. Kieniewicz in PSB) - to be translated into
French and English. B. Jański undertook the French translation, but decided to
interrupt his work when the author changed his views.
Mochnacki underwent an evolution in his political views regarding the Polish
cause, moving from a radical to a moderate position. In 1833 he declared himself on
the side of Prince A.J. Czartoryski, considered by the wider circles of the emigration
to be "an enemy of the emigration and of the Polish cause." He opposed linking the
program of social struggle to that of independence, and the existence of political
parties in the emigration. He spent his time in the company of people from the camp
of Czartoryski, such as: Alexander Jełowicki, Jacob Maliszewski, Sobański, Charles
Hoffman and Julian Wronowicz. With some of these people, using funds from
Czsartoryski, he planned to initiate the publication of a newspaper in Auxerre. In the
so-called "Auxerre Writings", he came out against the Polish Democratic Society. He
tried to complete his Revolt... but poverty and illness prevented him from doing so. He
died of consumption in Auxerre before he reached the age of 31.
DIARY
Year 1832
In the new year, a walk with Walter. Oysters. Fanny. I am beginning to tie 8627
my past with my present - reflection. One Sunday I am feeling especially good. 146
In the beginning of January, I am planning books. A plan to open
"Enseigne" ["Standard"] in Polish.
[Sunday, January] 8 - Fanny is moving. I begin to sleep in Walter's room.
[Wednesday, January] 11 - Le soirée chez Bazard1 - discours de Reynaud,2 je
sors le liberalisme et le philosophisme3 raffermi. [The evening at Bazard.
Reynaud's discourse, I touch on the topic of basic liberalism and philosophism.]
1
2
Saint-Amand Bazard (1791-1832) - After the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, a coorganizer and leader of French Carbonarists, founder of a republican conspiratorial
organization, Amis de la Verité (Friends of Truth). Sentenced in absence to death for
participating in a failed uprising, but later pardoned. He entered the company of the first
saintsimonists, and together with Enfantin became one of its leaders. He deepened and
systematized the main assumptions of the doctrine of Saint-Simon. In the years 18281931, he propagated these in the form of lectures, which enjoyed great success, and
brought the school new followers. Bazard's lectures were published in Exposition de la
doctrine de Saint-Simon (Cf. 1830, footnote 7). When Enfantin began to spread his
mystical religion and his ideas of sexual freedom for women in the school of SaintSimon, Bazard opposed him, and brought about a rift in the movement. This occurred in
November of 1831. Some saintsimonists stayed with Enfantin, others followed Bazard,
and still others - prompted by Victor Considérant - joined the group of followers of
Fourier that was in the process of formation. Bazard died in the summer of the following
year leaving his children and his wife Claire, with whom Jański maintained contact, and
who in the end became a Catholic.
Jean Ernest Reynaud (1806-1863) - An engineer, geologist, philosopher and journalist. In
(June) 1831, he was a saintsimonist on level II. He was a teacher in the saintsimonist
school and also published articles in their weekly "L'Organisateur". He published
Religion saint-simonienne. Prédication de la constitution de la proprieté (Discours de
Jean Reynaud), Paris, 1831. Like Bazard, and along with Lechavalier and Charten,
Reynaud abandoned Enfantin. Critically opposed to the latter, he stepped forward in the
columns of "Revue Encyclopédique: (January, 1832) with an article entitled De la société
DIARY
100
[Saturday, January] 14 - Dinner at Fanny's place. The day was spent at home
and in the art gallery.4
147
About the tenth or fifteenth [of January], after planning books and work
on a few small items for the "Revue", I feel the need for some other occupation,
first, working on general, original, articles for the "Revue": concerning political
economy, Catholicism, the efforts to reorganize, Poland. After that, a plan to
work among Poles, and special work for Poland.
After that, republicanism and neo-Christianity.
After that, spiritualism and philosophism.
After that, spiritualism and Catholicism.
[Thursday, January] 19
Chez Bronikowski,5 le desir d'agir initialment. [At Bronikowski's place, a
desire to begin work.] I am working on "The Leipzig market",6 announcements,
Owen.7
3
4
5
saint-simonienne. He dedicated himself to professional interests (mining). At the same
time he was engaged in philosophical-scientific journalism, along with Pierre Leroux
publishing the Encyclopédie nouvelle (cf. 1834, footnote 25).
Philosophism - from the French philosophisme - spurious philosophy, sophistry. In
France, this was the name given to a trend of thinking characteristic of the turn of the
18th and 19th centuries, claiming the dominance of philosophy over religion, and
rejecting scholasticism.
The reference here is probably to the famous Louvre gallery, about which Julius Słowacki
wrote in a letter to his mother (December 10, 1831): "The grand Louvre gallery, is about
a thousand feet long, and filled with most beautiful paintings..." But it may also refer to a
contemporary Paris show-room for works of art, called the "gallery".
Xavier Bronikowski (1796-1852). At the University of Warsaw in 1820, he received the
degree of Master of Law and Administration. He was a member of secret societies,
among others, the Patriotic Society. In 1823, he was an advocate at the Civil Tribunal of
the Warsaw province. In that year he was arrested, and sent to a jail that was a former
Carmelite monastery. Deprived of the right to serve in government office, he dedicated
himself to journalism, and together with Maurice Mochnacki published "The Polish
Gazette", and later "The Polish Courier". He participated in the November uprising,
beginning with capturing the arsenal. Together with Mochnacki, he took part in
establishing the Literary Club, and served as its secretary and leader. He fought in the
army of General Dwernicki. Before the collapse of the uprising, he became vice-president
of Warsaw. He reached France, and became a member of the Paris "Community", and of
the Permanent Polish National Committee which he established. He expanded his journalistic activity, publishing a few periodicals, e.g.: together with Stanislaus Kunatt and
Andrew Plichta, he edited "Feniks" (1833-1835), and "La Revue Slave" (1839 -1840). He
joined the camp of Prince Adam George Czartoryski, and edited the periodical "Chronicle
YEAR 1832
101
[Friday, January] 20 - Gurowski's duel.8
[Saturday, January] 21
Porté vers l'etude du catholicisme [I intend to study Catholicism.]
Now I ought to:
1. reach peace with the world, and an understanding with Poland;
2. live here as a Pole;
3. undertake energetically, especially works in French;
4. initiate a diary, notes. Biography; an elabora- tion [in writing] of
general ideas.
On Monday, [January] 23, I visit Carnot. I am embarrassed. I see that I will 144
never find my place among the French. I am fully determined to return to
Poland. - I am reading Saint-Simon's introduction to the Encyclopedia, his
adoration of Corneille, his family prejudices.9 I conclude that he was not the
sole founder of the organic period, but one of etc. A new reason to return to
Poland.
Today, reflection on my situation, a dangerous return. There is always a
need to write for money, now to [Joseph] L[ubowidzki].10
6
7
8
9
10
of the Polish Emigration" (1834-1839), a camp organ. From 1844 he was a teacher, and
director of the Polish School in Batignolles.
I am working on "The Leipzig market" - On the basis of, primarily German language,
press releases, Jański was preparing an article for the "Revue Encyclopédique" dealing
with the famous spring markets held in Leipzig. His article, entitled Le Foire de Leipzig
dans l'autumn of 1831 appeared in a delayed number of the "Revue" dated 1831 (annual
14, vol.52, pp. 517-521).
Owen - Cf. 1830, footnote 22.
Undoubtedly the duel between the last minister for foreign affairs of the revolutionary
government, Theodore Morawski, a "partisan" of General Bem, and his adversary, Adam
Gurowski. In a letter of January 25, 1832, Adalbert Grzymała informed Julian Ursyn
Niemcewicz that "they shot at 10 paces, and inevitably neither one even winced, for they
were using Page pistols with percussion caps; if it was not the fog, then it was dampness,
or some miracle, the both shots fizzled, and in accord with the agreement they could not
shoot a second time." (Cf. Gadon, p.189).
The reference here is to Nouvelle Encyclopédie by C. H. de Saint-Simon. Premiére
livraison servant de prospectus, Paris, 1810. In this work the author included Epître
dédicatoire á mon neveu Victor de Saint-Simon i Postscriptum. This was a footnotededication to his nephew Victor, obliging him to fulfill the tasks which the very fact of
descent of the Saint-Simon family from Charles the Great placed upon him. Jański treated
these genealogical confidences of C.H. Saint-Simon as "family exaggerations".
Pierre Corneille (1606-1684), a French dramatist.
Joseph Lubowidzki (1788-1871), studied law and philosophy in the Królewiec. He was,
in turn, apprentice, then assessor, and in the years 1818-1825 procurator of the Tribunal;
DIARY
102
Tuesday, January 24
On Sunday, the 22nd, a very long walk. Plans for a Polish life abroad.
On the 24th, I attended a lecture by Buchez:11 Christianity will continue
to exist until the world is completely populated as a result of the growth in population. Later, to Josephine and spent the night, an imprudent expense, the
acquaintance is pleasant. My behavior was not completely affectionate, since I
was preoccupied with general notions, especially about the need to spiritualize
mankind, and about the future.
145
[Wednesday, January] 25 - I am supposed to attend a general assembly. 12 I
decided to write a letter to Joseph Lubowidzki.
Yesterday once again I experienced the conviction that I need to avoid
looking back at the past, at accepted opinions, and consider rather my
11
12
then president of the Criminal Court of the Płock and Augustów province; after that he
was a judge in the Tribunal of the first instance. He was a member of the Masons. By way
of relations with Henry and Thomas Łubieński, he became acquainted with the Minister
of the Treasury, Prince Xavier Lubecki, and thanks to him he acquired the post of director
in the newly created (May 6, 1828) Polish Bank, as its vice-president. On February 21,
1828, he was chosen as a member, and then in May of 1830 a Marshal, of the Sejm,
which evoked the displeasure of the people, who called him a Fortunat (fortune hunter)
since he had unexpectedly made a quick career for himself. In view of the fact that his
brother Matthew was vice-president of Warsaw and chief of the secret police, he did not
enjoy the confidence of the people. This became evident at the time of the uprising when
he facilitated his brother's escape to Silesia. In connection with this affair, he was
arrested, and sentenced, by the Criminal Court. After the collapse of the uprising, he
became a loyal official in the eyes of Russian authorities. In November 1832 he became
president of the Polish Bank. After he became involved in suspect financial-economic
interests, he was removed from his office, accused, and in 1848 sentenced to four years of
hard labor in jail "for abusing authority in office" (Gerber). Jański, who "due to your
influence, kind sir, obtained the nomination to be a professor of industrial economy and
commercial legislation in the Warsaw Polytechnic School," wrote a letter to Joseph
Lubowidzki begging him, "in my sad situation for help and counsel," and asking: "Could
some form of employment, some mission in behalf of the Polish Bank, might be entrusted
to me here?" This letter in the form of a rough draft, dated "Paris, March 2, 1832" is
preserved in (ACR 8599, pp 120-121).
Cf. 1831, footnote 32. Buchez's lectures, such as Cours d'histoire de l'humanité, for the
most part took place in a quite large room of his private home in Paris on rue Chabannais
8.
This refers to a meeting of Polish emigrants living in Paris announced by the Permanent
National Committee to take place on January 29, in the home of the committee on rue
Taranne 12. Established on December 15, 1831 the committee, under presidency of
Lelewel, was obliged in accord with the rule agreed upon then, to call for a meeting of the
general assembly, which in time came to be known as "the Paris Community" and
"Taranne", two times a month, on the 15th and 29th.
YEAR 1832
103
obligation to express my love boldly and spontaneously, love for humanity,
along with my desires, my intentions.
N.B. Reflect on to what extent this is related to what I think about
authority.
Buchez's distinction between love, religion, and sympathy.
Thursday, [January] 26
Why should I renew my Polish identity?
1. Because I can accomplish more among the Poles.
2. Because having accomplished something among the Poles, I can do
more among the French.
3. Because, it is false to think that, by being active now in France, I can
be most helpful to humanity.
How should I go about renewing my Polish identity? By reading in
Polish? This means practically nothing. I must be with Poles, occupy myself
once again especially with the Polish population. Therefore, I need to occupy
myself with statistics and history of Poland.
But above all, I need to take account of myself and live with God. The
first thing to which I should strive for here, is to initiate a course for Poles, the
organization of a society, and therefore of a mission, publication, etc.; and that
instead of writing for "Globists"13, and in general for former sainstsimonist
publications.
On Saturday, January 28, I went to listen to Lerminier. A plan to write for the 158
"Tribune".14 Republicanism and neo-Christianity.
On Sunday [January 29] a general assembly;15 patriotic republican and neoChristian projects.
13
14
15
This is an auto-ironic comment of the author, who wrote articles, reviews, etc. for
publications such as "Le Globe" (Cf. 1831, footnote 12).
"La Tribune Politique et Littéraire" was a post-war republican organ established already
in 1829. This publication, connected with the Carbonarists, often occupied itself with
labor questions, and so was frequently subject to government oppression. John Czyński
worked closely with the "Tribune" which sympathized with the Polish cause and took a
stand in her defense.
At this Sunday meeting Lelewel's committee drew up a petition to the French House of
Deputies in which he "protested against them (Poles) to places in the provinces, and
demanded the creation of a Polish legion with national insignia" (Gadon, pp.100-101).
This petition proved ineffective. Already in November 1831 the French president of the
council of ministers as well as the ministers for external affairs, Casimir Perier, instructed
the departmental prefects and commanders to accept exiles from the November uprising:
DIARY
104
Wednesday [February 1] - Transon's pamphlet clarifies saintsimonism for me.16
I sleep at Josephine's place.
Thursday [February 2] - I begin to read Mélanges de "L'Avenir.17 Within me I
sense the fruits of spiritualism.
16
17
send soldiers to Avignon, and civilians to Châteauroux. For political reasons Polish
exiles, with some exceptions, were forbidden to come to Paris.
At this same meeting, among other items, the committee considered the formal motion of
Captain Skowroński to remove from the committee Krępowiecki and Gurowski, both of
whom were accused of sowing intrigue.
Jański enrolled in the Paris "Community" which noted a "list of Polish exiles who were
enrolling in general groups and in the Polish National Committee in Paris up to the end of
April [1832]; however, already on April 10 he requested that his name be deleted from
this list. The project of "creating Polish legions" prompted Jański to "think about enlisting
in one of the legions", a thought which he noted in his Diary on February 10, 1832.
This undoubtedly refers to a pamphlet Simple écrit d'Abel Transon aux Saint-Simoniens
(Simple counsels for saintsimonists), indicating the motives which prompted the author to
leave the saintsimonist family in January of 1832.
Melanges catholiques; extraits de "l'Avenir", published by the L'Agence générale pour la
defense de la liberté religieuse in Paris in 1831. This publication contained various
planned articles selected from the daily "L'Avenir" which suspended publication later in
November of 1831.
After the July revolution in 1830, the newspaper "L'Avenir" ("The Future") was born, and
supplied with the motto "God and liberty." The first number appeared on the 16th of
October, 1830. The purpose of the paper was "to defend matters of religion and freedom."
It appeared with Fr. Félicité-Robert de Lammenais as editor-in-chief (cf. below, footnote
93). Lammenais gathered about him a group of young people, such as Gerbet, Lacordaire,
Montalembert, de Coux, and also people who belonged to the Congregation of St. Peter
(moved from Brittany to Juilly in the outskirts of Paris), of which he was the director
such as: Bautain, Guéranger, Rohrbacher, and others. About the "L'Avenir" a Catholic
movement was formed, which had as its goal: "Spiritual affairs in society must be
completely free af political authority. This means: 1. Complete freedom of conscience
and cult must exist... 2. Freedom of the press cannot be limited in any way... 3. Freedom
of education must be as complete as freedom of cult...4. Freedom for intellectual, moral
and industrial associations." (Cf. History of the Church, Vol. IV, p. 270). The editors of
"L'Avenir" declared that it is the obligation of the Church to stand on the side of people
who are fighting for freedom against oppressive governments, and on the side of nations
struggling for independence. They appealed for material aid for the Polish uprising,
taking the side of the insurgents. They undertook practical action within the framework of
the organization L'Agence générale pour la défense de la liberté religieuse (General
Agency for the Defense of Religious Liberty), directed by Montalembert. At the end of
1831, this Agency was defending, among others, the Trappists in Brittany, threatened by
the government with the confiscation of their house. It attacked the French authorities,
sending them appeals, sending out petitions, and initiating legal proceedings, for
interfering in religious affairs.This movement won adherents, and enlisted many famous
writers (e.g. Sainte-Beuve, who, influenced by Lammenais, became a Catholic for a
YEAR 1832
105
Friday [February 3] - I am reading "Revue Européenne" and notes about
Catholicism. In the evening, Mélanges. Liberal Catholic projects in Poland.
February 4 [Saturday] - letters to Lubuwodzki, to my wife, to Królikowski with 157
reference to Libelt,18 to Burgaud19, to England.
18
19
time). On the other hand, it called forth a strong reaction, becoming the subject of a mass
attack on the part of Bishops of the French Church who adhered to Gallicanism, government authorities, and also French anti-clerical liberals, for whom "L'Avenir" was an
"organ of bigotry and civic discord." As a result of various impediments, the editorial
staff was forced to discontinue its activity as of November 21, 1831. Only the Agency
mentioned above remained. At the end of December 1831, Lammenais, Lacordaire and
Montalembert traveled to Rome, awaiting the verdict of the Pope relative to their activity.
Lammenais and Montalembert remained there until July of 1832.
P.N. Stearns, author of the monograph Father Lammenais, states: "On February 3, 1832,
a banquet was celebrated on the occasion of the favorable conclusion of the action
brought against the editors of "Avenir". Victor Hugo was present at the banquet, and a
few protestant lawyers also participated. The former editor of the "Globe" represented the
liberal wing. This was a joyful event; an atmosphere of doctrinal and personal harmony
prevailed. In the principal toast, it was emphasized with acknowledgement." (p.131) - On
the day before that, that is, on February 2, Jański began to read Mélanges de "L'Avenir".
Charles Libelt (1807-1875) - philosopher and aesthetician; a social, political, and cultural
activist; a pioneer in organic work. He was born in Poznań. He received a government
scholarship and left for Berlin, where, from 1826-1830, he studied philosophy. After he
received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 1830, he left for further studies in Paris
(where Jański and L. Królikowski were already living), where he studied the views of
Saint-Simon and Fourier. When he received news of the November uprising, he
interrupted his studies, returned to Poland, and took part in the uprising. It is possible that
Libelt became acquainted with Jański and Królikowski in the course of studies when they
were passing through Berlin.
Henri Burgaud des Marets (1806-1873) - A French philologist, book-lover, poet and
translator. The son of a wealthy merchant and land-owner from Jarnac. He completed the
study of Law at the Sorbonne, and became a lawyer in Paris. His primary interests were
linguistics and literature. He became acquainted with Jański, and undoubtedly through
him learned the Polish language as well as the early works of Adam Mickiewicz. He
made a prose translation of Conrad Wallenrod, and published it anonymously at his own
cost in a very small printing in 1829, even before the July revolution. Jański may have
played some part in the translation. A fervent Polonophil, Bourgad des Marets showed
high regard for the author of Dziady. This work also emerged from his translator's
workshop, and was published in segments in "Les Polonais" (1833-1834). On February 7,
1833, Jański proposed Montalembert and Burgaud des Marets as candidates for the
Literary Society. On February 21st both were accepted, and Burgaud des Marets was
chosen as an associate member. Thanks to Jański, in April 1833 the translator was able to
make the personal acquaintance of Mickiewicz whom he admired so greatly. In the
Roman Archives of the Congregation of the Resurrection a portion of the correspondence
between Burgaud des Marets and Jański from the years 1832-1833 has been preserved.
DIARY
106
Saturday, February 4 - On Saturday morning I am thinking about a need to 158
write to the Owenists against the saintsimonists.
159
Sunday, [February] 5 - A general assembly.20 Confusion; I am in low spirits.
Dinner with Camille [Mochnacki] at Steinhauser's. Coffee at Fanny's, and then
home.
[Monday, February] 6 - I find a letter from d'Eichtal in the "Revue". Jules from
Laurent21; a dispute about saintsimonism. At four I go to rue Monsigny. A letter
from Mr. Crellin. In the evening I read Enseignements of Pére Enfantin.22
Tuesday, [February] 7 - A dispute with Benoist about spiritualism. To Bariloi apply leaches to Walter. In the evening I read Muiron.23
20
21
22
23
Already from January 1832, at the general assemblies of the Polish National Committee
at rue Taranne impassioned discussions and disputes dealing with the reasons and people
responsible for the failure of the uprising were carried on. Moreover, accusations against
the Polish National Committee were also advanced. It reached the point where in the
course of deliberations on February 5 Xavier Bronikowski formally accused Lelewel's
committee of partisan and dishonest activities.
At the following general assembly on Feburary 16, in connection with Bronkikowski's
motion, a commission was appointed to investigate the activities of the members of
Lelewel's committee: J.R. Płużański, K.L. Pułaski, J.N. Janowski, J. Czyński, and E.
Januszkiewicz.
Jules Lechevalier (Le Chevalier) (1800-1850) - an alumnus of the Polytechnic School. He
pursued studies at German universities in 1826-1828, e.g. with Hegel. A member (Father)
of the saintsimonist college (June, 1831). From March 1830, along with Transon and
Cezeaux, he lived at the home of Enfantin on rue Monsigny. He left the saintsimonist
"familie" in January 1832, and joined the growing school of Fourier. He was editor and
manager of "Moniteur du Commerce", spent some time in public service, and was a
journalist.
Paul-Mathieu Laurent, called Laurent de l'Ardéche, (1793-1877) - a member (Father) of
the siantsimonist college, journalist, conservator in the Bibliothéque de l'Arsenal, a
lawyer, later a member of a French Congregation.
In the period from November 28, 1831, to February 18, 1832, Father Enfantin delivered
his lectures (enseignements) mainly at rue Monsigny. In all there were 18, and in these he
dealt with questions of transformation of dogma, rehabilitation of the body, authority and
freedom, etc. Enfantin's lectures were taken down in shorthand by Alouette, one of those
participating. (Cf. J. Walch, op.cit. 34-36) Cf. also footnote 82.
Braloi - Cf. footnote 52.
Muiron - Undoubtedly the title of a publication.
YEAR 1832
107
Wednesday, [February] 8 - Until two o'clock I bathe Walter. Then, at the
"Revue". I read the Conférences of l'abbé Gerbet. In the evening I finish, and
approve of them. After dinner, a discussion with Transon about Fourierism.
Thursday, [February] 9 - At twelve I visit d'Eichtal, and then on to Gurowski.
There I defend Catholic unity against the former. Maliński.24 Dinner. I prepare
for an analysis of Enfantism.
February 10 - In the evening I went to visit Mochnacki; marks of his friendship. 160
After returning home, I read Transon and Jules [Lechevalier]. 25 As a result,
tendencies toward Monsignism evaporate. Thought about joining the legions.26
24
25
Joseph Maliński (?1801-1871), painter, friend and follower of Jański. After finishing
preparatory school in Kalisz, in 1821, he enrolled in the department of Fine Arts at the
University of Warsaw. First he took classes in draftsmanship, and then in painting. On
February 11, 1828, he received a scholarship from the Government Commission for
Public Education, and left for further studies in Paris, where he arrived already in May of
that year. In 1829, he lost the stipend which he had received through the intercession of
Anthony Oleszczyński, undoubtedly because he failed to forward reports concerning his
studies. He studied drawing, initially with Guillaume Lethiér, and later in the Paris
Academy. He exhibited his works occasionally. In 1832, he was listed as a student of
Antoine. In this period Maliński was on friendly relations with Jański, with whom he had
first become acquainted in 1828, and who exerted strong influence on his life and his
work. In 1830, he shared lodgings with Jański at rue Vivienne. Along with him, he was a
member of the saintsimonists, on level III, (June, 1831), and also was converted to
Catholicism with him in 1835 . He was a friend of the painter Fabian Sarnecki, who
painted his portrait. He participated in the life of the Polish emigration in Paris. He was a
member of the Literary Society of Polish Emigrants founded by J. Lelewel (initially
called the Literary Society), and in 1832, of the Polish National Committee. In the
autumn of that year he withdrew from the Committee, and took part in the meetings of
Polish emigrants presided over by General Umiński. From February 20, 1836, he resided
in the "House" of Jański on rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs, but prompted by fear of
repression on the part of the French police, in May of that year he left the House and
moved to England. He remained in London until 1839, participating in an effort to
establish a religious house there. He returned to France, and shortly after that, in 1841, he
took up permanent residence in Rome, maintaining close relationships with the Resurrectionists.
Maliński produced mainly oil paintings, occasionally water-colors, that were based on
religious and patriotic (historical scenes) themes, in which one can detect influence of the
ideas of Jański and his closest associates. He painted portraits, and also made copies of
works of Italian art. According to notes in Jański's Diary for 1830 and 1832, he painted
Bogdan's portrait; however a copy of this has never been found. In the Roman Archives
of the Congregation of the Resurrection there is a pen-sketch of Jański's head in the
monastic tradition that is attributed to Maliński.
This undoubtedly refers to open letters, in which both presented the motives prompting
them to withdraw from the saintsimonist movement. The first declared his position in the
pamphlet mentioned above (32 pages, in 8o): Simple écrit d'Abel Transon aux Saint-
DIARY
108
[February] 10, Friday morning - Thought about taking money from [Lelewel's]
committee, and becoming involved in the Polish cause.27 Thoughts about a
course, and publication of a bi-weekly newspaper, for example, the "Polish
Phoenix" - a patriotic newspaper edited by etc. A plan to form a Catholic, neoChristian Polish party.
159
[February] 11, Saturday - To Górecki in reference to Chodźko.28
26
27
28
Simoniens, Paris 1832 (cf. footnote 16). The second presented a Déclaration de Jules
Lechevalier...aux Saint-Simoniens, four printed pages in 4o, Paris, 1831.
Cf. footnote 15.
On January 28, 1831, a French-Polish Central Committee was established in Paris, to
support the Polish cause. At the head of this Committee was General La Fayette, a former
associate of Kościuszko. Members of this Committee, with sub-committees spread
throughout France, were famous representatives of French social, political, military, and
cultural life. The general deputy of the Committee was a friend of the Poles, Eugene
Cassin (Cf. footnote 44). The Central Committee provided financial support for Lelewel's
committee, assigning funds exclusively for Poles living in Paris to be distributed through
his agency. Each one received an allowance of 2 francs daily, along with an addition for
lodging (up to 15 francs monthly). Leonard Chodźko, a member of both committees
participated in the distribution of these funds. With the assistance of the French
committee, the Polish committee rented rooms and distributed coupons entitling the
holder to receive sums of money, services, etc.
Leonard Chodźko (1800-1871), came from the Oszmiański region (Lithuania). In 18161817 he studied law at the University of Wilno, and attended Lelewel's history classes.
He was a member of the secret patriotic student society at the University. From 1819, as
secretary of Prince Michael Cleophas Ogiński, he travelled abroad with him, visiting
western Europe. In 1826 he settled in Paris, and published the French memoirs of Prince
Michael Mémoirs de M.O. sur la Pologne et les Polonais, depuis 1788 jusqu'á la fin de
1815 (Paris 1826-1827, 4 volumes; second edition, Paris 1833). He participated in the
1830 July revolution, as a captain of the Paris National Guard, and one of the adjutants of
General La Fayette. He obtained French citizenship. In Paris, he began to work as a
publisher and journalist. He publicized and propagated the Polish cause, especially after
the November uprising. He was one of the founders of the French-Polish Central
Committee, its archivist and secretary. Thanks to the funds of the Committee, he offered
the Polish exiles coming to Paris a variety of assistance. He entered into friendly relations
with Lelewel, who came to Paris toward the end of October of 1831, and worked hand-inhand with him. He served in the Polish National Committee, the Literary Committee, and
later in the "Zemsta Ludu" (The People's Vengeance) Committee, which was helping to
organize Joseph Zaliwski's expedition to Poland. French authorities exiled both Lelewel
and Chodźko from Paris. In 1833 he was in England, but returned to Paris in 1834. He
occupied himself, publishing propaganda concerning Poland that was tied in with his
previous editorial work: Histoire des legions polonaises en Italie (1829). He wrote biographies of Casimir Pułaski, Thaddeus Kościuszko, and Joachim Lelewel. He edited
"Pologne historique, littéraire, monumentale et pittoresque" (1836-1838), and "Pologne
YEAR 1832
109
[February] 12, Sunday morning - Camille [Mochnacki] is leaving. I am in the
midst of spiritualism and pantheism.
[Monday, February] 13 - Chodźko for a receipt. In the meantime, to
Bronikowski.29
[Friday, February] 17 - I receive a letter from his father.30
[Tuesday, February] 21 - Chodźko for a second receipt. Hube.31 I against
Czyński32, etc.
29
30
31
historique, littéraire, monumentale et illustrée" (1839--1840). He published 2 volumes of
A. Mickiewicz's Poems in 1828; C. Malte-Brun's Tableau de la Pologne ancienne et
moderne... nouvelle edition entiérement refondue, augmentée et ornée de carte (from the
works of Michael Podczaszyński) (2 volumes, Brussels, 1830; second edition, Brussels,
1831); Three Polish Constitutions: 1791, 1807, 1815 - Joachim Lelewel compared them,
and considered their differences. L. Chodźko reprinted and offered these for the use of
Polish exiles in France, Paris, 1832.
He belonged to many foreign scholarly societies, such as Société Géographique et
Statistique, Société Philotechnique in Paris; and also to Polish societies such as the
Historical-Literary Society in Paris, and the Lithuanian-Russian Society. He left an
enormous collection of documents and copies, which became the foundation for the
archives in the Rapperwilski Museum in Switzerland.
In A list of Poles who died during the emigration from the year 1831, John Bartkowski
listed a Frances Bronikowska, from the Nakwaskis, according to Krosnowski: nee
Nowakowska, born in Kraków, died in Paris on April 23, 1836, as well as 3
Bronikowskis, among whom was the already mentioned Xavier Bronikowski born in the
Sandecki administrative district (Cf. footnote 5). It is not certain that Xaviera
Bronikowski mentioned by Jański was the same person mentioned by Bartkowski in his
list.
On February 12, 1832, French authorities forced Camille Mochnacki to leave Paris. It is
possible that Jański may have received a letter from Basil Mochnacki, who lived in
Lwów, to his son Camille. The latter had written to his father from Avignon on March 7,
1832: "Dear father, what joy I experienced when I received you last letter, which was sent
to me from Paris." (Letters of Maurice Mochnacki and his brother Camille ... written to
their parents in Galicia, from Paris, Metz, and Avignon, Poznań, 1863. p.82).
Mochnacki's closest friend, Michael Podczaszyński, was then living in Metz; of those
who were close to them, the only one who remained in Paris was Jański, who visited
Camille Mochnacki on February 10, and received from him "expressions of his
friendship."
Joseph Hube (1804-1891) - The son of Michael, an Official in the Council of State of the
Kingdom of Poland, the younger brother of Romuald, an eminent jurist and legal
historian.
He received a degree of Master of Law at the University of Warsaw in 1824. After a brief
period of judicial practice, he received a government scholarship and went to Berlin for
further studies. There he attended, among others, the lectures of Hegel (under the
DIARY
32
110
influence of whom he lost his faith). He pursued further studies in Paris. After his return
to Warsaw in 1828, he became first an apprentice, and then associate judge in the
Procurator General's Office of the Kingdom of Poland. In August of 1830, and until
outbreak of the November uprising, he taught the history of law at the University. He
authored works in the field of law and published them in the legal magazine "Themis Polska". At the time of the uprising, he was active in political life, a member of the Patriotic
Society, among others. In 1832, together with his father Michael, he broke through the
border to Paris. He belonged to the Historical-Literary Society. He published a work entitled An Examination of Slavonic probate cases (1832), which was translated into other
languages. He collaborated with French legal periodicals. In the years 1832-1836, he
lived with his father in Normandy. Under the influence of Jański, he entered his House on
August 15, 1836. He was a teacher at Collége Stanislas. Toward the end of October,
1837, he left for Rome to pursue theological studies. He was present at Jański's death.
After he obtained a doctorate in theology, on January 9, 1842, he was ordained a priest.
He was one of the co-founders of the Congregation of the Resurrection. He worked in
Paris as a catechist, and from 1845 as superior of the Polish Mission. In the years 18481855, he served as Superior General of the Congregation. He fought against Towianism,
and declared himself against Adam Mickiewicz as a Towianist and opposed the founding
of a Legion by the latter. He published works dealing with theology and religion, such as
A Study of the Bible, On Frequent Holy Communion, Concerning Humility.
John Czyński (1801-1867) - He was a descendent of the Jewish Franks (Jacob Frank).
After receiving the degree of Master of Law at the University of Warsaw in 1822, he
worked as a lawyer in Lublin. During the uprising, 1830-1831, he was active there, and
later in Warsaw where, as one of the leaders of the leftist democratic Patriotic Society he
became its vice-president and a member of the editorial staff of "New Poland". He
opposed the National Government. After the collapse of the uprising, he took up
residence in Paris as an emigrant, and lived an exceptionally active life there. He founded
the "Society of the Friends of Progress" (cf. footnote 55), belonged to the Lelewel's National Committee, and from October 1833, to the Polish Democratic Society. He was
associated with French masonry, published "La Russie Pittoresque", and collaborated
with radical French publications: "Le Reformateur", "La Tribune", Cabet's "Le Peuple",
"Le Constitutionnel". He opposed the politics of Prince George Adam Czartoryski, and
also attacked the ideology of Mickiewicz's Books of the Polish Nation and the Polish
pilgrimages. He urged cooperation with those Russians who were moving toward
revolution, and establishment of contacts with French Jews. An eminent radical
journalist, in 1834 he was co-editor of "Progress". In the years 1835-1836, along with
Simon Konarski, he published the magazine "The North", belonged to the editorial staff
of "The New Poland", and in 1837 to the staff of "Poland". He was involved almost
exclusively with Polish affairs, emphasized the need to activate the Polish middle class
and grant citizenship to Jews. He became a follower and theorist of Fourierism. He
published some of his works and pamphlets in foreign languages. He was the author of
four novels, the fictional publication Cesarevitch Constantine and Joanna Grudzińska, or
the Polish Jacobins (1833-1834), and also wrote comedies in French. In the 40's and 50's
in his publications he concerned himself with European, social-political, workers, and
Jewish problems. In the 60's he returned to Polish affairs, maintained contact with Louis
Królikowski (with whom he established the Polish Fraternity of all Religious
Denominations). He contacted Karl Marx during the latter's visit to London.
YEAR 1832
111
Saturday, February 25 - Last week, on the 19th, there was a ball at Stein- 163
hauser's, and the week before that two general assemblies. 33 Especially the
latter aroused my indignation against our barbaric democrats. Czyński, about
the "Memoirs".34 Janowski35 attempts to justify them to me. I am planning to
read a course in which I would cast doubt on their patriotism, etc. It was
d'Eichtal and Jules who first caused my spiritualism to waver, but my patriotic
plans have strengthened it.
Visited Chopin.36 He gave me a few tickets for his concert (I gave them
to Carnot). Went to see Chodźko for a receipt. Visited Wodziński37 - Unpleasant
33
34
35
36
The "last" general assembly took place on February 16. At this meeting it was resolved to
appoint a delegation to investigate the activity of the Polish National Committee. The
democrats became members of this delegation. (Cf. footnote 20).
It is difficult to establish whether this concerns the establishment of a periodical or
someone's memoirs. Certainly this does not refer to "Memoirs of the Polish Emigration"
edited by Michael Podczaszyński - a periodical which began publication on July 1, 1832.
John Nepomucene Janowski (1803-1888) - the son of a tenant farmer. In 1827 he
completed his studies in the Faculty of Law at the University of Warsaw. He did not
possess a good reputation among the supervisors at the school. He was accused of
immorality and "the most abominable qualities of soul." He was, in turn, an apprentice in
the judiciary, an official in the Government Commission of Revenue and Treasury, and
librarian. After the outbreak of the uprising, he began a flashy career as leftist activist and
radical journalist: co-editor of "The Polish Courier", editor of "The Polish Gazette",
secretary, and then vice-president, of the Patriotic Society, founder of the Society for the
Improvement of the Status of Peasants. After the collapse of the uprising, at the beginning
of 1832, he was in Paris and became involved in renewed activity among the emigrants as
co-founder of democratic societies such as The Society of the Friends of Progress, and
the Polish Democratic Society (he was the first to sign the act of its establishment). He
became an outstanding democratic activist with considerable authority, as well as one of
the most radical journalists of the Great Emigration. In 1835 he was a member of the First
Centralization of the Democratic Society, co-editor of its Manifest in 1836, editor of such
periodicals as "Progress" (1836), "Polish Democrat" and "A Review of Polish History",
as well as author of articles published in foreign periodicals. He carried on a controversy
with right-wing activists in the Polish emigration, and fought against Towianism. He
claimed that the Polish aristocracy and the Church (Rome and Poland, 1863) were
responsible for the downfall of Poland, and the disaster of the uprising. He left, among
other works, Autobiographical Notes (1803-1853, published in 1950). In two letters addressed to E. Callier, author of a monograph on B. Jański, he jotted down recollections
concerning a former colleague and friend from years at the university.
Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) - a Polish composer, pianist and pedagogue. The outbreak
of the November uprising found him in Vienna. He left there for Paris, where he arrived
in September of 1831, and took up residence at Boulevard Poissonniére 27. Jański, who
very probably was acquainted with Chopin from the time of his stay in Warsaw, received
tickets for his first public concert in Paris.
DIARY
112
visits. Even more unpleasant is the arrogance of a few of our ignoramuses. I am
beginning to occupy myself with our history. Reading Buchez strengthens my
spiritualism.
Yesterday, Friday, a meeting of the literary society; today a general
assembly.38
After his return from London, Bontemps came to visit me yesterday. 39
Yesterday I read my wife's letter.
Yesterday I was thinking that it should not be a course, but rather a book,
perhaps anonymous. Today I am in favor of a course.
164
A general assembly - Krępowiecki (I embrace him), Słowacki.40 After the
meeting, dinner at Steinhauser's. Fanny.
37
38
39
40
Undoubtedly Charles Edward Wodziński (1807-1837) - Came from the Volhynian
region. He participated in the November uprising, and became an emigrant in Paris. From
December 9. 1831, he was treasurer of the Polish National Committee. Lelewel sent him
to London as a special agent of the Committee "to serve as an observer there, and to act
accordingly." He was co-founder of the Society of Lithuania and the Russian territories,
as well as of the Slavonic Society. He was a member of the Literary Society in Paris.
Undoubtedly Jański had in mind the Friday, February 24th meeting organized for the
members of the Literary Society established by J. Lelewel (Cf. 1831, footnote 54) which
shortly took the name of the Literary Society of Polish Exiles. - "Today - general" - the
Saturday meeting of the Paris "Community" which took place on February 25.
George Bontemps (1801-1888) - Industrial engineer; in 1831 he was a saintsimonist on
level III.
On Saturday, February 25, in the hall at rue Taranne, Lelewel's National Committee
organized a formal anniversary celebration of the battle of Grochowo. One of the
anniversary speeches, delivered by Thaddeus Krępowiecki, caused commotion among the
listeners by reason of its radical democratic nature, and its severe criticism of the nobility.
Moreover, Julius Słowacki, who was present at the meeting, read some of his verses and
odes, which were also warmly received by the listeners. On the motion of Leonard
Chodźko it was agreed that, in recognition of his patriotic declaration, Słowacki should
be offered a ring, with the inscription: "Grateful countrymen, to Słowacki, revolutionary
poet."
Thaddeus (Simon, prior to the revolution) Krępowiecki (1799-1847) was a descendent of
noble converts. From 1821, he studied law at the University of Warsaw. He was an editor
and associate editor of the metropolitan press. At the time of the uprising, he was an
officer in the army of General Dwernicki, a co-founder and vice-president of the Patriotic
Society. Already at that time he was recognized as a radical agitator, opposed to the
politics of the National Government. He demanded freedom of the press, and a solution to
the peasant issue. From November 1831, he was an emigrant in Paris. Initially a member
of Lelewel's National Committee, in February 1832 chairman of the political section of
the Society of the Friends of Progress, in the years 1832-1834 an associate in the leftist
Carbonari movement (Amis de Peuple, and La Societé de Droits de l"Homme et du
YEAR 1832
113
Sunday [February] 26
Fourier - after that we look for a room. Walter goes out for the first time,
and we eat at Viot[h]. We go to see Robert le Diable.41
Citoyen), and of radical leftist publications (Cabet's "Le Populaire", and "La Tribune
Politique et Littéraire"). On March 17, 1832, he resigned from Lelewel's committee and
became a co-founder of the Polish Democratic Society (co-author of the decree of its
establishment, that is, its first Manifesto). Not only was he a member of the Carbonari but
also a Mason.
In his pronouncements (of February 25, and especially of November 29, 1832) he
condemned the nobility's past, and proclaimed that a social revolution was the only means
for the rebirth of Poland, and that it was the task of the emigration to become involved in
this. In 1832 his pamphlet About the Polish aristocracy and the status of peasants in
Poland, and the French text of his November speech Discours de Thadée Krępowiecki
prononce a Paris le 29 Nov. 1832, anniversaire de la Révolution polonaise. His views
became the point of departure for the program of the revolutionary democrats, but also
the reason why his name was cancelled from the liqt of the Democratic Society, and why
he was exiled to Belgium by the French authorities. In turn, the Belgian authorities
expelled him for revolutionary agitation. In June of 1834 he was in England. In Czyński's
publication "Progress" he published an article entitled "Nationality" in which, along with
criticism of the nobility's past, he also presented a plan listing principles for a structure of
social justice of a Poland governed by the people. Co-founder of the organization "The
People of Poland", as well as of the manifesto of the Grudziąż Community, a member of
the Union of Polish Emigrants. In 1846 he returned to the Democratic Society.
Debilitated physically, he died in poverty.
Julius Słowacki (1809-1849) - poet and dramatist, along with Adam Mickiewicz the most
famous architect of Polish romanticism. In March of 1831 he left Warsaw to serve as
diplomatic courier of the National Government to London and Paris. On about the 6th of
September, he came to Paris from England; and after the collapse of the uprising he
settled there as an emigrant. He became active in the life of the Polish emigration in Paris
as a member of the Lithuanian Society and the Academic Society of Polish Exiles (of
which Jański was also a member). From January of 1833, he lived in Geneva - and from
December 20, 1838, once again in Paris.
He included his early work in a Paris edition of Poems (3 volumes in 1832-1833). During
the November uprising, he stood out as one of the leading political poets (Hymn, Ode to
freedom). Up to 1840 (the year of Jański's death) he wrote dramas such as Kordian
(1834), Balladyna (1835, published 1839), Lilla Weneda (1840), a prose poem, Anhelli
(1838); also, poems such as In Switzerland (published in the volume Three Poems, Paris,
1839), Beniowski, a wandering poem containing, among other things, critical remarks
concerning emigrant and national community; finally lyric verses.
41 On this day, that is February 26, the Théatre du Palais-Royal presented a few plays,
among which was a popular one-act parody Robert le Diable, "a masterpiece of Mr.
Mayer-Beer" [malicious reference to the composer Meyerbeer]. This theater occupied the
exhibition hall in the Royal Palace, built in 1784, renovated and enlarged in 1831. Its
presentations were mainly vaudeville, parodies, operettas, and comedies.
The parody Robert le Diable was based on a libretto by Eugene Scribe and Casimir
Delavigne, written for the great opera of this title, composed and presented by the
DIARY
114
A Chopin concert,42 return with Carnot. Positivism.43
Monday [February 27] - We look for a room. A desire to work immediately,
and to earn a lot of money. Cassin.44
[February] 28, Tuesday - I met Lacordaire,45 We arrange a rendes-vous. At
about two o'clock I went to see Bontemps. There I was in bad humor. Mr.
42
43
44
45
composer Giacomo Meyerbeer in Paris. Its premier took place on November 21, 1831.
The libretto presented the misfortunes of a Norman Prince Robert, who "sold himself" to
Bertram, a devil incarnate.
The first public concert of Frederic Chopin in Paris took place in the Pleyel Hall at 8 P.M.
He played the Concerto in F Minor and Variations, based on the motif "La ci darem la
mano" from Mozart's opera Don Giovanni; He also participated in Friedrich Kalkbrenner's Polonez for 6 pianos. In the audience, among others, were Franz Liszt and Felix
Mendelssohn.
Positivism - a philosophical trend of thought proposed by a former follower of SaintSimon, Auguste Comte, who called it "a philosophy of positivism." Comte based himself
on the supposition that the human intellect is incapable of knowing the essence of things
and ultimate causes; therefore, it is necessary to stop at investigating facts and forming
assertions about the relations between phenomena, keeping in mind the possibility of
using them to transform reality. Philosophy should be a theory of learning, establishing a
logical and historical order among the individual scientific disciplines. Theology and
metaphysics, which propose questions surpassing human knowledge, are condemned to
fruitlessness.
Eugéne Cassin (1796-1844) - co-founder and member of many welfare societies,
secretary general and agent of the Central French-Polish Committee, friend and aid of the
Polish National Committee, dedicated body and soul to the Polish emigrants. His home,
which Lelewel lived, was in the house on rue Taranne - the same place where meetings of
Lelewel's Committee, and the Paris "Community" were held.
Jean-Baptiste-Henri-Dominique Lacordaire (1802-1861) - a French Dominican. Initially a
deist, then a follower of the teaching of Jean Jacques Rousseau. He studied law in Dijon.
In 1824 he entered the seminary of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, and was ordained a priest in
1830. He was a chaplain of the Visitation Sisters. Already at that time he entered into
friendly relations with Frs. Gerbet and Lammenais, and together with them in October of
1831 established the daily "L'Avenir". Together with Montalembert, he established an
institute (not possessing university powers). At the end of December 1831, after the
printing of "L'Avenir" was suspended, he was in Rome, together with Fr. Lamennais and
Montalembert, where efforts were made to obtain an audience for them with Pope
Gregory XVI, in reference to the ideological program of the suspended periodical.
However, they were not received. This gave them to understand the position of the Holy
See in this matter. Lacordaire understood this and immediately returned to Paris, where
he went to work as a teacher and preacher, first in the Collége Stanislas, and then in the
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, where he gained a reputation as an outstanding preacher,
sensitive to contemporary religious, ecclesiastical, social, and political problems. When,
in his encyclical Mirari vos, the Pope condemned the program of "L'Avenir", Lacordaire
prevailed upon Lammenais to submit to the papal decree. But in spite of this the leader of
the movement did not cease to criticize the Pope unofficially. In the end this caused
YEAR 1832
115
Thibaudeau46 - conversation about England. Returned late; dinner at
Tirechappe.47 After dinner, I go out with Bolesław Gurowski.48 I catch hold of
Annette.
On Wednesday [February 29] - With Walter, I look for a room. A change of
climate, the blues [a feeling of hopelessness]. I sit at home. We go to the PalaisRoyal for Louis le Bronze.49
46
47
48
49
Lacordaire to discontinue any ideological or friendly contact with him. However,
Lacordaire did not cease to believe in the possibility of a positive dialogue between
democracy and the Catholic Church, a dialogue based on different intellectual and moral
premises than before. His former relationship with Fr. Lammenais was the indirect cause
which led the Archbishop of Paris to detect undesirable views in Lacordaire's sermons,
which were called "conferences", and so he withdrew the latter's permission to preach.
The former preacher presented his views in relation to current and former questions in
Considerations philosophiques sur le systeme de Lammeanis, and in Lettre sur le SaintSiége (1838). In 1839, he left for Italy, where he entered the Dominican Order (April 8,
1839). He professed vows on April 12, 1840, taking the name of Dominic. A little more
than two months later, he took part in the burial services for Jański, who had died in
Rome.
Together with Montalembert, for some time he directed the publication of a fairly
revolutionary newspaper of the Christian democrats, "Ere Nouvelle" (from April 15,
1848), standing on the side of those who, in a democracy, modelled on a foundation of
Catholicism, saw the sole remedy for the current social problems and a way to defend the
Church against the attacks of the revolutionists. In 1850, he became the Provincial Superior of the French Dominican province. He was a member of the French Academy.
Adolphe-Narcisse Thibaudeau (1795-1855) - Count and administrator. He participated in
the July Revolution in 1830. He was actively engaged as a republican and editor of the
periodical "National". He took part in the June disturbances in Paris in 1832, and was put
in prison. He spent some time in England, where he observed the growing economic and
industrial issues. He wrote many articles and letters from England to the Paris "National".
The name of a street near the Pont-Neuf, the location of a cook-shop directed by a
German who, at that time, charged only 30 sous for a portion of sausage and cabbage.
Polish emigrants often took advantage of this cheap dinner. The street no longer exists.
Boleslaus Gurowski (? 1812-1835) - Adam's brother, a lieutenant in the quartermaster
corps. He lived in Paris as an emigrant; died in Berlin at the age of 23.
Louis Le Bronze, the title of a parody written by Langlé and Vanderburk, who based
themselves on Casimir Delavigne's five-act tragedy Louis XI, was presented in the
Théâtre Français from February 11, 1832. An anonymous critic in Nr. 65 of the "Le
Constitutionnel" (Monday, March 5, 1832) informed the readers that, to speak precisely,
this is a strong. malicious rebuke directed at saintsimonism, a parody of the work of
Delavigne in the full sense the meaning of that word. The verses of Messrs Langlé and
Vanderburk evoke laughter at the cost of adherents of the "Globe" and the enlightened
people of rue Monsigny. However, in spite of all of the sharp wit of these gentlemen, the
saintsimonists will emerge victorious. They will rise above their parody. They are people
who are more comical than all comedies."
DIARY
116
Thursday [March] 1 - At about eleven o'clock I go to see Gurowski.
Cavaignac.50 I leave at about 2 o'clock. At the "Revue" I excuse myself to
Walter and Lacordaire, claiming that I have a headache. I receive the money,
pue Taranne, the "Tribune" for Carnot. In the evening I go to visit Gurowski,
but he is not at home. To Arcola.51
Friday [March] 2 - I begin to write a letter to Joseph Lubowidzki. A visit to
Brailoi.52 Together with Walter we make a down-payment on his room. We
arrange to go to dinner at five. I meet Metmann, and tell him that I am
depressed. With Olszowski,53 I go to Gurowski for dinner. A philosophical
discussion. Champagne. I sleep with Josephine. A materialist. I think about the
course - for example, pour les problemes [about the problems] - philosophy improvisation.
Saturday, [March] 3 - a bath, breakfast at Vioth. General assembly, a report of
the delegates, a question of a profession of faith on the part of the Committee54 -
50
51
52
53
54
In his Diary, Jański frequently mentions the Palais-Royal and this calls for a
commentary. The palace, built by Lemercier in the years 1624-1645, was the private
residence of Cardinal-Minister Richelieu, who in his will deeded it to King Louis XIV. It
came into the possession of the king's brother, Philip I, the Prince of Orleans, and became
thereafter the residence of the Orleans princes. The father of King Louis Philip, who bore
the name Philippe Égalité, was ever in debt, and wished to assure himself of a stable
income. Therefore he surrounded the palace gardens with columns and commercial
galleries, and, in order to gain popularity, opened the gardens of his residence to the
public. The Palais-Royal, with its restaurants, coffee houses and shops became one of the
most lively centers of social and political life in the capital, readily visited by the Paris
demi-monde and outcasts of society.
Louis Godefroy Cavaignac (1801-1845) - politician, republican leader, participated in the
July revolution. Editor of "La Tribune Politique et Littéraire", a militant republican organ,
one of the leaders of the society Amis du Peuple, later founder of the Societé de Droits de
l'Homme et du Citoyen, a secret republican organization that remained under the
influence of free-masonry, also founder of the periodical "La Réforme".
To Arcola - Café d'Arcole, a coffee-house on the rue de Grenelle-Saint-Honoré, to which
Polish emigrant often came.
I have not been able to identify this person. He may have belonged to a group of the
followers of saintsimonism.
Olszowski - participated in the November uprising; an emigrant.
At the general assembly of the Polish National Committee, a commission appointed on
February 16 to investigate the activity of Lewelel's Committee, presented its report. It
expressed acknowledgement for his good intentions, hard work, and zeal, which justified
the trust that was placed in him. At the same time, it declared that the committee did not
take into account of the importance of its task. Informing Europe about its election it
should have presented an open and bold profession of its (presumably, political) beliefs.
YEAR 1832
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finishes at seven. Dinner at Vioth, then to Arcola, he [?] to Feroussach.55 After
Arcola, with Pauline, rue des Marais.
Sunday [March] 4 - Pinard56 comes to see me. Go to Fourier - (diarrhoea). To
l'abbe Gerbet. To the Society for Progress,57 Korzeniowski's58 remarks. I go for
a walk, and meet Dugied; with him a discussion, and a petit verre [drink]. A
55
56
57
58
The committee did not take advantage of this opportunity, and therefore could not
establish any close, extensive political relations with Europe." The general assembly
recommended that the committee make "a sincere and open declaration of its political
principles to Europe", and establish relations with European nations, with America and
other countries, not excluding the Jews and Russian liberals.
In the autograph, the notation Féroussach. Clearly Jański is concerned here with a person
named André-Étienne d'Auderbard de Férussac (1786-1836) - a French baron, zoologist,
professor of geography and statistics at the School of the General Staff in Paris. He completed the work initiated by his father, Histoire naturelle, générale et particuliére des
mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles; in the years 1824-1831 he edited "Biulletin universal
des sciences et de l'industrie". Jański had in mind Férussac's private library; cf. 1833,
footnote 12).
Auguste Pinard (+ 1832) - owner of a Paris publishing house: "Topographie de A. Pinard.
Imprimeur du Comité Polonais", which, together with a foundry, was located at Quai
Voltaire 15. After A. Pinard's death, his daughters Anais, Cora and Nelly continued to
operate the firm under his name. The printery produced many Polish publications, among
others, Pan Tadeusz (first edition), Słowacki's Poems (volumes 1-2, 1832), (vol.3, 1832),
various periodicals and pamphlets in the Polish language. For a while, Jański worked
very closely with the firm of A. Pinard.
On February 14, 1832, the anniversary of the victorious battle of Stoczek, the Society of
the Friends of Progress was established in Paris. It appealed to the most sincere groups of
exiles to unite in this society which, aiming at the liberation of the Polish nation, will
strive to "work on itself, acquire knowledge, and perfect itself in military science." John
Czyński became president of the society, Theophil Zakrzewski the secretary, and
Anthony Hłuśniewicz the treasurer. T. Krępowiecki, J.N. Janowski, E. Rykaczewski, and
J.O. Korzeniowski were chosen as members of the board. Alexander Smolikowski was
elected secretary of the general sessions. Due to discord and quarrels, the society was
unable to play any more important role, and soon fell apart.
Humphrey Anthony Joseph Korzeniowski (1809-1868) - a Podolian, participated in the
November uprising, as a lieutenant, and then captain, of the artillery. In Paris he attended
the School of Mines. In 1833 he was working in Toulouse in a copper smelting works as
an assistant director of a foundry producing weapons. In 1837, along with John Koźmian
and Michael Miłaszewski, he tried to organize about 40 emigrants, in order to form "a
joint society to think about Poland and to work on Polish issues" (a statement of J.
Koźmian). In 1838, under the influence of interior experiences, he became a practicing
Catholic, and joined the House of Jański as an external brother. He was a social and
patriotic activist. From 1849 he lived in Rome, in contact with the Resurrectionists. He
was a collector and lover of art. After his death, Father Peter Semenenko delivered the
funeral eulogy.
DIARY
118
dinner for 32 sous. To Arcola for coffee with Adam Gurowski, and I catch hold
of Annette. I give her my address. To Mrs. Wheeler (Fourier, Laurence59). I
return home at eleven. Materialism - freedom.
165
Monday, March 5 - I finish a letter to Joseph Lubowidzki, and at four o'clock I
take it to the post office. When I return I find Walter with Wolski 60, to the
Palais-Royal. Champagne, to Rossignol61 for coffee and then to Arcola. At
about nine I leave for home. I meet Celestine and another woman, and with her
I go to rue Foursulth [?], then with the other to place Saint-Michel, and arranee
a rendez-vous for Thursday.
Tuesday, [March] 6 - I want to write a letter to Bontemps, but I cannot. I go to
"Revue" and skim through the newspapers. I visit Benoist, and discuss spiritualism and Catholicism. I am ashamed to borrow; home at four. With Walter to
Hallevent [a hall for trade in the place designated for wool]. After dinner, to
Arcola. A journey without purpose along passage Choiseul. There is no course
being given at Buchez. A fall with some Virginia on rue Neuve des petits
Champs. To Rossignol for beer; go home at ten. I read the Third Conference by
l'abbe Gerbet. I become aware of where materialism leads in fact.
[Wednesday, March] 6 - Today I am writing this diary from February 25; later I
read more of Gerbet, I go to "Revue", the newspapers. I enter into a discussion
with Ahrendts62 about spiritualism - I explain this by the superiority of the roots
of humanity over the external world. Reynaud's inadvertence to this stems from
59
60
61
62
Laurence - I was unable to identify this person.
Wolski - any more definite information is lacking.
Hotel Rossignol on the rue Croix des Petits Champs, where Polish emigrants lived,
among these Lelewel and his companions.
Heinrich Ahrendts (actually Ahrens) (1808-1874) - a philosopher and lawyer. He studied
in Getyndza, where he was one of the foremost students of the philosopher K.Ch.F.
Krause (1781-1832). Due to his participation in the coup d'état in January of 1831 in
Getyndza, he fled to Belgium, then on to Paris, where he lived safely for three years.
Grateful for the assistance he received, he presented free of charge a series of instructions
in the field of the history of German philosophy, beginning with Kant. At that time he
wrote articles for "Revue Encyclopédique", which was then under the direction of Carnot
and Leroux. Already in 1834 he was a professor of philosophy and natural law at the
University in Brussels. The people of his electoral district elected him to the Frankfurt
Parliament. He helped to spread his master's philosophy, pantheism, in western Europe.
The term "pantheism" is normally used to describe concepts somewhere between theism
and pantheism, especially the doctrine according to which God, as the sole substance,
retains his personal separateness, and surpasses the boundaries of a world that exists
altogether in God.
YEAR 1832
119
arrogance. Dinner with Walter at Steinhauser's. To Arcola; There I predict
Rettel's63 skepticism and discouragement. To Carnot for the evening
(Ordyniec64).
Reynaud monopolized the conversation - concerning Enfantin's projected 166
celibacy. After a while I leave for home. A letter to Bontemps. A dispatch to
Benoist. Cassin.
[Saturday, March] 10 - To Fourier, about education. I accompany Mrs. Wheeler.
63
64
Leonard Rettel (1811-1885) - took part in the capture of the Warsaw Belvedere in 1830;
emigrant, writer and translator. A Podolian. In 1830 he enrolled in the faculty of law and
administration at the University of Warsaw. He was a member of Peter Wysocki's
conspiracy. On the day the November uprising erupted, he participated in the capture of
the Belvedere. He took part in revolutionary battles, achieving the rank of captain. He
was an active member of the Patriotic Society. On November 9, 1831, he came to France.
While he was in Paris, in early spring of 1832, he joined the Polish National Committee;
but already on March 17th of that year he withdrew to become a member of the Polish
Democratic Society. As one of the first members, he signed its act of establishment. He
declared himself against the Polish Legion of Joseph Bem, which was being organized in
Portugal, and burned the latter's speeches at a meeting at rue Taranne. He was a good
speaker. As a result of his protest activity, in July of 1833 he was expelled from Paris
along with Jerome Kajsiewicz. Both emigrants settled in Angers, and occupied
themselves publishing their poetic efforts, which were translated into French. In spite of
material difficulties, they led a care-free life. They came in contact with circle of Fr.
Lammenais. At the end of 1835, Rettel, Kajsiewicz, and Montalembert made a retreat at
the Trappist Abbey in Solesmes. Rettel then left for Brussels, but returned to Paris, and
from that time remained in close contact with Adam Mickiewicz, Bogdan Jański, and
John Koźmian. He worked as a journalist. As early as 1832 he was a member of the
editorial staff of "The Polish Pilgrim" and "The Polish Democrat". From 1839 he wrote
article in "Pszonka". He worked as a translator from German, but especially from Spanish. From 1841 he became a disciple of Andrew Towiański.
John Casimir Romuald Ordyniec (1797-1863) - A native of Volhynia. He studied at the
Krzemieniecki Liceum, and then in the faculty of philosophy at the University of Wilno,
completing the course there in 1824. For one year he was a teacher in Winnica, and then
began to work in Warsaw. He established close contacts with the lordly Zamoyski family.
In the year 1828-1831 he was director of the Government Printery. In 1826, he bought the
"Warsaw Daily" from Michael Podczaszyński, and edited the paper to the end of 1829. In
that year he began to publish every 10 days installments of "The Polish Decameron". He
was the author of articles and poems, as well as a translator. At the time of the uprising,
he became a member of the Patriotic Society. On October 29, 1831, he came to Paris
together with Lelewel. On May 18, 1832, he joined the Polish Democratic Society as a
member and librarian. Also, together with John Nepomucene Janowski and Casimir
Alexander Pułaski he edited the organ of the "TDP" society. He worked as a tutor. In his
social-political views, he gradually evolved from a democrat to a conservative. He
became a member of the camp of Prince Adam Czartoryski. In 1854 he was custodian of
the Polish Library and a member of the Historical-Literary Society in Paris.
DIARY
120
[Monday, March] 19 - A material reaction. Celine comes to me, etc. [March]
20th I rent her room. (I receive money about the 15th).
Friday, [March] 23 - [Adam] Gurowski delivers the plan for the manifesto.65
Sunday, [March] 25 - Gurowski comes to see me in the morning, and anger.
Camille [Mochnacki] arrives; he delivers Albert [Łempicki's66] letter. A walk
with [Joseph] Hube.
[Monday, March] 26 - I attend Buchez's private lesson. [Tuesday, March] 27 Oysters with Joseph [Hube] - I feel very week after dinner.
[Wednesday, March] 28 - In the evening, I visit with Carnot, Lherminier. I am
experiencing a state of moral weakness.
Thursday, [March] 29 - In the evening, after supper at Steinhauser's, we find
Maurice [Mochnacki] at the house.
Friday, [March] 30 - a walk to Neuilly,67 plans dealing with Poland. Dinner
with Walter for 32 [sous]. I sleep at Celine's place.
65
66
In Paris, in the house of A. Gurowski, on March 17, 1832 the Polish Democratic Society
came into existence on the basis of an Act of Establishment, the so-called "Manifesto".
The founding members (J.N. Janowski, T. Krępowiecki, Fr. C.A. Pułaski, and A
Gurowski) were convinced that in the course of a free discussion with followers and
sympathizers, it would be possible to establish guiding principles for the liberation of Poland. We can presume that Jański, although he did not become of a member of the TDP,
might be asked to familiarize himself with the proposed text, which was later published in
the publication "TDP": A projected Act of the Polish emigration, manifesting the main
principles governing the selection of its Representation, written by members of the Polish
Democratic Society, and transmitted to the Councils of the Polish depots (Paris, 1832,
fascicle 1, p.16).
Adalbert Napoleon Łempicki (1807-1884) - in 1827 he received the degree of Master of
Law and Administration at the University of Warsaw. A contemporary and colleague of
Jański at the university. At the time of the uprising in 1831, he was a lieutenant in the
Płock cavalry. After the collapse of the uprising, he was an emigrant in France, and was
sent to the depot in Avignon, and later in Lunel. He worked in the bureau of the Foncier
Credit Society as a clerk, and later as a director. He died in Paris.
Camille Mochnacki was in Avignon in February and March of 1832 as a result of
pressure by the French authorities. From there he came to Paris as a delegate of the Polish
Council living in that depot.
YEAR 1832
121
Saturday, [March] 31 - Today, for Lerminier. Maurice's proposal that I
participate.68
Sunday, April 1 - I go for Fourier's lecture - the course is not in session. I meet 169
Camille, and have breakfast with him. I am ill-tempered. Dinner at home.
[Monday, April] 2 - To Brawacki; he gives me some medicines. I am occupied
all day with them. Dinner ditto [as above] with Walter and Fanny. Plans always
about going to Poland; I am busy reflecting on this. To Buchez for a lecture.
Tuesday, [April] 3 - To Chopin; I talked too much unnecessarily about the letter
to Poland.69 To Lherminier's lecture; conversation with Kunatt.70 Pac.71 Once
again plans to remain here. A bath; dinner at home with Walter and Fanny.
67
68
69
A town situated west of Paris and north of the Boulogne Woods, presently a section of
Paris.
Maurice Mochnacki - After coming to Paris from Metz in March of 1832, he wished to
add to the work he had already completed, that is, the "history of the Polish revolution".
To accomplish this goal he wished to make use of the literary assistance of his friends.
Michael Podczaszyński promised to prepare a chapter on "the nationality of the ruling
authority and the tendencies of Russia since the 19th century", and a second chapter on
"our peasants". Also Roman Sołtyk had assured Mochnacki that he would try "to prepare
some things" in connection with becoming co-author of the entire work. Was it just such
a project that Mochnacki had in mind when he tried to persuade Jański to take part
possibly in completing the great work that resulted: The revolt of the Polish nation in
1830 and 1831? Cf. Mochnacki, op. cit. vol.I, pp. 9 and 100-101.
In the Roman Archives of the Congregation of the Resurrection (ACR 8627, pp.142-143)
the rough draft of an undated letter written by Jański which was addressed to "Good
Tony". It contains a response to a letter of Anthony Felix Barciński, suspecting Jański of
"hinting" to Frederic about his relations with a certain English woman, in whose home
Barciński rented a room in London, and to whom he had given his word. At one time
Barciński lived with the Chopins, and was on friendly terms with them. Now,
undoubtedly, after his return to Warsaw from London, he was seeking the hand of
Isabelle, the sister of Frederic. In Jański's letter we read: "Immediately after I received
your letter, I went to visit Frederic. First of all, as for me: Your suspicion was completely
unfounded. I did not hint at anything to him about your relations with Miss G.; as a result,
I felt that I had a strong right to scold him for coarse jokes without any foundation... I
feared... that by some extraordinary chance, Frederic might have heard something from
her (the English woman's) side. Therefore, I tried as skillfully as possible, to the engage
him in conversation on this matter. However, I became convinced that he knows nothing
about it. If he had written anything about you, it is obvious that it was only by way of a
joke. He assured me, even very solemnly, that he does not even remember this. However,
on my insistence, he promised with equal solemnity that, in the future, he would be more
careful in his letters. Therefore, I expect that the matter is ended as you wished."
DIARY
122
Wednesday, [April 4] - Went for a rendez-vous to Boulard.72 I purchase a
portrait of Enfantin. (?)
Sunday [April] 8 - to Fourier's lecture, then for the course in history by
Lechevalier. Dinner and evening with Walter.
70
71
72
Most probably the reference here is to Stanislaus Kunatt (1790-1866), whose brother
Michael, an emigrant, lived in Nancy. In 1820, after Stanislaus had received a degree of
Master of Law at the University of Warsaw, thanks to the support of Professor Frederic
Skarbek, he received a government scholarship, and left to pursue further studies abroad,
studies in the area of administration, technology, and economy. In Berlin he attended
courses offered by F.K. Savigny and A. Humboldt; in Paris, he attended lectures of J.B.
Saye. He studied A. Smith and D. Ricard's economic liberalism. He served as an
apprentice at the Lafitte bank. He observed economic life in Holland, Switzerland and
England. After his return to Poland in 1823, he taught courses in commerce,
administration, and statistics. Jański attended lectures by Professor Kunatt, his future
examiner. After 1827, Kunatt taught civil law at the University of Warsaw, and political
economy in the Preparatory School for the Polytechnic Institute. He propagated an economic liberalism. He translated Ricard's Principles of political economy, and a work of the
same title by Mac Culloch (Cf. 1830, footnote 13), and also, in 1831, a work By Zachary
concerning the French civil code (Cf. 1830, footnote 62). He was the author of treatises in
the area of political economy, and organization of the school system in France. During
the November uprising he was an officer of the Academic Honor Guard. He was a state
councillor, an official in charge of a department of the administration, and secretaryeditor of the minutes of meetings of the Supreme National Council. In October, 1831 he
lived in Paris as an emigrant. In 1832 he was a member of Lelewel's Committee, and then
of the Council of the Polish Depot in Paris. He entered into friendly relations with the
camp of Czartoryski, and after 1833, together with Xavier Bronikowski and Andrew
Plichta, he was editor of the aristocratic wing's publication "Phoenix". He belonged to the
Society of the Third of May. In the years 1834-1837 together with Bronikowski, and from
1837 to 1840 alone, he published the "Chronicle of the Polish Emigration". Co-editor of
the monthly "Polish Democracy in the 19th century" (1845-46). He taught for 20 years in
the Young Ladies' Institute in the Hotel Lambert, and in the Polish Academy
(Montparnasse). From 1832 he was a member-founder, co-worker, and from 1838
secretary of the statistical section of the Literary Society, later the Historical-Literary
Society in Paris. He was a member of the Society for Assistance to Education; from 1864
a member of the THL Council, and conservator of the Polish Library. (Gerber)
Louis Michael Pac (1780-1835) - Governor of the palace-senator, voivode of the
Kingdom of Poland, general of a division, awarded the Cross Virtuti Militari, the
Commander's Star of the Legion of Honor, and the Sash of St. Stanislaus. He participated
in the campaigns of 1808, 1812-1824 in Spain, Austria, Russia and Germany. During the
November uprising he was commander of the first reserve corps, and took part in the
battles at Ostrołęka, where he was wounded. He was noted for his dedication to the cause
of Poland in the emigration. He visited London in 1832 in order to inform the English
parliament about Poland's interests.
Further information is lacking.
YEAR 1832
170
123
Monday [April] 9 - Before dinner [Maurice] Mochnacki reads me his history. In
the evening at Kunatt. I defend the principle of authority, and discuss Catholicism with Szemioth73 - inappropriately. The law concerning aliens is passing
in the House.74
Tuesday [April] 10 - I request that my name be deleted from the list of the
Society.75 I visit Mejzner;76 he agrees with my political opinions. Celine is ill.
Dr. Heald77 came to see me. Dinner at my place with Walter.
Wednesday [April] 11 - At Mochnacki's residence, conversation concerning
revolutionary and restoration [restoring a system that has been abolished]
73
74
75
76
77
Francis Szemioth (1803-1882) - He came from Samogitia; a leader of the uprising in that
area in 1830. A major in the Polish army and a deputy. He was a political activist among
the emigrants in Paris.
In the French House of Deputies, on April 9, 1832, by a great majority of votes, a law
was passed limiting the personal freedom of foreigners. On April 19, the House of Peers
also confirmed this by a majority vote. On the strength of this law, the minister for
external affairs could assemble foreigners-exiles in one or more places, and by way of an
administrative process, without any judicial decree, could expel from France those who
opposed or disturbed public order and peace. This law dealing with foreigners was mainly
concerned with the Polish exiles, and left them at the mercy, or lack of mercy, of the
police.
This refers to "The list of Polish Exiles enrolling in General Assemblies and the Polish
National Committee in Paris, until the end of April, (1832)." This list was printed in a
publication entitled: "An account of the activity of the Polish National Committee. From
December 1831 to May 1832, Paris, the A. Pinard Press, rue D'Anjou-Dauphine 8, 1832,
p.110.
Joseph Mayzner (1803-1841) - In the years 1822-1826 he studied law at the University of
Warsaw, receiving the degree of Master of Law. On occasion of a Church jubilee (1825)
he wrote Religious Poems in a classical form. He worked in a provincial criminal court as
an apprentice. He was a member of the Patriotic Club. He participated in the November
uprising, throughout the entire campaign as a lieutenant in the 9th corps of infantry. He
advanced to the rank of captain. He was an emigrant in Besançon, where he worked as a
journalist and poet. In 1832 he wrote A poem if perpetual memory of November 29, 1830,
read at the celebration of the second anniversary of that occasion in France, in the city of
Besançon, November 29, 1832 by ... a captain of the 9th corps of the Polish army, Paris,
1832. He was elected secretary of the Academic Society of Polish Exiles in Paris. He was
a member of a masonic lodge, and then of the Hungarian camp. In 1833 he edited "A
Periodical of Mutual Enlightenment", and published his compositions there. In that same
year he participated in an unsuccessful expedition to Frankfurt-am-Mein by a group of
Polish emigrants. He returned to France, and lived in poverty. Julius Słowacki knew
Captain Meyzner from the time when he was secretary of the Academic Society, and
honored his memory in one of his lyrical verses entitled The Funeral of Captain Meyzner.
Dr. Heald - no further information available.
DIARY
124
principles, and about Russia. He has a different opinion of me. Camille's
proposal dealing with a professorship for Poles. I am determined to remain here
at all cost. A spiritualist - with the intention of providing a strong religious
impulse.
I am finishing reading Mélanges de "L'Avenir". Rohrbacher's articles
made a great impression on me.78
[Sunday] April 15 - I eat dinner at Walter's, along with tea. He loses in cards.
171
Monday, [April 16] - Breakfast with Brawacki. Somehow his materialistic
principles seem foreign to me.
I am reading the introduction by Salverte,79
Many walks.
Evenings at the Mochnackis with tea.
I am reading Waga.80
78
79
80
René-François Rohrbacher (1798-1856) - an eminent thinker, dogmatist, moralist,
Biblicist, and historian of religion. The son of German parents, he was ordained a priest
in 1812. He was a historian of the Catholic Church, a professor at the seminary in Nancy.
He worked closely with Lamennais, and wrote for the "L'Avenir". After the Papal
condemnation, he severed his contacts with the leader of liberal Catholicism. He engaged
in an extensive study of Church History, and showed great commitment in defending the
institution of the Church. In his works that were more apologetic than historical, he
demonstrated that the Catholic Church, one and universal, embraces all places, interests
and affairs of the entire world, and that the center of the universal Church is the Pope, the
Vicar of Christ and successor of St. Peter. In the years 1842-1849 he published the
Histoire universelle de l'Eglise catholique in 29 volumes, Paris. In the second volume of
Mélanges catholiques; extraits de "L'Avenir", two articles by Rohrbacher appear: Que
signifie une croix? (pp.260-266) and Célibat ecclesiastique in two parts (pp.315-331).
Anne-Joseph-Eusébe-Baconniére de Salverte (1771-1839) - scholar, philosopher, writer,
liberal politician, from 1828 a member of the French House of Deputies. After the
revolution of 1830, he joined the opposition. He cooperated with the publishers of the
"Revue Encyclopédique". He was author of many works, among others: Des maisons de
santé destinées aux aliénés (1821), Essai historique et philosophique sur les noms
d'hommes, de peuples, e lieux, etc. (2 volumes, 1823), Des sciences occultes our Essai
sur la magie, les prodiges, les miracles (2 volumes, 1829).
Theodore Simon Waga (1739-1801) - lawyer, historian and geographer. A student of the
Piarists, he later entered their congregation, taking the name of Theodore.
After completing his studies, he taught in the Warsaw Collegium Nobilium and other
Piarist schools. He held high offices in the congregation, and was a preacher. He spent
three years in Italy, France and England. He published "A short history of the princes and
kings of Poland, with some remarks on the history of the nation in order to enlighten the
youth of the nation" which was reprinted several times. J. Lelewel added to, and
published this History in Warsaw in 1818, and in this edition it appeared in Vilno (1818,
1824, 1831), in Warsaw (1819), and in Kraków (1822)...He was editor of An inventory of
laws, statutes, and constitutions of Poland and the Great Principality of Lithuania,
YEAR 1832
125
Friday, [April] 20 - A general assembly. I meet Gurowski, and return Lelewel's
three constitutions.81
Easter Sunday, April 22
I step into St. Sulpice82 by chance. Walter and Fanny have dinner with
me. They play cards and lose.
Monday, [April] 23 - Mrs. Enfantin's83 funeral. I meet Puławski.84 I speak with
Janowski, and buy burgundy wine.
81
82
83
84
located in the 6 first volumes of the Voluminis Legum... (Warsaw, 1782; second edition,
Warsaw, 1789), Terms of office of the district and town courts, as well as the legal
jurisdictions of final instance of both nations ... collected (Warsaw, 1785). He translated
the works of the Italian lawyer and economist Cesare Beccari Concerning crimes and
punishments (1764; Polish edition, 1772).
This refers to Three Polish Constitutions: 1791, 1807, 1815, compared and differences
weighed by Joachim Lelewel, published in Warsaw in 1831. The next edition, prepared
by Leonard Chodźko, appeared in Paris in 1832.
Saint-Sulpice - A church of the 13th century bearing the name of St. Sulpice, located in
what was then a suburb of Paris, south of the Abbey of Saint-Germain- des- Près.
The mother of Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin, owner of the property in Ménilmontant. She
died of cholera on April 20, 1832.
Anthony Felix (1800-1838) whose religious name was Alexander, and most often later
Casimir, Pułaski. a Piarist and a political activist at the time of the November uprising
and the Great Emigration. He professed vows as a Piarist in 1817, but due to his freewheeling life style, accumulating debts while in vows, he was ordained in Warsaw only
in September of 1834. At the time of the November uprising, he made his appearance as
Casimir Pułaski (an allusion to the hero of the Confederacy). He proclaimed radical social
and republican views, and propagated ideas concerning enfranchising and educating
peasants. In the Patriotic Society he was the leader of the radical left. Along with Maurice
Mochnacki and Thaddeus Krępowiecki, he was a member of the statutory commisssion
of the Patriotic Soicety, and one of its vice-presidents. In his sermons, he preached that
"God chose the Polish nation to prepare Russia for a union of Asia with Europe by the
eternal bond of enlightenment and freedom." He was the head chaplain of General
Dwernicki's corps. In his speeches he praised the Paris July revolution. Before the
Russians entered Poland, he left Warsaw, and by way of Prussia, reached France, together
with John Nepomucene Janowski. He became a member of Lelewel's Committee of the
Polish Nation. as a result of differences of opinion, on March 16, 1832, he joined a fivemember commission which was supposed to re-organize the Committee. When the report
of the commission demanding the dissolution of the Committee was rejected, Pułaski seceded and signed the Act of Establishment of the Polish Democratic Society. As a result
of his conflicting ideas his name was erased from the list of members of the Society. He
presented himself as a priest, even though he had ceased to fulfill his priestly obligations.
He criticized the activity of General Dwernicki's Committee, siding with Zaliwski's
partisan expedition. He made friends with the Carbonari, and became a member of a
Masonic lodge. As a consequence of the arrests of members of the Carbonari-Masonic
DIARY
126
[Tuesday, April] 24
I go to visit Alouette.85 Camille gives me a letter from Adalbert Łempicki.
On my way back from Alouette I meet Brawacki.
Wednesday, April 25
In the evening I go to visit Carnot after I don't know how long.
[Thursday, April] 26
I send a letter to Adalbert Łempicki.
[Friday, April] 27
I go to visit [Louis] Plater,86 and from there to Lacordaire. I discuss
Fletcher, as well as treatises on Genesis.87
85
86
underground, Pułaski and his companion Worcell found themselves in the Paris jail of
Sainte-Pélagie. In July of 1833 Pułaski was expelled from France, and took up residence
in Belgium along with Lelewel and Worcell. From November 1833 he was administrator
of the radical Brussels weekly "La Voix du Peuple", in which he called for solidarity with
those conquered nations who were fighting against despotism. He supported the
participation of Poles in the Sabaudian expedition, and severely criticized the politics of
Czartoryski and the Belgian government. On April 16, 1834, he was expelled from
Belgium. He settled in London, where, together with Thaddeus Krępowiecki and
Stanislaus Worcell, he began organizing the "People" of London, concentrating on Poles
with republican-democratic convictions. He was active in London and in Portsmouth, as
well as on the Isle of Jersey, never ceasing to be in conflict with his companions. He
became destitute and mentally ill. According to Lelewel, he died in a hospital for the
mentally ill; according to Janowski, after being beaten on a dark street. In the opinion of
some people, he was considered a bold and ambitious tribune of the people; while in the
opinion of others, he was a clever and enterprising patriot.
Alouette (more properly, Lalouette) - an advocate of saintsimonism; he made a shorthand
copy of Fatrher Enfantin's lectures given at the end of 1831 and the beginning of 1832
(Cf. above, footnote 22).
Louis August Broel-Plater (1775-1846) - Thanks to the ambition of his wealthy parents,
he received a solid domestic education. He distinguished himself especially in the exact
sciences and in the knowledge of languages. He occupied himself with Polish chemical
terminology, highly esteemed in this regard by J. Śniadecki. He took part in the
Kościuszko uprising. In the first years of the reign of the Russian Tsar Alexander I, he
became acquainted with Adam Czartoryski, who was a friend of the Tsar. In 1801, he
married Mary Anne Brzostowska, who distinguished herself in the emigration in Paris by
her philanthropic and cultural activity. In 1802 he belonged to the Warsaw Society of the
Friends of Learning. He traveled throughout Germany and France. In the service of
Russia he served as inspector of schools in the Province of Vilno, and then inspector of
government forests. He was disappointed in Napoleon. After moving to Warsaw, he
became a minister of state in the government of the Kingdom of Poland, and performed
responsible functions in the Government Commission of Revenue and Treasury,
YEAR 1832
127
Sunday, April 29
87
becoming the right hand of Minister Lubecki. In 1816, he was named Director General of
Government Forests, and in this position, he demonstrated exceptionally beneficial
economic and social activity. He was also a member of the Government Commission for
Religious Beliefs and Public Education. In 1825 he became a member of the Polytechnic
Council, preparing plans for the Polytechnic Institute. In the Warsaw Society of the
Friends of Learning he effected changes raising the standard of efficiency of its activity,
and putting its archives in order. He belonged to the Masons, and in their circle exercised
constantly higher functions, always subordinating them to patriotic goals. He did not
enjoy the favor of Nowosilcow, who placed difficulties in the way of his career. In 1829
he became a senator-castellan. He accepted the November uprising without conviction.
Appointed by General Chlopicki to be the secretary of the state of dictatorship, he signed
the official acts, thereby recognizing the uprising as a national act, and an act of
dethronization of the Romanovs. On orders from the National Government, on January
31, 1831, he left for France, where, together with General Kniaziewicz, he established a
Legation seeking to obtain the favor of the French government for the Polish cause. After
the collapse of the uprising he held talks with the French authorities in the matter of
assuring protection for the exiles. He maintained contact with Prince Czartoryski. Along
with other outstanding emigrants he established the Literary Society in Paris (April 29,
1832), of which he became a life-time vice-president. Under pressure from Czartoryski,
he presented to the Society a plan to move Poles to Algeria, a plan which multiplied his
enemies. In connection with Gregory XVI's Encyclical Cum Primum of 1832, he prepared
a memorial for the Holy See. At the end of 1832 he became a member of the Council of
the Society for Educational Assistance. He favored giving the peasants freedom and the
right to possess property. He was a member of the editorial staff of "The Chronicle of the
Polish Emigration". He was director of the Polish Club which had a reading room
providing latest releases. In 1838, at his home, the act establishing the Polish Library was
signed; Plater was a member of the library council. Bankruptcy of the Society of
Commerce and Finance, established by Louis Jelski, and of which Plater was a member,
forced him to endure severe material limitations. In the end, with the permission of the
Prussian authorities, he took up residence in Poznań on property he had purchased, and it
was there that he died.
James Fletcher (1800-1832) - An English historian, author of a monograph dedicated to
the history of Poland. This monograph appeared in French translation in Paris in 1832:
Histoire de Pologne... traduite de l'anglais et continue depuis la révolution de novembre
jusgue' la prise de Varsovie et la fin de la guerre, par Alphonse Viollet. Jański reviewed
this work in the "Revue Encyclopédique", March, 1832, vol.53, pp.657-659. Debates
concerning Genesis, or the first book of the Old Testament. Undoubtedly Jański was
concerned about studies he needed to prepare for a review of the book of J.B.C.B.
Leroux-Moisand, Disertation sur le 22 Chapitre de la Génése: Sacrifice d'Abraham...
(Paris, 1832). Jański's review appeared in the "Revue Encyclopédique", 1832, vol. 54,
pp.154-156.
DIARY
128
I return two articles to Carnot, and take away the pamphlets of [Louis]
Plater. At four I accompany Lacordaire to visit his brother [Jean Theodore];89 I
am beginning to eat at table.
[Monday, April] 30
I wanted to go [to hear] Paganini,90 but it was already too late.
88
[Tuesday, May] 1
I return Waga to Mochnacki, and return Kołłątaj's91 letters.
[Wednesday, May] 2
A debate with Leroux92 at Carnot's house. I give him articles about
Plater's pamphlet. In these days, unexpectedly, a new sin.
88
89
90
91
92
These two articles are undoubtedly two reviews of the publication of the authors named
above: James Fletcher, and J.B.C.B. Leroux-Moisand, which Carnot announced in the
columns of the monthly "Revue Encyclopédique". In 1832 an anonymous pamphlet
entitled La Pologne province russe appeared in Paris. It was written by Louis Plater, who
in it compared the Constitution of 1815 with the Organic Statute of 1832. The Russian
Tsar Nicholas I, formally taking into consideration the decisions passed by the Congress
of Vienna, on February 26, 1832 issued his legal act called "The Organic Statute" which
severely limited the autonomy of the Polish Kingdom by abolishing its army and its
Sejm. From that time on Poland was to be "an inseparable part" of the Russian empire.
Jański wrote an article about Plater's pamphlet which appeared in the "Revue
Encyclopédique", 1832, vol. 54, pp.654-657.
Undoubtedly Jean-Théodore Lacordaire (1801-1870) - the older brother of the priest. A
traveler, he wrote reports of his travels throughout South America for the "Revue des
Deux Mondes". From 1835 he was professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at the
University in Liége. He was an author of scholarly works.
Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840) - An Italian violinist and composer, one of the most
outstanding virtuosos in the history of performing arts. He appeared in Paris in 1831, and
again in 1832, giving 10 concerts from the second half of March. He designated the
proceeds from one of these concerts to benefit victims of the cholera epedemic which was
raging at the time.
Hugo Kołłątaj (1750-1812) - a priest who was also a political activist and writer. He was
Poland's deputy chancellor of the treasury, promoter of schools, historian and
philosopher. He was one the the principal representatives of Polish education, a promoter
of a theory according to which land is the one source of a nation's wealth, and working of
the land the sole productive labor (physiocracy). He was a leading agent of the patriotic
party, co-author of the Constitution of the Third of May. In the period of the first years of
the Great Sejm a publication which did not identify him as its author appeared: To
Stanislaus Małachowski, a Government official. A few anonymous letters concerning the
upcoming Sejm: part 1: Concerning the restoration of the nation's...; parts 2 and 3:
"Concerning the reformation of the Republic..., Warsaw, XII 1788-V 1789.
Pierre Leroux (1798-1871) - philosopher, journalist, political activist, an educated printer.
In 1831 he was a saintsimonist of the second rank. In 1824 he established "Le Globe",
YEAR 1832
129
Thursday, May 3
A meeting (Chodźko, Lelewel).93 Dinner with Tonnelier on the other side
of the Montparnasse toll-gate - a meeting of superiors [higher superiors]. I
return at eleven. I am beginning to spend evenings at home; tea with rum.
[Friday, May] 4
I send a letter to Joseph [Zawadzki] in Avignon.94
[Sunday, May] 6
I am finishing the first part of Kołłątaj's letters; I take the June issue of
"Mercury"95 from Maurice. I go to visit Walter. He invites me for dinner. I do
not wish to go. To Mochnacki; and then at home a third letter to Adalbert
[Łempicki].
Monday, [May 7]
I am already correcting my proofs in the "Revue".
Tuesday, [May] 8
93
94
95
which in about 1830 became the organ of the saintsimonists. After the division within the
saintsimonists that took place in November of 1831, he withdrew from their school and
began to form his own socio-religious theories. It was been written that he was the first to
use the term socialisme in its modern sense. His philosophical-religious system generally
supported the utopian assumptions of Saint-Simon. In his basic work, De L'Humanité, de
son principe et de son avenir (1840) proclaimed humanity to be a "universal" being,
solidary and capable of progress: "Human intelligence aims at rebuilding an earthly
paradise, and erasing original sin by the labor and blood of humanity" (in the words of
Armand de Melun). Proclaiming a "religion of humanity", and consigning Christianity to
its service, Leroux based himself on a conglomeration of various philosophical ideas and
the beliefs of various religions. He exerted a considerable and lasting influence on the
views of his friend, the famous writer George Sand. He cooperated closely with Jean
Reynaud (Cf. above, footnote 2), together with whom he published, among others, the
Encyclopédie nouvelle.
A common gathering of the Paris "Community" and Lelewel's Committee, organized to
celebrate the anniversary of the enactment of the Constitution of the Third of May.
Joseph Zawadzki, captain in the 13th ulan regiment, was living in Avignon at the time.
He was applying for permission to reside in Paris. In a later letter to "Mr. Joseph", Jański,
married as we know to Alexandra Zawadzka, stated: "I solemnly assure you, that I continue to love you sincerely as my brother-in-law and a fellow Pole" (ACRR 8568, p.45).
"Mercury, a Political, Commercial, and Literary Newspaper", published during the time
of the November uprising (in Warsaw, from December 17, 1830 to September 7, 1831)
Stanislaus Psarski (1810-1875) editor-in-chief, a graduate of the University of Warsaw
(law and administration), and a member of the Patriotic Society. 222 numbers of the
newspaper were printed.
DIARY
130
Chodźko gives me a receipt. Fr. Lacordaire brings me Gerbet and
Delamennais.96
Wednesday, [May] 9
Karwowski pays me a visit. I take Bronikowski's97 brochure from the
"Revue", and "Mercury" of March and April from Mochnacki. Mr. Maurice told
the truth. Camille returns the 19 francs he owed me. I take a bath.
Thursday, [May 10]
I am occupied with the "Mercury". In the evening I meet for coffee with
Maurice and Podczaszyński.98 The latter's gossip.
96
97
98
Philippe-Olympe Gerbet, Cf. 1831, footnote 59.
Felicité-Robert de Lamennais (Le Mennais, De la Mennais, Lamené) (1782-1854) French priest, writer and socio-religious activist, leader of the liberal Catholics in France.
Cf. Note I, at the end of the Diary for the year 1832, for the life and activity of Fr. F.R. de
Lamennais.
This refers to the publication in Paris in 1832 of Xavier Bronikowski's Griefs nouveaux
des cabinets européens contre le cabinet russe, which Jański reviewed in the "Revue
Encyclopédique", 18322, vol.54, pp.509-513.
Michael Podczaszyński (1800-1835) - born in Krzemieniec. He studied first at the
University of Vilno, and then in Warsaw (administration). In 1824 he worked in the
Government Commission of Revenue and Treasury of the Kingdom of Poland. Already
in 1824 he became acquainted with Maurice Mochnacki and his family, and visited at
their home in Warsaw at ul. Długa. He and Maurice visited Joachim Lelewel, who lived
across the street, and who was for them a great authority. He did translation from the
French. In June 1825, together with Mochnacki, he began to edit and publish the "Warsaw Daily". For lack of funds, within a half year he handed over the task of editing the
newspaper to John Casimir Ordyniec and he left for Paris, where he served as a tutor in
the home of the Ladislaus Potockis. He became acquainted with Leonard Chodźko, who
had settled permanently in Paris, and began to work together with the Paris press; e.g., for
the "Revue Encyclopédique he wrote reviews of periodicals and publications from
Warsaw. After returning to Warsaw in 1827, he began to work at the "Polish Gazette";
however next year he returned to Paris as a tutor in the home of Clementine, nee
Sanguszko, the wife of Ladislaus Ostrowski. For the third and last time he left for Paris in
1829, and settled there permanently, occupying himself with editorial work (a onevolume edition of The Works of Ignatius Krasicki, Paris-Geneva, 1830, which was
republished a few times thanks to Ostrowski's financial assistance). He wrote Fragments
sur la littérature ancienne de la Pologne, 1830, which was included in C. Malte-Brun's
Tableau de la Pologne ancienne et moderne (Brussels, 1830, and a reprint). Leonard
Chodźko reprinted this work in 1831. It had still another edition, and was also published
in foreign languages. In difficult material circumstances, sometimes Podczaszyński did
not have enough to eat. He placed articles and information on the topic of the November
uprising in the French press ("Revue des Deux Mondes", "Le Temps"). When in Paris, on
January 28, 1831, a Comité Central Franco-Polonais headed by General Lafayette was
YEAR 1832
131
Friday, May 11
First I collect these memoirs left over from the last month. To Paulin99
concerning some of Skarbek's business, and then to Michael Chevalier100 for
books to Warsaw.
Saturday, [May] 12
172
Jouffry and Lerminier. I meet with Gurowski, about Mochnacki. I go to
visit Carnot; I stay there too long. I take various pamphlets for Warsaw with me.
99
100
established, Podczaszyński, a co-worker of the General, became involved in the work of
the committee. In spite of his difficult situation, he provided Maurice and Camille
Mochnacki with financial assistance when they came to Paris, and was co-founder of
Lelewel's Learned Society of Polish Exiles. From January to April of 1832, he resided in
Metz, where he organized assistance for Polish exiles. After he returned to Paris, he
became a member of the Lithuanian and Russian Territories Society and of the Literary
Society. In September of 1832, along with Maurice Mochnacki, he resigned from Lelewel's Committee, and joined the newly established Paris Institution which took its name
from the place of its meetings "Woban" (hotel Vauban). This Paris Institution became the
germ of the National Committee of the Polish Emigration. In Paris, from July 1832,
Podczaszyński edited and published a political periodical, "Memoirs of the Polish
Emigration". He published these "Lives of famous Poles" in the Biographie universelle
portative des contemporains... In November of 1832, he was living together with Maurice
Mochnacki in a single hotel room. Both were experiencing financial difficulties and ill
health (Tuberculosis). At the end of July 1833 they moved to a suburb of Paris, but returned to Paris at the beginning of 1834. When Maurice Mochnacki, already seriously ill,
moved to Auxerre, where he died in December of 1834, Podczaszyński went on preparing
material for publication, hiding the condition of his health and his poverty. He ended in a
Paris hospital, where he died on July 4, 1835. The funeral took place in the church of St.
Thomas Aquinas, and he was buried in the Montparnasse cemetery.
Alexander Paulin (1793-1858) - A paris bookseller and publisher, co-founder of the daily
"National", founder and editor of "L'Illustration", a politician.
Michael Chevalier (1806-1879) - A student at the Paris Polytechnic School. He continued
his studies at the school of mines. Even before the July revolution he held the position of
engineer in the French northern department. For reasons of health he resigned his position, and engaged in journalism. He was involved in the saintsimonist movement, and
was one of its outstanding leaders. He was a Father, that is a saintsimonist of the First
Rank. He published articles in the columns of the movement's organs, "Organisateur" and
"Le Globe", among these a significant article: Systéme de la Méditerranée (February 12,
1832). In the conflict between Bazard and Enfantin, he came out in favor of the latter. He
was arrested together with Enfantin and sentenced to a year in jail. After his release, he
traveled to North America, Mexico and Cuba. He published articles dealing with his
travels in the "Journal des Débats" of which he was the editor. In 1840 he became a
professor in the Collége de France, where he taught political economy (he published
Cours d'économie politique in 1842-1844). He was a senator. In a letter to Louis
Królikowski, Jański referred to him as: "doctrinaire of the arriere-pensées saintsimonist
industrialists" (1836).
DIARY
132
Sunday [May] 13
Rostkowski101 come to see me - about his interests; a meeting with
Cassini. He comes again with Jóźwik.102 We go out for wine. To Mochnacki (he
is out). Bois-de-Boulogne.103 I go to visit Cassini. To the reading room104 and
dinner. To the Oleszczyńskis105 and Hube. In the evening I read about the
101
102
103
104
105
Theodore Rostkowski (1804-1840) - a doctor. He was born in the Pułtusk district, and
was a student of the Piarist Fathers in Warsaw. In 1822 he enrolled in the medical school
at the University of Warsaw. He was the tutor of Adolph, the son of Martin Roliński, the
Dean of the School of Medicine. He did not apply himself overly to his studies, along
with his charge made merry in the Warsaw taverns, thus gaining a reputation as a
"playboy and madcap". As a result he lost his position as tutor. At the final examination
at the University, the Dean accused him of putting to death the incurable ill. Rostkowski
brought suit against his former dean for defamation of character, but the case was interrupted by the outbreak of the November uprising. At the beginning of 1831, he was a
practicing civilian physician , and then a staff doctor, and finally a division doctor of the
General Staff. He was awarded the Golden Cross Virtuti Militari. At the end of April,
1832, he reached France by way of Prussia, together with Rybiński's Corps. He settled
permanently in Paris. He made friends with Jański, and with Maurice Mochnacki, whom
he idolized. He was Mochnacki's last doctor, and was present at this death. In 1835, he
enrolled in the faculty of Medicine at the University in Montpellier, and in the following
year continued his studies in Paris. He became a drunkard, and allowed himself to be
talked into cooperation with the French police. As a result, He was boycotted by the
Polish emigration. In 1839, he was discharged by the police for abuse of alcohol. He died
in April 1840 in the Paris hospital, Le Charité, "without anyone to take care of him."
Louis Jóźwik (1808-1855) - In 1828 he enrolled in the School of Theology at the
University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising, and emigrated to Paris.
He returned to Poland and was ordained a priest. From 1847 until his death he was a
pastor in the Augustów Deanery.
The Boulogne Forest - an extensive forest and park near Paris.
Reading Room - French "cabinet de lecture". Lucy, nee Giedrojć, Raustenstrauch in My
Memoirs of France, (Kraków, 1839, p.291) described the Paris cabinets de lecture that
were well known to Jański: "There are a few of them on every larger street, and all of
them are crowded. These rooms, clean, richly decorated, lighted at night, heated in
winter, supply all sorts of newspapers and literary novelties for a small fee. A person goes
there in the morning, tired of his own lodgings, or avoiding his creditors. In the evenings
a factory worker, tired from his daily work, hurries there, hoping to learn something
about the world from the newspapers. The parsimonius miser also goes there, having
figured out that, in the winter, the cost of a candle and wood is greater than the few sous
it costs to read the papers and a few new pieces."
The brothers Anthony and Ladislaus Oleszczyński.
Anthony Oleszczyński (1794-1879) - an artist and engraver, the older brother of
Ladislaus, a sculptor. Through the efforts of Nowosilcow, he was accepted, at the cost of
the Russian government, to Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in Petersburg (1817-1824).
Next, from the Government Commission for Public Education of the Kingdom of Poland
he received a stipend for further studies in Paris (from 1825). He won medals and awards
YEAR 1832
133
French language. Rostkowski comes to see me in the evening. + A letter from
Adalbert.+
for his works. After the outbreak of the November uprising, he did not return to Poland,
but remained in Paris, where he lived until death, on rue de Cluny 5, and later on rue
Saint-Jacques 187. Since he chose to remain in France, he lost the government subsidy.
Nevertheless he refused the proposal of the Imperial Academy in Petersburg which in
1832 offered him a position as professor. He was active in the Great Emigration. In 1832
he belonged to the Polish Literary Society in Paris, and was a member of the Polish
Democratic Society. In 1832 hew published the first number of the lithographed work
"Babin in a foreign land" - one of the first polemical-satirical Polish publications in Paris.
He cooperated with the publication "Le Polonais", which appeared in Paris in the years
1833-1836. He belonged to the Polytechnic Society and the Ethnographic Society in
Paris. In 1840, he was one of seven members of the Commission of Funds for the Polish
Emigration. He collected iconographic materials pertaining to the history of Poland and
Polish arts. He prepared an album Polish Miscellany (Paris, 1832-1833), which contained
60 steel engravings with texts from the history of Poland, and he published two
catalogues to go with this album: Catalogue de l'ouvrage Variétés polonaises... (Paris,
c.1832), and Gravures par... (Paris, c.1832).
The sketches of Anthony Oleszczyński embellished various periodicals and books, e.g.
Leonard Chodźko's "La Pologne historique, littéraire, monumental et pittoresque" (Vol. IIII; 1835-1839), Clementine, nee Tański, Hoffman's New games for children (Paris,
1834), Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz's La Vieille Pologne, Album historique et poetique
(French edition of Historical Songs, Paris, 1833-1836). The steel engraving portrait of
Adam Mickiewicz, the work of Anthony Oleszczyński, based on a medallion of David
d'Angers, was frequently included in Paris editions of Mickiewicz's works, e.g. in the
second edition of Dziady, part III (1833), and in the first edition of Mr. Thaddeus (1834).
Vignettes of his graver often adorned Polish books appearing in Paris, e.g., The Works of
Ignatius Krasicki (1830), and Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz's Letter to Kniaziewicz (1834).
Ladislaus Thomas Casimir Oleszczyński (1807-1866) the brother of Anthony, a sculptor,
medal-maker, and engraver. In 1824 he enrolled in the Faculty of Fine Arts at the
University of Warsaw. In 1825, like his brother Anthony with whom he left Poland, he
received a government stipend to study medal-working in Paris. Up to 1829 he studied
sculpture at the École des Beaux-Arts, under the direction of David d'Angers, and medalmaking under N. Tiolier, the head engraver in the imperial mint. From May of 1830 he
worked in the Warsaw mint. He participated in the November uprising. At the end of
1831 he emigrated to Paris , where he lived for 25 years. He worked with various
emigrant organizations as an artist. In recognition of his merits, the Historical-Literary
Society elected him to be one of its members. He was the engraver of the Polish
emigration, producing epitaphs and monuments of its outstanding representatives. He cast
in bronze many medallions of people who fascinated him: Mickiewicz, Słowacki, Fr.
Alexander Jełowicki, Fr. Jerome Kajsiewicz. He also produced medallions of Copernicus,
the Scotsman R.C. Fergusson (1832), LaFayette (1834), and King Louis Philip I. He
made a death-mask of Hoene-Wroński. He was the author of a few articles on
contemporary art. He died in Rome. He was the most distinguished Polish sculptor of the
romantic period.
DIARY
134
Monday, May 14
The first lesson with Jóźwik. After breakfast I am l not feeling well. I
write a letter to [Adam] Jabłoński.106 I buy Gerbet's Second Conference. I go to
visit Cassini, and then to Carnot. I buy the first lessons of Jules [Lechevalier],
and receive all five for myself from Achille [Rousseau]107. I take my purchases
and gifts back home. I give Rostkowski's letter to Jabłoński. An unfortunate
meeting with Emilia. I go to rue Monsigny in order to visit Riba, but he is not
in. I go to see Mrs. Moller.108 Once again I am weak, and accept her intended
advances. I pick up letters at the Postal Exchange.109 I go to visit the
Mochnackis, and there read a dissertation about the Ukranian and Russian languages.110 After dinner I purchase a grammar for Jóźwik. I return the books to
Karwowski.111
Tuesday, [May] 15
A lesson (Rostkowski). After breakfast I drop in on Karwowski and go to
see Mrs. Levi.112 I go to Carnot for the newspapers, and for Lerminier. A
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
Adam Stephen Jabłoński (1809-1892) - In 1826 he enrolled in the faculty of law and
administration at the University of Warsaw. At the same time he studied physics in the
faculty of philosophy. He participated in the November uprising as a second lieutenant in
the 9th uhlan regiment. In France he was located in the depot at Bourges (c. April 19,
1832), and then in Aveyron near Toulouse (c. December 3, 1833). He obtained the degree
of licentiate in the School of Law at Toulouse, and settled there as a lawyer. He died in
Paris.
Achille Rousseau - a saintsimonist of the third degree (June, 1831); author or religious
hymns written for the use of co-religionists.
Further information is lacking.
At the post-office located in the great building of the Exchange (La Bourse), which was
erected in the years 1808-1827.
I was unable to determine the provenance and authorship of the treatise mentioned.
Attention should be called to the distinction between "Ukrainian" and "Russian" ["ruski"
and "rosyjski"]. The Ukrainian language pertains to the Russian territories, that is,
Volhynia, Podolia and the Ukraine, and so to countries which prior to the partitions, i.e.
before 1771, belonged to the Republic of Poland. This is the sense in which the word
"ruski" is to be understood in names of various emigrant organizations such as the
Lithuanian and Ukrainian Territories Society, or in publications such as "Memoirs of the
Lithuanian and Ukrainian Territories uprising".
In the rough drafts of Jański's letters written from Paris in June 1832 to Professor
Frederick Skarbek and Anthony Barciński (ACRR 8568, pp. 131-132), the name
"colleague Karwowski" appears. Very probably this "colleague" was Michael Martin
Karwowski (b.1809), who from 1828 studied law at the University of Warsaw, and
participated in the November uprising. After the collapse of the uprising, he emigrated to
France where he continued his legal studies.
I was unable to identify this person.
YEAR 1832
135
conversation with Hube and Kunatt, as well as with [Adam] Gurowski and
Płużański.113 I walk with Gurowski toward Cavaignac and we talk about
Ostrowski,114 Mochnacki, Rybiński115 etc. on the way to Passy.116 After dinner,
113
114
Ignatius Romuald Płużański (1803?-1879) - one of the co-founders of the Polish
Democratic Society. In 1821 he enrolled for legal studies in Warsaw. He worked as a
clerk. At the time of the November uprising, he became a member of the Patriotic
Society, and as a "fiery revolutionist" participated actively in its activities. He took part in
secret political discussions in the home of Mrs. Adam Chłędowska. With the nomination
of General Krukowiecki, he became director of the "External Police" (that is, head of the
intelligence department). He made his way through to the emigration in France. He
belonged to the Paris "Commune", which on February 18, 1832, selected him to be a
member of a commission that was to investigate the validity of the accusations against
Lelewel's Committee. Since the March 16 motion of the commission was not accepted by
Lelewel, along with the other members of the commission, Płużański ostentatiously left
the meeting place and on the following day, signed the Act of establishment (i.e. the
Manifesto) of the Polish Democratic Society. By way of parentheses, it might be added
that Płużański was co-author of the Manifesto, as well as of the first constitution of the
new organization. He worked as a member of the organization until the French police
expelled him from Paris on November 11, 1833. In the spring of 1834 he began to apply
for naturalization in France. With time he began to distance himself from the TDP [Polish
Democratic Society] and in the end, on February 5, 1835, he removed his name from the
list of members. He returned to Paris and worked as a legal adviser in cases of
bankruptcy. He was engaged in political activity as late as 1848, when he became a
member of the Polish Emigration Committee.
Josephat Boleslaus Ostrowski (Ibuś, cryptonym: B. J. C., J.B.) (1803-1871) - journalist
and political writer in the emigration. In the years 1824-1827, he studied law and
administration at the University of Warsaw. From 1830 he worked at the "Universal
Journal" of Adam Chłędowski. During the November uprising he was a member, and
then vice-president , of the Patriotic Society. Together with Maurice Mochnacki he edited
the leftist periodical "New Poland". He was interested in politics, and was in favor of
enfranchisement of the peasants. In the emigration he was first a follower of Lelewel,
together with whom he published the Manifesto of September 20, 1832. He was a
member of the Revenge of the People committee of the Carbonari. From August 1833 to
1845 he was the editor of "New Poland" in Paris with the exception of a few years due to
his expulsion from France as a result of the intervention of the Russian Embassy. With
verve and temperament, but also as a demagogue, he did not shun libel and slander,
attacking practically the entire emigration press. With the consent of French authorities he
returned to Paris from England in 1844. He accepted a job as translator in the police
prefecture, and under that guise he informed the prefect about matters pertaining to the
life of the Polish emigration. He harmed the Polish emigrants, and denounced Adam
Mickiewicz. In the 40's he entered into friendly relations with General Matthias Rybiński,
in whose name he wrote proclamations and whose name he affixed to his own pamphlets.
The author and translator of historical-literary works, he also occupied himself with
philosophy.
DIARY
136
to the Mochnackis; a discussion with Camille about the government and about
France; with Maurice about his backbiting (the first evening, not myself). + A
letter from Joseph Zawadzki.+
Wednesday, [May] 16
A lesson. After breakfast I read Gerbet's du dogme générateur.117 An
observation that my intentions were shaken by Sainte-Beuve's118 article and
relations with Carnot. To Carnot for the newspapers. After dinner to
Karwowski. A discussion with Rostkowski about revo- lutionism and
patriotism. Then to Carnot.
Thursday, [May] 17
115
116
117
118
Matthias Rybiński (1784-1874) - General of a division, the last Commander-in-Chief of
the Polish armies. In the emigration he was regarded as a representative of Poland in
relation to the French and English parliaments.
A site west of Paris, near the Bois de Boulogne, noted for its mineral springs.
Cf. 1831, footnote 59, where mention is made of the work Considérations sur le dogme
générateur et de la pieté catholique. This was translated into Polish and published under
the title A Work dealing with the dogma of the Eucharist and the Catholic piety of parents, Berlin, 1844.
It is not easy to say what kind of "intentions" Jański had in mind. If these were intentions
of breaking with saintsimonism, they may have been weakened by reading Sainte-Beuve's
article Profession de foi saint-simonienne (in "Le Globe", January 13, 1831), or that
author's Doctrine de Saint-Simon (ibid., February 13, 1831).
Charles-Augustine Sainte Beuve (1804-1869) - a French literary critic and writer. He
began studying medicine in Paris and began to work at "Le Globe", in which he published
his articles, e.g. concerning the poetry of Victor Hugo. He became a friend of the latter,
and through him was introduced to the Paris literary circle linked with romanticism. He
wrote Vie, poésies et pensées de Joseph Delorme (1829), Consolations (1830), and the
autobiographical novel Volupté (1834). He did not cease his work with "Le Globe" when
it became an organ of saintsimonism during the editorship of Pierre Leroux. "When Pierre
Leroux, faced with financial difficulties, sold the periodical to the saintsimonists I did not
leave it on that account. I continued to publish a few of my articles there. My relations
with saintsimonism, which I never renounced, were always loose and without any
obligation." Ideologically Saintsimonism did exert some influence on Sainte-Beuve.
However, he did break with the movement, alienated by the extravagances of its
followers. He drew near to the liberal Catholicism of Fr. Lamennais, but not for long. He
became acquainted with the writer George Sand, whom he met in 1833 thanks to his
friend Pierre Leroux. In the years 1837-1838, at the invitation of the university in
Lausanne, he delivered a series of lectures about Port-Royal. In this city he became
acquainted with Adam Mickiewicz. In 1840 he accepted a government position in the
Bibliothéque Mazarine. He wrote for many French publications, and gained a reputation
as an outstanding columnist and literary critic.
Carnot, Cf. 1831, footnote 46.
YEAR 1832
137
A lesson, breakfast, a few chapters from Delamennais - and now I am
writing these memoirs from Friday. Rum, and I fell asleep. After dinner to
Podczaszyński; there I meet Mochnacki and Dunin119 - plans for a Russian
society.120 Then to Rossignol. I draft plans for a confederation.121
Friday, [May] 18
After a lesson, letters to my wife, my brothers, and I began a letter to
Skarbek. Then to Carnot. I put in an order for Maciejowski from Hinrichs.122 A
walk. After dinner to Rostkowski. He shows me a letter to Szaniawski.123 To
Arcola. Puławski, Ordyniec, etc. Stupid loitering.
119
120
121
122
123
Anastasius Dunin (1802-1840) - participated in the November uprising, with the rank of
captain in the cavalry in Volhynia. He was General Dwernicki's Adjutant General. He
lived in Paris until 1836, and then moved to London. He was active among the emigrants.
He published A response to accusations brought against General Dwernicki by Charles
Różycki (London, 1838).
On December 10, 1831, upon the initiative of the brothers Caesar and Ladislaus Plater
from Vilno, and a few Lithuanians, the Lithuanian Society was established in Paris. At
the 13th session of the Society, on March 4, 1832, when fellow countrymen from
Volhynia, Podolia, and the Ukraine joined the Society its name was changed to
Lithuanian and Ukrainian Territories Society. The president of the Society was Caesar
Plater; the secretary was Leonard Chodźko, and after him Felix Wrotnowski. The most
distinguished Polish poets, Adam Mickiewicz and Julius Słowacki, were members of the
Society.
The Lithuanian Society arose as a reaction to the antipathy, and animosity, of the
Royalists toward the Lithuanians, who felt that they were looked down upon by them. It
seems that the insurgents coming from the Ukrainian Territories were treated in like
manner, and it is possible that, in spite of the existence of the Lithuanian and Ukrainian
Territories Society, they felt a need to establish a separate society bringing together
participants in the uprising from the Ukrainian Territories. It should be noted that "plans
for a Ukrainian society" were discussed within a group of people from the Ukrainian
Territories: Podczaszyński from Podolia, and Dunin from Volhynia.
I did not find a copy of the "plans for a confederation" of 1832 among the hand-written
documents of Jański preserved in the Roman Archives of the Resurrectionists.
Wacław Alexander Maciejowski (1792-1883) - historian, and professor of classical
philology from 1819, and of Roman law at the University of Warsaw. He participated in
the November uprising. He was loyal to the invaders, and so in the years 1833-1840 he
was able to hold high offices in the judiciary and administration. He won European
recognition as the author of A History of Slavic legislation. This was published in Lipsk
in the years 1832-1835, in four volumes, by a publishing firm established by Johann
Konrad Hinrichs (1763-1813).
Gerber lists among the students of the University of Warsaw Michael Szaniawski (18061840), who received the degree of Master of Law and Administration in 1828. He
participated in the November uprising as a member of the 6th Uhlan regiment.
Szaniawski became an emigrant in France, where he was sent to Châteauroux. In the
years 1833-1837 he studied in Paris in the Faculty of Medicine, achieving the degree of
Doctor of Medicine.
DIARY
138
[Saturday], May 19
173
After a lesson and breakfast, I go to Jouffroy - There is no class. I meet
Bolesław Gurowski, and in his presence I criticize the Patriotic Society. 124 To
the "Revue" for the newspapers (and a foolish proposal to Carnot about articles
which Ordyniec, or others, could provide.) A short walk near the place where
the body of Mrs. Perjer is to pass. Back home, I first write these memoirs, then
plans for an article for the "Revue" about the future of Europe and Slavic
nations.125 Camille Mochnacki pays me a mystical visit; he gives me
Leibnitz.126 After dinner to Walter for coffee. I borrow 10 francs from him.
Loitering until 11:30.
Sunday, May 20
Rostkowski comes with a request that I write a petition to the Minister of
Interior Affairs.127 After breakfast I ponder what I should write to the Poles and
124
125
126
127
The Patriotic Society, also referred to as a Club was established in Warsaw on December
1, 1830. It was dissolved on August 18, 1831. It was the most politically active segment
of the insurgent camp, and exerted a decisive influence on the central authorities in the
uprising. It initiated the call to arms to the people of Warsaw during the night of the 15th
to the 16th of August, 1831, under the banner of leadership in the uprising, energetic
leadership in the battle, and punishment for traitors. This call to arms degenerated into
lynch law (34 people were killed), and was crushed by the army.
Undoubtedly this plan was not realized. In the Roman Archives of the Resurrectionists,
all that has been preserved is a note entitled: "Concerning the future of Europe and the
Slavic people" (ACRR 8608).
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) - a German philosopher and mathematician,
organizer of scholarly life in Germany, the founder of the Academy of Science (1770) in
Berlin. In his lifetime he published Theodicy (Cf. below, footnote 240), and academic
treatises and bulletins primarily in French. Leibniz's most important works appeared after
his death: Monadologie (1720), Principes de la nature et de la grâce (1740), Nouveaux
essais sur l'entendement humain (1765). He was the author of an original philosophical
system, which not being either materialism or pantheism, presented itself as a uniform,
coherent outlook upon life. According to Leibniz, the world is a group of individuals, of
individual substance (monad), endowed with powers, which, while differing among
themselves and independent, are mutually agreeable. While studying the ideas of Leibnitz, Jański based himself on his inspiration when he was struggling with pantheism.
Aside from that he discerned in monadology fascinating messages pertaining to the role
and vocation of man as creator (Cf. below, footnote 354).
During the reign of King Louis Philip, the French banker Casimir Périer was Minister of
Interior Affairs, from 1831 directing the government. He died of cholera on May 16,
1832. After his death the portfolio of this department was taken over by a politician who
worked closely with the king, Martin-Camille Bachasson, Count of Montilivet (18011885).
YEAR 1832
139
for the "Revue". I go the "Revue" for the newspapers - I stay there too long
without necessity. I take a letter to the Mochnackis sent to my address 128, and
once again stayed there too long. I write the petition for Rostkowski to the
Minister in French. I continue my letter to Skarbek. After dinner loitering in the
passage Dauphine, and then again on rue Verneuil. I return home after ten.
Musing.
Monday, [May] 21
Jóźwik does not come. I walk briskly to the Luxembourg Gardens129 and
read "Le Temps".130 After breakfast I move on to continue correspondence,
finishing a letter to Skarbek. I think about what I am to do, and write things to
be remembered.131 After two months of illness, Benoiste comes to see me, and I
have a long talk with him. Before him I defend the Catholic theory of certainty.
I walk back home with him. After dinner I doze and then go for a walk. I go as
far as the Place du Châtelet. Then, somewhere on a side street, an awkward fall,
with which I am not pleased. To Arcola for beer. Adam Gurowski talks about
Fourier, saintsimonists and London. I promise to give Pułaski the first year of
the Exposition.132 On returning I discuss liberalism and the changes it requires
with him. Rostkowski accompanies me back home.
Tuesday, [May] 22
128
129
130
131
132
After the collapse of the November uprising, exiles did not always receive letters from
their families since these were held back by the usurping authorities. As a result,
correspondence with Poland was kept hidden with envelopes addressed to people with
foreign names, was handled through banking houses, or with the help of trustworthy
travelers.
Situated in the vicinity of the Latin Quarter, a garden with many fountains, statues and
sculptures. It was established on lands that formerly belonged to the Prince Francis
Luxembourg, purchased from him in 1612 by Queen Mary de Medici, the widow of
Henry IV.
"Le Temps, Journal du Progrés", one of the largest French newspapers - 8,500 copies in
1832-1833.
In the Roman Archives of the Congregation of the Resurrection there is a page with
Jański's notes on the topic of religion in the earlier national life of the Poles (ACRR 8568,
p.20). He made these notes on the margin of a lecture dealing with a novel by Professor
Frederick Skarbek (Cf. 1830, footnote 55) with the intention of sending him his
observations. After this he made a list of activities and his plans for work in the near
future. This note, possessing the character of "memoranda" can be found in the Appendix
under I.
This refers to the Exposition de la doctrine de Saint-Simon, a series of lectures of Bazard,
among others, from December, 1828 to August, 1829. (Cf. 1830, footnote 7).
DIARY
140
The entire lesson passed in conversation about the behavior of the Polish
generals. Rostkowski came by. I am finishing a letter to Lanckoroński.133 I go to
see Benoist. We discuss method, passion and faith. I go to Carnot for the
newspapers (I have a headache). I begin to write clear copies of the letters. After
dinner, a little nap. I take the note to the Minister to Rostkowski. A walk. To
Arcola for beer. I read [Theodore] Morawski's134 letter in the "Tribune". I talk
with Boleslaus Gurowski about him. He accompanies me, and tells me the news
from Poland about the more lenient behavior of the Russians. I return at 10:30.
133
134
Dionysius Lanckoroński - Educator. He came from a Frankish family. He studied law.
From 1809 he was a teacher in private schools in Warsaw, from 1818 in the Warsaw
Lyceum. A freemason. In the years 1824-1830, the secretary of the Council of the
Polytechnic Institute. In later years he worked in education, first as an inspector, and then
as a professor.
In the May 1 issue of the newspaper "La Tribune Politique et Littéraire" T. Morawski
published a letter to the editor of "La Tribune" criticizing Thaddeus Krępowiecki's views
on the situation and the question of enfranchisement of the peasantry in Poland. The letter
was also printed separately (Paris, 1832).
Theodore Morawski (1796-1879) - a journalist and a liberal politician, the last Minister of
Foreign Affairs for the November uprising. His family belonged to the landed aristocracy
which had settled in the region of Kalisz. He completed his studies at the School of Law
and Administration in Warsaw in 1816. As Secretary of Interior Affairs, he was a
colleague of Stanislaus Staszic. From 1818 he was co-editor of "The Daily Gazette,
National and Foreign". At that time he was known as a liberal. Because of his
participation in a patriotic demonstration, he was arrested and put in the jail that was
formerly a Carmelite monastery. Fearing repressive measures, he left for Paris, where he
wrote for the "Constitutionnel" and the "Morning Chronicle". During the November
uprising he actively supported the Polish cause in Paris. At the beginning of July, 1831,
he appeared in Warsaw, was chosen as an envoy from Kalisz, and at the end of August of
that year received the nomination as Minister of Foreign Affairs. He was an opponent of
General Skrzynecki and the Patriotic Society with which he had previously cooperated.
After resigning from his office, he left Poland and joined the emigration in Paris. He was
an opponent of Joachim Lelewel. He belonged to the Polish Emigration Committee
directed by General Joseph Dwernicki, but within a few months he resigned from the
Committee. He worked as a journalist in the French press, and engaged in polemics with
Adam Gurowski, Vincent Chełmicki, Thaddeus Krępowiecki and others. At his place of
residence on April 29, 1832, the Polish Literary Society was founded. He as an active
member of the Society. He was sympathetic to the politics of Adam Czartoryski. During
his stay in France he produced the History of the Polish Nation, (6 volumes). He was
author of Exile Conversations (Paris, 1843), in which he supported the idea of a
monarchy.
YEAR 1832
175
141
Wednesday, May 23
Jóźwik grew faint and left. I fell asleep. Rising, I get down to re-writing
and correcting the letters. Gadebled135 drops by and we talk about Gerbet,
political economy, saintsimonism, etc. I finish the letters and take them to the
main post-office. Walter comes for dinner, and comes with me to visit Jóźwik. I
meet Mr. Jakubowski136 there; wine. They walk back with me. I go to Carnot
(Sainte-Beuve, Bras,137 Lerminier, Ahrends, etc.). I return, and read Lamennais.
Thursday, [May] 24
I read Lamennais. Camille Mochnacki drops by before ten. He invites me
to breakfast, and leave his books. Stawiarski138 comes for Bazard's139
Exposition. (I have a headache). Gadebled drops in and I talk with him about
revelation and divine mediation. I go to the "Revue". Carnot and I talk about
Mr. Artaud.140 He recommends that I purchase the works of Saint-Simon at one
of the second-hand bookshops. I begin the "Revue Européenne". At home, I
begin to read articles about Swedenborg.141 I have dinner with Mr. Artaud, with
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
L. Leon Gadebled - A French geographer, statistician and educator. He was a collaborator
of the "Revue Encyclopédique" in which, like Jański, he published his reviews.
Undoubtedly Henry Jakubowski (1804-1854), a friend of John Nepomucene Janowski.
From 1824, he studied at the University of Warsaw in Faculty of Science and Fine Arts.
He participated in the November uprising, was an active member of the Patriotic Society,
and was a lieutenant in army's corps of firemen. After the collapse of the uprising, he was
an emigrant in France. In 1832 he became a member first in the Polish National Committee, and then in the Polish Democratic Society. In the years 1832-1847, he was an active
member of the latter Society, and also a member of the Centralization (1835-1838). He
wrote the first draft of the proclamation, the so-called "Great Manifesto TDP", to the
emigrant "Community". He directed the Paris branch of the Centralization, cooperated
with the "Polish Democrat" and the satirical periodical "Pszonka". He took an active part
in the life of the Polish emigration.
Bras - possibly August Lebras (Le Bras) (1816-1832), a poet and dramatist.
Undoubtedly Napoleon Ignatius Stawiarski, who as an exile became a member of the
general assembly of the Polish National Committee in Paris, and remained there until the
end of April, 1832.
Cf. above, footnote 132.
Nicolais-Louis Artaud (1794-1861) - General inspector of studies, Vice-rector of the
Paris Academy, writer and translator. He published his articles in the journal "Revue
Encyclopédique", "Courrier Français", and "Le Globe".
Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) - a Swedish mathematician, physicist, naturalist
(mineralogy), and theosophist. A member of the Academy of Science in Upsulla. At the
peak of his scientific career, at the age of 55, he abandoned it in favor of religious
activity. His plan was to reform of the Christian religion. He wrote a few theosophical
works in Latin, e.g., Arcana Coelestia (1749-1756, 8 volumes), and Vera christiana Religio seu universalis theologia novae Ecclesiae (1771). He contributed to the birth of a
new current in the bosom of contemporary pietism: "The Church of the new Jerusalem."
In his religious views he drew upon pantheism, rationalism and allegorical interpretation
DIARY
142
whom I became acquainted through Carnot. After a siesta, to Arcola. I play
cards with Dąbrowski;142 Mr. Szwejcer143 treats us to wine. Rostkowski walks
back with me. I borrow 5 francs from him.
Friday, [May] 25
I scan the "Revue Européenne". After breakfast I take the books to my
reading room, and pay for the month. I take two volumes of de Lamennais. I
return the "Revue Européenne" to Carnot. He tells me of Courtet's affair. I take
with me Péreire's144 pamphlets for Mr. Artaud. I meet Mr. Leroux. I return the
books to the Mochnackis, and there meet Mr. Barbezat,145 a friend of theirs. I
take Czyński's pamphlet, and another dealing with the Polish cause.146 Before
three I go to visit Jóźwik. I write a few requests for him (his proposal to
142
143
144
145
146
of the Sacred Scriptures, in which mystical symbolism played a large part. This did not
pass without influence upon the creativity of the romantics. The works of Swedenborg
were translated into European languages, e.g. French: Le Ciel et l'Enfer (1782), La
Nouvelle Jérusalem et sa doctrine céleste (1781), La Nouvelle Jérusalem (Paris, 18321835, 8 volumes).
There were many emigrants with the name Dąbrowski and so it is impossible to verify
which of these Jański had in mind.
Michael Szweycer, or Szwajcer (1809-1871) - In 1827, he enrolled at the University of
Warsaw, in the Faculty of Law and Administration. In October of 1830 he was put in the
Carmelite jail at Leszno, accused of belonging to conspiratorial organization, but was
freed on the first day of the November uprising. He participated in the uprising, and was a
member of the Patriotic Society. He achieved the rank of lieutenant in the first uhlan
regiment. An emigrant in Paris, he worked for French railroad companies. He was the
owner of a photography shop. In the 40's, he belonged to a Towianist Association.
Isaac Péreire (1806-1880) - a saintsimonist of the second degree (June, 1831). In 1832 he
presented a series of lectures on the topic of loans at a percentage. He published Leçons
sur l'industrie (Paris, 1832). He and his brother, Jaques-Emile (1800-1875) were French
financiers, initially stockbrokers. They accumulated a fortune building railroads. They
established the bank, Crédit mobilier.
J. Barbezat - a Paris publisher and bookseller with whom Leonard Chodźko and Michael
Podczaszyński, close friends of the Mochnackis, arranged their publications. Thanks to
the efforts of Chodźko, in 1828 Barbezat published the first two volumes of Adam Mickiewicz's Poems, and in 1829 the third volume at his own cost, "solely to satisfy the
Polish people," as he stated in the preface to this final edition. Moreover, in 1830, in one
volume, he published the Works of Ignatius Krasicki, which were prepared for
publication by Podczaszyński.
John Czyński - Cf. above, footnote 32. Czyński's "pamphlet" is undoubtedly the
document The fifteenth day of August and the judgment upon the members of the Patriotic
Society (Warsaw, 1831), which appeared in Paris in a French translation in 1832, under
the title La nuit du 15 août, 1831, Varsovie, traduction, notes et détails de J.C. Ordyniec. With regard to the "second pamphlet concerning the national cause", I was unable to
establish either the title or the author.
YEAR 1832
143
translate for Rybiński). I drink too much wine. I arrive late for dinner. I give the
pamphlet to Mr. Artaud. After dinner I begin to glance through the pamphlets I
brought with me. I go to visit Podczaszyński, and smoke a pipe. I take
Maciejowski's works from him. We go out to the passage du Commerce, I for
beer, he for whiskey. I stay there until 11:30, listening to his dissertations and
complaints.
Saturday,[May] 26
I get up quite late. Rostkowski drops by asking me to write a request to
Laffayette.147 I receive letters from Avignon and Lunel.148 After breakfast I write
the request for Rostkowski. I read Maciejowski. At three I go out to return
Maciejowski to Podczaszyński, and give Rostkowski what I had written. This is
the last day of the display of flowers - I meet Dr. Roulin149 and we go to view
the display together. After four, to Jóźwik. I share with him some of the
information from Avignon, and once again write a note to the Minister of War
for him. I meet Ostrowski. After dinner and a pipe, I go to visit Podczaszyński.
Once again I take Maciejowski - he is going to Richelieu150 to attend a dinner
for Poles. He tells me about Maurice's business in the committee151 and about
147
148
149
150
151
Marie-Joseph de La Fayette (Lafayette) (1775-1834) - a French Marquis, General, and
politician. He was a friend of Washington, and participated in the United States' War of
Independence. An advocate of constitutional monarchy. Initially he was a supporter of the
Great French Revolution, and the July revolution, commanding the national guard (1830).
He was noted for his great friendship for Poland. On January 28, 1831, he established the
Comité Central Franco-Polonais, (the Central Franco-Polish Committee).
Avignon - a city in southern France (Provence). In November of 1831, the French
Ministry of War designated Avignon as the place of rendezvous for Polish military
emigrants, establishing there the first large depot for the emigrants. In April of 1832, a
portion of the emigrants were transferred from Avignon to Lunel, a town in the Hérault
department.
François-Desiré Roulin (1794-1874) - A French naturalist. He studied medicine in Paris,
and served as a doctor in Cuvier. He worked in the library in Arsenale (1832). He
published "Annales des Sciences naturelles", and also collaborated with the "Revue des
Deux Mondes" and the "Magazine Pittoresque".
Undoubtedly this refers to a banquet held on Sunday, May 27, 1832, sponsored by the
Society for the Support of the Freedom of the Press, in honor of the political emigrants of
various countries.
Richelieu - another name for the Palais-Royal, formerly the residence of Cardinal
Richelieu, situated on the street bearing his name.
This undoubtedly refers to the negative response from the Polish National Committee to
Maurice Mochnacki's request for a two-month stipend to enable him to print a work about
the Polish revolution, The uprising of the Polish Nation in the years 1830-1831.
Mochnacki sent this request to the Committee on May 23, 1832.
DIARY
144
the knavery of Lelewel and Chodźko.152 To Arcola for coffee; Rostkowski and
Jakubowski. To Jóźwik, but he is out. For the evening papers, and then to
Arcola for beer. Rostkowski. Adam Gurowski wants to go to London on the
fifth of June, and he wants to borrow money etc. Küner from Neuchâtel,153
Janowski, etc.
Sunday, [May] 27
I get up after ten, read Maciejowski, and begin to translate Maurice's
work. Breakfast; read Maciejowski.
At about two I go to the "Revue"; it is closed. I go to the Mochnackis where I
meet Ostrowski and Lelewel. They are going to Neuilly for a dinner sponsored
by the Germans. Camille [Mochnacki] shows me his nomination to the delegation. Along the Champs-Elysées154 I continue reading Maciejowski. After
dinner, a nap. At about eight I go to visit Podczaszyński. He tells me bits and
pieces about his misfortunes, about [Louis] Królikowski. We talk about
philosophy, theology, and about good and evil in human nature. I give him a
New Testament in Polish. At ten I go to passage du Commerce for beer. At
eleven I go home and make excerpts from Maciejowski.
176
Monday, [May] 28
The laundryman wakes me up a 6:30. Meditation and writings these notes
from the day when I sent a letter to Warsaw, that is, from Wednesday, the 23rd.
Breakfast at 10:30. Adam Gurowski stops by. We talk about Czyński,
Krępowiecki, Ostrowski, London, etc., and about the affairs of the Democratic
Society.155 I write a reply to Joseph [Zawadzki] in Avignon. Benoiste drops by.
152
153
154
155
It is possible that Podczaszyński refers here to the unfavorable opinion of the adversaries
of Lelewel, who, in their judgment, treated the Polish National Committee as his own
party: "He tried to win supporters by means of private, secret, and devious endeavors,
which in the early days of the emigration became a huge stumbling-block. He tried to win
over Polish emigrants arriving in France by way of "immediate recruitment of adherents
at the station," by "picking up signatures" and touting for followers at the border (Gadon,
op. cit., p.212). As we already know, Leonard Chodźko was one of the closest co-workers
of Joachim Lelewel.
I was unable to establish the identity of this person connected with a city situated in the
western part of Switzerland.
Champs-Élysées - a wide avenue leading from the Tuilleries to the plaza where at that
time work on the Triumphal Arch was still going on. This work was finished in 1836.
Citizens of Paris were happy to go out to the Champs-Élysées to catch a breath of fresh
air, for a stroll, and to frequent the restaurants there.
Płużański, Pułaski and Janowski, aware that there was no use of collaborating with the
General Assembly and its representatives - Lelewel's Committee - for the Polish cause,
YEAR 1832
145
We talk about reasons why I do not return to Poland, and then about the
difference between a person and his work, the difference between what is
beautiful and what is good, etc. I take the letter to Joseph to the post-office. I go
to the "Revue", and glance through a few newspapers. Carnot reminds me about
the articles. After dinner a nap, coffee. I go to see Jóźwik, but he is out. I meet a
former acquaintance at Hôtel Choiseul in the passage Choiseul, and what is it
decided to join two members of the Committee, Gurowski, and Krępowiecki, in a motion
to dissolve the "General Assembly" and its Committee. The motion, presented on March
16, was defeated. "Shouted down, we left this famous Assembly on rue Taranne, and the
very next day, March 17, having everything already prepared, the five of us (Płużański,
Pułaski, I, Gurowski and Krępowiecki) established the Polish Democratic Society (J.N.
Janowski, Autobiographical Notes 1803-1853, p.368). Thus was the republicandemocratic organization established which, basing itself on internationalism, in their
"Little Manifesto" defined the role of the "solidarity of peoples", and placed "the entire
and sole hope for a rebirth and future of Poland" under their protection, and based on
their help.
In conjunction with Fergusson's motion in the English Parliament (Cf. below, footnote
247), the Democratic Society decided to send Adam Gurowski to London as their
plenipotentiary, in order to present to the members of Parliament "a protest against the
treaties from 1772-1815 that partitioned Poland." The society demanded a restoration of
the Poland before partition, and Gurowski was to step forward in the role of defender of
the integral whole of his native land.
It seems that, at Gurowski's request, Jański was preparing to write letters of recommendation to his friends and acquaintances in England, asking them to help Gurowski in his
patriotic and political activity. Płużański, Pułaski and Janowski, aware that there was no
use of collaborating with the General Assembly and its representatives - Lelewel's
Committee - for the Polish cause, decided to join two members of the Committee,
Gurowski, and Krępowiecki, in a motion to dissolve the "General Assembly" and its
Committee. The motion, presented on March 16, was defeated. "Shouted down, we left
this famous Assembly on rue Taranne, and the very next day, March 17, having
everything already prepared, the five of us (Płużański, Pułaski, I, Gurowski and
Krępowiecki) established the Polish Democratic Society (J.N. Janowski, Autobiographical Notes 1803-1853, p.368). Thus was the republican-democratic organization
established which, basing itself on internationalism, in their "Little Manifesto" defined
the role of the "solidarity of peoples", and placed "the entire and sole hope for a rebirth
and future of Poland" under their protection, and based on their help.
In conjunction with Fergusson's motion in the English Parliament (Cf. below, footnote
247), the Democratic Society decided to send Adam Gurowski to London as their
plenipotentiary, in order to present to the members of Parliament "a protest against the
treaties from 1772-1815 that partitioned Poland." The society demanded a restoration of
the Poland before partition, and Gurowski was to step forward in the role of defender of
the integral whole of his native land.
It seems that, at Gurowski's request, Jański was preparing to write letters of recommendation to his friends and acquaintances in England, asking them to help Gurowski in his
patriotic and political activity.
DIARY
146
that prompts me to a protracted conversation with her? Unfortunately, a sinful
thought.
I drop in to the Arcola. And once more a stupid loitering... etc. I return at
9:30. Heaps of work. An article for Carnot, letters to Gurowski, finish Maciejowski. I read the Bronikowski's pamphlets until twelve.
Tuesday, [May] 29
177
I get up late. My head is heavy. Breakfast after ten. I sit down to write an
article about Bronikowski. My work is interrupted by general musing. Dinner.
After dinner to Rossignol, where I meet Gurowski, Janowski and Puławski. I
borrow two francs from Rostkowski. Janowski walks back with me, and we talk
about a variety of things. Unfortunately on my way home, a fall. I get home at
eleven. I finish the article about Bronikowski's pamphlet.156 I write rough drafts
of letters to Bowring157 and Mill for Gurowski.
Wednesday, [May] 30
I get up at ten. I begin to re-write the article about Bronikowski's
pamphlet, and write the letters to London for Gurowski. To the "Revue". The
article is already too late to be included in the next number. I meet Camille, and
go with him for a whiskey - we talk about the quarrels between Bem and
Umiński.158 At home I meet Boleslaus Gurowski, and he tells me that someone
156
157
158
Cf. above, footnote 97.
John Bowring (1792-1872) - an English statesman, an expert political economist,
connected with followers of radical reforms (e.g., with J. Bentham, in 1824, he
established "The Westminster Review"). From 1832 he was a member of the English
Parliament. He traveled extensively. He published collections of folk songs, and
translation of foreign poets, e.g. Specimens of the Polish Poets (1824). He was said to
have known about 200 languages, and could speak a hundred. He nourished a great
friendship for Poland, and came to its defense in Parlilament. He was a member of the
Hull Literary Polish Association, which was established in June, 1832, as a branch of the
London society.
Joseph Bem (1794-1850) - General, and outstanding specialist in the area of artillery. In
the armies of the Kingdom of Poland he was in command of the rocket artillery. He was a
member of the Polish Freemasons. He participated in the November uprising, and distinguished himself in battles near Iganie and Ostrołęka. He was in charge of the artillery
during the assault on Warsaw. After 1831, he lived among the emigrants, associating
himself with the camp of Adam Czartoryski.
John Nepomucene Umiński (1780-1851) - A member of the Poznań landed aristocracy.
He served under the command of Joseph Henry Dąbrowski, and took part in the
Napoleonic campaigns. In 1826, he was sentenced by a Prussian tribunal for
conspiratorial activity. At the beginning of 1831 he managed to escape from prison in
order to take part in the November uprising. He allied himself politically with people
from Kalisz (Vincent and Bonaventure Niemojowski). After the fall of Warsaw he was
YEAR 1832
147
had been there and had ransacked my papers. I am angry. I go with him to see
Adam [Gurowski]. There I meet Janowski and Brawacki. I remain with them
until four. At home I read Maciejowski. After dinner, to Jóźwik. I meet Carnot
and take a walk with him. Jóźwik tells me about the dispute between
Matuszewicz and Rybiński.159 In the evening to Carnot. Mr. Artaud is there.
There is a debate between Reynaud and Jules [Lechevalier] and Considérant.160
I get back home at about eleven. (The desire to make an impression with my
position in this company thrust me into a somewhat fatuous role.)
Thursday, May 31
I rose at nine. Boleslaus [Gurowski] comes to me with a request that I
come to see him at one o'clock in order to correct an article he had written in
159
160
chosen as commander-in-chief, but was such for only one day (September 23, 1831). As
an emigrant, he lived first in France, and then in Germany.
"Undoubtedly the quarrels between the two generals were tied to misunderstandings that
arose in the Council of Polish military leaders with a rank of general, established on May
9, 1832. This Council intended to send a letter to King Louis Philip in the matter of representation of the Polish army. In connection with this, Bem disagreed with General
Sierawski, and Umiński in turn, considering himself to be the commander-in-chief, refused to sign the letter and resigned from the Council.
Vincent Matuszewicz (1801-1862) from Lithuania. He participated in the November
uprising in Lithuania, was organizer of a partisan group and carried out lightning military
operations in the battle with the Russians; as a result he was nick-named "Lightning". He
advanced to the rank of lieutenant. In the emigration in France, primarily in Paris,
initially he was a member of Lelewel's Committee. He demanded funds from French, Belgian and German committees for the needs of the emigrants, especially in order to
organize a Polish army in foreign service (French, Belgian, Spanish). He came into
conflict with General Rybiński, who regarded himself as the representative of Poland to
European Parliaments. On April 11, 1932, he headed a Committee, also called the
"lightning" Committee, protesting against supervision of emigrants by the French police.
From 1832 he belonged to a group of Carbonari in Paris. He linked himself politically
with the camp of Prince Adam Czartoryski. Mickiewicz dedicated his poem Nocleg to
Matuszewicz.
Prosper-Victor Considérant (1808-1893) - officer, politician. Fourier theoretician. During
his studies at the Polytechnic Institute in Paris he became acquainted with the teaching of
Fourier (Cf. 1831, footnote 34).
He studied it more thoroughly during the period of his service in the army. He became a
ardelt student of Fourier and together with him began to establish a school. In 1832 he
attracted the former eminent saintsimonist, Jules Lechevalier, to the school. In 1834, he
published his first important work, Destinée sociale, which was placed on the Church
index (1836), and which he continued in two further volumes (1838, 1845). He edited the
periodical "La Phalange", and then the "La Phalanstére, which he later converted into the
daily "Le Démocratie pacifique".
DIARY
148
response to the article of Ramorino.161 I remain there a good hour. I begin to
read Maciejowski. After that I took the New Testament and until dinner I read
the whole of the Gospel of St. Matthew, excerpting texts suitable for my letters.
After dinner and a nap, I go to see Jóźwik, but he is not in. To the Mochnackis.
Camille shows me letters from Avignon. With Maurice there is talk about the
Government of France. To Arcola. There I meet Boleslaus, and excuse myself
for not receiving him at one o'clock. (Umiński is angry with Adam for a remark
in the article about Skrzynecki162 - one cannot express his feelings except in
fragments - an intention to do this in the "Revue"?) - I should have been reading
Maciejowski especially, but did not do so. Letters to [Louis] Królikowski,
Burgaud and Crellin are equally urgent. I begin to write a letter to Burgaud.
178
Friday, [June] 1
Boleslaus comes to see me at nine. I correct his article in response to
Ramorino. At two I go out to the "Revue". Leroux is reading Mr. Reynaud's
article about the working classes, and representative government163 - a wish to
161
162
163
Antonio Girolamo Ramorino (1792-1849) - A Polish and Italian General, who
participated in the Napoleonic campaign of 1812. He participated in battles against the
Austrian armies for the liberation of Piedmont. On hearing the news of the November
uprising, he left for Warsaw, where he joined the military forces which initially achieved
some success. He was appointed by the National Government to be a brigadier general;
but on the field of battle he showed an incapacity for leadership, dilatoriness, and
indecision. In spite of that, he received first an appointment as general of a division, and
then as commander of the Second Corps. Contrary to the orders of the Polish commander,
he did not come to the aid of Warsaw, but turned in the direction of the Galician border,
and on September 18, 1831, he surrendered. He arrived in France on December 5 of that
year, and in that same month published in Augsburg in six installments: Der Kampf des
polonischen Volkes auf Tod und Leben, oder Polens neueste Schiksale, in historischen
Gemalden - aus den zuverlassigen Quellen gezogen. In the following year, in the
"Courrier Français" he published a letter dated May 18, 1832, in which he revealed that
he did not execute the orders he had received in September of 1831. This evoked replies
from participants in the uprising, the National Government, the army, and also Boleslaus
Gurowski.
Adam Gurowski inserted a note about General John Skrzynecki in the May 29, 1832
issue of the French periodical "Cabinet de Lecture". In it he wrote, e.g., "The invincible
Umiński. This is a General who did not surrender a single redoubt into the hands of those
who were besieging Warsaw, neither did he give them any occasion for such. "Cabinet de
Lecture", aside from being the name of a reading-room, was also the title of a fairly
widely read newspaper published in Paris from October 1829 to 1842, which included
information about the current publishing business.
Léroux is reading an article by Mr. Reynaud about the proletariate and representative
government - this article, De la nécessité d'une représentation pour les proletaires, was
published in the April issue of "Revue Encyclopédique" (Vol. 54, 1832, pp.1-20).
YEAR 1832
149
publish something as soon as possible in Polish. After dinner and a smoke, to
Walter, and then loitering on the Champs-Élysées, and meeting some girl etc.
Home at eleven. I read Czyński's pamphlet.
Saturday, [June] 2
After breakfast I begin to read St. John, and Lamennais about miracles.
At twelve I go out for Jouffroy, who speaks about ways to be happy, about
moral delight - this results in a great deal of reflection. To Cassin. To the
"Revue". Leroux and Reynaud are reading revolutionary poetry (Sylvain
Maréchal164). With Benoiste, Gadebled and Achille, talk about Mélimontant,
about former saintsimonism, etc. Before dinner I visit second-hand bookshops.
After dinner and a pipe, to Walter. There I meet Lipowski.165 I take 10 francs for
coffee. Then, at nine, to Eugenia, where I remain for the night.
179
Sunday, [June] 3
I get home at 7:30. I write these memoirs of the last two days. Fatigued, I
lie down. Rostkowski stops by asking me to write another request to Lafayette.
He is angry at Chodźko. After breakfast I go to the "Revue". Carnot is there
with de la Roche.166 From the "Revue" to Kazimirski to inquire about a
gathering of Poles at the funeral of Delamarque's167 funeral. A conversation with
164
165
166
167
Sylvain-Pierre Maréchal (1750-1803) - poet and dramatist, editor of the popular gazette
"Les Révolutions de Paris". He wrote, e.g., Jugement des rois (1792), which, in its time,
was a great success of the revolutionary theater.
This could be Joseph Lipowski (1810-1866), born in Saragossa, he was the son of an
officer of the Nadwiśle legion. He Attended the school of artillery in Strasbourg. He
worked in a foundry. Later he was a professor of mathematics in French schools.
Very probably this refers to a noted and popular French painter of the time, PaulHippolyte Delaroche, (1797-1856). He was noted for his historical paintings for which he
drew themes from the history of England and France. In 1832 he became a professor at
the École des Beaux Arts, and a member of the French Institute. The romance of
Delaroche, a widower, with Delphine Potocka (after her separation from Zygmunt
Krasiński) lasted until the sudden death of the painter. His son Horace (1836-1879) was
also a great friend of the Poles. He married the daughter of Andrew Plichta (Cf. below,
footnote 225), Casimira (1831-1900) and was one of the closest collaborators with Adam
Czartoryski.
Jean-Maximilien de Lamarque (1770-June 1, 1832) - A french Count and General in the
service of Napoleon. From 1828 a deputy of the radical left, he was strongly opposed to
the Bourbons. He contributed in no small way to the July revolution (1830). At the time
of the November uprising, he was a strong defender of the Polish cause. On the day of his
funeral, June 5, there were scuffles in the streets of Paris between republicans and the
government forces inspired by secret Carbonari associations. The scuffles were led
primarily by workers who were dissatisfied with Louis Philip's bourgeois rule. Contrary
to the will of authorities, the people wished to bury the General in the Pantheon. The
DIARY
150
Boleslaus Ostrowski, in which I support Demaistre, unnecessarily inveigh
against the liberalists, and engage in a dispute about the freedom and morality
of human actions, etc. After dinner and a nap, Maurice Mochnacki and
Podczaszyński come to see me. I lend them books, and return Maciejowski to
Michael. I go to him, while Maurice goes to Cassin - pipes and Polish songs
until eleven. I walk back with Maurice. He justifies his politics; we talk about
Boleslaus Ostrowski. Maurice urges me to translate his manuscript as soon as
possible. At home, I write a draft of the petition for Rostkowski.
Monday, June 4
180
Jóźwik comes by and returns 16 francs. A lesson. Rostkowski drops in.
After breakfast and a shave, I go out for the funeral. There is none. I meet
Lemonier168 who tells me about Cavel's affair.169 I go back with him, rue
Monsigny, and receive the permit for Benoist and Gadebled. I go to the Quai
Saint-Michel to look for Saint-Simon's works for Carnot. I do not find it in the
first store, but do so in a second store where I also find many older works about
Poland (I purchase gloves). I go to the "Revue", and give Carnot a report on my
visit to the second-hand bookshop. We talk about Cavel and Enfantin. After
dinner and a pipe, I go to visit Podczaszyński, in order to get a historicobibliographical book.170 He is not in. He is writing letters. After smoking a pipe
on his bed, I leave. I meet M.. on the rue de l"Abbaye. I go back home for
money and spend a half hour with her.
[Tuesday, June] 5
A lesson. I leave for the funeral. (I go with Kazimirski, Boleslaus
Gurowski, Puławski, Szwed,171 and Wodziński); rain and mud. Discussions on
168
169
170
171
attempt to initiate a revolution on the following day, June 6, met with bloody defeat.
Poles took part in Lamarque's funeral, among them a member of Lelewel's Committee.
As a result repressive measures were also taken against some Poles.
Charles Lemonnier (b.1806) - a saintsimonist of the second degree (June 1831). Author
of Présent et Avenir, Toulouse, 1834. He published Oeuvres choisies de C.H. de SaintSimon, précédées d'un essai sur la doctrine, Brussels, 1859, 3 volumes.
A saintsimonist of the third degree. We do not know to what the "affair of Cavel" refers.
This may refer to the "Bulletin Bibliographique... ou liste des ouvrages nouveaux publiés
en France.
Szwed - A Pole who participated in the funeral of General Lemarque. This could be John
Cantius Szwedowski (b.1808) from Poznań. In the years 1823-1828 he studied in the
Facult of Fine Arts at the University of Warsaw. He participated in the uprising of 1830
as a second lieutenant. As an emigrant in Paris, he studied under A. Groz. He exhibited
his paintings in Paris (1837 and 1846) and in Dijon (1837). He was a member of the Polish Democratic Society, and the Union.
YEAR 1832
151
Place Bastille.172 I stay there until the end - a fusillade - I return; the boulevards
are barricaded. Near the Palais-Royal I meet Jóźwik and Dzierżawski.173 We go
to dinner for 32 sous. I return home at seven, tipsy and worn out, and so I go to
sleep.
181
Wednesday, [June] 6
I get up at eight. First I go to the "Revue" (Metmann, Gadebled, Carnot,
etc.). At twelve I go to the Sorbonne174 with Gadebled, and we eat at Viot.
Along the rue de Seine and the Quay at the Pont Neuf everything is finished.
After dinner and a nap I meet Maurice. To Podczaszyński for a while, and then
to the passage du Commerce for coffee. I meet Anthony Oleszczyński, and then
Podczaszyński arrives - we talk about the Polish parties. To Carnot for the
evening (Didier175, Reynaud, Leroux, Cassin, Benoiste, etc.). I return home at
eleven. I read Czyński's pamphlet.
[Thursday, June] 7
I get up at nine. Krakowski comes to see me with the news that he is
sending his expedition to Warsaw - letters need to be written. After breakfast I
write the memoirs from Sunday. I go out, to Jenny, and sit there until three. To
the "Revue". At four to Karwowski; he is to send the letters tomorrow. After
dinner I return the books to the reading room. I do not meet Eugenia on the rue
de Verneuil. I go to Podczaszyński, and from there to the passage du Commerce
for beer. I leave at 10:30, and very foolishly loiter about on rue de Verneuil,
172
173
174
175
La Bastille - the name of a Paris castle from the 14th century, which was converted into a
state prison by Louis XIV. As a symbol of oppression, the Bastille was taken by the
people of Paris on July 14, 1789, and demolished soon after. The Place de la Bastille took
the place of the former prison.
On the day of General Lemarque's funeral, speeches were made over his coffin in the
presence of a hundred thousand people. The speakers were: General Lafayette, a
Portuguese emigrant and former Marshall Alveria Carlos Saldanha, and the "Reverend"
Boissagne, a member of the masonic lodge and a republican.
Aloysius Dzierżawski - participated in the November uprising. An emigrant in France in
1832. He took part in the army expedition to Portugal.
Sorbonne - the name derives from Robert de Sorbon, who established a theological
college in 1257. Up until the 18th century, the college fulfilled the role of a Church
tribunal. In 1806 it was reactivated by Napoleon Bonaparte as a university with four
faculties: Science, humanities, law and economy, medicine.
Undoubtedly Charles Didier (1805-1864) - a Swiss writer. Author of: Mélodies
helvétiques (1828) - lyrical works replete with "national poetry", a novel Rome
souterraine (1833), and Campagne romaine (1842). He wrote a Diary.
DIARY
152
Jacob, etc., until finally a fall on rue Dauphine 41. - Before falling asleep I
begin Barnave.176
182
Friday, [June] 8
Jóźwik and Rostkowski drop by in the morning, and we talk about
women. After breakfast Rostkowski returns we talk about the immoral
consequences of materialism. I begin to read Boulanger's Antiquité devoilée177 about the moral consequences of the flood. I read the Apocalypse of St. John. In
comparison with previous days, my mind is more spiritual and elevated. At
three to the "Revue" for the newspapers. I look at the erotic engravings from the
Neopolitan Museum. After returning home at five, I write these memoirs. After
a pipe, to Podczaszyński, to Arcola, and I roam about far and wide chasing
various bodies, and then to the passage du Commerce. Oleszczyński gives me a
report on "Babin".178
Saturday, [June] 9
Jóźwik. A letter to Adalbert [Łempicki]. Rostkowski. Vannieuvenkuy179
sen. We talk until twelve. Letters to Radomiński180 and Barciński. At 4:30 to
176
177
178
179
180
Antoine-Pierre-Joseph-Maria Barnave (1761-1793) - a politician and envoy. He was
guillotined. He wrote: An introduction to the French Revolution, drafted hurriedly. He
enjoyed well-deserved fame. His life served as an outline for the biographical novel
Barnave (1831) of the pen of Jules Janin (1804-1874), a French critic and romantic
writer.
Nicolais-Antoine Boulanger (1722-1759) - an engineer. He collaborated with the editors
of The Great French Encyclopedia, for which he wrote articles on the topic of Hebrew
culture, as well as political economy. He was fascinated by the subject of cataclysms in
nature (the biblical flood), upheavals, the end of the world, the Apocalypse, etc. In his
work L'Antiquité devoilée, he stated that in ancient religious and customs memories of a
universal flood were preserved, and moreover, that great catastrophic events are related to
specific astronomical periods.
A periodical entitled Babin in a Foreign Land was published by Anthony Oleszczyński in
May of 1832. Only one number was published.
Vannieuvenkuysen - as such in the autograph. It is a Dutch name, Gustave van
Nieuvehuysen (1812-1862), of a citizen of Brussels living in Paris. He was the author of
stage plays and opera librettos (e.g. Donizetti's La Favorita, and Rossini's Otello). His
pseudonym was Gustave Vaez. He was a saintsimonist sympathizer (he may have been
the co-author of Der Leer van Saint-Simon Ontround, Amsterdam, 1860).
John Aloysius Radomiński (1789-1864) - Initially a teacher of mathematics and physics;
later an official in the Government Commission for Religious Beliefs and Public
Education in the Kingdom of Poland. Prior to 1824 he was Bureau Chief in the Office of
Public Education, and prior 1830 he became the Head of this Office, serving as State
Official in charge of the department. He was appointed visitor of schools in the Kingdom
YEAR 1832
153
Oleszczyński. He reads me the second number of "Babin", of which I do not
approve. To Maliński. We talk about his lodgings. After dinner I accompany
Russek181, stop by to see Beaumont182 who is sitting in jail, and go to see
Podczaszyński - he is not in. At home, I read a few chapters of Barnave. Sad, I
go out to passage du Commerce, and wait until eleven for my faintness to pass.
Sunday, [June] 10
Early in the morning Rostkowski drops by and tells me more about his
own adventures, and those with Adolphine. I rewrite letters. Maliński comes
along. At eleven I take the letters to Karwowski, and go to the "Revue". At one
o'clock I go to visit Jóźwik (a great revue and an excellent dinner). At four we
go out to the toll-gate and to Montaignes Françaises. We discuss adultery. There
is still punch at Jóźwik's. Rostkowski tells me about various thefts by our
bigwigs. I go home at twelve and write these memoirs.
Monday, June 11
The laundress comes, and I forget about my philosophy of yesterday.
Before eight I go out to visit Maurice. He tells me about his plans to sell. After I
return, breakfast, and I write a letter to Maurice - I am very irritated.183 I decide
to room together with Maliński, and to live, as far as possible, very frugally. I
go to the "Revue". At about four I take the letter to Maurice, and meet Miss
Zoe. After dinner and a nap, to passage du Commerce, where I engage in a
181
182
183
of Poland. He was the author of the manual The Principles of Arithmetic (Warsaw, 1821,
1827 ...) and of various other publications.
Anthony Barciński - Cf. 1830, footnote 9.
In the Roman Archives of the Congregation of the Resurrection draft copies of Jański's
letters to the above-mentioned individuals have been preserved (ACRR 8568, pp.131133).
In the Polish Library in Paris, in the file prepared by John Bartkowski, among others,
there is a list of the Poles who died in the emigration (1832-1923). Lawrence Russek is
listed as having died in Paris on May 15, 1891.
Gustave de la Bonniniére de Beaumont (1802-1866) - Lafayette's nephew. On orders
from the government, he traveled to North America in 1831 in order to study the
conditions of prison management there. In 1832 he published Note sur le systéme
pénitentiaire, along with Alexis de Tocqueville's Traité du systéme pénitentiaire aux
États-Unis et de son application á la France, (Paris, 1832), and other works. They
enjoyed recognition, received awards, and were translated.
The rough draft of Jański's letter dated June 11, 1832 is preserved in ACRR 8599,
pp.165-166. At the urging of Maurice Mochnacki, Jański undertook the translation of the
latter's hand-written text dealing with The Uprising of the Polish Nation. Poverty and the
need for money to pay for translation and printing, caused Mochnacki to begin to
consider the sale of his book.
DIARY
154
philosophical-religious discussion with Anthony Oleszczyński until eleven. I
feel strong, and wish to write something for the Poles as soon as possible.
Tuesday, [June] 12
183
A lesson with Jóźwik. Rostkowski sends me to Cassin with a bond Cassin is not in. I go to Karwowski to say good-bye. He invites me to drop by
tomorrow evening. I return to Cassin. He refuses both me and Rostkowski. I go
to see Jóźwik at 3:30, and meet Szostakowski.184 I borrow 50 francs from
Jóźwik. After dinner I give the money to the landlord, but he complains that it is
too little. After a nap I go to see Walter. Because of a heavy rain, I stay there
until eleven. After I return I read Barnave.
Wednesday, [June] 13
Jóźwik. Rostkowski tells us about Pajol's decree concerning foreigners.185
Because of my bruised leg I do not go out. I read Kock186 and reflect upon my
past in the light of my age - I still felt young. I spent a few hours talking with
Rostkowski, and about my wife. After dinner I go to visit Karwowski. Punch,
Polish songs and Rostkowski's and Raciborski's187 sterile jokes. I return after
eleven. Podczaszyński's reproaches for the letter to Maurice.
Thursday, [June] 14
184
185
186
187
Undoubtedly John Szostakowski (1782-1836) - an official of the Warsaw Treasury
Commission, participated in the uprising as a captain, an official of the military police.
Together with his wife and two children he reached France, and arrived in Paris in
February, 1832.
Claude-Pierre Pajol (1772-1844) - a French General and Peer of France, a Napoleonic
veteran. He notified Roman Sołtyk that "forty Poles in Paris will be exiled" (he cited
Lelewel), and he prepared ordinances in the matter of recruiting emigrants for the foreign
legion.
Paul de Kock (1794-1871) - son of a Dutch banker who was killed in course of the
French Revolution. He began to write when he was 17 years old and demonstrated
writing talents. He became a popular romantic writer whose novels were translated into
German. He was famous for his coarse jokes, enjoyed by contemporary members of the
lower class.
Adam Raciborski (1810-1871) - a colleague of Theodore Rostkowski. From 1827 he
studied medicine at the University of Warsaw. During the November uprising, as a 4th
year student, he became a battalion doctor in the 4th infantry regiment. From February
1832 he lived as an emigrant in France, first in Besançon where, in the time of the cholera
epidemic, he provided active medical assistance, and then in Paris, where he enrolled in
the school of medicine in Feburary of 1833. In the following year he obtained his diploma
as doctor of medicine. He practiced medicine in Paris, and in 1838 he became the director
of the university clinic at the La Charité hospital. He was author of scientific works,
written and printed in French, and translated into other European languages. Later he was
secretary of the Society of Polish Doctors in Paris.
YEAR 1832
155
I write the above memoirs. At twelve I go out, first to my Mrs Bourgeois with regard to shoes, and then to the prefect of police. I meet the
Kołyskos.189 Seeing the Poles, and the conceit of some ignoramuses, as always,
I have the urge to write something as soon as possible. At 1:15 they are
dispatched with bonds for 2 days. To the "Revue". A short conversation with
Leroux about orientalism and Christianity. I take my number.190 Before three I
go to Jóźwik. Rue Monsigny. I take a few books, and then to Gauthier. I
commission him to make me a few pairs of pants. To Maliński, hôtel Boston he is not in. When I return home I glance through the books I brought, and the
"Revue". After dinner and a pipe I go to Benoiste - he is not in. To Maliński,
hôtel du Nord - he is not in. For beer to passage du Commerce. I leave at ten.
Once again, even less necessary, I wait for my weakness. After returning I sit,
lost in reverie.
188
Friday, [June] 15
Maliński drops by at seven. We talk about living together etc. I write
yesterday's memoirs. Rostkowski and Stoltzman191 come to see me, asking me
to write a petition to King [Louis Philip] for the latter. About two o'clock I go to
the "Revue". I meet Pecqueur192 there. He corrects what I had written. Benoiste
comes in (he had been to my place to find out whether I had received the
residential permit) together with Leorux - we talk about Fourierism. After
returning home I rewrite the petition for Stoltzman. After dinner and a pipe, to
188
189
190
191
192
A popular, jocose description of the French middle class (bourgeois).
In 1832 there were at least three Kołyskos living in Paris. Two of them were envoys:
Adam (1796-1870), one of the leaders of the Wiłkomirski uprising, and Lubart; the third,
Jarosław from Vilno, was a second lieutenant of the mounted riflemen of the 6th
regiment. Adam and Jarosław were members of the Lithuanian and Ukrainian Territories
Society (present at the meeting on September 10, 1832).
Cf. above, footnote 97.
Charles Bogumił Stoltzman (Sztolcman) (1793-1854) - a native of Warsaw. He entered
military service in 1810. Before that he belonged to conspiratorial organizations. He
participated in the November uprising as a Lieutenant Colonel. After the surrender of
Warsaw he emigrated to France. He lived in Besançon where he became a member of the
Carbonari. He negotiated with German revolutionists and participated in the abortive
expedition (April 5, 1833) to Frankfurt am Main, the capital of the German Coalition, to
offer armed assistance to the French revolutionists fighting for German freedom. By the
Poles who were living in Switzerland after that expedition he was chosen Chief-of-Staff
of the "Holy Detachment" with its seat in Bienne. He was a writer and speaker, as well as
an active member of Young Poland, Joachim Lelewel's Union of the Polish Emigration in
Belgium and England, and the Polish Democratic Society.
Constantin Pecqueur (1801-1887) - a saintsimonist of the third degree (June, 1831), and
later an apostle of his own system of Christian socialism.
DIARY
156
Rostkowski. He tells me about his duel,193 but refuses to loan me money. We go
to Arcola. I meet Boleslaus [Gurowski]. He loans me 5 francs, shows me letters
from [his brother] Adam, and tells me that he has broken off with the democrats
- their criticism. I return home at about eleven, and continue to write the - short
- memoirs of my past, from my childhood, year by year.194
Saturday, [June] 16
171
I get up at nine. Karwowski drops in to say good-bye. I receive a foolish
letter from Joseph Zawadzki. At about twelve I go to see [Joseph] Hube. He
reads me his dissertation on democracy and aristocracy. I offer him a few
remarks on the his work. He suggests that I become a member of their Literary
Society.195 I reject the offer (I have a headache). At five I go to visit
Zdzienicki.196 After dinner to Luxembourg.197 I meet Ernest Cazeaux198 and go
to his place; Briard199, young Barrault.200 To passage du Commerce. At 10:30 I
leave and loiter about - back home. I read Reynaud's article about the
representation of the proletariate - and a fall.
Sunday, [June] 17
I get up at nine. I am disturbed by yesterday's fall. Much reflection on
what I could have done in my recent past (?). I write these memoirs.
I receive a letter from Lanckoroński. I go to Hube for my umbrella - he is
not in. To [Anthony] Oleszczyński. He tells me about Szyrma's letter from
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
I was unable to obtain further information about this duel. At that time the Polish
emigrants engaged in duels often, and for all sorts of stupid reasons.
In the Appendix under II, Jański noted Some brief memoirs of my past. Cf. below,
footnote 361.
This refers to the Polish Literary Society, established on April 29, 1832. Cf. below,
footnote 330.
Charles Zdziennicki (d.1860) - from 1808 he served in the Banks of the Vistula Legion.
He participated in the Napoleonic campaign. He remained in Paris and maintained
himself as a tailor.
A place in Prais in the reign of Louis Philip, the seat of the Senate. It was built in first
half of the 17th century, on the orders of Maria de Medici, by Salomon Brosse, who
modelled it on Florentine buildings, especially the Pitti Palace in Florence, the Queen's
place of origin.
Ernest Cazeaux - a saintsimonist of the third degree (June, 1831). With Charton, copublisher of "Magazine Pittoresque".
Briard - further information is lacking.
Alexis Barrault (1812-1865) - an engineer, a specialist in metallurgy. His older brother
was Émile Barrault (1789-1869), member of the saintsimonist college, collaborator at the
"Globe" and teacher in Talbot Hall.
YEAR 1832
157
London.201 To the "Revue". I read the newspapers. I meet Lelewel, who
proposes that I translate his work, and complains about the aristocrats. To
Jóźwik - he is not in. I return home at 4:30. After dinner I read Barnave.
186
Monday, [June] 18
Jóźwik until 11:30. I return books to the Reading Room, and discontinue
my subscription. To the "Revue" for the newspapers. I talk with Carnot about
Reynaud's article. To Boleslaus with the letter I received from Adam - he is not
in. To [Theodore] Morawski - he is not in. I return to Boleslaus. Heine202 drops
in. It is already three. A conversation and a walk until five. We have dinner
201
202
Krystyn Lach-Szyrma (1791-1866) - writer and political activist. After studies at the
University of Vilno, for a few years he joined the house of Czartoryski, where he resided
as tutor for Prince Adam Czartoryski's son Constantine. He travelled with his charge
through France and England. In the years 182-1823 he lived in Edinburgh, studying
philosophy and political economy. In 1824 he became a professor of philosophy at the
University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising. After its collapse he
emigrated to England and lived there. He carried on a lively political and social activity,
published many articles in the English press, and also in the Polish press as a
correspondent for "Czas" (Time), and the "Warsaw Gazette". He was the secretary of the
Literary Association of the Friends of Poland.
Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) - A German poet, prose writer and essayist. He was Jewish
by birth. He became a protestant for opportunistic reasons. Before arriving in Paris from
Germany in 1831, he was already a recognized poet, and author of A Book of Songs
(1827) - one of the most famous collections of German lyrical poetry - as well as Pictures
from travels (4 volumes, 1826-1831) - the fruit of his travels through Germany, England
and Italy. He was a master of moods, wit and irony, a polemicist and satirist. He
manifested enthusiasm for the July Revolution. Disappointed with the social and political
situation in his country, he decided to move to Paris, where he took up permanent
residence. He became a friend of the saintsimonists, studied their publications, the
"Globe" and the "Observer", and became a friend of their leader Enfantin. He accepted
the ideas of The New Christianity and the views of Hegel as a foundation for his own
philosophy of life. He spoke out in favor of rehabilitation of matter, the human body, and
equal rights for women. He maintained a chronicle of contemporary cultural events
(Salon, 1833-1840). In his publications he attacked the clergy as the support of
despotism, the aristocracy, the bourgeoisie, the Metternich reaction, and middle-class
narrow-mindedness. He also favored the freedom of peoples, arousing political
consciousness for romantic literature, whose "impracticability" he criticized severely. He
lived and created amid very difficult material conditions. As a result, from 1835 he
received a pension from the French government, the government which he criticized so
severely. He was an atheist, and toward the end of his life became a deist. He became
acquainted with Theodore Morawski and Eugene Breza, who back in the university years
in Berlin invited him to his estate in Great Poland - the result of this trip was an essay On
Poland (1823).
DIARY
158
together, along with Dondorf203 and Mr. Nisart.204 With Boleslaus for coffee. I
meet Wieszczycki and Zenon [Świętosławski]205 - ice-cream and maraschino (a
liqueur made from Dalmatian cherries]. To Arcola. A conversation with
Boleslaus about domestic service and with Zenon about democracy. Home at
eleven.
Tuesday, [June] 19
I am not happy with the conversation I had yesterday with Heine. It dealt
with liberalism, the rights of man, Poland, the third estate, saintsimonism, etc.
There was not enough force in my thoughts, and a lack of feeling for his
position. Rostkowski drops by, and tells me about Chodźko's fears connected
with a duel.206 After breakfast, at eleven, these memoirs. At the Lerminier
lecture. He talked about Fréret,207 Boulanger, Dupuis,208 and Reynal.209 With
Boleslaus [Gurowski] for the military trials. To the "Revue". Dinner at home.210
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
Dondorf - Further information is lacking.
Undoubtedly Jean Desiré Nisard (1806-1888) - a French historian of literature and
literary critic - his brother, Charles Nisard (1808-1889) was also a historian of literature.
Rudolph Wieszczycki (1796-1838) - an envoy from Gostyń; participated in the
November uprising. He came to France in February of 1832. He became a member of
Lelewel's Committee. He committed suicide.
Zenon Boleslaus Świętosławski (1811-1875) - in 1830 he enrolled in the Faculty of Law
at the University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising, and belonged to
the Patriotic Society. In Paris he was a member of Lelewel's Committee. Later he joined
the Polish Democratic Society, but withdrew in 1833 in order to take advantage of
Zaliwski's expedition, and return to Poland. After the failure of the expedition he lived in
London.
The reason for the duel, undoubtedly with Leonard Chodźko as a participant, is unknown.
Cf. above, footnote 193.
Nicolas Fréret (1688-1749) - A French writer, lawyer, member of the Literary Academy.
He dealt with the chronology and history of ancient peoples. From 1742 until his death he
was secretary of the Academy. He was one of the first to admit openly that he was an
atheist. He worked at describing atheism as a system. His collected works were
published, in 20 volumes, in Paris at the end of the 18th century, and again in 1825 also
in 20 volumes.
Charles-François Dupuis (1742-1809) - A priest, scholar, professor of rhetoric at Collége
de France, a member of the Academy. Author, e.g., of the work Origines de tous les
cultes ou religion universelle (begun in 1794, 7 volumes), in which he explains myths and
religions as astronomical and physical allegories. He developed the same idea also in his
later works, e.g., Mémoire explicatif du zodiaque chronologique et mythologique (1806).
Reynal - an unknown person.
Here there is a break in the Diary. Cf. below, footnote 221.
YEAR 1832
187
159
Wednesday, [June] 20
Breakfast at home. As I was leaving I received a letter from Mr. Mé211
cou. The "Revue". The whole day was sad. Dinner at rue Saint-André. After
dinner a talk with Płużański. I refute his negative and terroristic liberalism. We
go to Arcola for a while, then to passage du Commerce. He accompanies me to
Carnot after nine. I find a letter from Rochette212 - After a while I leave with
Bronikowski.
Thursday, [June] 21
Walter asks me to go to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in order to receive
legalization for Kozakowski.213 +I promise.+ I go to Viot for breakfast. I come
back home; I am worn out and think about dinner - and I go to sleep. At about
three I go to the "Revue". To Kunatt - he is not in. I leave a note. At four to the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. I meet Cavel and Tański.214 At five I am at Arcola. I
obtain three francs from Zenon [Świętosławski]. I pay for two dinners at rue
Saint-André des Arts,215 and smoke the tobacco I brought with me. +Boleslaus
is surprised.+ With Rostkowski and Stolzman to passage du Commerce. I pay
for the beer. On my return - whiskey.
Friday, [June] 22
Jóźwik. Walter stops by for information about the resolution. I do not
agree to go a second time to take care of his business. I leave at eleven, a demitasse for breakfast. To the "Revue". I talk with Carnot about my poverty (he is
211
212
213
214
215
Landlord of a house on rue des Marais Saint-Germain 3 in Paris. Jański rented a room in
his house.
Raoul-Désirée Rochette (1789-1854) - A French archeologist and journalist, later a
collaborator with the "Université Catholique".
Undoubtedly Francis Kozakowski, a lieutenant living in Paris in 1832. Legally he had the
right to live in the capitol of France. Except for a few, arrival and residence in Paris was
forbidden to Polish exiles. In order to live in Paris, an exile needed to obtain a permis de
séjour, a residence permit.
Joseph Victor Tański (1805-1888) - from Płock. He participated in the November
uprising, and later was an emigrant in France. He resided in Paris in the years 1832 and
1833. He studied at the school of the French Staff. He served in the Foreign Legion in
Algeria and Spain. He was editor of the "Journal de Débats".
The Winiarska cook-shop, located on rue Saint-André-des-Arts, was managed by the wife
of Francis Guilbert-Danielle, a former French teacher at the Piarist school on the Długa
ulica in Warsaw. It enjoyed popularity among the Polish emigrants. J.N. Janowski in his
Autobiographical Notes 1803-1854 states: "At that time I was living at rue St. André-desArts, at the house of a so-called Polish woman, nee Winiarska, who was born in Prague,
the wife of Guilbert-Danielle [...] For many years this woman provided meals for the
emigrants, and also afforded rooms for some." (pp.390-391).
DIARY
160
quite cold; I declare that I am not asking anything from the "Revue"). Gadebled
corrects my article about Bronikowski. I borrow Herder216 from Kunatt - an
unnecessarily too lengthy discussion about freedom and necessity. I leave with
Benoiste. I tell me about my poverty. He reacts very affectionately. Dinner at
Saint-André. Ordyniec. We read the poems (?) of Praniewicz217 After dinner I
criticize the principles and behavior of our democrats. I go to visit Podczaszyński, and meet Stoltzman there. We go to passage du Commerce to play
dominoes. I pay. Rostkowski drops in. I go home at eleven.
Saturday, [June] 23
188
Rostkowski drops by early in the morning asking me to write a second
request to the Minister. I promise to do so. I receive a letter from my wife and
one from [my brother] Stephen; I am delighted. To Steinhauser for breakfast on
credit. I return Herder to rue Monsigny (Pin,218 Fournel, Chabannais219 about
the dissolution of Ménilmontant). To Lerminier's lecture. He speaks of the
216
217
218
219
Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) - A versatile German theoretical scholar, poet,
and philosopher Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Pressure"). He dealt with the philosophy
of language, literary criticism and aesthetics. In his philosophical views he accepted
pantheism, and understood the history of mankind as an expression of the evolution of
nature, an evolution which makes progress of the intellect and justice possible. He
presented his basic views in Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (Ideas
concerning a philosophy of human history) which he published in the years 1784-1791.
One of the chapters in this book is dedicated to Slavic themes. This chapter constitutes a
kind of manifesto for national movements of liberation among the Slavic nations in the
first half of the 19th century. Herder rendered a service to the cause of awakening interest
in the creativity of peoples.
Thomas Praniewicz (1793-1869) - A priest and poet. Thanks to his knowledge of
languages, he was sent to America as a missionary by the Vilno Chapter. Along the way,
however, he stopped in France, and from 1822 he lived in Paris, performing pastoral
duties, e.g., on the Island of Saint-Louis. From 1832 he worked among the Polish
emigrants arriving in Paris after the November uprising. He was the "court chaplain of the
Czartoryskis". He was co-organizer of Polish Women's Welfare Society. He became a
naturalized citizen of France, and worked as a priest in Paris.
He was recognized among the Polish emigrants as the author of many panegyrics in
honor of individuals, and also on the occasion of meetings that took place, often
providing accompaniment of music on the piano. He published these ornately at his own
cost. In remembering Praniewicz, Louis Rettel wrote: "He showered incense on people
with artistic skill, without any trace of even the least self-interest. He neither recognized
nor desired acclamation even of those whose heroic acts were extolled by him, composed
not only in verse, but also in music." ("Annuals of the Historical-Literary Society in
Paris", 1869, pp. 289-290).
Pin - a saintsimonist of the third degree (June, 1831).
Chabannais - Presumably a saintsimonist, but further information is lacking.
YEAR 1832
161
beginning of the Prussian monarchy. After the lecture Boleslaus invites me to a
reception at Arcola. I speak with Kunatt unnecessarily about plans for a
testimonial from Plater. To the "Revue" (Leroux, Charton,220 Reynaud about
Ménilmontant, politics in France, poetry, and sculpture - about fraternities,
groups - about astronomy). I leave with Benoiste, and he gives me 20 francs. At
dinner I speak with Płużański about the foreignness of his opinions, both
aristocratic and French-constitutional, and about the breed of civil servants. To
Podczaszyński, Rostkowski, Stoltzman - talk about a Polish newspaper.
Chodźko drops in. I try to reconcile them, but formalities are an obstacle. We
set a rendezvous for tomorrow at one for this purpose. I go out to Arcola, where
I meet Bronikowski. We talk about the Literary Society. I agree to become a
member. I wait until ten for Boleslaus [Gurowski]; he does not come. On my
way back, rain. To Eugenia for the night - I am still strong.
189
Sunday, [June] 24
I get up before eight and go home. I have a few francs in my pocket, my
ill humor has been dissipated during the night, and my mind has recovered
somewhat, for it had been depressed the last several days. I am writing my
memoirs from Tuesday221 on a separate piece of paper. Rostkowski drops in. I
have not yet written his request, but I promise him that I will get down to it.
Lalouette222 comes to see me (I give him the address to the "Revue", Courtet is
to come to Paris). I go to Viot for breakfast. I meet [Theophile] Kwiatkowski,223
who begins to tell me about his happy life in Warsaw. Per force he pays for me,
and later even for a demi-tasse at passage du Commerce. Together we go to visit
220
Edouard-Thomas Charton (1807-1890) - a French politician and journalist; a lawyer. He
was a saintsimonist of the second degree, and as such offered lectures for an audience. He
was an adversary of Father Enfantin. He was linked with Hippolyte Carnot and Jean Reynaud by bonds of friendship and work together. He was the author of Mémoire d'un
prédicateur saint-simonien (1832). He published articles in the "Magazine Pittoresque".
221
I am writing these memoirs from Tuesday on a separate piece of paper. This "piece of
paper" has been preserved in the form of a page with writing on both sides (ACRR 8627,
pp.161-162). Notes on these pages, dealing with occupations and friendly meetings, span
a period from (Tuesday) the 19th to (Saturday) the 23rd of June, as well as (Monday and
Tuesday) the 25th and 26th of June. After a break in keeping his Diary, Jański returned to
it on (Wednesday) June 27, making use of the notes made on this "piece of paper",
developing them and bringing them to a final version. The initial version was omitted in
this publication; only some of the words not included in the final version were noted here,
indicating them by the + signs.
222
Lalouette - Cf. above, footnote 85.
223
Theophile Kwiatkowski - Cf. 1828, Private Diary, footnote 2.
DIARY
162
Kunatt. I withdraw the demand I made yesterday that he understand Plater
accurately. Sarnecki.224
To the "Revue" where I read Morawski's letter in the "Tribune". I go to
visit Morawski. There I meet Plichta,225 Umiński and Olszowski. They leave.
There is a second discussion about parties in Poland, various revolutionary
incidents, Skrzynecki, [Louis] Plater, Ramorin, etc., and about our democrats.
He invites me to join the Literary Society. He promises to give me a reply to my
demands within four days. I reject plans to visit Mélimontant as a waste of time.
Dinner at rue des Boucheries for 32 sous. After dinner, having decided to
change lodgings, I go to see Maliński in order to come to an understanding with
him about this. We go out together for beer at passage du Commerce. I go home
at ten.
Monday, [June] 25
190
226
A lesson. At eleven Szlesynger comes by and leaves with Jóźwik. I
write the petition for Rostkowski. He comes to get it. I go to passage du
Commerce for breakfast. To the "Revue" with hope. There I meet Bronikowski.
224
225
226
Fabian Sarnecki (1800-1894) - A Polish painter, lithographer, copyist and conserver. He
was a native of Kalisz. From 1825 he studied in Berlin, and from 1828 to 1837 in Paris
with Antoine Gros, a French artist, a professor at the École des Beaux Arts. He was a
member of the Academic Society of Polish Exiles in Paris (from December, 1831) and to
Lelewel's Committee. In 1837 he moved to Italy, residing in Rome from 1840. In that
year, before Jański's death, he painted his portrait in oils at the request of his brothers. In
a letter to Adam Mickiewicz dated May 22, 1840, Jerome Kajsiewicz wrote: "We
approached him [Jański] in such a way that he permitted Sarnecki, a former acquaintance,
to paint his portrait [...] and he did so very accurately." That portrait was preserved in the
Roman house of the Congregation of the Resurrection. In 1840 Sarnecki returned to
Poland and settled in Poznań. Toward the end of his life he became blind. He died in
Poznań.
Andrew Plichta (1797-1866) - a lawyer (he studied in Warsaw), journalist, secretary of
the State Council of the Kingdom of Poland, a member of the secret Patriotic Society. He
was involved in the conspiracy of Valerian Łukasiński, was arrested and sent to jail
(1825-1829). During the November uprising he was secretary of the National
Government. He served in the army as a simple soldier. An emigrant in France, he came
to Paris on October 24, 1831. He was co-founder and secretary of the Literary Society in
Paris. He worked closely with Adam Czartoryski. Taking a stand against the politics of
Lelewel's Committee, on September 5, 1832, together with 39 emigrants, he resigned
from the Paris "Community". Cf. below, footnote 320.
Undoubtedly Joseph Szlesynger (Szlesinger, properly Schlesinger) - a Doctor,
participated in the November uprising. He resided in Paris as an emigrant (1832-1833).
YEAR 1832
163
We skim through "Literatur Zeitung" from Leipzig and Halle.227 Carnot quietly
writes letters. Having lost hope, I decide to write a letter to Mr. Mécou with
excuses concerning the dead-line. I go for a walk in the Tuileries.228 On my way
back I meet Hłuśniewicz.229 I walk back home with him, disappointed once
again in this hope, since he has no money. I meet Hube and Oleszczyński - we
make plans to go to Chateauroux.230 Dinner at Viot at 2:30 - demi-tasse at the
passage. To Rostkowski; smoke a pipe with him lying in bed. He says that
Umiński told him that he recognized me yesterday etc. (unnecessarily I
immediately tell him about my affairs - I tell him about the Literary Society).
Unnecessarily I tell him too much about my marriage, my past, and especially
about my relationship with Jaroszyński.231 I step in to see Podczaszyński, and
make apologies to Mochnacki. I am totally silent. Stolzman and Bronikowski.
To Oleszczyński. I browse through his collection, and scan Święcki's treatises
concerning Polish scholars at the time of the Jagellonians;232 His concubine
arrives. At nine we go out for beer; I go home at ten.
227
228
229
230
231
232
The newspaper "Intelligenzblatt der Allgemeinen Literatur-Zeitung" in the years 17871849. The paper was published first in Jena, then in Halle and Leipzig; supplement
"Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung".
Tuileries - a royal garden near the Louvre. It was created at the behest of Catherine de
Medici in 1554 on the spot of a middle-age public refuse heap where later kilns to bake
roofing tiles (tuileries) were located.
Anthony Hłuszniewicz (1793-1861) - Studied medicine at the University of Vilno,
completing the course there in 1822. At the time of the November uprising, he worked as
a doctor in army hospitals. He was an envoy to the Sejm. As an emigrant in France he
was an active member of Lelewel's Polish National Committee, the Lithuanian and
Ukrainian Territories Society, and also the Society of Friends of Progress (as treasurer,
Cf. 1831, footnote 54). He became a member of the Polish Democratic Society, and later
of the Polish Emigrant Union. He settled in Versailles. He was generous in his services to
the Polish emigrants. Later he served as a doctor at the Polish School in Batignolles, and
vice-president of the Society of Polish Doctors in Paris.
Châteauroux - a town in the Indre department. In the spring of 1832, French authorities
established a depot there for civilian participants of the Polish uprising, non-military
emigrants. Among the latter were a number of students from the Universities of Warsaw
and Kraków, later from the University of Vilno, even a few from Wrocław. At the request
of the leaders of the Polish emigration, the French government agreed to allow students,
whose studies were interrupted by reason of the uprising to continue their studies in
French institutions (Cf. R. Bielecki, A Sketch of the dispersion of the Great Emigration in
France 1831-1837. The Materials were drawn from French archives, op. cit. pp.27-29).
Henry Jaroszyński - Cf. 1830, footnote 35.
Thomas Święcki (1774-1837) - historian, geographer and heraldist; from 1818 a member
of the Society of the Friends of Learning in Warsaw. Author of A Treatise including
memoirs concerning famous scholars in Poland at the time of the reign of the Jagellonian
House, published in "The Annual of the Warsaw Society of the Friends of Learning",
Vol. 19, 1827.
DIARY
164
Tuesday, [June] 26
191
Jóźwik. After the lesson to passage du Commerce. I run into RoyerCollard, but do not have the courage to greet him (?). I meet Podczaszyński
having coffee. He reads me plans for his newspaper. I accompany him to the
committee. We find no one there. I go back home for a while, and then go out
for Lerminier. His lecture is about Frederick the Great.233 Ostrowski [Boleslaus]
wants to visit me. I refuse to allow him to come even for a moment. Boleslaus
[Gurowski] shows me Adam's response from London concerning Morawski's
article. In the Reading Room I reprove him severely. We meet Huguet,234 who
begins to point out some errors in that article. He speaks to me of Mélimontant that they are once again materially solvent; Petit was to have accepted the
apostolate completely.235 I write a polite letter to Mr. Mécou, and at five I go out
for dinner to Steinhauser. After a demi-tasse, I accompany Stolzman to the
Mochnackis. Camille and Stolzman have received an order to leave Paris. 236 I
go out at about seven to visit Jóźwik. We go for a walk to the Champs-Élysées.
Jóźwik shows talent in ascetical matters. Punch after we return. He goes back
with me at ten (in conversation with him I was more jovial than serious, while
he was a sentimental ascetic). On my return home I write an article about
Wołowski's237 pamphlet. I go to bed at one.
Wednesday, [June] 27
I get up at nine. Already in bed I am thinking about my mistakes in recent
days, about my weakness, about engaging in some work and showing energy. I
am finishing additional notes for the article concerning Bronikowski's
233
234
235
236
237
Frederick II Hohenzollern, called The Great (1712-1786), the King of Prussia from 1740,
who initiated the first partition. He was a representative of enlightened absolutism.
Huguet - a saintsimonist of the third degree (June 1831). His name also appears in
Jański's list of saintsimonists.
Alexis Petit - a saintsimonist; he carried on correspondence with Michael Chevalier,
Enfantin and Marie-Jerome-Henri Fournel. After some time he accepted the Catholic
faith, entered a seminary, and was ordained a priest. (Cf. 1838, footnote 225).
In connection with events, for which the pretext was the funeral of General Lamarque, the
French authorities proclaimed a state of siege, and consequently expelled from the capitol
those Polish emigrants who they considered especially dangerous. According to the
words of Camille Mochnacki: "Without becoming involved in any reasons or
explanations, the government ordered many emigrants to leave, among these myself and
my colleague in office and mission, Charles Sztolcman."
Jański wrote an review of the work of Francis Wołowski's L'Empereur Nicolas et la
Constitution Polonaise de 1815 (Paris, 1832), which was published in the "Revue
Encyclopédique", Vol. 54 (1832), pp. 513-514).
Francis Wołowski - envoy to the Sejm from the city of Warsaw - Cf. 1835, footnote 210.
YEAR 1832
165
pamphlet. To passage for breakfast, and to the "Revue" to give the article to
Julien; he is not there, and neither is Gadebled. I leave to go home. On the way
I browse in the bookshops along the Quay and buy a Viennese 238 treatise for
two sous. On my way back to the "Revue" I drop in to the committee for a New
Testament, but no one is there. At the "Revue" I promise to have an article ready
for Julien. I return home, and here, from a separate sheet, I copy memoirs up to
Sunday,239 and put together later memoirs. At 4:30 I go out to dinner.
Mochnacki discusses the siege of Paris, the degradation of the French
nation, and inevitable triumph of the allies. Unnecessarily, I get involved in
these proclamations of his (?) decision. I go with him to see them. We get down
to discussing what happened among us not too long ago. He calls me an
enthusiast of ideas, a youngster, and an old man, for lack of attention to current
trends - a wind-bag as always. I take Leibnitz' Theéodicée240 from Camille. At
seven I go out to visit Maliński. He begins to make alterations in the portrait of
me begun two years ago - I have changed considerably since that time. He loans
me five francs. On my return I am overwhelmed, impelled, by carnal desires as
I walk along the rue de l'Abbaye. I meet Amelia and arrange a rendezvous for
Friday. For beer to passage du Commerce. The Oleszczyńskis. And once more,
mad chasing in many directions for flesh. And so should I be angry with
Alexandra when I myself chase about madly, even after making the strongest
resolutions not to waste time, and to tend resolutely at all times toward my
moral goals? Pollution at night.
+To Bourgard, Crellin, Joseph [Zawadzki], Maciejowski, Lanckoroński,
Courtet.+
192 Thursday, [June] 28
238
239
240
A treaty approved at the Congress of Vienna (November, 1814 - June, 1815) by a
conference of nations belonging to the victorious anti-Napoleonic coalition. The
conference was chaired by Russia, England, Austria and Prussia. On the basis of a
decision of May 3, 1815, the Kingdom of Poland was established. Its separateness from
Russia was limited greatly after the November uprising by the so-called "Organic
Statute", issued by Tsar Nicholas I on February 14, 1832.
...I am writing this from a separate page with my memoirs from Sunday... - The "separate
page" is the "piece of paper" which Jański mentioned under the date of June 24, 1832.
(Cf. above, footnote 221).
G. W. Leibniz's philosophical tract Essai de Théodicée was published in 1710. The title,
"Theodicy", was introduced into philosophy by the author himself, for whom it signified
the defense of God's justice in the face of objections to the existence of Providence that
are based on the ascertainment of the existence of evil in the world.
DIARY
166
193
The laundress arrives at seven. Fortunately I am at a distance. Jóźwik
comes, and then goes off to look for a dentist together with Rostkowski. I write
these memoirs until nine; we do not have a lesson. After I shave, breakfast. To
Morawski. (I meet Boleslaus Ostrowski; we talk about conversion, and about
thinking for oneself). Morawski has not yet given me the resolution; I stay there
only a half-hour. While returning I realize that I did not reflect upon what I was
to say, that is, about the amount of my pension, and the time from which it
should be paid to me. I note for myself that I write these memoirs in such
minute detail while I do no great works; as a result, for me, one who wishes to
lead an interior life and to analyze my own actions, every little detail carries
great weight. And so, what great activity should I begin? What great works?
With what should I occupy my time in order to escape from my present
financial embarrassments? With these thoughts in mind I arrive at the "Revue".
I read the newspapers, and at 2:30 I leave. I go to rue Taranne for a whiskey.
Warmed, I feel I have strength for work, but also a need to move about. I go to
visit Janowski. He is still ill. On returning I meet Rostowski (he was at
Broussais).241 For dinner. Indeed I do not enter into disputes, but remain jovial,
as one should is such circumstances. To Maliński for a sitting - and I think
about the Slavs and about myself. I borrow another five francs. I feel the urge to
go to the rue l'Abbaye. I visit Jenny, jolly and insistent - unnecessarily insistent
- when it could have been, unnecessarily and too much, when she was already
tired. For beer; and returning, still desires to chase after flesh. And so once
again I accomplished nothing.
194
Friday, June 29
Jóźwik at seven. Rostkowski stops by a nine. An idle conversation. At ten
I write these memoirs.
241
François-Joseph-Victor Broussais (1772-1838) - an army doctor, noted professor of
medicine, from 1830 a member of the faculty of medicine in Paris. In a letter to his
parents (July 24, 1832) Camille Mochnacki wrote: "Baron Broussais, doctor of the
manor, gave me a certificate stating that in my weakness I would not be able to travel to
Avignon. With the help of this certificate, I am able to protect myself from the police who
often visit my residence. The generals also assure us that with the help of this certificate,
since Mr. Broussais is a very eminent person, they will obtain a recall of the ministerial
order. Voivode Ostrowski and Lelewel have already received such a recall." (p.126).
YEAR 1832
167
195
June 29 - at Jenny's; a rendezvous for Monday. I would like to borrow her
money.
Saturday, June 30
On Friday I received from Carnot the address to La Société de Lon242
dres. Verdict of the Court of Appeals cancelling the state of siege.243 At the
"Revue" I take the "Revue Européenne". It contains an article on metaphysics
by Bautain.244
242
243
244
On February 25, 1832, the Literary Association of the Friends of Poland was established,
the members of which were exclusively Englishmen. The president of this association
was Thomas Campbell, a poet, and the secretary - Adolph Bach. Until 1898, the Literary
Association was situated in London, at a place called "Sussex Chambers", 10 Duke
Street, St. James.
The lifting of the state of siege caused by the events of the 5th and 6th of June, 1832, in
Paris, one of the results of which was, e.g., the prohibition of more numerous meetings.
An article by Fr. Louis Bautain De la vraie et de la fausse Philosophie was published in
two parts in the "Revue Européenne", Vol. V, Nr. XVIII, pp. 637-655, and in Nr. XXII,
pp. 524-588. (Cf. 1831, footnote 60).
Louis-Marie-Eugéne Bautain (1796-1867) - philosopher and theologian. As a professor at
the University of Strasbourg he taught rationalist philosophy as well as the philosophy of
I. Kant and G. Fichte. In 1822 he interrupted his work as a teacher and turned his interest
to the study of natural science and medicine. He underwent an interior crisis, the result of
rationalism, and turned to fideism. In 1823 he became a Catholic and, after completing
theological studies, was ordained a priest. In Strasbourg he organized the Society of the
Priests of Saint-Louis, whose purpose was the education of clerics who would be able to
meet the demands of the existing spiritual situation. Under the influence of Kant, Bautain
came to consider metaphysical knowledge as impossible. Natural human reason is
powerless when it comes to demonstrate any sort of metaphysical affirmation. Certitude
results only from faith anticipating reason. Scholasticism no longer has any reason to
exist. Bautain presented his views in De l'enseignement de la philosophie en France au
XIXe siécle (1833). This book was condemned as fideism by the Bishop of Strasbourg,
and then by Pope Gregory XVI in December of 1834. Bautain submitted to the decision
of Church authorities, and on November 18,1835, signed Catholic statements such as:
reason can demonstrate the existence of God, and that revelation is authentic on the basis
of Tradition and Sacred Scripture. Called to Rome, he arrived there in 1838, and changed
some of the assertions he had made in his La philosophie du christianisme (1835). At the
Roman French Church of St. Louis he organized a study center for French priests. He was
the author of many scholarly works, e.g., the innovative Psychologie expérimentale
(1839) recommending experimental methods. In Strasbourg he was both a preacher at the
cathedral and rector of the seminary, noted for his sanctity of life. He received special
attention in Correspondence religieuse de L. Bautain, published by L'Abbé H. de
Bonnechose (2 volumes, Paris, 1835).
DIARY
168
Sunday, July 1
To Morawski, for information about the London Polish Literary Society,
and my business.
Monday, July 2
Podczaszyński's pamphlet of the first of July is published. 245 I receive a
letter from [Louis] Plater. Morawski tells me to wait. Maurice [Mochnacki]
promises seriously that he will give me a hundred and more than twenty francs.
I return the "Revue Européenne" to the "Revue", and give Carnot Morawski's
printed article. A rendezvous with Jenny, but she is not there.
Tuesday, July 3
I take Lesur246 from the "Revue". I change plans for a pamphlet about the
Polish cause to plans for a series of articles. Camille receives an order to leave.
An announcement about Fergusson's motion.247 A gathering at Camille's in
order to thank him. Dysiewicz.248 Camille becomes ill.
245
246
247
This refers to "Memoirs of the Polish Emigration" which Michael Podczaszyński edited
and published from July 1, 1832. In order to avoid paying the large deposit required for
publication of periodicals, Podczaszyński decided to publish the "Memoirs" in the form
of separate pamphlets, each bearing a different title, but retaining the same format of print
and arrangement. Individual numbers of the pamphlet were published bearing a series of
titles bearing the names of Polish kings. Thus, the first pamphlet bore the title
"Ziemowit", the second "Leszek" etc. This periodical, published by Podczaszyński,
together with Maurice Mochnacki, was the first more important Polish political
publication. It presented a moderate democracy, and political independence. It was
something of an independent platform. The "Memoirs" was published from July 1832 to
August 25, 1833, a total of 36 pamphlets, which together came to three volumes. It
ceased to exist as a result of financial problems.
Louis-Charles Lesur (1770-1849) - writer and historian, author of plays for Paris theaters.
He wrote about Russia, the Cossacks, and his own country.
Robert Cutlar Fergusson (1768-1838) - a lawyer, born of an old Scotch family, member
of Parliament, a Whig. On April 18, 1832 he gave a speech in the lower house in which
he made it clear that it was the repression of the Great Prince Constantine which caused
the November uprising, the ukase of Tsar Nicholas (within the framework of the Organic
Statute) concerning religion and nationality, the arbitrary incorporation of the Kingdom
of Poland into the Russian tsardom, as an action contrary to the resolutions accepted at
the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815). At the same time he made a motion that England, as
a guarantor of the Viennese pact, should take proper steps against this violation
committed by the Russian government in Poland. He made a second motion on June 28,
1832 in which, referring to the acts of oppression against Poland, he demanded that the
English Parliament be provided with copies of Tsar Nicholas' manifesto of February 14,
1832 (i.e., the Organic Statute). Fergusson repeated the motion on July 9, 1833,
YEAR 1832
169
On Wednesday, [July 4] - With Morawski. He advises me to write to the prefect
of police. I have decided to travel to Chateauroux. I speak of this with
[Michael] Hube and the Oleszczyńskis. To Kazimirski for the report of the
committee.249 He gives me a Bible.
Thursday, July 5
The kind Maliński gives me another five francs.
248
249
supporting it with further facts testifying to Russian persecution in Polish territory. The
Polish translation of R.C. Fergusson's pamphlet, Awareness of discussions in the lower
house on April 18, 1832, appeared in Paris in 1832. This author's speech, entitled The
cause of an enslaved Poland, introduced in the Parliament of Great Britain for the third
time on July 9, 1833 was published in Paris in 1834. In October of 1832 Fergusson met
with a deputation of Poles in Paris, a member of which was Adam Mickiewicz, and was
enrolled in the list of honorary members of the Polish Literary Society.
Louis-Hipolitus Dysiewicz (c.1807-1869) - In 1827 he enrolled in the faculty of law and
administration at the University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising. In
January of 1831 he signed the address of the Honorary Guard to the Sejm as one of its
deputies. He was an emigrant in France. He was a professor of German in the Collége
d'Epinal.
Albert Felix Ignatius Kazimirski (Kaźmierski, Kazimierski) (1808-1887) - He studied law
and eastern languages at the University of Warsaw from 1824. After receiving his
master's degree in 1827, he worked as a defender in the Lublin tribunal, and then as a
librarian in the home of General Vincent Krasiński, the father of Zygmunt, and in 1829,
as librarian in the library in Kórnik, with the Count Titus Działyński. He spent some time
in Berlin, studying foreign languages. In 1830 he returned to Warsaw, and during the
November uprising he served as one of the secretaries of the Patriotic Society. He came
to Paris with Lelewel (October 29, 1831), of whom he was a follower during the initial
stage of his stay among the emigrants. He belonged to the Polish Exiles Literary Society,
which was directed by Lelewel, and to his Committee. In September 1832, along with
Jański, he kept the minutes of meetings of the Paris "Community" (copies of these
minutes are preserved in ACRR 8605, p.612). In the emigration, thanks to the Society for
Scholastic Assistance, he pursued Oriental Studies. He became a noted orientalist and
translator of Persian literature. From 1833 he was a member of the Société Asiatique in
Paris, in 1834 a founding member of the Slavic Society in Paris, and finally a member od
the Literary Society. Together with Stanislaus Ropelewski in 1839 he published the
French-Polish and Polish French Emigrant dictionary. In 1839-1840 he was a translator
with the French embassy in Teheran. In 1840 he published his French translation of the
Koran, and later fragments of a Polish translation of this work. He published valuable
works of lexicography, and translations of oriental literature. He was decorated by the
French Government with the Star of the Legion of Honor, and by the Persian Government
with the Order of the Sun.
The "report of the committee" mentioned by Jański may have been the recently published
An account of the activity of the National Committee (Paris, 1832), or maybe some handwritten report of Lelewel's Committee.
DIARY
170
Friday, July 6
On Thursday Benoiste corrected my letter to the prefect of police.250 I ask
Dugied if he knows anyone in the prefecture. No. From Chodźko I take
Lelewel, maps of Poland, and information about the Lithuanian Society.251 - I
leave one copy for Carnot. I go to see Jenny, and ask Amelia to be there on
Monday. I meet Eugenia, and remain with her for the night. We read Hernani
and Richard d'Arlington.252 She tells me about her strange adventures.
Saturday, July 7
Returning from Eugenia, I eat breakfast at passage
du Commerce. After cleaning myself up at home, I remember Bussonel's
watch253 - after it is sold, he gives me the rest of the price, 25 francs, and with
these I pay a part of my debt at the grocery store, and a part to Steinhauser. I
busy myself correcting Bronikowski's article concerning Dębiński's254 pamphlet
- I do not deliver it today as yet. +Reflections on greatness and littleness where
250
251
252
253
254
On June 12, 1832, the French Police declared all former permits to stay in Paris (permis
de séjour), invalid, and required application to the Ministry of Interior Affairs for a new
permit. On June 14, Jański presented his petition to the prefect of police, asking that his
stay in Paris be legalized. After writing to the Minister in this matter at the beginning of
July, Jański received permission for a further stay in Paris only at the beginning of
September, 1832.
Leonard Chodźko (Cf. above, footnote 28), the publisher of J. Lelewel's Three Polish
constitutions... as well as maps of Poland: Atlas des partages de Pologne 7 cartes. He
was the secretary of the Lithuanian Society, established in Paris on December 10, 1831.
Hernani, a drama in verse written by Victor Hugo. The premier of this work took place in
Paris on February 25, 1830; as a proclamation of romantic drama it became an important
event in the history of the French theater.
Richard Arlington - an historical drama by Alexander Dumas (father), author of many
novels and plays. From the day of its premier, which took place in December of 1831,
this work enjoyed great success in Paris theaters by virtue of excellent performers.
Bussonel - Undoubtedly the Boussonel mentioned by Jański in his Diary for the year
1831, "about April 1": "Money is lacking. Boussonel is leaving..." Jański's sorry financial
situation is repeated in conjunction with the name Boussonel, whose identity I have not
been able to ascertain.
Henry Dembiński (1791-1864) - a general. He participated in the Napoleonic campaign.
In the November uprising he fought at Wielki Dąb, Igania, and Ostrołęka. He and his
corps were sent to Lithuania, but, in the face of Russian superiority, he had to turn back,
which he did by way of a clever maneuver. At the beginning of August, 1831 he was
Governor of Warsaw, and later, for a short time, commander-in-chief of the Polish army.
An avowed opponent of the Patriotic Society. After 1831, he was an emigrant in France,
where he joined the camp of Adam Czartoryski. In Lipsk, in 1832, a German translation
of a pamphlet by General Dembiński appeared: Mein Feldzug nach und in Lituauen und
mein Rückzug von Kuszarny nach Warschau. In French he also published his Mémoires
(Paris, 1833) and other memoirs.
YEAR 1832
171
careers are concerned.+ An article about artists in the "[Revue' Européenne"255
impresses me. I ask Carnot if he knows anyone in the prefecture of police. - he
sends me to Cassin and Charton. Dugied comes to visit me; his conversation
etc. At one, to Steinhauser for breakfast. At four to Maliński, and at five to
Steinhauser for a demi-tasse.
Sunday, +July+ 8
I leave the house at about twelve. I receive a letter from Radomiński. I
show it to Rostkowski. I go with him to visit Camille, and then for a small
assembly to [Boleslaus] Rostkowski.256 I talked about my marriage with
Aleksandrowicz,257257 and with Rostkowski and Jóźwik about my concerns.
Jóźwik walks back with me.
255
256
257
This refers to Des artistes en France, au seiziéme siécle, written by Eugéne de la
Gournerie in the "Revue Européenne", Vol. V (1832), Nr.13, p.40.
"A family gathering", or "a family meeting" of envoys under the direction of Anthony
John Ostrowski, with the idea of convening the Sejm in the emigration in Paris.
Anthony John Ostrowski (1782-1845) - the brother of Ladislaus, Marshal of the insurgent
Sejm of 1830-1831; founder of Tomaszów in Mazovia, voivode senator, in 1831,
Commander of the Warsaw National Guard, "famous for the awkward situation in which
he found himself on the night of August 15" (Gadon, p.321). An advocate of economic
liberalism, deserving credit for the industrial development of Tomaszów. From March of
1832 he was an emigrant in France. He resided briefly in Paris, where he participated in
the political life of the Polish emigration, assuming a position in the middle, between the
followers of Czartoryski and the democrats of Lelewel's circle. Moved by a concern to
prevent the constant divisions of the emigration, the result of parties and disagreements
among his countrymen, he undertook energetic action to convoke a Sejm in Paris. As a
result, he presided at "family meetings" of envoys from the second half of 1832 to 1836.
On January 26, 1833, he composed the "act of 25 envoys demanding the convocation of
the Sejm. However, his initiative was not accepted by the majority of the exiles. He was a
member of General Joseph Dwernicki's National Committee of the Polish Emigration. He
sympathized with the Confederation of the Polish People. He provided financial support
for educational and cultural institutions. He was an adversary of immediate enfranchisement of the peasants. He participated in the organization of an international committee for
the emancipation of the Jews. He published a treatise entitled: "A thought concerning the
need for social reform in general... (Paris, 1834). He collected and prepared materials
dealing with the history of Poland from the end of the 18th, and the beginning of the 19th
centuries, as well as a history of his own family, especially the life and work of his father
(A Life of Thomas Ostrowski, Paris, 1836). A diarist.
Undoubtedly Joseph Aleksandrowicz (1790 or 1793-1874) from Lithuania. He joined the
army in 1812. He participated in the November uprising. As an emigrant in Paris, for a
time he was a member of Lelewel's Committee. As correspondent and delegate of the
depot in Besançon, he was active among the Paris emigrants. He was a signer of the
September declaration in 1832, drafted by a commission of which Maurice Mochnacki,
Andrew Plichta, and Bogdan Jański were members.
DIARY
172
Monday, [July] 9
I go to see Jóźwik at about eleven. After much ado we go to visit
Rougemont258 with mortgage letters - I do not even want to talk about them.
Walter loans me 30 francs. A watery wine at Jóźwik's. I do not eat dinner, but go
straight home - and then to Ostrowski's for the small assembly. I return with
Rostkowski to Arcola. He gives me 40 francs. I take Bronikowski's corrected
article to the "Revue". I am not happy with the conversation about my wife with
Aleksandrowicz, and with Bronikowski at dinner.
Tuesday, [July] 10
Maliński comes to see me in the morning. Not dinner, but only breakfast
at one. Walter loans me 40 francs of Kozakowski's money.
Wednesday, [July] 11
I give Mrs. Mécou 100 francs. In the "Revue" I notice flaws in the article
on Russian songs and in the introduction to Morawski's article.259 I bathe in the
Seine at three, and then go to dinner. After dinner, sauntering with Kwiatkowski
for beer. In the evening to Carnot - Benoiste, Séguin,260 Gadebled. I leave at
about eleven - and to Eugenia.
Thursday, [July] 12
A lesson with Jóźwik - he has not improved much. Rostkowski visits.
What heat! In the "revue" I write a short introduction to Morawski's article,
which is awkward and takes too long. After Leroux's comments - he remains the
same as ever. He encourages me to work on matters relating to the Slavs.
Podczaszyński informs me of wish of the Academic Society261 that I translate
258
259
260
261
"With bonds issued by institutions providing long-term loans on security; Rougemont the name of a bank in Paris on rue Bergère No.13bis, established by Rougemont de
Löwenberg.
In the "Revue Encyclopédique" (Vol. 54, May and June, 1832, pp. 437-443) there
appeared an unsigned article by Theodore Morawski, with a short introduction by Jański:
Des intentions de la derniér révolution polonaise en faveur des paysans. The title of
Morawski's article was preceded by the heading: Institutions politiques de la Pologne. In
this same volume of the "Revue" on pages 414-416, an unsigned small publication
entitled Chansons populaires des Russies.
Jules Séguin - a saintsimonist of the third degree (June, 1831).
The already mentioned Academic Society of Polish Exiles (Cf. 1831, footnote 55),
according to Lelewel's plan, was to be divided into language sections: German, French,
etc. Jański would belong to the French section. Within this framework, translations of
works representing the "ancient history of Poland" would be prepared by such translators
YEAR 1832
173
materials about Poland etc. I return with Hube. I meet Husson,262 and go to the
Luxembourg with him. I go to visit Podczaszyński, take Kock, after all he is
less eccentric, and go to café Deschamps for beer - a fall on rue Mazarine.
Friday, [July] 13
Walter comes in the morning asking me to return the money I borrowed,
and Rostkowski brings me information about the Constitution of the Third of
May. After breakfast to Zdzienicki; he pawns my overcoat for 25 francs. To the
"Revue". Home at three, and I doze. After dinner with Rostkowski, we go to
visit Camille. I take Maliszewski.263 At eight to Walter; he is no longer in. He
comes later. He does not need louisdor.264 Fanny is sick. I stay there until
eleven.
Saturday, July 14
A lesson with Jóźwik. It is already after twelve when I leave the house to
visit Walter - I am to visit him at four. I pay nine francs and ten sous in passage
du Commerce. I want to visit [Louis] Plater, but I am undecided, and turn back.
News about the decision of the Diet of the German Reich.265 To the "Revue".
Carnot promises to write a letter to Montalivet. I return home at three and fall
262
263
264
265
as Chodźko, Lelewel, Podczaszyński, and Jański. (Cf. below, footnote 306, and Joachim
Lelewel's Emigration Letters, op. cit., p.3).
Jean-Christophe-Armand Husson - a saintsimonist of the third degree (June, 1831). Jański
included his name in his list of saintsimonists. (Cf. 1838, footnote 70).
Peter Paul John Maleszewski (1767-1828) - economist, historian, journalist. The son of
Michael Poniatowski, Abbot of Czerwieńsk, and future Primate. He studied in Poland,
and then in Paris, where he served as a secret agent of King Stanislaus August, informing
the French press about matters dealing with Poland. He was a mason. In 1809, on the
motion of Thaddeus Czacki, he was selected to be a member of the Warsaw Society of
the Friends of Learning. By virtue of his marriage to a Frenchwoman, he obtained French
citizenship. He lived in France, engaged in scholarly work. He took Polish students
arriving in Paris under his care, among these e.g. Frederick Skarbek, Adrian
Krzyżanowski, and Leon Sapieha. He conducted a private seminar in economy for their
benefit. In 1823 he lost his sight; he died in France. He published a few works in the field
of economy and history in French and Polish.
Louisdor, luidor, literally "golden Louis" - a gold coin in France in the years 1640-1803,
replaced by a twenty franc coin.
On may 27, 1832, in the Hambach castle in the Palatinate, on the anniversary of the
approval of the Bavarian constitution, liberals and democrats gathered to celebrate the
occasion. In the name of Lelewel's Committee, John Czyński, and in the name of the
Polish Democratic Society, Thaddeus Krępowiecki, came to this meeting. At this meeting
a statement was issued asserting the need to unite Germany, and to create "a
confederation of European republics", such as Poland, Hungary, and Italy. These
celebrations evoked a reaction on the part of the Diet of the Reich, which in July of 1832
issued laws forbidding political meetings and speeches, and more stringent censures.
DIARY
174
asleep until 4:45. Walter is no longer at home. To Steinhauser for dinner; to
Oleszczyński, a walk with Hube - we talk about Szyrma, Kunatt,
saintsimonism, Demaistre, Catholicism and freedom. At home, musing until
1:30.
Sunday, July 15
I rise at nine. After breakfast at passage du Commerce, I rewrite the
request to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. I drop in to see Walter. He is angry
with me because of yesterday. To [Louis] Plater; he had already left. To
Morawski; he is not in. Home; and after musing, these memoirs until dinner.
After dinner I accompany Hube without necessity. To Maliński. I return the first
five francs. Home, and once more these memoirs. For beer; and then once again
a very foolish loitering - and at home, a sin.
[Monday], July 16
I leave the house at ten. Breakfast at Steinhauser. To Moraszewski
(Plichta, Umiński). I am well received. He advises me against having
Kniaziewicz266 sign my request. To Podczaszyński. To the "Revue" and to
Pinard for the proofs. To Podczaszyński, and once again to the "Revue". I meet
Buchez. Carnot corrects my request, and promises to write a letter to
Montalivet, to newspaper men. A new issue of the "Revue" is being published
(Benoiste, Gadebled).267 For dinner. After dinner, without any need, I loiter too
long with Skarżyński268 in search of a brownie. I meet Sainte-Beuve. Back
266
267
268
Charles Otto Kniaziewicz (1762-1842) - A General. He participated in the Polish-Russian
war in 1792, and the uprising in 1794. As a Major-General he fought in the defense of
Warsaw and at Maciejowice. From 1797 he was a member of Dąbrowski's Legions. He
was Commander of the First Legion, and distinguished himself in the Neapolitan war.
From 1799 he was a Brigadier General; as Commander of the Danubian Legion, he
distinguished himself at Hohenlinden (1800). In protest against Napoleon's politics
concerning the Legions, he resigned in 1801. From 1812 he was with the army of the
Duchy of Warsaw. Appointed General of a division, he participated in the 1812
campaign. He resided in Paris, where he represented the Polish Government in the time of
the November uprising. After the resignation of Theodore Morawski, who "temporarily
took care of Polish interests in France", he became the head of the Polish Legation,
cooperating with its active member, Castellan Louis Plater. From September 3, 1831,
after submitting a memorial to the French government, accusing it of failing to offer any
assistance to Poland, the Polish Legation was formally dissolved. However members of
the Legation, by virtue of their widespread contacts with Frenchmen, did not cease to care
for the Polish cause, and to seek assistance for the Polish exiles.
Here: "Revue Encyclopédique", 1812.
Undoubtedly Vincent Skarżyński (1806-1876), who in 1826 received the degree of
Master of Administration at the University of Warsaw. He participated in the November
YEAR 1832
175
home, I begin to read correspondence from Poland. I leave the house; loiter; a
fall on rue Dufour, and with Liza an odd night at rue des Cordiers. 4 times.
197
Tuesday, July 17
I rise at eight, and go out for coffee. Jóźwik was here, but I was out.
Podczaszyński is here. We read a piece in the "Constitutionel" from our
unpublished correspondence from Poland.269 Back home, I wash up after
rewriting the request to Montalivet. Boleslaus [Gurowski] drops by. He shows
me a letter from [his brother] Adam; he is leaving, etc. I go to the "Revue"
about one; Carnot is not there. Dumont.270 Achille tells me about the death of
Talabot and Buchez271 - I am sad. Wychodzę około trzeciej, spotykam Füstera272
– jakże zimno przyjął te nowiny. I take the letters home, and to Rostkowski. I
am worn out by the previous night. For dinner. To Podczaszyński to read the
proofs (Maurice). I take them back to the printer. To Walter. He receives me
well, as always. For beer, and to bed.
Wednesday, July 18
The laundress comes before seven, then Jóźwik. The lesson ends at about
ten. For breakfast to "Revue". Carnot gives me a letter to Montalivet. After I
change clothes at home, I go to see Mr. de Wailly, and leave the letter with him
269
270
271
272
uprising. In 1832 he made his way through Galicia to France. He lived in Paris for three
years "becoming satiated with the stormy and idle life of the emigration" (M. Motty, op.
cit., vol.I, p.330). In 1835 he left fmr Spain, where he fought against the Carlists, leading
a regiment of the Spanish army. He retired as a colonel. He returned to Poland in 1846. In
the last years of his life, he participated in the work of the Poznań Society of the Friends
of Learning.
"Constitutionnel" in its (Tuesday) July 17, 1832 number published on the first page, in
the Extérieur (Foreign) section: Pologne - Varsovie, 3 Juillet, Correspondance
particuliére, with the title: Cruauté de Nicolas envers la Pologne (Nicholas' Atrocities
against Poland).
Dumont - According to the list of names of saintsimonists provided by Jański, a person
associated with that movement.
Undoubtedly Achille Rousseau, a saintsimonist, and co-author of religious songs in the
collection Foi nouvelle, Nantes, 1833.
Talabot - Cf. 1830, footnote 79.
Buchez - saintsimonist of the third degree (June, 1831). Not to be confused with the
former follower of saintsimonism, Phillipe Benjamin Joseph Buchez.
Joseph Jean Nicolas Füster (Fuster) (b.1801) - a saintsimonist of the third degree (June,
1831), later a doctor of medicine, professor at the clinic of the hospital Hôtel-Dieu in
Montpellier.
DIARY
176
at about two.273 To Steinhauser for breakfast, and then take the coach from the
Place des Petits Peres to Ménilmontant. I arrive at 4:30 (Bras, Carnot,
Barrot).274 I return at eight (Ribes, Massol275). At Steinhauser in the evening; to
Carnot, Leroux and Didier with regard to the work about the Apocalypse etc.
For beer, and then to bed (Reynaud, Roche and Desloges276 about women.)
198
Thursday, July 19
Jóźwik arrives at seven, and shortly after that Rostkowski, asking me to
translate the certificate of his degree. There is no lesson. I translate the certificate, and begin to correct Jóźwik's work. I give the certificate to Rostkowski.
For breakfast. Mrs. Nain277 gives me a ticket to the theater for three persons. I
am still full of memories from yesterday and emotions of the situation at the
"Revue", as well as the desire to translate correspondence from Poland into
French, but nothing is decided. At home, I make corrections for Jóźwik. I think
about a way of life in the future, about being with other people, about
universalizing my knowledge, and about working. At 3:30, I go to the "Revue"
(Everatt);278 deliver the texts to Jóźwik. I go out for dinner - I have an
unpleasant feeling about eating so long on credit. Bronikowski's thanks for my
article in the "Revue", and excuses, as it were, why I should give him my
articles about Umiński, Dembiński, and Chłapowski279 leave me with an
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
Undoubtedly a higher official in the Ministry of Interior Affairs directed by Montalivet perhaps Jules de Wailly, who worked together with Charles Duveyrier (1803-1866), wellknown to Jański, a saintsimonist of the first degree (in 1831), active in Belgium and England; a dramatist.
Camil-Hiacynth-Odilon Barrot (1791-1877) - French lawyer, leader of the leftist dynastic
opposition, a saintsimonism sympathizer; a republican.
Marie-Alexandre Massol (1805-1875) - saintsimonist philosopher, author of works
dealing with saintsimonist doctrine. Together with Rousseau he published Explication de
la religion saintsimonienne (Nantes, 1833). He was the editor of "Réforme", and coeditor of "Voix du peuple".
Achille Roche (1801-1834) - a political and literary writer; the former secretary of
Benjamin Constant. Editor of the "Tribune". He published his articles in the "Revue
Encyclopédique".
Desloges - author of two pamphlets: Des enfants trouvés et des femmes publiques
(published only in 1836), and Abolition de la tyrannique conscription.
Mrs. Nain - an unknown person.
L. N. Everrat - a Paris publisher and bookseller.
Dezydery Adam Chłapowski (1788-1879) - General of the Polish Army. He studied
military science abroad. He participated in the Napoleonic campaign. In 1813 he resigned
from military service, and went to England for two years. After that he returned to his
native Great Poland, and became involved in economic activity based on English models.
YEAR 1832
177
unpleasant feeling. I give a ticket to Mrs. Bronikowski. I accompany
Skarżyński to Maliński's residence; the good man gives me 5 francs. For coffee
a second time to passage du Commerce. Melancholy, I go home, and after a
pipe and a nap, I go out for a small cup of punch. Then, stupid loitering along
rue de Bac and de Grenelle. Thoughts about writing under the name of
"Dieudonne de Poultousque ["Theodore of Pułtusk"]280, and more stupid
loitering until eleven; finally, a fall with an old, fat and ugly woman on rue de
Coeur Volant. I buy half a bottle of punch syrup. Unhappy and sad, I drink almost the whole bottle and read Ortolan281 until twelve.
Friday, July 20
I rise at ten, and cannot recognize myself. I am still sad - those memories.
For breakfast. Mrs. Nain gives me three tickets to the Théâtre du Panthéon.282
To the "Revue", Didier gives be a book about the Apocalypse. On my way
home at three I meet Reynaud. At home I scan through the book. I leave one
ticket for Walter. For dinner, I invite Kondratowicz,283 to go to the theater with
him. I give the second ticket to the Bronikowskis. I go to pick up Maliński. We
280
281
282
283
He participated in the November uprising, distinguishing himself in the Lithuanian expedition. He was a Prussian prisoner for two years. After he was freed, he returned to
economic activity, working with, e.g., Charles Marcinkowski. He was regarded as a
clerical-aristocratic leader. Already in 1841, in Rome, he became a friend of Jerome
Kajsiewicz and his confreres. In 1857 he invited the Sisters of the Sacred Heart (SacréCoeur) to Poznań. He provided financial support for the "Przegląd Poznański" which was
edited by John Koźmian, whose daughter Sophie died a tragic death, and who later
became a priest (Cf. 1834, footnote 35). He maintained contacts with intellectual
Catholics (e.g., de Montalembert). Author of Memoirs.
Jański's French pseudonym, which went back to his youth, when he attended the
Provincial School in Pułtusk. It is worth noting that "Bogdan" is the indigenous Polish
form of the name, while "Bohdan" is a form that derives from the Ukrainian. Both forms
correspond to the Greek Théodoros (Polish Teodor), which means "Given by God".
Joseph-Louis-Elzéar Ortolan (b. 1802) - professor of penal law at the faculty of law in
Paris.
Théâtre du Panthéon - On March 25, 1832, "Le Constitutionnel" informed its readers
about the establishment of a new theater with an auditorium, installed in the church of
Saint-Benoît next to the Benedictine monastery, near place Cambrai, between rue SaintJacques and rue de la Harpe. The Church of Saint-Benoît previously served as a grain
warehouse.
In the original erroneously Kondradotowicz - Joseph Kondratowicz, participated in the
November uprising as a second lieutenant in the 2nd uhlan regiment. An emigrant, a
resident in Paris in 1832. In that year he became a member of Lelewel's Committee.
DIARY
178
have tea, and go to the theater, L'Egoiste.284 Tired, we do not wait until the end.
We talk about women, I in morals. I go home and go to sleep.
Saturday. July 21
Huguet finds me still in bed - about himself, about [Louis] Królikowski,
about Ménilmontant. I am beginning to translate the correspondence. For breakfast at twelve. To the "Revue" - the newspapers and a little research about what
was written about the Apocalypse. I talk with Carnot about what works I should
undertake, and about making a name for myself here. I am feeling very
apathetic. Gadebled - about Ménilmontant. Carnot gives us a ticket to Théâtre
du Palais-Royal.285 I stop by to visit Mr. Debert.286 For dinner. Camille gives me
2 francs. A conversation with a reserved Bronikowski. Praise God, the
conversation is reserved. To the Palais-Royal for a rendezvous with Gadebled.
They are showing Temptation. We leave before it is over. I go to the passage du
Commerce for beer (Hube), and then home at eleven. Thoughts about women.
"Revue Européenne" - Molitor.287 (Strengthened) I fall asleep after two.
Sunday, July 22
Rostkowski drops in and wakes me at eight. I go out for breakfast, and
return about ten. (Thoughts about bringing my wife here.) A visit by
Vannieuvenhuysen. These notes from Friday. I continue doing a bit of translation. I go out at two. I stop by to see Debert. To the "Revue" - it is closed. I
turn around near Port-Royal, and go to Steinhauser (Zatwardzicki's
dissertations288). After dinner I go home and read Marin Mniszech.289 At ten I go
out for a walk, for beer, and then back home. I think about future works.
284
285
286
287
288
289
In one evening, Friday, July 20, 1832, four stage plays were presented in the Panthéon
Theater: Louise, L'Égoiste, La Sorciére, and Le Curé.
In this theater, on July 21, 1832, the premier of the play Antoine, ou la Tentation was
presented. Beside the premier, Une Affaire d'Honneur, and Anne were also presented.
Debert - further information is lacking.
Franz Joseph Molitor (1799-1860) - a German philosopher. Under the influence of
Schelling and the Christian thinkers Franz Baader and J.J. Goerres, he dedicated himself
to studies of fortune-telling and mysticism. He wrote: Ideen zu einer kunftigen Dynamik
der Geschichte (1805); Philosophie der Geschichte oder über die Tradition (1827-1853)
(a work never completed).
Zarwardzicki - thus in Jański's autograph. Other sources, in this and other hand-written
notes of Jański himself, have Basil Zatwarnicki. He was tutored at home in the Great
Poland Szaniecki (Sczaniecki?) family. He participated in the November uprising, and
then was an emigrant in Levroux. In the summer of 1832 he was in Paris and in
September he participated in deliberations of the Polish Emigration Committee.
In 1830 Marina Mniszech ou Fragments de l'histoire de Pologne was published in Paris.
This historical novel was written in French by Arthur Potocki (1787-1832), an officer of
YEAR 1832
179
199
Monday, July 23
Jóźwik comes at seven; (Rostkowski drops in for a moment). A lesson
until eleven. After twelve for dinner. To Rougemont; he has no money. Back
home, and to thoughts about future works, especially about what can be printed
in French to earn money. At four I go to the "Revue". I look through the
newspapers. For dinner (I do not engage in any conversations). After dinner I go
to visit Camille along with Rostkowski. He presses me for money. On the way
back I stop to visit Zenon [Świętosławski]. I am in a good mood. I think about
my wife. Why do I waver so in my desire to unite with her? What is it? For in
reality this could be disastrous for me. I could forget completely about her past
if she had the qualities to correct this; or at least, if by her conduct she would
give me some guarantee concerning the future; but unfortunately the situation is
the direct opposite. Therefore, I need to hesitate. I should not bring her here
until I am able to find myself in a situation where I can support her without
difficulty - where I can behave toward her more freely, more dispassionately,
and more independently. On my way home I meet Banet.290 He tells me about
the death of the upright Buchez. We talk about saintsimonism. Without any
need I accept a demi-tasse from the poor fellow. On my way home I think about
possible efforts required by my sabbatical, about putting together some money,
and then of publishing some works for Poles. I go home at about ten. I wanted
to busy myself by continuing the translation, but some observations concerning
national philosophies and cosmopolitan politics cross my mind. I write these
down, along with materials for further letters to my fellow Poles.291
Tuesday, July 24
The laundress comes at eight. I cannot give her any money and she needs
it very much. I am embarrassed. I promise to pay her soon. I make an account
of my debts, and write these notes from yesterday. After nine I get down to
continuing my translation.292
290
291
292
the Polish Army, adjutant of Prince Joseph Poniatowski, adjutant of Emperor Alexander
I, and proprietor of Krzesowice.
Banet - An individual mentioned by Jański's on his list of saintsimonists.
At the time letters were still a constant popular literary form of declaration directed
toward specific social circles. In Jański's papers I ran across various texts containing
material relating to topics mentioned by him.
This undoubtedly refers to the French translation of correspondence from Poland for the
Paris press. Cf. above, footnote 269.
DIARY
180
202 +Monday, August 6+
200 [Tuesday], August 7
I have not slept since midnight. It is already 2:30. After various considerations of my situation, I come to the conclusion that, since it is possible that our
return to Poland will not come about soon, I must definitely try to secure some
kind of more stable means of support and a more certain social position.
Reflecting upon the studies with which I could occupy myself in view of this
prospect, for many reasons I select statistics - not so much geographical, or
even numerical, but rather typographical, pertaining to social institutions. For as
far as other studies go, especially those relating to reasoning, it is inevitable that
I would have more competitors. I would also have to speak better French.
Moreover, it would be difficult to incorporate fragmentary general works into a
single whole. In these times it is practically impossible to write treatises on
philosophy or political economy - or having written them to find more that only
a small number of followers. As for politics in general, I need to stay with
action, rather than make an appearance before time with great projects. Further,
as a philosopher, politician, and citizen in Poland, I could reap greatest benefits
from these statistical works. Here, knowing languages, and possessing a fairly
wide universal knowledge, within a short time I will be able to become known
as a savant, a specialist, a writer - with time I might become a professor, first a
member of learned societies etc. - and, above all, in this way find the means to
earn a living and achieve a social position.
201
202 Wednesday, [August] 8
Thursday, August 9
203
Friday, August 10
Having received a letter from Mallet,293 I go to visit him at twelve. To the
[Russian] embassy, to the police station, and once again to the embassy. Not
having achieved anything, I go to Mallet. He gives me a letter to the embassy.
293
Mallet - The name of owner of a bank in Paris.
YEAR 1832
181
Spiss294 is not there; back to Mallet. To Steinhauser. It looks bad. I may not be
able to achieve my purpose.
Saturday [August] 11
I rise at nine, go to rue Dauphine for breakfast. I meet Podczaszyński.
The innkeeper is ill with the cholera. For breakfast to rue Guénégaud, and then
to the embassy. I wait about an hour for Spiss, and finally he gives the seal of
approval. To Mallet; the money is ready. I give 50 francs to Steinhauser and go
home. To Emilia. At four to Rostkowski. Hube promises a new way to make
money. With Rostkowski for dinner and coffee. - 11 francs. I tell him about my
hopes and my plans. To Arcola, and with Boleslaus [Gurowski] for ice cream. I
go to visit Mochnacki along with Rostkowski. He is drunk, and he lies. On the
way home, beer with lemon.
Sunday, [August] 12
I rise at ten and go to Viot for breakfast. I buy suspenders for 8 francs. To
the "Revue"; I take the "[Revue] Européenne". I feel faint. I go home. I borrow
Henszel295 from Reutz.296 A pipe. To dinner at Palais-Royal for 2 francs. Coffee
at Palais-Royal. To Mickiewicz. We talk about saintsimonism and Catholicism.297 I am tired and not completely happy with myself. For beer to passage.
Later a short chase after flesh - home.
294
295
296
297
Undoubtedly the name of an official of the Russian Embassy in Paris.
Henszel - further information is lacking.
Undoubtedly Edward Reutz (1804-1891), who lived in Strasbourg. A theologian; a
professor specializing in Biblical and Oriental Studies. The author of scholarly works in
the field of theology and Biblical studies.
Jański met Adam Mickiewicz for the first time in June or July of 1831 in Paris, perhaps
through Leonard Chodźko, with whom the poet corresponded. Mickiewicz came to Paris
from Switzerland, and stayed at the Hôtel de Lille, rue St. Thomas du Louvre. At the time
of this meeting, Jański interested the poet in saintsimonism, translating for him the
Exposition de la doctrine de Saint-Simon (1829-1830), a two-volume publication only
recently, i.e. in 1831, released in Paris. In Jański's written notes there is no mention of
this meeting. On the other hand, we are grateful to Mickiewicz for information about his
meeting with Jański, who was then an apostle of saintsimonism. In a postscript to
Anthony Gorecki's letter to Leonard Chodźko, mailed from Würzburg on July 28, 1831,
Mickiewicz asks: "Give my greetings to all, and also to Mrs. Marlay [Elizabeth, an
Irishwoman, who was a correspondent for an English paper]; obtain from her the Exposé
de la doctrine de St. Simon, and return it to Mr. Jański. Ask him to pardon me for leaving
without saying goodbye."
About a year later, on July 31, 1832, Mickiewicz came to Paris. Two weeks later
Mickiewicz and Jański met once more, undoubtedly after having agreed to do so. As a
result, in a Sunday discussion, Jański was able to tell the poet about the decline of
DIARY
182
[Monday, August] 13
Jóźwik at eight. He tells me about his magnetic acquisition.298 Rostkowski at 9:30; to Viot for breakfast, and then to Hube. I feel a kind of lassitude of
mind. I am alone with Valentine and do not go out. To the shoemaker. I look for
a room at five hotels. To the "Revue" before two. To the baths after three with
Benoiste, and after four to Wołowski (I meet a girl from the boudoir). For
dinner at rue Dauphine. Coffee. To Maliński. To Jóźwik - he is not in. I meet
Mickiewicz. I chase after flesh along the boulevards. Near Arcola - a fall
somewhere close to Place Châtelet, as much as 5 francs. The innkeeper, the
shoemaker and Maliński are all paid.
Tuesday, August 14
The laundress wakes me at seven. I am frightened. I notice something
leaking from the urethra. I pay the laundress 10 francs. I get down to writing
these notes. Rostkowski stops by and prescribes electuarium hustivum299 - I
take it before and after eating. I look for a room. Dinner at rue Dauphine.
[Wednesday, August] 15
The medication is effective. Breakfast at home, soup. I stay at home until
three, and then take a walk. A downpour. I enter the boudoir (my girl is sad).
Dinner. I meet Dugied in the Luxembourg. To Carnot for the evening, in spite of
reminder, I do not go, but rather go to Arcola for water with sugar. A
conversation with Jakubowski, Krosnowski,300 etc.
298
299
300
saintsimonism and the growing role of liberal Catholicism, which was officially
condemned three days later by Pope Gregory XVI in the encyclical Mirari vos (August
12, 1832).
...about his magnetic asset - i.e., having the property of a magnet. Magnetism, popular at
the beginning of the 19th century, at that time consisted of F. A. Mesmer's, a Swiss
doctor, system of healing. Cf. 1835, footnote 64
"electuarium" - in Polish "powidełko", a semi-liquid medicine for internal use, made up
of powdered medication and thick juices drawn from plants, fruits, or plums. The opinion
of a professor of pharmaceutics, Barbara Kuźnicka, to whom I owe thanks for this information, is that the name electuarium hustivum is very probably a current designation, and
is not mentioned in any scientific sources or articles.
Undoubtedly Valentine Ladislaus Krosnowski (d.1787 in Paris). He was the son of a
noble family from Great Poland. He began his studies in Warsaw in 1830. He participated
in the attack on the Belvedere, served in the 1831 campaign, and ended as an emigrant in
France. In 1832 he was a member of The Polish National Committee. In that same year
he enrolled in the Polish Democratic Society, and as one of its first members, took part in
a convention of German democrats. On May 28 he signed an address to the Germans.
YEAR 1832
183
Thursday, [August] 16
Breakfast at passage du Commerce, rice. Then I look for a room, but can't
find anything. After dinner and a nap, a walk. I meet Albert Reyer, 301 and go
with him for water and sugar. We talk about his professorial plans and de la vie
bourgeoise (city life).
Friday, August 17
Breakfast, tea at passage du Commerce. To Benoiste to give him an
article for the newspapers. About the pamphlet. A dispute about the theory of
certainty and freedom. To the "Revue". After a half an hour Benoiste arrives and
argues with Carnot about Fourier. I reply negatively in two hotels, having
decided to remain in my hotel. Plans to live on rue Richelieu etc. on a grander
scale have definitely fallen apart. Dinner on rue Dauphine with seltzer water. To
Maliński, and to Sophie. To Walter. Fanny goes too far with her jokes. Back
home, I cannot sleep. I read first about the Constitution of the Third of May,302
and then Hallam about England.303
Saturday, [August] 18
Rostkowski drops in. Breakfast at home. Once more the écoulement is
greater. It calls for taking cubeb.304 Chatting until two o'clock. After him,
Grzymała305 with a proposal for the Academic Society;306 my advice is to make
301
302
303
304
305
Albert Reyer - further information is lacking.
Cf. above, footnote 81.
Henry Hallam (1777-1859) - An English historian; a Whig, a member of a secret wing of
that party. His famous book was published in 1827: The Constitutional History of
England, from the Accession of Henry VII to the death of George II. For a long time this
was considered the basic work on that topic.
"kubeka" - a medication made of the Javanese plant Piper Cubeba. In the second half of
the 19th century it was mainly prescribed as a remedy for gonorrhea.
Undoubtedly this refers to Francis Grzymała (1790-1871), a literary critic, journalist, and
poet who participated in the Napoleonic campaign. He published literary works in Paris.
He was secretary of the Patriotic Club organized by Maurice Mochnacki. From 1832, he
lived in Paris as an emigrant. Initially a follower of Joachim Lelewel, he presided at
meetings of the Paris "Community". He edited the "Sibyl of the Polish Exile" (1833,
1835, 1836). It is impossible to establish the content of Grzymała's project for lack of
data.
We might add that at this same time there was an Adalbert Grzymała (1793-1871) in
Paris who was not a relative of Francis Grzymała. The former was co-founder of the
Polish Literary Society, and of the journal "A Chronicle of the Polish Emigration". He
was supporter of the aristocratic party (of A. Czartoryski), and a friend of Frederick
Chopin and George Sand.
DIARY
184
it a national society. I go to the "Revue" for the powders. I take the
"Européenne". I take the powders, and go to rue de Scipion for dinner. After
that I go to visit Jóźwik (I meet Ernest Cazeaux, Boleslaus, and Zatwardzicki).
Jóźwik is not in. From the Pont-Neuf once again I chase after flesh. Tired, I go
home.
Sunday, [August] 19
After the powders and breakfast and a visit with Walter. I read a chapter
from a work about the Constitution of the Third of May, and a pamphlet about
Thomas a Kempis307 and John Gerson308 - then thoughts about my past and
future, about problems with sexual and family relations (uncertainty concerning
their solution says much in favor of celibacy in my position; however I am
uncertain about its merits and my responsibilities with respect to it); also
thoughts about individualism and socialism.309 There is an article in the
"Européenne" about Nodier, and about Italy.310 My mind is filled with reasons
306
307
308
309
310
Undoubtedly this refers to The Scholarly Society of Polish Exiles in Paris, established by
a few of the exiles headed by Joachim Lelewel in December 1831, originally under the
name of The Literary Society (Cf. 1831, footnote 55). Jański belong to this society.
This refers to Thomas Hamerken, a Dutchman, the presumed author of The Imitation of
Christ. He was born in Kempis on the Rhine in 1830, and died in 1471. A religious of the
Congregation of Canons Regular of St. Augustine, he was the author of the chronicles of
his monastery, of many biographies, as well as ascetical and mystical writings.
John Gerson (1368-1429) - a theologian and philosopher, Chancellor of the University of
Paris. He participated in the Council of Constance, and the Council of Basle. He held that
a council was the highest court in the Church, and that the Pope should be subordinate to
it. He wrote epistemological and metaphysical treatises. In his time he was considered to
be the author of The Imitation of Christ.
About 1832, Pierre Leroux (Cf. above, footnote 92) in his famous article Concerning
individualism and socialism which was published in the "Revue Encyclopédique", used
the word "socialism" in its modern meaning. Leroux noted that "We have grown
accustomed to apply the name socialist to all thinkers concerned with social reforms, to
all those who criticize and condemn individualism, and finally to those who, using other
names, speak of social welfare and solidarity, including not only the members of a single
nation, but of all mankind." (Cf. J.B. Duroselle, The beginnings of social Catholicism in
France (1822-1870), op. cit., p.13.
In the "Revue Européenne" (vol.III, 1832, Nr.IX, pp.314-326) the French critic Edmond
de Cazalés wrote an article dedicated to the creativity of Nodier on the occasion of the
appearance of a five-volume work entitled: Oeuvres de Charles Nodier. Romans, contes
et nouvelles.
Charles-Emmanuel Nodier (1780-1844) a French writer. He was a librarian in the Arsenal
Library where, in the years 1823-1829 he conducted a literary salon which became one of
the main centers of the developing romanticism (Victor Hugo, Sainte-Beuve, Alfred de
Vigny, Alphonse de Lamartine, Alfred de Musset, Alexandre Dumas, Frédéric Soulié).
He assured himself a place in the history of French literature by such novels, full of
YEAR 1832
185
prompting me to lean completely toward Catholicism; this solution would lead
to freedom. For dinner. A short walk. To the Reading Room. I read Lerminier's
article about saintsimonism311 - while it is superficially written, it has its points.
One needs faith in human reason and in freedom. Lengthy reflection and
agitation. In my thoughts I return to my own theory, related to views, in part of
Buchez, in part of Lamennais, and in part of Leroux. I need to write something
for Poland. I need to pour out my thoughts, if not to someone, then on paper.
N.B. During the day I was also engrossed in plans for my upkeep. Besides my
newspaper work etc., there is also the possibility of giving lectures on statistic
etc.
205
Monday, August 20
Powders. Thoughts from yesterday. Stański312 drops in. Our conversation
is quite short. Why am I constantly so confused? Because I do not know what I
should do and what I should not do. Boleslaus Gurowski stops by. He speaks to
me of his great projects (?); after one hour he leaves. I get down to these
thoughts and reflections about myself, and about mankind. Plans to write
something soon about the Polish cause. To be active, active, active! Dedication
and hope. A further review concerning sexual relations. The result: At the
present time it is impossible to make any progress either in views of complete
socialism or individualism.
I three I dress and go out. On my way to the "Revue" I meet Walter along
with Kondratowicz, and repeat my promise to visit him in the evening. I go
back home for further reflection, and after dinner I go to visit him. We talk
311
312
romantic phanstasy as Le peintre de Saltzbourg (1803), Jean Sbogar (1818; a two volume
Polish edition in 1830), as well as the romantic novels Thérése Aubert (1819), Les
Vampires (1820), Smarra ou les Démons de la nuit (1821), Trilby ou le Lutin d'Argail
(1822), stories such as La Fée aux Miettes (1832), La Neuvaine de la Chandeleur (1839),
as well as critical and historical sketches, memoirs, and poems. As an inspirer in the field
of French literature, he exerted a spiritual influence on young writers. From 1833 he was
a member of the French Academy.
In the same number of "Revue Européenne" there was an article about Italy: Italie Seiziéme siécle écrits pieux de l'Arétin written by Eugéne de la Gournerie.
Lerminier was still writing about saintsimonism in the "Globe" in 1830 - Cf. 1831,
footnote 16).
This could be Cajetan Stański (1805?-1879) who came to France in October 1831. He
served first as a doctor's assistant, and then as a highly-valued doctor.
DIARY
186
about nothing. At two I still go to Rostkowski's hotel, asking him to visit me
tomorrow morning. Plans to write soliloquies.
Tuesday, [August] 21
The laundryman. After breakfast I return home, and then go to the
drugstore for powders. I take the powders, and go to the "Revue". Benoiste.
Julien gives me an account. I take 16 copies, and make a circuit of 8 newspaper
offices. I go back home for a powder, and take a catalogue from a Reading
Room on rue Jacob. After dinner, to Podczaszyński; an empty conversation,
though quite short. Back home I read a copy of his [?] newspaper, and glance
through his catalogue.313
Wednesday, [August] 22
Breakfast at Viot, and then to Wołowski.314 I take back the catalogue to
rue Jacob. To the "Revue". Julien presses me for money. Wodziński from
London. A conversation about republicanism in England. I go to see him and he
gives me a copy of "Crisis".315 I return home. News about Owen and his
cooperators quicken my hopes that religion will be established philosophically,
organization - liberally. I am still ready for work of emancipation in a
constitutional spirit.
313
314
315
It is impossible to establish any concrete details concerning this "newspaper". It may refer
to the periodical "Cabinet de Lecture" (Cf. above, footnote 162).
Louis Wołowski (1810-1876) - the son of Francis, and the brother of Casimir (Cf. 1835,
footnote 210) - He studied administration at the University of Warsaw. At the time of the
November uprising he was a member of the Patriotic Society, a captain on the General
Staff. He was the secretary of the Polish Legation in Paris, with General Charles
Kniaziewicz and Louis Plater. In 1832 he became a member of the Polish National
Committee in Paris, and then was co-founder and member of the board of the Literary
Society. He was naturalized in France in 1834. He was editor of of the periodical "Revue
de legislation et de jurisprudence" and a long-time collaborator at the "Revue des Deux
Mondes". From 1839 he was professor of administrative law and political economy in the
Paris Academy of Arts and Crafts. He was the founder of the, first in France, Land Credit
Association (Crédit Foncier). He was a partisan of the Czartoryski camp. He was the
author of many scholarly works in the field of economy.
"Crisis" - An English press organ of the Owenists which divided "society into those who
favored competition, or social warfare, and cooperators, those who favored joint
ownership" (cited in Edward Callier, op. cit., chapter I, p.64). The full title of this periodical in the Polish translation was: "Crisis, or the change from error and misery, to truth
and happiness. An Organ of the National Trade Society, Mankind and Knowledge.", a
periodical published from April 14, 1832, to April 20, 1833. Later, "The Crisis, a National Cooperative Trade Union" gazette published from April 27, 1833, to August 23,
1934.
YEAR 1832
187
Zoe comes to see me. I become somewhat aroused. I change my ascetical
theories about women. At four I go to visit Binet; he left for Annonay. 316 I stop
by to see Johannot;317 he does not give me any philosophical works to read.
Dinner. I visit Maliński for a moment. To Arcola. I am stymied in my
conversation with Polonia, (for I still do not have a position in their regard). At
home, reflections. I do not fall asleep until one o'clock.
206
Thursday, August 23
Once again I get up at nine. Poor Steinhauser comes to see me (I give
him ten sous, addresses, etc). Rostkowski; memories of school etc. By this time
I am well. For breakfast at eleven. To the "Revue". I look through the papers;
there is nothing there. Home for a pipe, and these memoirs from Monday. I go
back to the "Revue". Leroux and Benoiste are there. A discussion concerning
the doctrines of the discoverers, humanity, formation of religion by Councils,
syntheses as a result of individual ideas, the fusion of spiritual and temporal
authority, etc. (Delamennais, Enfantin, Cousin, Villemain,318 Lherminier, etc.).
My head is spinning. To the baths. For dinner at rue Dauphine. To Reading
Room No. 156. Back home I continue to read Carné's319 article about the
revolutions of 1789 and 1832.
Friday, [August] 24
I get up at eight. Reflections and these memoirs.320
316
317
318
319
320
Binet - no further information available.
Annonay - a city in the department of Ardéche.
Tony Johannot (1803-1852) - a copper engraver and painter. He worked with graphics,
decorative art (vignettes and engraving), illustrations for books. His brother, Alfred
Johannot (1800-1837), shared the same occupations. Both lived and worked in Paris.
Abel-François Villemain (1790-1867) - professor of Rhetoric at the Sorbonne, one of the
initiators of comparative literature; he practiced historical criticism. The author of Cours
de la littérature française, 1828-1829.
Louis-Marcien de Carné (1804-1876) - a Count, a French politician and diplomat, the
author of many books, e.g.: Du systéme de l'équilibre, l'occasion de la nationalité
polonaise (1831), Vues sur l'Histoire contemporaine (1833), Des intérets nouveaux en
Europe depuis la révolution de 1830 (1838, 2 volumes), among others. In the "Revue
Européenne" his two-part publication: Vues sur l'Histoire de la Restauration (Vol.II, Nr.
V).
A longer break in Jański's entries occurs here, undoubtedly cause, among other things, by
his involvement in the current affairs of Polish emigrants living in Paris. On Wednesday,
DIARY
188
207
Monday, October 1
I give Mary her monthly payment for the "Temps". Two honorable
gentlemen from the Ministry stop by to obtain information about me. I and the
housekeeper give them the information they seek, but I forget to mention my
rank of captain.321 I continue to mull over a program for Jełowicki's
newspaper.322 A discussion about the national cause. Plans for a memorial for
321
322
September 5, 1832, at the home of General John Nepomucene Umiński, about forty Poles
established a Paris depot (like the depots in Avignon and other cities where the Polish
exiles resided) "for purposes of unity with the Poles in the provinces, and also to
overcome the spirit of discord and dissension, of which the Paris "Community" had
become the centre. A committee was formed, consisting of three members: Maurice
Mochnacki, Andrew Plichta, and Bogdan Jański. An act of establishment was drafted,
together with a manifesto, in which those present at the meeting declared their withdrawal
from the "Community", and the establishment of a Paris depot ("Voban"), to which they
invited their fellow Poles. These meetings took place in the Vauban hotel.
E. Januszkiewicz, in his Notes and Memoirs from the life of A. Mickiewicz ("Czas" 1859,
Nr.17-20) noted that: "In 1832 the poet came to Paris and lived at rue Louis-le-Grand.
There he first met Bohdan Jański, whom he came to like very much. After daily
conversations with his fellow Poles, he conceived the idea of writing the Books." With
reference to "the first meeting" of Mickiewicz with Jański, cf. above, footnote 297.
Joseph Bohdan Zaleski, in a letter to Ladislaus Mickiewicz, the son of the poet (Paris,
1875) mentions that his father, Adam, was then writing Mr. Thaddeus, surrounded by "a
close group of people: Anthony Gorecki, Ignatius Domeyko, Bohdan Jański, Stephen
Zan, I myself, and somewhat later Stephen Witwicki [...] We had free access to Adam at
any time of the day [...] We used this privilege, and often abused it, individually bringing
in unnecessary chatter from the Paris streets and the emigrant councils."
Jański received the army rank of captain for the Polish emigration authorities, and was
listed as such by the French authorities who periodically (in 1832 and 1833) published the
names of the Polish exiles residing in Paris with permission from the Minister of War. In
the Roman Archives, French documents dealing with Jański's legalization have been
preserved: permission for his stay in Paris, as well as the book authorizing him to receive
payments.
For some time Jański was thinking about the establishment and publication of a Polish
journal for the emigrants. This need for some kind of journal was universally felt among
the exiles, among others by Alexander Jełowicki, a wealthy Podolian, who had recently
arrived in Paris (July 21, 1832). No doubt he also proposed to Jański that he prepare an
ideological program for a future Polish publication, which in their estimation was to be
daily newspaper. However, soon after Jański's and Jełowicki's plans were realized in
some measure by Eustachius Januszkiewicz, who began to publish the "Polish Pilgrim" in
Paris on November 4, 1832.
Alexander Jełowicki (1804-1877) studied philosophy in Kraków and Warsaw, where in
1825 he received the title of Master of Philosophy. He participated in the November
uprising together with his father Wacław and his brothers Edward and Eustachius. They
YEAR 1832
189
Czartoryski.323 I draw up an account of my debts - all 950 - 650 are urgent! I
need to work to earn money in every possible way. I go out to see the hatter. He
323
fought in Podolia and Volhynia. He was a prisoner in Austria, but found his way to
Warsaw, and on July 9, 1831 became a member of the Sejm as an envoy. He was a
member of the Patriotic Society, and the Ukrainian Territories Committee. As an
emigrant in Paris, on August 31, 1832, he became a member of the Polish National and
Annexed Territories Committee, established under the presidency of General Joseph
Dwernicki. He worked with exceptional energy both socially and culturally. He was cofounder and secretary of the Society for Educational Assistance which was established in
December of 1832. Together with Maurice Mochnacki, with whom he became
acquainted, he wrote a pamphlet about this society: About the Society for Mutual
Assistance (Paris, 1833). He was a member, and from May 3, 1835, secretary of the
Lithuanian and Ukrainian Territories Society. From 1833 he was a patron of Adam
Mickiewicz: He purchased the 4th volume of the Poems which was published in Paris in
1832, and at his own cost published Part III of The Forefathers (1833), Mr. Thaddeus
(1834), and Books of the Polish Pilgrims (1834). On July 1, 1835, he established a
printing-firm and Polish bookstore in Paris, and with Eustachius Januszkiewicz, a
Commission House. He published the works of Casimir Brodziński, Clementine, nee
Tyński, Hoffman, Ignatius Krasicki, Zygmunt Krasiński, Joachim Lelewel, Maurice
Mochnacki, Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Vincent Pol, Henry Rzewuski, Julius Słowacki,
Stephen Witwicki, Felix Wrotnowski, as well as other authors. In 1836 he edited the
Polish Emigration Annual", a political and literary periodical; in 1837 "Information
concerning the Nation and emigration", a historical and literary periodical, and in 18381840 "Calendar of the Polish Pilgrimage" (3 Yearbooks). He collaborated with the editors
of "Souvenirs de la Pologne, historiques, statistiques et littéraires". He was the author of
articles, memoirs (My Memoirs, 2 volumes, Paris, 1839), a translator, e.g., of F. de
Lamennais' Paroles d'un croyant, which appeared in Polish in 1834 with the title The
prophetic words of Fr. Lamennais. At the end of 1838 he entered a seminary in Paris, and
then in Versailles. On October 1, 1839, he sold his printing firm and bookstore to Julius
Marylski. He was ordained a priest in December 1841, and in the following year entered
the newly established in Rome Congregation of the Resurrection. He was superior of the
Polish Mission in Paris connected with the church of St. Roch, and then the church of the
Assomption. He was opposed to revolutionary movements, and vigorously combatted
Towianism. He gave moral support to the January uprising. He was the protector of
Makryna Mieczysławska, through whom he attempted to exert an influence on Adam
Mickiewicz and his Legion. He was a preacher, a translator of classical works of religious
literature, such as The Imitation of Christ of Thomas a Kempis, the Spiritual Exercises of
Ignatius Loyola, and others. He contributed to the establishment of the Polish College in
Rome. After his death he was buried in the Cemetery of St. Lawrence (Campo Verano) in
the tomb of members of the Congregation of the Resurrection.
I was unable to ascertain the content of the proposed memorial.
Adam Czartoryski (1770-1861) - Prince, eminent politician and senator of the Kingdom
of Poland, patron, poet and diarist. He took part in the war of 1792. After his return from
the first emigration, he entered into a close relationship with Tsar Alexander I, becoming
his friend and counselor. He was one of the latter's co-workers in planning the reform of
the State authorities in Russia. He held the rank of Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs,
DIARY
190
is to return my old hat, for which he does not offer credit. To the "Revue".
Pecqueur and Achille. I take with me Demaistre"s Considérations sur la France
which was brought for Benoiste. To Maurice; Camille has not yet arrived from
Eaubonne.324 I begin to read Demaistre before dinner - I am greatly moved.
After dinner a conversation with [Jules] Mercier about Ménilmontant and
pantheism. Lagarmité325 arrives with things for the hotel. To Maliński. We chat.
He foresaw the coronation of Flandrin.326 Foucaut327 brings money; he promises
me 5 francs. Back home. Fanny is sick. I go to see her. With Barbette a fruitless
search for a syringe.328 To bed at eleven, and a few chapters of Demaistre.
208
Tuesday, October 2
324
325
326
327
328
and was also a member of the Russian board of education. In 1803 he was appointed
curator of the Vilno school district, and in this position he contributed to a fruitful
development of Polish education. From 1804 to 1805 he was Russian Minister of Foreign
Affairs. He declared himself opposed to Napoleon I. He played an important role at the
Congress of Vienna (1815). In the years 1815-1830 he was a member of the
Administrative Council of the Kingdom of Poland. Initially opposed to the November
uprising, he later accepted the presidency of the National Government (January 29-July
25, 1831). After the collapse of the uprising, he emigrated to France, where he directed
political and diplomatic activity, centered at the Hotel Lambert. Conservative elements of
the emigration regarded him as the uncrowned king of Poland. He tried by diplomatic
means, and with the help of the Western European governments, to free Poland, counting
on an eventual war between the powers both in the West and in the East. He also
developed cultural activities among the emigrants, personally supporting various educational initiatives, such as the Polish Library, and the Literary (Historical-Literary)
Society.
Eaubonne - a suburb of Paris, where the Mochnacki brothers lived: Maurice (from August
25 to November 6, 1832) and Camille.
Henri Lagarmitté (1807 - May 25, 1834) - lawyer, journalist, translator from the German
language, editor of the "Journal du Haut-et du Bas-Rhin". A collaborator at the "Nouvelle
Revue Germanique", "Globe", and "Revue Encyclopédique".
Hippolyte Flandrin (1809-1864) - a student of the French painter Jean Auguste
Dominique Ingres, his teacher at the Paris Académie des Beaux-Arts. At the age of 23,
that is in 1832, Flandrin received the Grand Prize, Prix de Rome, at a competitive
showing for his painting Thésée reconnu par son pére dans un festin. Thanks to this he
was able to travel abroad for further studies in Rome. He became an outstanding painter
of the French school. He painted pictures of a religious nature, and portraits.
Foucaut - no further details.
It is not certain whether this is Auguste Barbet (b.1800) - a French economist, formerly a
tax-gatherer. He was devoted to Fr. Lamennais, and was his publisher. He was interested
in social problems. He was the executor of Lamennais' testament.
YEAR 1832
191
I awake after seven. I few memories of my sensual past. The emptiness of
its delights; and what have I done up until now for spiritual delights? I am
already 27 years old.329 On my feet. Instead of a course, the thought of writing
letters. This puts one on a higher plane addressing everyone; topics can then be
treated at greater length and more boldly. I get down to writing these
reflections. That scoundrel Maliński does not come with the 5 francs.
On Wednesday, [October 3] I receive a letter inviting me to become a member
of the Polish Literary Society.330
209
On Thursday, [October] 18, I attended a session of the Literary Society,. after an
absence of two weeks. Czartoryski is present.
210
Saturday, [October] 20
Breakfast with Umiński (Podczaski,331 Łagocki332). I gather signatures. At
one o'clock the session333 begins. I am not satisfied with myself. A very disord329
Jański, born in March, 1807, was not yet twenty-six years old in 1832.
The Polish Literary Society (Société Littéraire Polonaise á Paris) was established in Paris
on April 29, 1832. Cf. Notes to the Diary for the Year 1832 for notes concerning the
Polish Literary Society in Paris, the list of members of the Society, its program, and the
sessions at which the presence of Bogdan Jański is noted.
331
Ladislaus Louis Podczaski (1791-1865) - participated in the Napoleonic campaign and the
November uprising; a colonel, and commander of the 20th infantry regiment. In March of
1832 he emigrated to France. In Bourges he was the president of the Polish Council. He
held to a conservative position, which brought him into conflict with soldiers of
democratic convictions.
332
Peter Ludomir Łagocki (Łagowski) (1774-1843) - a colonel in the Polish army. He
participated in the Prussian, Austrian and Russian campaigns, as well as in the war of
1809-1814. He was one of the members of the secret Knights Templars in Volhynia. He
was imprisoned and persecuted by the Russians. During the November uprising he was
commander of the Sejm Guard. He was an emigrant in France.
333
On Saturday, October 20, 1832, all of the delegates of the Polish depots in France
gathered in Paris to familiarize themselves with the reports and the acts pertaining to the
establishment of a central authority for the Polish emigration. In accord with the custom
already accepted in the depots, General Umiński, as president of the new Paris council,
with Bogdan Jański as his secretary, presided at the meeting. This met with opposition on
the part of a few malcontents, who registered their protest by leaving the meeting. Especially stormy were the discussions on the topic of a letter to Adam Czartoryski. Jański,
who had been at such meetings before, was disgusted with the meeting, and on October
22 (the date in the Diary) decided that he would not take part in the installation, that is in
330
DIARY
192
erly discussion deafens me. I speak up unnecessarily when I should have been a
listener. Umiński's charges. I am bored to the point of anger. To Dunin for
dinner, completely dazed. To Maurice for a pipe. To Zdzienicki for money; he is
not in. To Fanny; I do not eat dinner. I go out to buy wine and a bun for her. I
stay there until nine. I go home; a few chapters of du Peintre de Saltzbourg334
and I fall asleep.
Sunday, [October] 21
Zdzienicki brings me 5 francs. I take them to Fanny. I meet Kronen335
berg, Frydrych,336 and Hoffman.337 To Dunin; too much talk about my bad
334
335
336
337
the establishment of the Polish Emigration Committee, the head of which was General
Joseph Dwernicki.
A fantastic 1803 novel by Charles Nodier (Cf. above, footnote 310).
Salomon (Stanislaus) Kronenberg (1809-1843) - the son of a wealthy Jewish family in
Warsaw, the brother of Leopold, a future financier and industrialist. From 1825 he
studied in the faculty of medicine at the University of Warsaw. In 1830 he received a
Master's degree in Medicine and Surgery. During the November uprising he was a
battalion doctor in the Main Warsaw Hospital. On April 6, 1832, he received his doctoral
degree in Berlin. Before returning to Warsaw, he lived in Paris. After his return to
Poland, he became ward head of the Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Warsaw.
Bartholemew Frydrych (1802-1867) - Medical studies begun in 1819 at the University of
Warsaw were completed in Vilno in 1827. He worked in Warsaw. During the November
uprising he was a doctor in the barracks hospital of the Royal Guard, then staff doctor in
the 2nd uhlan regiment. He emigrated to Paris in December 1831. In October 1835 he
returned to Warsaw, where he assumed the position of ward head in the Hospital of the
Child Jesus. He was the author of scholarly works.
Alexander Hoffmann (1805-1867) - Studied medicine in Warsaw in the years 1822-1826,
and then in Berlin. After receiving his degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1828 in Vilno, he
returned to Warsaw. In the November uprising, from December 1830 he was a staff
doctor of the 5th uhlan regiment, and then ward head in the barracks hospital of the Royal
Guard. He was an emigrant in Paris where he worked as a doctor in the years 1832-1838.
From 1838 he worked in the same capacity in Alsace, then in Śląsk, and finally in Śrem.
He was a friend of Frederick Chopin during their school years, and from the middle of
1832 lived with him in the same house.
Other than the Alexander Hoffmann, mentioned here, Charles Alexander Hoffman
(Hoffmann) (1798-1875) was also active in the emigration. He was a writer, journalist,
lawyer and historian. He was the husband of Clementine, nee Tański. From 1828, he was
a counsellor of the Office of the Attorney General, and in that same year an adviser in the
Polish Bank, as well as co-editor of the legal periodical "Themis Polska". During the
uprising, from January 1831, he was one of the directors of the Bank of Poland. He was
an emigrant in Paris, a follower of Adam Czartoryski, advocating a hereditary
constitutional monarchy. He was editor of "Chronicles of the Polish Emigration" and a
member of the Historical Society in Paris. After 1848 he took up permanent residence in
Galicia. He was the author of historical works, the novel The Exile King, and A Polish
Vademecum, as well as an open letter to members of the French Parliament: La
YEAR 1832
193
humor and my work as secretary. To Paprocki.338 To the Reading Room. In the
"Revue de Paris"339 I read about Tieck,340 and Balzac's341 about Nodier etc.
After dinner to see Podczaszyński. He has no money. To Mickiewicz (Bohdan
Zaleski342, Grzymała, Hube, Orański343) about the Zaporożcans344, Czarnecki,345
and Polish literature in recent times. I am in very good humor.
338
339
340
341
342
Nationalité polonaise detruite. Lettre d'un Polonais adressée aux députés de la France
(Paris, 1832), and others.
Undoubtedly Casimir Paprocki (1796-1857) - A Lieutenant Colonel of the grenadiers. He
participated in the November uprising. During the defence of Warsaw he suffered a
bruised left hand, which remained palsied until the end of his life. He was an emigrant in
Paris. In spring of 1832, he was one of the founders of the Paris depot. He belonged to the
"Voban" group, which stood in opposition to Lelewel's Committee. He joined the followers of Prince Czartoryski. He conducted instructions in the area of military science
(infantry tactics). He was a member of emigrant welfare and educational societies, and
was active especially in the Association for Assistance to Education.
"Revue de Paris. Journal critique, politique et littéraire" - A Paris periodical published
initially from 1829 to 1833. It published articles of prominent French writers, reviews and
critiques, as well as reports dealing with cultural, social and political life.
Johann Ludwig Thieck (1773-1853) - a German poet, prose writer, dramatist, and critic.
The author of fables and popular legends, e.g., vulgar tales drawn from fables for
presentation on stage Leben und tod der heiligen Genoveva (1800), which became the
model of romantic tragedy. A translator.
Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) - a French writer, journalist, and literary critic. He spent
his first years in school with the Oratorians. In 1814 he began to study law in Paris. From
1819 he dedicated himself to producing literature. He possessed a wide philosophical culture. His "masters" were Joseph de Maistre, but especially Louis de Bonald, Emmanuel
Swedenborg, and Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin. In politics he was initially a liberal; but
after the July revolution he became a legitimist, recognizing "two eternal truths: Religion
and Monarchy". In his creative work he presented the life of a few generations, beginning
with the great French Revolution, and ending with the time of Louis Philip.
During Jański's stay in Paris, the following works of Balzac appeared: Salamander
(1831), The Pastor from Tours (1832), Eugenia Grandet and the country doctor (1832),
Louis Lambert (1833), A search for the Absolute (1834), Pére Goriot (1834-1835), Lily in
the Valley (1836), Lost Illusions (1837). Balzac presented Parisian society in, e.g., The
Officials (1837), Nucingen's Bank (1838), and the society of the 30's, which were the
years of Jański's stay in Paris. In 1832 a correspondence was initiated between Balzac and
the Polish artist Evelyn Hańska, with whom the writer became acquainted in 1850, three
months before his death.
Nodier - Cf. above, footnote 310.
Joseph Bohdan Zaleski (1802-1886) - a poet, who came from the Kijowo Province. He
spent his boyhood days in the Ukraine, along the Dnieper. He studied with the Basilians
in Human, where he became a friend of his colleague Severin Goszczyński. From 1820
he studied at the University of Warsaw. Already then he began to publish his poems, for
which he was to become famous. Casimir Brodziński took him under his wing. The
young Zaleski supported himself by tutoring. In his early and as well as in his later
creative years he extolled his native Ukraine. He sang the praises of the knightly-Kozak
DIARY
194
Monday, [October] 22
Rostkowski wakes me up. He tells me about Gurowski's fits of temper. I
am still lacking in concentration due to my complicated situation in the midst of
the emigration and materially. I do not go to visit Umiński. I have decided that
it is better to apologize to him than to flounder once again in a vacuum. To the
post-office on business for Masłowski.346 I meet Madame Steinhauser, and have
breakfast with them. Back home I finish Le peintre de saltzbourg, and
Méditations du Cloitre.347 Dinner. To Fanny - she received a letter from Walter.
343
344
345
346
347
tradition, and published historical elegies (The Dumka of Hetman Kosiński, The Dumka of
Mazepa, etc.), lyrics, sometimes paraphrasing Ukrainian folk poetry. He participated in
the November uprising, and was an envoy to the Sejm. After the collapse of the uprising,
he resided in Lwów, where he became acquainted with Major Joseph Zaleski. In April of
1832, he left for Paris, to which the envoys were summoned. From the end of July 1832
he lived first in Paris, then in Sévres, actively participating in the socio-political life of
the emigration. At that time he became acquainted with Adam Mickiewicz, and with
Jański was a member of his inner circle. In December 1834 he was one of the founders of
a religious brotherhood, bearing the name The United Brethren. At the beginning of 1835
both he and Joseph Zaleski became members of the Polish Democratic Society; however,
both withdrew from the society in 1837. They both visited France, Switzerland, Italy and
the Holy Land. Joseph Bohdan was deeply devoted to the Catholic faith. He held Jański's
religious work in high regard, and provided material assistance. He organized this
assistance among people both in Poland and in the emigration. He continued to produce
his lyrical works. Although Zaleski distanced himself from Mickiewicz when he became
a towianist, the latter regarded Zaleski as "undoubtedly the greatest of all poets".
Krasiński and Słowacki also shared that opinion.
Xavier Orański came from Volhynia. He participated in the November uprising as a
lieutenant in the 7th infantry regiment. As an emigrant in France, he resided in Paris. He
was a member of Lelewel's Committee.
Zaporożcy - inhabitants of Zaporożhe, the lowlands along the lower Dnieper, later called
"the rapids", and often the Wild Fields. In the 19th century the inhabitants of Zaporożhe
were also called Cossacks.
Stephen Czarniecki (1599-1665) - Castellan of Kijowo. a Russian voivode from 1657, a
royal field hetman from 1665, an outstanding commander. He participated in the Swedish
campaign and in battles with Bohdan Chmielnicki. In Polish national tradition he is an
example of a steadfast and sacrificial soldier memorialized in the national hymn.
Dionysius Masłowski (1791-1884) - Participated in the Napoleonic campaign (18121814), as well as in the November uprising. A lieutenant colonel in the artillery. As an
emigrant he resided in Besançon, the second depot after Avignon, founded at the
beginning of February, 1832. He was on the list of Poles who wished to enroll in the
Portuguese Legion planned by General Bem; and in connection with that he lived in
Charente-Inférieure from August 1832.
The Journal des émotions d'un coeur souffrant, suivi des Méditations du Cloître was
added to Charles Nodier's novel Le Peintre de Saltzbourg, which was published in 1803.
YEAR 1832
195
To Podczaszyński (Meyzner). I read Adela348 by the fire - and reflections. I
resolve not to accept administrative functions, but to write a proposal for a
committee dealing with the education of our youth.
Tuesday, [October[ 23
I get up before ten. A letter from Courte. What a knave I am. I still have
not written to him. Maliński tells me about Gurowski. Rostkowski and Jóźwik
come to visit. At eleven I go out for the newspapers, to the army office - in vain.
I go back home for a while. I feel quite strong. To Steinhauser for breakfast. He
tells me his troubles. For a walk to the Bois-de-Boulogne. Plichta, always
polite, plans for literary work and income. Dinner. Human 349 is supposed to
have entered Ménilmontant. Fanny does not come to visit, even though she
promised.
211
N.B. I met Podczaszyński before dinner. Umiński feels that I am offended about
a trifle. From Fanny to Mrs. Nain for coffee - and remembrances of the past.
Wednesday, [October 24]
How very painful it is to beg day after day for a few francs! I went to see
Oleszczyński; an excuse. A long walk. In the evening I read Terese.350
348
349
350
Undoubtedly a novel by the French author Adélaide de Souza (1761-1836), entitled Adéle
de Sénange (1793), written in the contemporary sentimental style of J.-J. Rousseau. Her
six-volume compilation Oeuvres complétes appeared in 1811-1822.
Humann - son of a French statesman Jean-Georges Humann (1780-1842), Finance
Minister in the years 1832-1836.
From the end of April, 1832, about 40 followers of the teaching of Father Enfantin
resided at his estate in the vicinity of Paris. They manifested great reverence toward their
leader, and worshipped him in prayers offered up to him. They adopted garments of a
specified color and fashion, requiring them to offer one another mutual support. In two
months of isolation adepts were to perfect themselves internally, in order to prepare
themselves for the apostolate, to "liberate women and the proletarians." They worked in
the garden, participated in meditations, instructions and community singing of hymns.
After two months of isolation they could receive visitors, but only on Wednesdays and
Sundays. Many curious people came to visit them, sometimes in such numbers that the
Paris authorities considered this as organization of illegal gatherings, and in the end, on
the basis of article 21 of the penal code, they accused Enfantin, Rodrigues, Barrault and
Chevalier of violating the law, and even of indecency.
The novel Thérése Aubert of 1819, written in the romantic convention by Charles Nodier
(Cf. above, footnote 309).
DIARY
196
N.B. When I come to dinner, I receive a letter from Celine on rue de la
Touraine; Adela is there.
Thursday, [October 25]
I glance through the catalogue of the Lipsk fair. To Podczaszyński. Rue
de la Touraine, with a decision to take Adela. To the bureau. There is still no
reply from the Minister. I do not find Benoiste. I look at the boarding-houses
near the Luxembourg. I am forced to borrow another 5 francs from
Niemir[owski?].351 In the evening I read Smarra352 - with what great joy!
Friday, [October] 26
Lagarmité gives me the "Revue Germanique".353 Göthe about immortality
of the soul354 makes an impression on me. I am deeply moved! I make a
351
352
353
354
...from Niemir[owski?] - It is impossible to identify the person Jański had in mind.
Charles Nodier's novel Smarra ou les Démons de la nuit (Smarra, that is Demons of the
night) of 1821, in which the author painted a picture of a long nightmarish dream, full of
spells. and scenes of horror (Cf. above, footnote 310).
This refers to "Nouvelle Revue Germanique", a monthly literary and scientific periodical
published by the Société d'Hommes de lettres français et etrangers. Its publisher was F.G.
Levraut (Cf. 1833, footnote 7). It appeared in the years 1829-1833. H. Lagarmité was coeditor of this publication.
In the July issue of the periodical "Nouvelle Revue Germanique" (1832, pp.262-268) a
fragment of Johann Falk's posthumous work Göthe, aus naherm personlichem Umgang
dargestelt (Goethe seen up close) was published, Leipzig, 1832, in a French translation
entitled Goethe, Sur immortalité de l'âme.
Johannes Falk (1768-1826) - pedagogue and scholar, an inhabitant of Weimar, wrote
down conversations with Goethe, which were published only after the death of both of
them. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-March 22, 1832), a German writer and
thinker, under the influence of the death of his friend, the poet Christopher Martin
Wieland (1733-January 20, 1813, in Weimar), declared himself on the topic of the
immortality of the soul. This was noted by Falk on January 25, 1813. The following is a
fragment of this declaration: "Generally speaking, from the moment we perceive the
eternity of the world, it is impossible to attribute to monads as active, vivid powers of
another fate anything else but eternal participation in the bliss of the gods. The formation
of the universe, the eternal regeneration of creation, was conferred precisely upon them.
Summoned, or not summoned, they come by themselves, by all roads, from all
mountains, seas, and stars. Who could possibly hinder them? As for myself, as you see
me here, I am sure that I have already existed a thousand times; and I have the hope that I
will return another thousand times." (Translation from the French by Alina Molska). In
the opinion of those who know the mind and creativity of Goethe, Falk's notes from
conversations with the poet "are often very problematic, and often very valuable" (R.
Friedenthal). The view of the creator of Faust concerning immortality of the soul gained
confirmation in Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe.
YEAR 1832
197
synthesis of my past: my struggles with fatalism, absorbing mysticism, and materialistic inclinations. Despair, or follies of mind and of heart! This is my
recent past. For the future, faith in God and self. Freedom, dedication, fortitude!
Plans for a life that is free, and sincerely dedicated to love of neighbor and
truth.
212
In the evening Lagarmité tells me about the beautiful character traits of
the young Humann. Unfortunately, he entered Ménilmontant recently.
An end to vanity and despair, to pride and abnegation. Love is not
mistaken. Love lives by faith and freedom, and a person lives by love of God
and neighbor. Faith and freedom do not die beneath the blows of adversity.
On Saturday, [October 27] Walter arrives. Dinner and the evening at his place.
On Tuesday, [October 30] - I see that Adela is spoiled by Celine, and so I drops
my plans concerning her. The great news is that I am impotent.
On Wednesday [October 31] I receive 10 francs from Walter - a material
impulse. Dinner for 5 francs. I sleep with Clarissa. Being active in temporal
affairs, one needs to be temporally animated. Abandonment of puritanism.355
355
Goethe's reflection on the immortality of the soul is based on his individual understanding
of the philosophy of Leibnitz (entelechy, activity, monad, a hierarchy of monads...) and
otherwise merits being cited in its entirety, at least with regard to the intellectual and
moral impact that Jański experienced under the influence of reading this. He expressed
this in further notes in his Diary. Instead of the long text printed in "Nouvelle Revue
Germanique", it is possible to cite a fragment from Conversations with Goethe from
February 24, 1829, which includes a philosophical conclusion already recognized in
Falk's version: "They draw the conviction about our eternal existence from the concept of
activity. For when I continue to act without rest until death, nature is obliged in my regard
to designate another from of existence for me when my present form can no longer keep
pace with the spirit." Eckerman adds something that Jański would experience: "At these
words my heart beat faster with wonder and love. Never did I think, never was there any
teaching that would stimulate a person more to noble acts than precisely this teaching.
For who would not wish to work and act untiringly until death when he sees in this a
guarantee of eternal life!" (Translated by K. Radziwiłł and J. Zelter, Vol. II, Warsaw,
1960).
There is a break here in the Diary with no entries for November and December 1832. In
this time events occurred which in some measure affected the division of Jański's
activities. At about the 10th of December, and again at the end of that month, Adam
Mickiewicz's The Books of the Polish Nations and the Polish Pilgrims appeared in print.
Jański would be occupied with their French Translation.
DIARY
198
From November 4, 1832, the periodical "The Polish Pilgrim, a Political and Literary
Journal" began to appear in Paris, edited by Eustachius Januszkiewicz.
In Paris the printing of The Forefathers, Part III began. This was Volume IV of the
complete edition of Poems (1832) which was ready for sale in January 1833.
At the end of December the Society for Assistance to Education was organized.
On December 2, 1832, Jański wrote a letter to his friend, the translator Burgaud des
Marets, in which he indicated his reasons for belonging to the saintsimonists and for his
separation from them; he also revealed his psychic and moral status connected with this
event. This "autobiographical" sketch goes a long way to complete the Diary of 1830
from the perspective of December 1832. For that reason I cite below a fragment of that
letter of December 2, 1832 in a Polish translation from the original French by Fr. Paul
Smolikowski:
"You know that before you left Paris two and a half years ago, I was drawing close to
Saint-Simonism, which at that time was only a small philosophical school, practically
unknown. Shortly after, I embraced it completely. Why? You guessed it. The generosity
and grandeur of the views of this society blinded me, as many others, to all that was
incomplete, false, or impossible in it. Full of faith and ardor for the work which I
considered most useful for humanity, and further carried away by the events in Paris [he
speaks about the July revolution] of which I was a witness, I went to London, and there
spent six months in the role of a very zealous missionary, which only served to increase
my illusions. After I returned to Paris, being in a position to get a close look at my
principles in people who were their highest representatives, I began slowly to become
disillusioned. But, although I had enough sense not to push forward, although I chose to
keep silent rather than to speak to everyone about my faith, as an apostle, yet the
principles once accepted with the best of faith were too deeply rooted in my mind to
enable me to reject them immediately. This struggle between sentiment and reason that
was wearing me out, killing me, lasted up to the time when the schism that occurred
between the leaders of saintsimonism showed me the complete emptiness of my convictions, and at the same time brought on a state of complete weakness and apathy. It
seemed to me that all certainty, all efficiency, my entire will were completely taken away.
The thought that my illusions, which had only then unravelled, had influenced the neglect
of my obligations as a Pole, and that I had thus sinned against my Country by remaining
in London and Paris when I should have been fighting along the Vistula, the collapse of
our national cause, the loss that I suffered in this uprising of my father and many
members of my family, served to depress me completely. It is already one year since I
ceased to be a saintsimonist, and I have scarcely been able to collect my thoughts and
find enough strength to dare to live again." (ACRR 8631, pp.971-973 - History of the
Congregation of the Resurrection, new edition, reworked and completed, Volume I, pp.78).
It is worth calling attention to the fact that, in his Diary for 1832, Jański noted an event
that had such a powerful effect on the Polish emigration namely, the proclamation on
June 9, 1832, of Gregory XVI's Brief Cum primum, addressed to the Polish Bishops. In
that Brief, the Pope severely criticized the Polish clergy for their participation in the
uprising, which came to be recognized as a revolution impairing "established order" and a
revolt against "lawful authority".
YEAR 1832
199
APPENDIX
I. MEMORANDA
8598
20-21
May 21, [1832]
In these days a visit with the Wodzińskis.1
As soon as possible read Malte-Brun about Slavs.
With reference to an historical atlas of Poland, go to the Geographical
Society with Leonard Chodźko for maps and geographical works.
To Férussac.
For Polish newspapers, obtain information from Podczaszyński about
books in public libraries dealing with Polish affairs,
Consult the "Révue Encyclopédique" under the title "Slavs", the "Bulletin
Bibliographique",2 and "Nouvelles".3
Therefore, there is a need to investigate German newspapers, various
geographical, statistical and archeological news items, expeditions etc., and
seriously study the literature and history of the various Slavic people (MalteBrun's indexes and works).
Balbi's statistical tables.4
A letter to Dąbrowski, to Korn.5
1
Undoubtedly this refers to the Wodziński brothers, Anthony and Felix - Cf. above, footnote
37.
2
"Bulletin Bibliographique de Bossange, libraire, ou Liste des ouvrages nouveaux publiés
en France", Paris, 1830-1878. The publisher of the bulletin was Hector Bossange (of
whom Eustachius Januszkiewicz was a collaborator), and then by Gustave Bossange. The
Bulletin appeared also in English and German versions.
3
Jański had in mind "Nouvelles annales des voyages, de la géographie et de l'histoire", a
periodical published from 1819 to 1865 in Paris.
4
Adriano Balbi (1782-1848) - an Italian geographer and statistician. He lived in Paris from
1821, working for a long time on his work: Atlas ethnographique du globe, ou
Classification des peuples anciens et modernes d'apriés leurs langues (Paris, 1826). After
he completed this work, he returned to Italy in 1832. His most famous work is Abrégé de
géographie (1832).
5
The name of a family of German booksellers and publishers in Wrocław, active in the
18th, and the beginning of the 19th centuries. Undoubtedly Jański initiated contact by
way of letter with Johann Gottlieb Korn (1765-1837), who was involved in the
APPENDIX
200
To Brailoi, to find out about the notes in his former monthly periodical rue d'Enfer or Diamans.
Russian in Hłuszniewicz, or... etc.
II. "BRIEF MEMOIRS FROM MY PAST
FROM CHILDHOOD ACCORDING TO YEARS"6
8627
233
[?June 13-17, 1832]
1812 - We move to Pękowo
1813 - my seventh year7 - My mother takes me to Niestępowo. Szelling. to
schools. Osowski.8
1814 - my eighth year - I finish my first year of the lower grades. We move to
the vicariate. Director [Benedictine] Tański.
1815 - my ninth year - I finish the lower grades, and move up to the first class;
in the good graces of Fr. Prusiński.9 I am good at arithmetic.
6
7
8
administration of the firm and established a printing house. A consultant of the Korn
publishing division was, e.g., George Samuel Bandtkie.
Jański did not supply a title for his memoirs. The title listed by the publisher, noted here
in quotation marks, is a fragment of the last sentence of a Diary entry dated "Friday,
[June] 15, [1832]". Cf. above, footnote 194.
After each year noted, B. Jański indicates the year of his life.
Pękowo - a village and grange in the Kozłowo commune, belonging to the parish of
Kozłowo, about eight kilometers from Pułtusk. Pękowo was leased by Peter Jański,
Bogdan's father.
Mother - Agnes, nee Hryniewicka, of the Przegoć crest (February 4, 1773-October 26,
1824), was married first in 1804 to Francis Winnicki (d.1805), and then a second time to
Peter Jański (Cf. below, footnote 365). She brought with her as her dowery a portion of
Pogorzelec.
Niestępowo - a village in the commune of Gzowo (Gzów), about 7 kilometers from
Pułtusk. In this village lived the married sister of Agnes Jański, Bogumiła (Theophila)
Jaroszewska, the mother of Michael, Joseph and Andrew, cousins of Bogdan Jański.
Joseph Szelling (Schelling?) - an inhabitant of Pułtusk, occupying a room there.
Fr. Adalbert Osowski (Ossowski) - directed an elementary school for youngsters, and the
school choir.
YEAR 1832
201
1816 - my tenth year - a slacker and wastrel. We are living in a dilapidated
canonicate. However, I obtain a promotion to the second class. We move to the
Jasińskis. My father arrives.10
1817 - my eleventh year - I am a slacker and insubordinate. Rudłowski is the
Rector. I am not promoted to the third class. After vacation I am not placed in
the first-class.
1818 - my twelfth year - In the second class for the first months. The
Weslowys.11 A miserable vacation period. My mother is in Pogorzelec, while
my father goes to live with his family. In a room with Mr. Braun.
1819 - my thirteenth year - I am in the good graces of Fr. Górecki. I am number
one in my class. A reprobate. Bagieński. Vacation with the Jaroszewskis and
Długołęcki. Misery. I move up to the fourth class, and am in the good graces of
Fr. Rostkowski.12 We are living at the Jasińskis together with the Jaroszewskis
and my father. First in a large room, then in a small one.
234
1820 - my fourteenth year - an insubordinate idler, but in the good graces of my
teachers. We are living with the Jaroszewskis, along with Dytel. I receive a
copy of the Bible as a reward. Suddenly I am religious, hard-working and quiet.
9
10
11
12
Fr. Ambrose Prusiński - a Benedictine who taught arithmetic, algebra and geometry.
Father - Peter Jański (1773-1831) - the son of Ignatius Joachim of the Doliwa crest, and
Magdalen, nee Zborowski. He married Agnes, nee Hryniewicka, Winnicka. They had five
sons: Bogdan (b. March 26, 1807), Anthony (b. July 5, 1808), Stephen (b. May 29, 1809),
Stanislaus and George Gregory - the last two died as infants. He participated in the
Napoleonic campaigns and was the tenant of crown lands. He participated and was killed
in the November uprising.
Weslowie (Weslowys) - a noble family in Pułtusk.
Gerard Górecki (b. 1781) - A Benedictine priest. In the years 1818-1831 he taught Greek,
Latin, German, world history, the history of Poland, natural history, geography,
geometry, and physics, at the Provincial School in Pułtusk. Later he was a professor of
theology, and the Prior of a Benedictine Monastery.
Bagieński - no further information available.
Undoubtedly Joseph Długołęcki - the son of Vincent and Marianne, nee Hryniewicka, the
younger sister of Agnes Jański.
Fr. Stephen Rostkowski (b. 1769) - A Benedictine, professor in the years 1820-1831,
prefect at the Provincial School in Pułtusk. He taught religion, languages (Latin and
Polish), Polish and Latin literature.
APPENDIX
202
The first reaction against carousing. I am immersed in contemplation discussion about the immortality of the soul.
1821 - my fifteenth year - Ultra religious. I mingle with the Narzymskis. Work
and happiness; an award (a violin). A mission in Pułtusk.13
1822 - my sixteenth year - work and religiosity less intense. Jakacki.
Secondary-school certificate. Tutoring. Delight in teaching. Szaniawski philological plans.14
1823 - my seventeenth year - Acquaintance with Bronisz - an atheist.
Sadkowski, Łebkowski.15 A love affair. Ziemecki. Daniłowski. Arrival in
Warsaw - poverty; a second reaction against carousing. Work, poverty and
happiness.
1824 - my eighteenth year - I enter the service of the Skierkowskis - hard work.
A spiritualist. A Kuncist. Skarbek's political economy. An economist. Bronisz,
the travels of Anakreon.16 The death of my dear mother. Cyprysiński.
13
14
15
16
The Narzymskis - perhaps the brothers Jacob (b. 1808) and Stephen (b. 1807), the sons of
wealthy land-owners, proprietors of lands in Przasnyski. After their studies in the school
in Pułtusk, both studied law at the University of Warsaw. They participated in the
November uprising, and after the battle at Grochowo joined the first uhlan regiment.
Missions - here: special devotions for the purpose of stimulating religious spirit among
the people, conducted by priests invited to preach.
Vincent Jakacki (b. c.1804) - a graduate of the Provincial School in Pułtusk, the son of a
squire of a village in the Pułtusk region. In 1823 he enrolled in the faculty of law at the
University of Warsaw. He received his Master's degree in 1826. In the years 1830-1855
he was an advocate associated with the civil tribunal in Płock. In January of 1831 he
signed a letter of the Płock Province to the Sejm.
Collaboratorship (Apprenticeship) - one year of practice for those chosen from among the
graduates of the Pułtusk school as candidates to become teachers.
Undoubtedly Fr. Francis Xavier Szaniawski (d.1830) - professor of civil law, a canon,
author and publisher at the University of Warsaw in the field of Canon and Civil law.
From 1809, a member of the Warsaw Society of the Friends of Learning.
Undoubtedly Theodore Łebkowski (b. 1802) - studied in Pułtusk. Three days after
Bogdan Jański, on September 22, 1823, he enrolled in the faculty of law and administration at the University of Warsaw.
The Skwierkowskis - undoubtedly the parents of Hilary (b. 1810), who hailed from
Serock (in the region of Pułtusk). The father was Silvester - a townsman and postal
official. His son Hilary studied law at the University of Warsaw from 1828. At the time
of the November uprising he was a lieutenant, an aide-de-camp to the staff of the
National Guard. He remained in Poland.
Kuncist - an individual form, perhaps a derivative of "kancist", which in turn could be a
variant of "Kantist", that is a follower of the philosophy of I. Kant.
YEAR 1832
203
1825 - my nineteenth year - Drunken revels with Bronisz come to an end. I
write a treatise on political economy. A third reaction against carousing.
Śniadecki. Systéme social. Systéme de la raison. Acquaintance with [Louis]
Królikowski.17
1826 - my twentieth year - I begin to live with Rybicki. Acquaintance with
[Henry] Jaroszyński. Statistics. Powerful ambition. Storch. Newspapers.
Friendship with Królikowski and Olechowski.18
1827 - my twenty-first year - I part company with Jaroszyński. Pociejew.19 The
first prostitutes. The Jaroszewskis. Adalbert Lempicki. Great plans. Górecki,20
17
18
19
Anakreont (Anakreon), from Teos, a Greek lyricist from the middle of the 5th century
before Christ. In his songs he extolled love, wine and revelry.
Most probably John Śniadecki (1756-1830) - A mathematician, astronomer, geographer,
philosopher, pedagogue, literary critic, and language theorist. In the years 1807-1815 he
was the Rector of the University of Vilno, and director of the astronomical observatory.
He was the author of: Philosophical treatises (4 volumes, 1822), as well as Concerning
the philosophy and writings... concerning the philosophy of Kant (1821). He was also the
author of A philosophy of the human intellect, or a thoughtful exposition of the intellectual powers and activities, 1818 (4 volumes of Various writings, 1822). In these treatises
he took a position opposed to Kant.
Systéme social - the title of a work published in 1773, written by Paul Thiry d'Holbach
(1723-1789) a French philosopher of the Enlightenment. Holbach was also the author of
the famous "bible of materialism", which was the name given to his Systéme de la Nature,
ou des lois du monde morale (1770), and La Morale universelle (1776). He held that all
of nature is a material organism governed by determinism and usefulness, which is
known by experience, the only source of human knowledge. According to him, the idea
of God is an anthropomorphic creation of intellects of the ignorant and unenlightened,
while the only rational ethic is a hedonist-determinist ethic.
Louis Królikowski - Cf. 1830, footnote 34.
Theophilus Rybicki (1805-1859) - from Pułtusk. He studied in the faulty of philosophy at
the University of Warsaw, and also worked in the chemistry laboratory of the university.
After receiving his Master's degree in 1826, in October of that year he was sent abroad
(Vienna, Paris) for further studies in technical chemistry. He returned to Warsaw in 1830,
and was engaged as a professor of technical chemistry in the Preparatory School for the
Polytechnic Institute. As a result of his participation in the November uprising, he was
deprived of his right to teach in government schools. He worked as a teacher in various
schools. He was the author of scientific works.
Theodore Olechowski (1805-1828) from the Kielce region, co-heir of property at Topol.
He studied law and administration at the University of Warsaw along with his closest
friends, Louis Królikowski and Bogdan Jański. In 1827, along with Królikowski, he left
for Berlin, where he died shortly after.
Pociejew - Very probably a variant form of the name Pociejów, a section of Warsaw.
Originally the palace of the Pociejów family was built behind Maryville, on the right side,
APPENDIX
204
Wosiński,21 Kropiwnicki,22 Barciński, Królikowski, and Olechowski are going
abroad. Tur. Rich man and protector. An ambitious idler. Acquaintance with
Alexandra.23
1828 - my twenty-second year - Alexandra. Ambition becomes impotent.
Competition. Paris. Depression after the wedding.
1829 - my twenty-third year - My cares are drowned out in forgetfulness and
debauchery. Hortense, Fanny [Lebert].24 A new attack of impotence. Gościcki.25
Poverty of the highest degree.
20
21
22
23
24
25
along the ul. Senatorska (today the Theater Square). With time the palace was neglected,
and then leased, made into market stalls and shops, for the most part controlled by Jews.
Pociejów "became the abode of a crowd of Jews living there, who engaged in cheating to
such an extent that it was frightening even to enter that knavish district, strewn with
shabby merchandise, which market later [...] always is referred to by the name Pociejów."
Anthony Magier (1762-1837), The Beauty of the capital city, Warsaw, Wrocław, 1963.
Joseph Górecki (1803-1870) - studied in the faculty of science and fine arts (architecture)
at the University of Warsaw. In the years 1822-1828, he was a full-time employee, in
charge, that is, having supervision over the building of the palace of the Ministry of
Revenues and Treasury under the direction of Anthony Corazzi, and then in charge of
completing the building of the Great Theater in Warsaw. He remodeled the palace in
Puławy. He drew up plans for the building housing the Society of Land Credit.
Theodore Wosiński (1803-1872) - In 1824 he was awarded the degree of Master of Law
at the University of Warsaw. From 1829 he was in turn defender, assessor, private
counsellor of the General Office of the States Attorney in Warsaw. He held responsible
positions in the Warsaw administration of the Polish Kingdom. He was an eminent expert
in law.
Alphonse Kropiwnicki (1803-1881) - from Łomża. After completing his studies in the
faculty of science and fine arts in Warsaw, already in 1827 he became an architect for the
city of Warsaw and the Welfare Society. He restored churches in Warsaw, and
participated in building the Great Theater under the direction of A. Corazzi. In 1831 he
was a captain in the army fire department. In February of that year he signed the letter of
the Warsaw National Guard to the Sejm. He remained in Poland.
Alexandra Zawadzka (August 31, 1806-October 21, 1843) - From October, 1828, the
wife of Bogdan Jański. In April of 1829 she gave birth to a son, to whom she gave the
name Augustine Theodore (Bogdan), and whom she committed to the care of her married
sister Caroline Grabowski. For further details concerning Alexandra and her son, see
1839, footnote 109.
Hortense, and Fanny Lebert - Parisian friends of Jański. Cf. 1830, footnote 8.
Arcadius Gościcki (1805-1872) the son of a wealthy land-owner in Płock. He studied in
Pułtusk. In 1827 he was awarded the degree of Master of Law and Administration in
Warsaw. According to Jański he lived in Paris. After he returned to Warsaw, at the
beginning of the November uprising he became a lieutenant in the Poznań cavalry. After
the collapse of the uprising, he was sent to Wiatki. After his return from exile he was a
YEAR 1832
205
1830 - my twenty-fourth year - Still Fanny. Ambition grows weaker, until it
reaches a just level. Saintsimonism. Thoughts are elevated. A woman and
debauchery drag me down. The July Revolution. The fourth bout of impotence another just level. Letters from Paris. Owen, Bontemps (a saintsimonist).
Renewed hopes and strength. I arrive in Paris.
1831 - my twenty-fifth year - Impotence reaches the point of moral death.
Seventh, eighth, ninth - quiet, hard-working, doing well in studies.
Tenth, eleventh - an idler and insubordinate; I am doing poorly in my studies.
Twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth - doing well in studies even though I am an idler
and insubordinate. Mathematics and eloquence.
(Fourteenth), fifteenth, sixteenth - ultra-religious, hard-working.
Seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth - reactions between carousing and work,
spiritualism and materialism.
Twentieth and twenty-first - strong moral and intellectual life.
Twenty-second, twenty-third, twenty-fourth, and twenty-fifth - struggle between
ambitious moral strength and the consequences of materialism, carousing, and
impotence.
A transition from synthesis to analysis and vice-versa. Alternate interiorization
and exteriorization.
country squire. In the years 1848-1855 he was a justice of the peace in Zakroczym, and
adviser to the Committee of the Society of Land Credit.
NOTES
I. A note dealing with the life and activity of Father F. R. de Lamennais
(Cf. footnote 96):
Descendent of an old noble family residing in Brittany. Through the influence of his
brother, Fr. Jean, he was ordained a priest in 1816. He was an ultramontanist,
zealously dedicated to the Catholic Church, and to the Pope. In his first publication,
co-edited with Jean Lamennais in 1808, he called attention to the low intellectual
level of the French clergy, to the type of training offered in seminaries which was not
suited to meet the conditions of the present age, and to a need for renewal of the
Church. In 1817, he published the first volume of Essai sur l'indifférence en matiére
de religion [An essay on indifference in matters of religion]. This publication made
the author famous, and won a name for him as an apologist for the Christian faith. The
book was a debate with atheism. In this book, written with passion, he revealed his
deep attachment to the Church and its tradition. In the next volume, published in
1820, he undertook to continue in later years the attempt to provide religious faith
with a philosophical (traditionalist) foundation. He held that an individual person is
not capable of achieving any kind of certitude with the help of his natural intellectual
faculties. In other words, a single human intellect is completely impotent when it tries
to reach an understanding of any truth with certitude. Therefore the person is left with
only one sure criterion of certitude: sound judgment, based on opinions that are
universally recognized (the principle of certitude). Universal agreement of the human
intellect concerning certain conclusions which it reaches by the use of reason (such as
the existence of God), constitutes the sole criterion of truth. Certitude excludes doubt.
Our personal judgment cannot be doubtful if it agrees with sound reason, that is, with
the universal opinion of other people. Sound reason, in agreement with others,
guarantees our personal certitude, and possesses the property of authority. Therefore,
the sole criterion of truth is authority. We recognize the truth of religious faith on the
basis of authority. Universal agreement of people concerning the existence of God
implies the recognition of a primitive revelation, while faith in the teaching of the
Catholic Church implies recognition of a further revelation accomplished in Christ
and through Christ. The guardian of the tradition that preserves that first revelation is
the Pope.
In his political views Lamennais was definitely opposed to the achievements of
the French revolution. Initially he was an advocate of theocratic monarchy. But he
recognized the restored Bourbon monarchy as "a venerable memorial of the past." He
claimed that the French Church, held captive by Gallicanism, had been subjugated by
the State. The Catholic Church must be assured of freedom by freeing it from
guardianship on the part of the State, and by complete submission to the Pope. The
Pope, by reason of the authority that he possesses and his infallibility, has the right,
and the responsibility, to point out to people the ways and means to achieve freedom
and independence: from legitimism, contemporary governments, and political
NOTES
208
systems. Lamennais declared himself in favor of complete freedom for the Church,
and of freedom for nations, a freedom that is possible in democratic governments,
where the separation of Church and State is guaranteed. He voiced his political and
socio-religious views in the pages of the periodical "L'Avenir" (Cf. above, footnote
17). He enjoyed popularity among the ordinary people, and in great part among the
Catholic clergy. He was respected by the leading representatives of French culture.
On the other hand, he was opposed by advocates of the contemporary regime, the
Catholic Church hierarchy, and the liberals. He wished to enlist the support of the
Pope for his program; and so, after discontinuing the "L'Avenir", with his friends
Lacordaire and Montalembert, he left for Rome at the end of 1831. Failing to receive
any statement from the Pope, he decided to return to France in July of 1832, and to
continue to publish his discontinued periodical. On hearing of this, in 1832, Pope
Gregory XVI issued the encyclical Mirari vos in which he condemned "the
abominable doctrine", the teachings of "L'Avenir"'s program: religious freedom for
all, freedom of the press, the separation of Church and State, etc.). On the advice of
his friends, Lamennais submitted to the Papal verdict and was silent publicly.
However, he did not change his convictions, and with a sense of personal mission,
and moved by a rebellious impulse, he wrote his famous Les Paroles d'un croyant
(1833). In this book, styled on a biblical model, he proclaimed the highest authority in
the area of religion to be the authority of the people who wishing to free themselves
can count only on God and self. He recognized as his own the ideals of the French
revolution: freedom, equality and brotherhood. In turn, (on July 25, 1834) Gregory
XVI issued a new encyclical, Singulari nos, in which he condemned the "small, but
immensely deceitful" book. Les Paroles d'un croyant was translated into many
European languages, including the Polish language. It appeared in Paris in 1834, in
two editions, in a translation by Alexander Jełowicki, under the title of: The prophetic
words of Fr. Lamennais. Lamennais found himself outside the Church, and his closest
friends abandoned him. Two years later, in the book Affaires de Rome he expressed
the conviction that it is impossible to achieve social order by means of monarchs or
the Pope. He believed in the sovereignty of the people. Later he wrote that
Christianity in its organized form has ceased to be useful; but in spite of this religion
has not lost its meaning, for the divine element uniting him with God, and with his
neighbors, continues to develop in the human person. He was chosen as a deputy; but
toward the end of his life he withdrew from politics. He died without being reconciled
with the Church, of which, in his time, he had been such a zealous apologist.
In a letter (from Dresden, March 23, 1832) to Joachim Lelewel, Adam
Mickiewicz asks: "Do you know of the works of Lammenais? He is one Frenchman
who sincerely wept for us. His tears were the only ones I saw in Paris."
II. A note concerning the Polish Literary Society,
established in Paris on April 29, 1832 (Cf. footnote 330)
The founding members were: General Joseph Bem, General John Umiński, SenatorCastellan Louis Plater, Theodore Morawski, Stanislaus Kunatt, Louis Jelski, Adalbert
YEAR 1832
209
Grzymała, Andrew Plichta, Francis Wołowski and his son Louis, Felix Prot
Prószyński, Alexander Colonna-Walewski, Alphonse d'Herbelot. Prince Adam
Czartoryski, who was then living in London, was chosen as president of the Society;
Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, also living in England, was made a member of the Society.
The duties of the president were fulfilled by the vice-president, Louis Plater. The
secretary was Theodore Morawski.
The purpose of the Society was - according to the basic article of the statutes - "to
gather and publish materials pertaining to the former Kingdom of Poland, its present
situation or future welfare, and that with a view to preserving and stimulating in the
opinion of nations a sympathy which they had shown toward Poland."
The following data was preserved in the Paris Polish Library: hand-written minutes of
the meetings of the Society. I mention only the meetings in which Jański participated:
At the 15th session of the Society (September 27, 1832) which took place at the home
of General Umiński, in the presence of the members, among whom were Joseph
Hube, Xavier Bronikowski and Adam Mickiewicz, as well as associates (nonmembers) such as Ladislaus Oleszczyński, Caesar Plater and others, Bogdan Jański
took an oath to observe the rules of the Society.
At the 18th session (October 18, 1832) among others present were Czartoryski,
Jański, Mickiewicz.
At the 23rd session (November 29, 1832) the society was divided into two sections.
Jański announced his access to the second section, undertaking to prepare surveys of
materials from the French press.
At the 24th session (December 6, 1832), present, among others, were Jański,
Mickiewicz, Witwicki.
At the 26th session (December 13, 1832), present, among others, were Domeyko,
Jański, Marcinkowski, C. Plater.
At the 28th session (December 27, 1832), present, among others, were Czartoryski,
Jański, C. Plater.
At the 33rd session (February 7, 1833), present, among others, were Jański,
Mickiewicz, Witwicki. Jański proposed as members: Count Charles de Montalembert,
a peer of France, and Bourgaud des Marets, a lawyer.
At the 37th session (February 28, 1833), present, among others, was Jański.
At the 38th session (March 7, 1833), present, among others, were Jański and C. Plater.
At the 39th session (March 14, 1833), present, among others, was Jański.
At the 40th session (March 28, 1833), present, among others, were Dworzaczek,
Jański, Kopczyński, Montalembert, C. Plater.
At the 43rd session (April 25, 1833), present, amng others were Jański,
Montalembert, Ladislaus Zamoyski.
After a long absence, Jański was present only at the 53rd session (October 24, 1833)
After an even longer absence, Jański appeared at the 95th session (November 29,
1834). At this session. present, among others were Czartoryski, Domeyko, Jełowicki,
Mickiewicz, Niemcewicz, C. Plater.
At the 134th extraordinary session (November 29, 1835) present, among others, were
Jański and C. Plater.
NOTES
210
At the 177th session (November 29, 1836), present among others was Jański.
In the minutes of further sessions of the Society Jański's name does not appear.
In a "List of the works of members of the Polish Literary Society in Paris" included in
"An account of the ten-years of work of the Polish Literary Society", Paris, 1843, on
page 50, under number 32, we find: "Jański (1) a French translation of Witwicki's
work: Moskale w Warszawie ("The Russians in Warsaw").
DIARY
Year 18331
1
Most probably Jański did not continue his diary in 1833. Only a few daily and monthly
notes dealing with various matters pertaining to the activities of the author at the time
have been preserved.
In January, 1833, Jański lived with Adam Mickiewicz at rue Louis-le-Grande N.24, and
after that, also with the poet, at Carrefour de l'Observatoire N.36. In a letter, dated
January 11, 1833, to Stephen Garczyński who had sent him some of his writings, e.g.
Wacław's Story from Dresden (December 4, 1832) Mickiewicz wrote: "Yesterday [...] I
spent the whole evening reading Wacław. It made a greater impression on me than I had
expected. [...] I immediately read a few excerpts to one of my friends [Bogdan Jański],
who had philosophized a great deal and was involved in saintsimonism. The excerpts
stuck him more forcefully than my own new Forefathers [...] You can be sure that this
work is set completely in the present time, and wondrously reflects the state of soul of
many people. I am exceptionally pleased that, even from a moral point of view, it will
have a salutary effect, for it will immediately lead youth through a long route of
reasoning." It is worth noting that Wacław's Story originally had a different title: The
Apostate, or the Life of Wacław.
From the beginning of January, 1833, Jański began to translate into French The Books of
the Polish Nation and the Polish Pilgrims. In a letter of February 22, 1833. written to
Henrietta Eva Ankwiczów, Charles de Montalembert wrote: "I began to take regular
lessons in Polish not from Mickiewicz, whose valuable time I did not wish to occupy, but
from his friend Bogdan Jański, who, before the uprising, had received a government
scholarship to study in France, and who became first a saintsimonist, and then a Catholic
thanks to the books of Fr. de Lamennais and Fr. Gerbet. I noticed that the difficulties
became greater rather than less, but I did not lose heart; on the contrary, I am
compromising myself by my appearance, equally presumptuous and laughable, allowing
my name to be printed as the translator of Mickiewicz's Books of the Polish Nation. As a
matter of fact, it was not I who did the translation, as you, dear Lady, can easily
understand. All I did was correct and rewrite it. Mr. Bogdan Jański translated it word for
word, something I could not have done. I allowed my name to be used so that the book
might spread among Catholics, former supporters of "L'Avenir", who will take delight in
this book, even though it will be condemned by the false liberals of "The Courier" and the
absolutists." (This is a fragment of a letter cited in translation from the French by John
Siemieński in his book Ewunia, pp. 144-145). The French version of The Books appeared
in print in Paris in May of 1833.
On February 7, 1833, at a meeting of the Polish Literary Society at which Mickiewicz
was present, Jański moved that "Count Montalembert, a peer of France, and Burgaud des
Marets, a lawyer, be accepted as members." The motion was accepted.
In the second quarter of 1833, Jański cooperated with Mickiewicz in editing the
publication "The Polish Pilgrim, a political and literary publication." (Paris, A. Pinard
printer).
A part of Janski's responsibility as editor was looking through French journals for matters
relating to Poland. Undoubtedly this is how notes and excerpts from such publications as
YEAR 1833
213
Thursday, March 7
8627
267
To [Leonard] Chodźko, for information about Hr. Malmaison and
Romanowski (Belfort near Strasbourg).2
To Benoist for a loan.
Try to find outg about a Catholic reading-room.
853 [Saturday] April 13
Concerning the future of Poland - Bogdan Jański's letters to fellow Poles
- the first letter.3
Constitutional politics,
commercial
(finances, financial matters, administration)
educational
military
judicial (and police).
854 Concerning the future of Europe and our Country;
2
3
the "Courrier Français", and "La Tribune" of May 1833. These notes were preserved in
Jański's archives, but were omitted as not a part of the Diary.
Beside this, Jański thought about articles for the "Polish Pilgrim", topics for which he
listed (they have been included in the present edition). It should be added that Jański was
also secretary-administrator, and so had to take care of correspondence, answer letters
sent to the editor, send the magazine to subscribers, etc. This is indicated by the names,
among these names of Polish emigrants. Jański listed these names on separate cards along
with their addresses.
We do not know whether this refers to a person by the name of Malmaison. The name
itself, "Malmaison", refers to a castle in the French department Seine-et-Oise, in the
neighborhood of Versailles, purchased in 1798 for Josephine de Beauharnais, who lived
there after her divorce from Napoleon, and died there in 1814.
Undoubtedly John Chrisostom Romanowski (1810-after 1874) from Warsaw. He studied
medicine. At the time of the uprising, he worked in a camp hospital. He was a lieutenant
in a regiment of light cavalry. In 1837 he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine in
Paris.
Belfort is a town in the eastern sector of France. According to the note in R. Bielecki
(op.cit. p.42) "In March of 1833, 51 Poles crossed the border in Belfort."
Undoubtedly the author formulated his topics with the intention of developing and
publishing them in the periodical "The Polish Pilgrim", which he edited along with A.
Mickiewicz.
DIARY
214
the first letter (parties and antipathies - the general character of our
epoch).
The General Confederation of Polish Exiles.
866
[Friday] April 26
Concerning the history and constitutional politics of the new nations of
Western Europe.
The history of modern times, preceded by memories of our nation's
history, together with contemporary events.
Concerning political economy, and principles governing the study of law
and administration.
Philosophy.
Philosophy of history (Diary).
867
Concerning the character of our epoch from the point of view of general intersts
of mankind, and the special interests of our Country.
834
[Tuesday] April 30
Universal history, with special consideration of the past and future of the
Slavs.
Materials pertaining to the.
856
Fragments historiques et politiques sur le peupleq slaves. An analysis of
Maciejowski's book.
Appendix from Ossoliński's work on Kadłubek, from Lelewel etc.,4
continuation from the 15th century.
Historical information.
4
Joseph Maximillian Ossoliński (1748-1826) - a prose writer and literary historian, one of
the most noteworthy founders of Polish culture. In 1817 he established the National
Ossoliński Foundation, later known as the National Ossoliński Institute. The author of
studies planned on a wide scale and impressive by reason of their erudition and
reliability: Historical and critical information relating to the history of Polish literature
about Polish writers... Of the 30 planned volumes, he published 3 in Kraków in the years
1819-1822. S.B,. Linde, whom Ossoliński supported financially in work on a dictionary
of the Polish language, translated into German the life of Kadłubek from the second
volume, and published it separately: Vincent Kadłubek, ein historisch-kritischer Beitrag
sur slavischen literatur, Warsaw, 1822.
Vincent, called Kadłubek (c.1150-1223), Bishop of Kraków, author of Chronica
Polonorum, published in 1612; beatified.
Joachim Lelewel wrote A note concerning the oldest Polish historiographers, especially
Kadłubek... Warsaw, 1809.
YEAR 1833
215
The status of religion.
The present and future political situation of the Slavic people.
Friday [May] 17
Saturday [May] 18
Jouffroy at 11:30.
Return the Theological Dictionary5 to Dugie, and take Demaistre, etc.
To the Institute6 library concenring Polish works.
To Levrault for History of the Church by Matter, and Michelet's Introduc7
tion.
Wednesday, [May 22] Receveur's8 course.
In the Royal Library "Annales de la Philosophie Chrétienne".9
5
6
7
8
Dictionary of Theology, Cf. 1831, footnote 31.
Bibliothéque de l'Institut - To the building erected in 1665 at the initiative of Cardinal
Mazarin, in 1806 Napoleon transferred the French Institute (Institut de France), a union
of five academies: The French Academy, the Academy of Science, the Academy of
Literature, the Academy of Fine Arts, and the Academy of Moral and Political Studies.
From the courtyard of the Institute on the left there was an entrance to the Mazarin
Library. The building was located in the outskirts of the Saint–Germain-des-Près district,
near the Pont-des-Arts.
F.G. Levrault, owner of a bookstore, and a publisher in Paris and Strasbourg.
Jacques Matter (1791-1864) - a French writer and philosopher. Initially a general
inspector at the University of Paris, and from 1845 of all the libraries in France. He was a
professor in a Protestant theological seminary. The author of books in the area of history
and religious philosophy, he published, e.g., Histoire universelle de l'Eglise chrétienne, 4
volumes, Strasbourg 1829-1835, Levrault et Fils publisher.
Jules Michelet (1798-1874) - a French historian and essayist, of Parisian origin. He taught
philosophy and history in École Normale. In his writings he pointed to an indissoluble
union between history and philosophy. He was convinced that "mankind is its own work",
that "people are the makers of history" and that "freedom needs to be won again
constantly." He presented his views in Introduction a l'histoire universelle (Introduction
to universal history), published in Paris in 1831. from the year 1831 he began publishing
Histoire de France, and from 1847, Histoire de la Révolution francaise. He taught at the
Sorbonne in the years 1834-1836, and in the Collége de France from 1838 to 1851. An
exciting speaker, in his romantic historiography he presented a direction that was
decidedly democratic. In the history of France he manifested a sense and direction of
progress, a way to the unity of all mankind. A member of the Academy of Moral and
Political Science. He defended that cause of Poland. He was on friendly terms with Adam
Mickiewicz.
In French, the word receveur signifies "tax-collector. Here it is undoubtedly a nickname
for the philosopher J.B.Ph. Buchez, a former tax-collector, who conducted public
lectures. Cf. 1831, footnote 33.
DIARY
216
Wroński's10 works at Reynaud.
To [Anthony Oleszczyński for Polish works.
To [Louis] Plater for newspapers.
To Chopin concernng Pauline.
168
From Bannet, Comte's11 Cours.
9
10
11
The Royal Library was established in 1373 by Charles V. the Wise. After a variety of ups
and downs it found a home on rue Richelieu. In the history of libraries, it was the first to
maintain, from 1537, a conventional exhibit. It was opened to the public from 1743. From
1811 it began to publish "Bibliographie de la France."
"Annales de la Philosophie Chrétienne" - An annual publication from the year 1830,
edited by its founder, Augustine Bonnnety. Cf. 1835, footnote 262.
Joseph Maria Hoene-Wroński (1778-1853) - philosopher, mathematician, astronomer,
physicist, engineer-inventor, lawyer and economist. He was born of a Czech family that
had settle in the region of Poznań. He participated in Kościuszko's insurrection, and
served in the Russian army. He retired from military service as a Lieutenant Colonel. He
studied law and philsophy in the Kingdom. From 1800, he lived in France, initially in
Marseilles. He obtained French citizenship. From 1810 he lived in Paris, dedicated to
research work. He supported himself by tutoring. From 1832 he worked on technical
problems in the area of locomotion. In the years 1833-1847 he perfected his inventions
with the help of Edmond Thayer. He wrote exclusively in French. He died in poverty.
While Jański was in Paris, Hoene-Wroński published Loi téléologique du hasard, aperçu
1-2, Paris, 1828 (re-printed in Accomplissement des théories des probabilités pour
maîtriser les opérations de rentes e la bourse, les jeux et généralment tous les
phénomenes dépendant du hasard, {aris, 1833); Loi téléologique du hasard,
Réimpression de trois piéces rarissimes (1833). Moreover, in Paris, in 1831, the first
volume of Hoene-Wroński's work Messianisme, union finale de la philosophie et de la
religion constituant la philosophie absolute, vol. 1: Prodrome du messianisme.
Révélation des destinées de l'humanité was published.
Hoene-Wroński developed his own system of philosophy, which he called messianism:
"The subject of this doctrine is a final establishment of truth on earth, in this way
realizing an absolute philosophy, the fulfillment of religion, a reform of the sciences, an
explanation of history, a revelation of the highest goal of nations, the settlement of
absolute limits for man and the unveiling of the call of the nations" (Cf. W. Tarkiewicz,
History of Philosophy, vol.II).
Bogdan Jański was interested in the writings of Hoene-Wroński, as witnessed by the
hand-written catalogue of his writings which is preserved in the Roman Archives ACRR
13 678.
Bannet - a saintsimonist.
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) - a French philosopher and sociologist, a leading spokesman
and representative of classical positivism (Cf. 1832, footnote 43). In the years 1814-1816
he studied at the École Polytechnique in Montpellier. Dismissed from the school for
political reasons, he moved to Paris, and continued his studies of the works of idealogists,
economists and historians. In the summer of 1817 he became Saint-Simon's secretary, and
worked with him for seven years. He accused Saint-Simon of appropriating his research
work, he left him, and began an independent career as a philosopher. From 1826, for a
YEAR 1833
217
To Boulard.
Statistical and historical works concerning the Slavs are necessary. To
Karnot for a recommendation [to use] Ferussac's12 library.
From Leroux to van Praet.13
8606
697 [Saturday] June 8 - General Henry Dembiński, Captain Francis Szemioth
and doctor Hage left Marseilles for Egypt by way of Malta on the brigantine
"Ajnqueur" (of Captain Attard)14
[Text crossed out by the author.]
[Sunday] June 16
This week I need to go to Zan15 to inquire about B.
699
[Saturday] August 24
Draw up an elongated copy-book, which would include: 1. a list of
subscribers (to the "Polish Pilgrim") salaries, and people to whom we send it
free of charge.
2. a list of expenses.
12
13
14
15
private group of listeners, he presented lectures on positivistic philosophy, which became
the basis of his Course of postiivist philosophy (Cours de philosophie positive), his main
work, printed in 6 volumes in the years 1830-1842. He was the creator of a sociology by
that name, a study of the structure of society, its laws of development, and methods for
studying it. In his utopian vision of the future of society, positivist philosophy was to be
the religious dogma, and his followers - priests directed by principles of altruism and
humanism. He propagated a theory of three phases of development of the human mind
(theological, metaphysical, and positive scientific knowledge). He also created a system
of "a religion for mankind", in which mankind would be the subject of religious cult.
In Paris, besides public libraries, there were also private libraries - the libraries of Cousin
(philosophy), Thiers (History of France), Burgaud des Marets (works dealing with
dialects) which might be consulted by submitting a letter of recommendation.
Férussac - Cf. 1832, footnote 55).
Joseph van Praet (1754-1837) - a French librarian and bibliographer.
General Henry Dembiński left for Egypt in order to take part in the battle then being
waged between that country and Turkey. However, an understanding reached between the
combatants, not without the influence of Russia, resulted in the general's return to France
in June of 1834, in spite of serious offers on the part of the pasha of Egypt Mehmed
Alego.
Francis Szemioth - a major in the Polish army (Cf. 1832, footnote 73).
Gustave Adolf Hagen (Haage) - a physician-surgeon from Lithuania.
Stephen Zan (1803-1859) - a brother of Thomas; poet and member of a secret student
society at the University of Vilno; participated in the November uprising. He came to
France in August of 1832.
DIARY
218
3. an alphabetical list of correspondents according to departments.
A second elongated copy-book: a diary of correspondence: letters received, and
letters sent - according to dates.
To be answered:
Mercier, Hiedelberg16
Dr. Gąsiewski17 (talk with Dwerniecki), Heidelberg
Szotarski, Heidelberg18
Valentine Zwierkowski, Nancy19
Ignatius Zwierkowski, Arras20
Zawadzki, Aurillac21
16
17
18
19
20
Victor Mercier - (has nothing in common with Jules Mercier, saintsimonist and poet);
was located at the famous university in Heidelberg (Badenia).
Hippolitus Gąsiewski (1806-1896) - a doctor. He obtained the degree of medical
candidate at the Jagellonian University. He participated in the November uprising.
Initially an emigrant in Germany, where he received a doctorate in medicine in
Würzburg, and then in France. In Montpellier, at the famous School of medicine there, he
received a second doctorate in June of 1839.
Julian Szotarski (1807-1838) - doctor, journalist, literary critic. A relative of Casimir
Brodziński, to whom he owed assistance in his studies. In 1830 he enrolled in the School
of Medicine at the University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising. In
July of 1831, after the death of the editor Stanislaus Psarski, he edited "Mercury". He left
Poland with the corps of General Rybiński, and with his doctor friend, Victor Felix
Szokalski, he lived in Germany. In 1832-1836 He studied medicine together with the
latter. The authorities forced him to leave Germany, and in July of 1836 he came to Paris.
He became acquainted with Adam Mickiewicz. In the German language he wrote:Skizzen
aus Polen (1833), and Puławy. Historische Erzählung... (1834), published in Heidelberg.
He also wrote articles for periodicals such as: "Young Poland", "Revue Française", and
"Yearbook of the Polish Emigration". In the last mentioned he included a mention of
Casimir Brodziński and his writings. He also wrote verses. He did translations from the
English language. He died of consumption.
Valentine Joseph Vincent Zwierkowski (1788-1859) - participated in the Austrian and
Spanish campaigns; a member and secretary of the Sejm. At the time of the uprising, he
was one of the presidents of the Patriotic Club. He came to France in November, 1831.
He belonged to Lelewel's Committee. The author of small articles published in the
emigrant press. He was a half-brother of Florian Zwierkowski.
Ignatius Frederic Zwierkowski (1804-1880) - the son of Florian and Catherine, nee
Jański, the sister of Peter, the father of Bogdan Jański. From 1824 he studied law and
administration at the University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising.
He arrived in France in January, 1832. He enrolled in Lelewel's Committee in Paris, and
then became a member of the Polish Democratic Society. For some time he lived in
Arras, in the northern part of France, an ancient center for the manufacture of tapestries
(arrases).
YEAR 1833
219
Adalbert Napoleon Łempicki, Rhodez, Aveyron22
Kondycki, Melle23
Tokarski, Château-du-Loir, department de la Sarthe24
John Zieliński, Auch, Agen25
Hube, Saint-Brieuc26
Tur, London27
Jaszowski, Lwów28
Gordaszewski,29 Stolzman30 and Mayzner,31 , Bienne
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Joseph Zawadzki - Cf. 1832, footnote 94.
Aurillac - a town in France.
Adalbert Napoleon Łempicki - Cf. 1832, footnote 66.
Rhodez - a city in southern France, administrative center of the Aveyron department.
Joseph Kondycki (1807-c.1874). In 1834 he enrolled in the School of Medicine at the
University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising.In 1833 he was an
emigrant in Melle, in France. From March 1834 he was a member of the Polish
Democratic Society. In 1838, he enrolled in the school of medicine at Montpellier where
he later worked as a doctor in the Saint-Éloi hospital.
Michael Tokarski (d.1840) - a sergeant in the November uprising. He came to France in
August, 1832, and from July 15, 1833, lived in Château-du-Loir (department of Sarthe).
John Zielinski (1806-1887) After completing grammar school in Płock, he joined the
army. He participated in the November uprising, and advanced to the rank of captain of
the grenadiers. He arrived in France in August, 1832, where he lived, among other places,
in Auch, Agen. From 1836 he studied agriculture in Grignon (district of Versailles).
Michael Hube (1779-1840), the father of Joseph and Romuald. For some time he was an
official of the State Council of the Kingdom of Poland. At the time of the November
uprising he was president of the Investigating Committee which was to examine the spy
documents from the chancellory of the Great Prince Constantine. A member of Lelewel
and Dwernicki's Committees, he belonged to the Polish Literary Society. The French
authorities forced him to leave Paris, and so from 1832 he resided in Saint-Brieuc
(Brittany).
Adalbert Tur - Cf. 1830, footnote 35.
Stanislaus Jaszowski (1803-1847) - poet, novelist, and editor. He completed his studies at
the University in Lwów, and worked with such Galician periodicals as "Rozmaitości"
(Variety), and "Pszczółka Krakowska" (The Kraków Bee). Publisher of the almanac
Sławianin (Slav) (1837, 1839). He published Zabawki rymotwórcze (Toying with verses)
(1826), Polish historical novels (1829-1830), and The Battle at Stubno (1841).
Francis Gordaszewski (1801-1870) - After the collapse of the November uprising, in
which he participated, he became an active worker among the emigrants. A member of
the Carbonari and of "Young Europe", he participated in the unsuccessful expedition to
Frankfurt-am-Mein. Together with Charles Stoltzman and others, on May 12, 1834, he
organized the Committee of Young Poland with its seat in Bienne. He was a captain in
the Polish army as well as in the Belgian army. A journalist. He belonged to the Union of
Polish Emigrants directed by Joachim Lelewel.
Charles Stoltzman - Cf. 1832, footnote 191.
DIARY
220
Walter, Paris32
Inquire about,
where is Cyprysiński from Levroux33
Kobyliński34 and Czerski35, what they wrote
a letter with the minutes of the Academic Society [of Polish Exiles]
Emeric Staniewicz, Bienne36
Receive from Dwernicki37 from Bourges to Lelewel
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Joseph Mayzner - Cf. 1832, footnote 76. He worked together with Gordaszewski and
Stoltzman among the Polish emigrants.
Philip Walter - Cf. 1831, footnote 54.
Vincent Cyprysiński - Cf. 1830, footnote 35.
Levroux - a town near Châteauroux (Indre department).
Undoubtedly Vincent Kobyliński (b. about 1806) - in 1828, a student of law at the
University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising. As an emigrant in
France he often changed his place of residence. From August 1833 a member of the
Polish Democratic Society.
Very probably Joseph Czerski (1806-1838) - At the age of 21, he began to study law and
administration at the University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising.
After crossing the northern border of the Kingdom of Poland together with other Poles,
he was interned by Prussian authorities on the ship "Lachs". He lived on Oléron island
(France). In 1834 he enrolled in the Polish Democratic Society, and in 1836 he signed the
Society's Manifesto.
Emeric Staniewicz - a member of a secret patriotic student society at Wilno University; a
friend of Adam Mickiewicz and Anthony Edward Ordyniec. He taught in a grammar
school in Wilno; participated in the November uprising. As an emigrant, he lived in the
depot at Besançon. In 1834, he organized a collection of money among the Poles in
Switzerland for a subscription to "The Polish Pilgrim". That same year, in Geneva, he met
Julius Słowacki, to whom he had bid farewell a few years before that in Wilno, leaving
him an inscribed copy of the New Testament. A member of the Carbonari and the Cadet
Corps, he lived in Bienne. He was a member of the Polish Democratic Society. He spent
some time in England.
Joseph Dwernicki (1779-1857) - A General, active among the emigrants; leader of a
regiment of the Principality of Warsaw; participated in the Napoleonic campaign; a
brigadier general in the army of the Kingdom of Poland. During the November uprising,
he led some victorious encounters with the Russian army at Stoczek. He led an army
detachment against the Ukraine, but in view of the unsuccessful development of the
uprising in Volhynia and Podolia, he withdrew, and at the end of April, 1831, he crossed
the border of Galicia and gave up the struggle. As an emigrant he lived in Paris. He was
president of the National Committee of the Polish Emigration (1832-1834), co-founder
and president of the Confederation of the Polish Nation (1836). In politics he represented
a moderate course. He was a political adversary of Prince Adam Czartoryski. From 1836
he lived in England, and from 1848 in Galicia. He died in Lwów. He was the author of
Memoirs (published in 1870).
YEAR 1833
221
from the department des Landes.
The distribution of emigrant depots.
To Vincent Gostkowski from Marseilles.38 Write to tell him that copies of
all the issues were sent to him regularly at rue Peyron 18; have him write to us
which numbers are missing, and these will be sent.
On September 13, Doliwa39 sent me his complaint.40
38
39
40
Vincent Gostkowski (c.1807-1863) - from 1828 he was a student at the University of
Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising as captain of the 20th infantry
regiment. An emigrant, he lived in southern France (Toulouse, Marseilles). He 1845 he
worked with the firm of watchmakers, Patek and Co. in Geneva.
Adolph Doliwa (1809-1837) - participated in the November uprising with the rank of
lieutenant. From 1832 he lived in Paris.
In a letter of December 16, 1833, Adam Mickiewicz wrote to his friends Jerome
Kajsiewicz and Leonard Rettel: "Jański is seldom seen; he is in serious financial
difficulties, and lives in the midst of a great number of old and new friends. He suffers
much, and does little. Koźmian, about whom Jerome asked, is an unfortunate person! He
suffers from the illness of gambling. All that he has, he loses. He moves from one place
to another, and has reduced Jański to poverty, for Jański's things were seized to pay
Koźmian's debts."
Almost two years later, in a letter to Louis Królikowski, Jański wrote: "As you know, in
1833 I undertook the publication of a small Polish magazine, only on a trial basis, without
any definite decision as to the future. As it turned out, while I was editor, the people to
whom I wished to speak, full of old ill-feelings, could not as yet hear what I wished to say
to them; moreover, as far as I myself was concerned, such public action was still
premature. My magazine was discontinued at the end of 1833." (March, 1836, ACRR
8568, pp. 1106-1108).
DIARY
222
DIARY
Year 1834
8585
935 February 19, 1834, Wednesday
Hope once again mounts within me - by the grace of God! Yes, I experienced this not too long ago - several times - clearly - without any merit on my
part, but after humble spiritual prayer for that grace.
I have long felt the need to put my life and mind in order once again, and
to make a general examination of conscience before God. I need hard work, and
a sincere will, if I am to become worthy to fulfill this great work - the first step
toward my reform.
In the last few days God has inspired me with some fruitful, regenerative
ideas. May the first act resulting from these be at least a brief confirmation of
them in my memory, for my own improvement, and for the glory of merciful
Perfection.
Several times I began to control my life; but after a while I stopped
without having achieved any useful results. Why? Oh why has my life up to
now been a series of mistakes and transgressions, of weakness leading to impotence, to nothingness! Because there was no denial of self in tending toward the
truth, the good of others, perfection. I thought about this yesterday while I was
reading Saint-Martin.1 Thanks be to God! Thanks to the good Saint-Martin! I
1
Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin (1743-1803) - a French mystic who was called "The
Unknown Philosopher." After finishing secondary school with the Oratorians and completing legal studies in Paris, he enlisted in the army at Bordeaux. There he became
acquainted with the Portuguese mystic Martinus de Pasqually. He served as his secretary
for some time, and remained under his influence until he became acquainted with the
writings of a
German mystic, Jacob Böhme. After various life experiences he became convinced of the
superiority of prayer and contemplation over teurgic methods (that is, forcing God or
spirits to desired activity). He was a determined adversary of rationalism and materialism.
DIARY
224
have always been concerned about people's opinion of me, about my own glory,
considering myself above others, seeking my own pleasure.
For the last two years I have been full of plans to write something useful
for my fellow Poles. I feel a great need for an apostolate of truth! Vain intentions! Imprudent, I wished to produce something good of myself, whereas I
have nothing good in me. For some time now I have been involved in a constant
struggle with truth, order, unity of thought. O God! Give me the grace and the
strength to examine my conscience, eliminate evil, and revive what is good.
Grant me the grace to believe in You, in your perfection, your universal love,
the only truth, your omnipotent power! Father of life, grant me the grace of
awareness of your presence in me. Erase my old mistake of thinking that I, a
man, am only an insignificant work, a result of minor earthly circumstances. I
thank you for the thoughts with which you inspired me recently:
936
Love of neighbor without love of God is fruitless - it can lead to evil.
A thought has life only in act - only then does it live in the unity of our being,
only then is it ours.
The art of living consists in the good use of time.
Surrendering one's whole self completely in any kind of relations with people
and the world without submitting to God, without considering the obligations
that flow from our eternal destiny - leads to evil.
He preached the need for man to return to nature. In his primitive state, man was an
incarnate angel, God's idea, an external manifestation of God. A person discovers this
truth in moments of suffering and humiliation. More than that, he feels a strong desire
(l'homme du désir) to liberate himself, his spirit, from material shackles. By interior
effort, he can achieve that primitive state of purity and glory. Saint-Martin insisted that
human freedom depends on the fulfillment of God's law; that turning away from God, and
closing himself within himself, he is plunged into darkness and nothingness. His goal is
to save himself, and to regain his primitive nature. Saint-Martin thought that the great
French revolution was intended in God's plan; as a result, he supported it, even
financially. He was of the opinion that he himself was an instrument of God, destined,
among other things, to translate J. Böhme's work into French. The principal works of
Saint-Martin were: Des erreurs et de la vérité ou les Hommes rapellés au principe
universel de la science (1775), L'Homme du désir (1790), Ecce homo (1792), Nouvel
homme (1792), De l'esprit des choses (1800). In the last years of his life, he shared his
inner experience with a small group of followers. After his death he exerted a very strong
influence on romantic philosophy.
YEAR 1834
225
Certainty? In its fullest extent it is the result of the grace of God. Truth dwells in
one who loves God and neighbor.
We are living in a time of social change. How can we distinguish what is
passing from what is eternal, the chaff from the wheat?
- To what extent can we desire to know the truth? Perfect and imperfect truth complete and incomplete truth - relative and absolute truth.
- How are we to search for the truth? (Beginning, middle and end = time.
Human truth on earth - in time.)
938
How can I put my thoughts (and acquired knowledge) in order? - Further
tasks: Is it necessary to discover the complete truth immediately, or only
gradually? - timely and untimely. - Further: Is there, as Mickiewicz claims, a
time to not speak to people, and an obligation - for a lover of the truth - to be
silent and withdraw from society?2
Good use of time: do not occupy yourself at all with matters that do not
lead to a proposed end, little with those that are a long way from the end,
completely with those that lead directly to the end. (My goal at this time: moral
improvement, order within my soul - casting off the bonds of the flesh and the
world.) Do not divide your attention on many topics. Choose those that are not
beyond your power to accomplish. Do not begin only what you wish to finish
immediately; finish what you have begun. Associate with people who can contribute to my improvement; for the time-being avoid the others.
If you do not have the inclination to occupy yourself with a work to
which you are obliged, do not move on to another work, but ask God for the
grace to fulfill your obligation.
937
A great thought of Saint-Martin: "Il ne faut pas méditer pour avoir une
grande masse de pratiques, mais pratiquer pour avoir une grande masse de
meditations" [One should not meditate in order to have a great number of
practices, but rather practice in order to have much on which to meditate.]
2
An allusion to The degrees of truths, written by Adam Mickiewicz and included in his
collection Opinions and remarks from the writings of Jacob Bem, a Silesian Angel and
Saint-Martin.
DIARY
226
What, and how. to practice? - Dedicate yourself completely to the cause
of truth, and people; for the sake of God deny yourself completely, that is live
with God, suppress your pride and the empty desire for glory and pleasure. The
condition - a strong faith in God, in a future life.
O God! I recognize, I feel deeply, that I have become a slave of my flesh
and the world. Grant me the grace, and the strength, to rid myself of those
burdens that stifle my will, and speed up my improvement!
I need rules in everything, for the mind, and for action. O how many
good thoughts, how many of Your inspirations, have I wasted! Please support
me, so that I might dedicate the rest of my life to truth, virtue, to You Yourself,
for Your glory! For the good of my neighbors! For my own salvation!
"Le manque de la volonté est la plus grande source des erreurs, et ce qui
empeche l'homme de faire du progrês dans la recherche de la verité" [The lack
of will is the greatest source of errors, and this impedes a person in making
progress in his search for the truth.] (Saint-Martin).
8586
985 Wednesday, March 26
To church - my birthday.
Step into the studio
to the library; maybe I can take some more books. A letter to Aicard3 Frédéric Auguste.4
At one o'clock to G. [? A. Gurowski]
To the printery p Bożewski's5 address.
Mail, Pszenny,6 Gautier,7 Burgaud.
3
4
5
Jean Aicard (1810-1853) - Lawyer, scholar, author of many encyclopedia articles printed
in the Encyclopédie nouvelle, edited by P. Leroux and J. Reynaud. In his time he became
a follower of the doctrine of the saintsimonists, and attended Father Enfantin in
Mélimontant.
Frederic Auguste (1750-1827) - Frederic August, a Saxon king; a prince of Warsaw in the
years 1807-1815.
Possibly Jański may have had in mind Callistus Borzewski, who was born in Płock in
1805. As a captain he participated in the expedition of Joseph Zaliwski in 1833. After he
returned to France from this expedition, he left for Spain and died there on the field of
battle in 1836.
YEAR 1834
227
The portress.
Maliński, where is he; ask Ordęga8 about him.
Paper - Wejssenhof.9
A letter to Wejssenhof, to Witwicki,10 after the Comedy.11
6
7
8
9
10
Undoubtedly Pafnucius Nicholas Pszenny , born 1803. From 1819 he studied in the
department of science and fine arts in Warsaw. In other lists: Michael Pszenny, a 29 year
old negotiator, who came to France in 1831.
Gautier (Gauthier) - a tailor who lived in Paris.
Joseph Ordęga (1802-1879). In 1821, a master of law and administration. A delegate to
the Sejm; in the November uprising, a founder and captain of the Kalisz Cavalry. After
August 1831, he and his family lived as emigrants in France. For some time he was a
member of the TDP. He remained under the influence of Buchez. He edited "The Polish
Democrat of the 19th century". In 1840, in Paris, he published a short treatise Concerning
the Polish nationality, maintained in a Catholic and progressive spirit. Later he was a
French Consul in Sarajevo.
Lucian Weissenhof (1807-1881) - a painter who came from Lithuania. He participated in
the November uprising as a captain, first in the detachment of Emile Plater, and then in
the corps of General Ramorino. He lived in Paris as an emigrant in the years 1832-1840.
He participated in meetings with Adam Mickiewicz at which Pan Tadeusz ("Mr.
Thaddeus") was read. He was a close friend of Zygmunt Krasiński.
Stephen Witwicki (1802-1847) - poet, journalist. After completing the Krzemieniecki
Lyceum, he settled in Warsaw where, beside tutoring, he devoted himself to literary
work. He made the acquaintance of Casimir Brodziński, Frederic Chopin, Joseph
Korzeniowski, Maurice Mochnacki, Anthony Edward Odyniec (with whom he co-edited
"Melitele"), and Joseph Bohdan Zaleski. He was an advocate of romanticism. As a poet
he showed greatest originality in his Rural Songs (Warsaw, 1830). Chopin and
Moniuszko composed music for some of the "songs" in this volume. He was the author of
Biblical Poems (Warsaw, 1830). Poor health prevented him from participating in the
November uprising. In 1832, he freely emigrated, and took up residence in Paris. In 1832
he published Moscovites in Poland. Diary 9/8/1831 to 7/8/1832. This diary also appeared
in a French translation: Étienne Witwicki: Les Russes en Pologne, traduit en francais par
[Bogdan] Jański, Paris, 1833. He became acquainted with Adam Mickiewicz, and participated in meetings held at the latter's home, at which Mr. Thaddeus was read. Together
with Adam and other friends and acquaintances, he was co-founder of the Society of
United Brethren. As a journalist, he published Evenings of a Pilgrim. A moral, literary,
and political miscellany (Number I - Paris, 1834; Number 2 - Paris, 1835). He published
these later in two volumes (Vol.I, Paris, 1837; Vol.II, Paris, 1842). In this publication,
which was highly regarded by his contemporaries, he presented moral, religious,
patriotic, and social teaching; he came out against foreign influence, and defended
national traditions. He published: The Polish altar, i.e., a collection of Catholic devotions
containing prayers for every occasion, to the Most Holy Trinity, the Blessed Mother and
the Saints, adapted to various needs (Paris, 1836), and in that same year a smaller Polish
altar, an abridged version of the preceding. After a revised edition of Biblical poems and
Rural Songs... (Paris, 1836), his Letters from a foreign country (Lipsk, 1842) were
published among the emigrants. As an orthodox Catholic, he broke off relations with
Adam Mickiewicz when the latter joined the sect of Andrew Towiański. Witwicki
became a friend of Jański and the first Resurrectionists (Kajsiewicz, Semenenko), and
DIARY
228
Thursday, [March] 27, to Bożewski.
to Wrotnowski,12 to Aicard for money - shoes,
shirts.
To Korycki13 - Pszenny's letter.
Broszerka, Konopka,14 Dien.15
11
12
13
14
was one of their "external brethren". He intended to become a priest, and join the
Resurrectionists. For that purpose he went to Rome, but died there of consumption.
The drama of Zygmunt Krasiński (1812-1859) The Non-Divine Comedy. The poet began
to write it in the summer of 1833 in Vienna, and finished on the 23rd of November of that
year in Venice. The poet did not decide to print his drama immediately. It was published
anonymously in Paris by the Pinard printery in February of 1834, but was first
disseminated in April of 1835. In a letter of March 9, 1836, to his fiancee, Eugenia Lariss,
Eustachius Januszkiewicz wrote that: "it [the Non-Divine Comedy] was printed here;
however, after it was printed all the copies were put away. We have only one copy, and
we are sure that it was written by Zygmunt Krasiński, the son of Vincent - an exceptional
talent" (cited in J. Kallenbach, From the Emigrant epoch (1833-1841), "Lamus" 19081909, p.456).
Felix Wrotnowski (1803-1871) from Lithuania. Journalist, historian and translator. He
studied law at the University of Vilno. From 1826 he worked in the editorial office of
"The Vilno Daily News". He translated and published The Spy and The last of the
Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper. He participated in the expedition of General
Desiderius Chłapowski against Lithuania. After the November uprising he emigrated to
France, and lived in Paris. He was an active member of the Society of Lithuania and the
Russian territories. He wrote and published The uprising in Volhynia, Podolia, and the
Ukraine in the year 1831... in accord with statements of the leaders and participants of
this uprising (2 volumes, Paris, 1837-1838). He had a close relationship with Adam
Mickiewicz. - As a result of the initiative of the Literary Society, and the Society for
Academic Assistance, books and other current emigrant publications were bought Wrotnowski was made the curator of this collection in 1834. In his residence at the rue de
l'Université a Polish Library was located. It was open on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday,
and Saturday from 10 A.M to 4 P.M. Jański often went to visit Wrotnowski, the curator
of the library, and took advantage of its resources.
Fr. Francis Korycki - participated in the November uprising as a military chaplain. A
member of the Warsaw Patriotic Society. As an emigrant he lived in France, from
November, 1832, in the depot at Besançon, and in Dijon. A Carbonaro, he was coorganizer of the Frankfurt expedition. In Paris, he became acquainted with Jański, and for
a time lived in his "House". After Jański's death, he served as a pastor among the Polish
emigrants in Paris. He maintained friendly relations with the Resurrectionists.
Julian Konopka (1815-1899) - a mining engineer from Galicia. He studied in Kraków, in
the faculty of mathematics and physics at the Jagellonian University. In 1833, he traveled
to Paris for further studies at the École des Mines, completing the course in 1835. During
his studies he was a colleague of Ignatius Domeyko. He visited England, and then
returned to Poland in 1836, taking up residence on his family estates. He had two younger
YEAR 1834
229
To Carnot. Paper.
Wejssenhof, letters, etc.
8627
227
[Monday] September 28, 1834
Toward my improvement
RESOLUTIONS
First of all: write a profession and explanation of my faith.16
Second: Confession.17
God the Father, through your infinite goodness and the most holy Passion
of your Son Christ, assist me by your grace! Stifle, destroy in me the effluvium
of the old man, the spirit of pride and lust. I will undertake these two works
with good intention and for your glory, for the good of my neighbor and
complete reconciliation with you. Almighty and most merciful Lord, help me to
accomplish these tasks successfully and soon!
Therefore, I put aside all my plans, as well as all literary, civic ,and
apostolic works until I have fulfilled the two resolutions mentioned above. Only in snatches will I note ideas that come to me with regard to these two.
I intend to write a profession of faith with God's help, such as I now
have, as God has given to me, and people have taught - no longer seeking
anything new. I forbid myself to rummage through books, except to few pious
works to help me, and this because my religious education has been greatly
neglected.
231
Friday [October] 10
15
16
17
brothers: Joseph (1818-1880), later a famous ethnographer, farmer, and author of tales,
especially historical; and Roman, who lived with him for some time in Paris.
Claude-Marie-François Dien (1787-1865) - A French engraver. His work was highly
esteemed in view of its artistic level. He directed a workshop, where plates were also
made.
Jański made this profession, in the form of a response to the question: Why did I return to
the holy Catholic Faith? The text of this profession, dated "Sunday, December 28, 1834",
was placed in the Supplement to the Diary for the Year 1834, under I.
Confession - The text of the confession, dated December 6, 1834, is presented in the
Supplement to the Diary for the Year 1834, under II.
DIARY
230
Change of residence.
Sunday [October] 12
With Jełowicki we go to Mass at the Abbey; 18 To a pamphlet rack [?] to
look for a magazine. I an finishing [an article on] Archangel.19
Account - I receive 17 francs. I ask Konaszewski20 about Anthony.
Sunday [October] 19
At Mickiewicz - I give him 25 francs. Talk about America.
Tuesday, [October 21] - Once again at Mickiewicz. I bring back 100 francs.
Sunday, [October] 26
Dinner with an Englishman. I met Adam Gurowski at the Palais-Royal,
etc. etc.
[Friday] October 31
To Podczaszyński for notes concerning Armenians. A downfall on rue du
Hasard [?].
Saturday, November 1, All Saints
With Maliński in Notre-Dame.21 Dinner, with coffee. We did not find
Kontradowicz at home.
18
19
20
A general name for the Abbacy, a part of which was the oldest church in Paris, SaintGermaine-des- Près, dating from the turn of the 11th-12th centuries, built in the
Romanesque style, partially preserved. Inside, in the transept on the left side, is the tomb
of the Polish King John Casimir (1609-1672), who after his abdication lived in the
monastery as it abbot, and spent the rest of his life there. This was a place for yearly
gatherings of Polish emigrants living in Paris.
Archangel - the first Russian seaport at the mouth of the Dvina River to the White Sea; in
French Arkhangelsk. This entry, prepared by Jański, was published in Encyclopédie
nouvelle (Paris, 1836. Vol.II, pp. 25-26); Cf. below, footnote 25.
Adalbert Konarzewski (1805-1881) - served in the army. Participated in the November
uprising, with the rank of Lieutenant. As a volunteer, he moved to the artillery. Deported
from Trieste, he went to New York in 1834, and from there, in that same year, he left for
France. An Army and civil engineer. The author of a report of the deportation of Polish
emigrants from Trieste to North America, published in "A Chronicle of the Polish
Emigration", 1834, II, p.151. - Anthony was Bogdan Jański's brother.
YEAR 1834
231
Sunday [November] 2
I go to visit Dugie. We talk about a rendez-vous to Saint-Mandé.22 A long
walk alone; dinner in Meudon.23
Saturday [November] 8
In the evening, at an audition of the organs in Saint-Eustache.24
232
Sunday, [November] 9
I write to Dugie, telling him that I cannot go next Wednesday.
[Monday, November] 10
I go to him [Dugie], I find a letter. He asks me if I want to go either on
Friday or Saturday - I reply: good.
Wednesday, [November] 12
The duel is over. Dugie stops by, and according to the letter, he designates Saturday for our trip. He goes to Cazeaux, I to Reynaud - I return the note
concerning the Armenians. I receive the proofs, and the first volume of the
Encyclopédie.25 Dinner with Ropelewski26 at the Italian.
21
22
23
24
25
Notre-Dame - built in the 12th century, it is the very famous cathedral in Paris, the
building of which was completed in 1345. At the time of the great French Revolution in
1793, it was transformed into a shrine of Reason. The subject of Victor Hugo's famous
Notre-Dame de Paris (1831).
Saint-Mandé - a locality in the suburbs of Paris, in the vicinity of the Vincennes Forest.
Meudon - a village in the vicinity of Paris not far from Versailles. At the time, Charles
Edward Wodziński lived there. Adam Mickiewicz was also there often.
The church of St. Eustace, situated at the edge of the piazza where in the 19th century the
main food market was located. The building of the church was begun in 1532, and
completed in 1637. It was a source of admiration by reason of its variety of styles: gothic,
renaissance, and classical. It is one of the largest churches of Paris, closely bound up with
the history of the city. It is famous for its organs.
Pierre Leroux and Jean Reynaud undertook the initiative of publishing an encyclopédie in
the form of livraisons mensiles (monthly fascicles on a subscription basis). In the
fascicles notes-articles were presented with entitled articles pertaining to various areas of
human knowledge. Even before time, authors were sought - specialists in various areas of
knowledge. It should be added that, as far as possible, these articles were illustrated.
Undoubtedly this explains why in the first phase of the Encyclopédie's publication, at the
bottom of the first page of each fascicle there appeared, in parentheses, the title
Encyclopédie pittoresque. However, in later fascicles this notation was discontinued, and
from 1836 the fasciles appeared with a cover on which the final title appeared:
Encyclopédie nouvelle ou Dictionnaire philosophique, littéraire et industriel offrant le
tableau des connaissances humaines au XIX siêcle par une Société des savans et de Litté-
DIARY
232
Thursday [November] 13
I return the proofs to Reynaud.
Saturday [November] 15
rateurs, publiée sur la direction de MM. P. Leroux et J. Reynaud, Paris, Libraire de
Charles Gosselin. Armand Pougin, libraire, Hector Bossagne et Ce Libraires. Quai
Voltaire 11. - The fascicles with the printed title Encyclopédie pittoresque were included
in the Encyclopédie nouvelle.
It is possible that the first volume of the Encyclopoédie about which Jański writes was as
experimental volume, containing the first experimental fascicles.
For the editors of Encyclopédie nouvelle Jański prepared a total of 22 articles for the letter
A and B. His name as the author of individual articles appeared at the end of some of the
monthly fascicles. These articles were mainly in the area of history: Alexandre Nevski
(Vol. I, Paris, 1843, pp. 273-274, fascicle 3 with a cover in 1836), Arkhangelsk (Vol. II,
Paris, 1836, pp. 25-26); the next articles in Volume II: Arpadiens, pp. 66-67; Asses
[Assiese], p.154; Astrakhan, pp. 175-177; Augsbourg, pp. 239-341; Auguste I de Saxe,
pp. 227-238; Auguste II de Saxe, pp. 248-249; Auguste III de Saxe, p.249; Autriche, pp.
281-287; Avars, pp. 298-299; Azov, pp. 318-319; Babenberg, pp. 322-323; Bachkirs, pp.
338-339; Budé, pp. 355-356; Bar (Confederation de), p.408; Baviére, pp. 502-506; Béla,
pp.546-548; Bessarabie, pp. 645-646; Bohême, pp.739-742; Boleslas, pp.758-759;
Brunswick, (Vol.III, Paris, 1837, pp.99-100.
In the list of authors - collaborators with the Encyclopédie nouvelle we find the name of yet
another Pole: Adalbert Kazimierski, who wrote articles in his area of specialization up to
the time of the end of the activity of the editors-in-chief (to the letter Z) in 1844.
26
Stanislaus Ropelewski (1814-1865); literary critic, poet, and lexicographer. He began to
study law and administration in Warsaw in 1830. He participated in the November
uprising. After its collapse he found his way to Paris. He attended the literary evenings at
the home of Adam Mickiewicz. He participated in the expedition of Joseph Zaliwski,
after which he returned to Paris and joined the Slavonic Society, established by Joseph
Bohdan Zaleski (February 14, 1835). On February 25, 1836 he signed the Act of
Confederation of the Polish Nation, and for that reason the French authorities expelled
him from Paris (June 29, 1836); however, he returned in the following year. Eustachius
Januszkiewicz published his small volume of verses Sash Verses (Paris, 1836).
Ropelewski entered into friendly relations with the camp of Prince Adam Czartoryski and
to the literary circle centered about the periodical "Young Poland" (Cf. 1838, footnote
61). In the columns of this periodical Ropelewski placed many reviews, e.g., on the topic
of the poetry of Julius Słowacki. He was author of Memoirs concerning Polish Literature
in the emigration, published anonymously in "A Calendar of the Polish Pilgrimage"
(January, 1840). This was an attempt to present a synthetic grasp of Polish literature
among the emigrants from 1831. Ropelewski was the translator of E. Jourdain's little
work: A Word of Truth. A religious-political reflection on the martyrdom and future
resurrection of Poland. From 1841, he was a member of the Historical-Literary Society,
later a professor of Polish history in the Polish School in Batignolles. He compiled a
Polish-French dictionary, supplementing the Dictionnaire français-polonais of Adalbert
Kazimierski which was printed in 1839 (Cf. 1832, footnote 249). From 1849 he lived in
Greater Poland, with his friend Caesar Plater.
YEAR 1834
233
With Dugie to Saint-Mandé. - From Leroux for the article about Alexander Nevsky.
[Sunday, November] 16
In the morning to Dugie for francs - He wasn't there. I go looking for a
room, Dinner at the German. Meeting with an old man at Café Momus.
Monday, [November] 17
With Dugie to Rouen27 - we did not meet, to the old estaminet [pub] - a
long conversation. An article about arianism.
Tuesday [November] 18
I sent a letter to the pastor [Chaussotte].28 A final accounting with
Jełowicki.29
Wednesday [November] 19
Dinner at Saint-Chéron. Wednesday the work of Voivode [A.J. Ostrows30
ki] will be completed.
[November20], Thursday evening with Walter.
Friday [November] 21
Having received a letter from Fr. Chossotte, went to visit Dugie in the
morning in order to set a day to go to Saint-Mandé.
[Saturday, November] 22
Move to another place.
[Sunday, November] 23
Visited Jełowicki, and Mickiewicz. Bought Journée du Chrétien.31
Vespers at Saint-Roch.32
27
28
29
30
31
L.P. Rouen - a former saintsimonist and editor of the periodical "Le Producteur".
Fr. Jean-Baptiste Chossotte (Chaussotte) (1794-1865) was pastor of the parish in SaintMandé from 1831. He was Jański's confessor.
Alexander Jełowicki, publisher of polish works in Paris (Cf. 1832, footnote 322). Jański
played a large role in his publishing venture.
Jański called Anthony John Ostrowski "Voivode" - he was a senator voivode of the
Kingdom of Poland by reason of his office. 1834 saw the appearance in Paris of
Ostrowski's treatise: Ideas dealing with the need for social reform in general, and
especially with regard to the Israelites in Poland. (Cf. 1832, footnote 256).
H.F.R. de Lamennais was the author of Journée du Chrétien, ou moyen de sanctifier au
milieu du monde (Paris, 1828).
DIARY
234
Monday, November 24
First confession.
8588
1020 [Monday] December 8, 1834
Go to Kwiatkowski to inquire about Konarzewski and Girard,33 in order
to write a letter, as soon as possible, to [my brother] Anthony.
Write to Montalembert.34
32
33
34
The Jesuit church of St. Roch, one of the largest churches in Paris, dating from the 16th
century, was located near the Palais-Royal on rue Saint-Jerome; here in the first years of
the Great Emigration, the Poles gathered for devotions.
Girard - undoubtedly Anthony Gerard from Kalisz, an engineer, who settled in New York
after 1832(?). Gadon tells us that he was "highly respected by the people of that locality".
Cf. Poles in America, or memoirs of fifteen years of residence, by Julian Juźwikiewicz,
one of 235 deported through Austria, who returned to France from America.
Charles de Montalembert (1810-1870) - French journalist, Catholic activist, statesman,
peer of France (1835-1848). Son of A Count, a French envoy in Sweden, living in exile in
London. One of Fr. Lamennais' (Cf. 1832, footnote 96) closest co-workers; under his spiritual patronage Montalembert and Fr. Gerbet (Cf. 1831, footnote 59), and Lacordaire
(Cf. 1832, footnote 45) together published the daily "L'Avenir" (Cf. 1832, footnote 17)
from August 1830 to November 1831. Their activity contributed to the initiation of the
menezian movement, presenting a liberal Catholicism. The leaders met with opposition
both from the gallican ecclesiastical hierarchy, as well as from liberals and government
authorities. When Pope Gregory XVI condemned liberal Catholicism, Montalembert
separated himself from Lamennais, but did not cease to believe in the co-existence of
religion and freedom. He himself was convinced that the Catholic religion can be
reconciled with the aspirations of modern-day society. He spoke in the French parliament
in defense of the rights of religion and the Church, demanded freedom to teach religion in
secondary schools, and attacked the monopoly of ministry in this field.
In 1843 Montalembert published the pamphlet Obligations of Catholics. Together with
Lacordaire, he directed the "Ere Nouvelle", a periodical representing a social program
that was almost revolutionary. When, after the murder of Affré, the Archbishop of Paris,
a division arose among Catholics, "Ere Nouvelle" had a part to play in this. At that time
Lacordaire took a stand on the side of democracy, while Montalembert attacked
"democratic and social Catholicism." In this he was close to the views of Alexis de
Tocqueville, according to whom democracy, the inevitable contemporary political
system, carries with it many dangers.
Montalembert was noted for his great friendship for Poles (Adam Mickiewicz, Bogdan
Jański, and Caesar Plater), and for his support for the cause of Poland. He belonged to the
Historical-Literary Society. In 1862 he and his family visited Great Poland.
He enjoyed the recognition of educated readers as the author of hagiographic works
(Histoire de sainte Elisabeth de Hongrie, Paris, 1836). For Montalembert's efforts, in
cooperation with Jański, in the publication of the French translation of Adam
Mickiewicz's Books of the Polish Nation, Cf. above, 1833, footnote 1. Some of
Montalembert's other works: Les moines d'Occident, depuis saint Benoit jusqu'a saint
YEAR 1834
235
Go to Rostkowski and ask him when they will write a letter to Warsaw.
To [Henry] Jaroszyński.
To [Louis] Królikowski.
Ask Maliński about the Englishman Crellin, and there find out about his
family! - and also write a few words to London.
Letters to Rettel, +Koźmian+, Adalbert Łempicki, Fr. Dąbrowski, Joseph
Zawadzki, Fiałkowski, Jabłoński, Hube, Cyprysiński, Trepka.
1021
In a letter to [my brother] Stephen, ask him for information about Mrs.
Szotarski, the Grabowskis - is their son alive, and is his name still Bogdan.
What sort of office does Michael [Jaroszewski] hold.
In a letter to Michael send greetings to Szreyber, Wodz[iński], the
Sonnenbergs, Gościński.
Górecki, Wosiński, Kropiwnicki, Radwański, Barciński, Rybicki,
Kopytowski, Wójcicki.35
35
Bernard (1860-1867); Le Pape et Pologne (1864); Discours; an extensive correspondence; an unedited Journal intime, written to the end of his life. Up to now,
Volume I (1821-1929), and Volume II (1830-1833) of the Journal have appeared, edited
by Louise le Guillou, and Nicole-Roger Taillade (Paris, 1990). It should also be noted
here that Catherine de Montalembert, a nun, fearing an accusation of lack of orthodoxy,
censored the whole of her father's Journal, and deleted or removed from it notes pertaining to Fr. Lamennais, and Adam Mickiewicz, the author of Book of the Pilgrims, a
book censored by Rome. Undoubtedly any mention of Jański's name was lost, as a
sacrifice to her fervor.
Jański prepared a list of friends, university colleagues and acquaintances to whom he
intended to write, (Letters to Rettel...), possibly in relation to the approaching celebration
of Christmas. Here are the names on that list, in alphabetical order and furnished with
biographical data (in the case of names identified previously, recourse is had to pertinent
footnotes). Barciński, Anthony - Cf. 1830, footnote 9.
Cyprysiński, Anthony, or Vincent; Cf. 1830, footnote 35
Dąbrowski, John Paul (1804-1851) - a native of Płock; after finishing schools in Pułtusk,
he studied theology in Warsaw. In 1830, he obtained the degree of Master of Theology.
He participated in the November uprising as captain, head of the 5th infantry division. He
was an emigrant in France, initially in Bourges, and then, in the years 1846-1852, in
Paris. He was a member of the Polish Democratic Society, and an adherent of Buchez's
social-religious views.
Fiałkowski (Fijałkowski), possibly Alexander - studied law at the University of Warsaw,
completing the course in 1829. From 1829 he served as an informer for Henry Mackrott,
a police officer in the service of the Great Prince Constantine. At the beginning of the
November uprising, he joined the Kraków regiment as an officer. However, he was
recognized and identified as a spy.
Gościcki, Aracadius - Cf. 1832, footnote 380.
Górecki, Joseph - Cf. 1832, footnote 375.
Grabowski, Francis and Caroline, nee Zawadzki - Cf. 1828, footnote 4.
DIARY
236
8627
248 Thursday [December] 25, Christmas
Séguin. I go to see Zienkowicz.36 To Notre-Dame, Górecki,37 Domejko.38
On leaving, we meet Klimaszewski.39 To the Jełowickis.40
36
Grabowski, the son of Francis and Caroline. It is not known whether or not his name was
Bogdan.
Hube, undoubtedly Joseph - Cf. 1832, footnote 31.
Jabłoński, Adam Stephen - Cf. 1832, footnote 106.
Jański, Stephen - Cf. 1832, footnote 365.
Jaroszewski, Michael - Cf. 1830, footnote 35.
Kopytowski, Louis (1804-1871) - a teacher in the government schools in Warsaw.
Koźmian, John (1814-1877) - In 1830 he studied law at the University of Warsaw.
Participant in the November uprising and an emigrant. He helped Jański edit "The Polish
Pilgrim". He completed legal studies in Toulouse in 1838. After arriving in Paris he
joined the House of Jański. A follower of the politics of Adam Czartoryski. From 1845,
he edited "The Poznań Review". From 1859 he studied theology in Rome. He was
ordained in 1860.
Kropiwnicki, Alphonse - Cf. 1832, footnote 377.
Łempicki, Adalbert, Wojtaś - Cf. 1832 footnote 66.
Radwański - further information lacking.
Retel (Rettel), Leonard - Cf. 1832, footnote 63.
Rybicki, Theophil - Cf. 1832, footnote 373.
Sonnenbergs - In his book, Gerber listed two Sonnenberg brothers who came from Płock,
and received the degree of Master of Law at the University of Warsaw: Charles (18041869) a landed aristocrat, and Edward (1806-?), a participant in the November uprising,
and from 1835 a clerk at the court of peace in Płock.
Szotarska, Julianna, nee Zawadzki, the sister of Alexander Jański and Caroline
Grabowski, the widow of Humphrey Szotarski (1778-1831), an official in Kalisz, later in
Piotrków.
Szreyber, Michael - Cf. 1828 (Private Diary) footnote 8.
Trepka, Vincent - undoubtedly a colleague of Jański; in 1826 he received the degree of
Master of Law and Administration at the University of Warsaw. He was a court
apprentice, and from 1829 a clerk at the police correctional court.
Wodzińskis - Gerber lists two brothers, students of administration at the University of
Warsaw: Charles (1803-1859), and Leon (1807-?) a gentleman farmer.
Wosiński, Theodore - Cf. 1832, footnote 376.
Wójcicki, Casimir Ladislaus (1807-1879). In 1827 he enrolled in the Preparatory School
(for the Polytechnic Institute) in the department of chemistry. He abandoned this after
two years, and dedicated himself to literary work and historical studies. He occupied
himself with folklore and editorial work. He participated in the November uprising.
Zawadzki, Joseph - Cf. 1832, footnote 94.
Undoubtedly Victor Augustine Zienkowicz (1808-1885) - He studied physics and
mathematics at the University of Vilno, and participated in the November uprising. After
the collapse of the uprising, he lived in France as an emigrant. He worked in a quarry and
studied in the evenings. With the money he saved he attended lectures at the École des
Mines, where he received a diploma as a mining engineer.
YEAR 1834
237
[Friday, December] 26
Celiński tells me about his Galician history with P...,41 Benoiste interrupts. We go to Cellerier.42 - To [Alexander] Jełowicki with a show of vignettes.
37
38
39
40
41
Anthony Gorecki (1787-1861) - from the region of Vilno. He was a colleague of Joachim
Lelewel at the University of Vilno. He served in the Napoleonic campaign in 1812. He
published fables and verses in periodicals in Vilno. He participated in the November
uprising, as a colonel in the Lithuanian uprising. As an emigrant in Paris, he became
acquainted with Adam Mickiewicz. During his stay in France he published 11 volumes of
verses, notable among which were his fables and humorous verses, laced with harsh
social criticism.
Ignatius Domeyko (1801-1889) - At the time of his studies in Vilno,, he was a member of
a secret student society, and became acquainted with Adam Mickiewicz, who made him
one of the figures (a Frog) in part III of Dziady ("The Forefathers"). He participated in the
November uprising and, after its collapse, emigrated to Paris where he studied in the
École des Mines. At the time of his first stay in Paris he enrolled in The Society of the
United Brethren (1834-1835). Hired by the Chilean government, he left for Chile, where
he taught chemistry and mineralogy. He was a Rector of the University of Santiago. In a
booklet that was translated into Polish, Araukania i jej mieszkańcy, he defended the rights
of aboriginal tribes. Other than scientific works, he wrote Memoirs (1908), and My
Travels (published in 1962-1963).
Hippolitus Klimaszewski (1802-1874) - poet and literary historian, teacher at a grammar
school in Vilno. He participated in the November uprising, and lived as an emigrant in
Paris. He was director of the Polish school in Batignolles until 1854.
Besides Alexander Jełowicki (Cf. 1832, footnote 322), Alexander's brother Edward
(1803-1048) also lived in Paris. He studied in the school of engineering, in the
department of artillery. A Marshal of the Podolian nobility, he participated in the uprising
of 1831 as a colonel. After the collapse of the uprising, he was interned by the Austrians
and put in jail in Spielberg. After he was released, he left for France. In the years 18411847 he served in the Foreign Legion in Algiers. He participated in the 1848 revolution in
Vienna. After its collapse, he was captured and executed.
Adam Celiński (1809-1837) came from the borderland of Lublin and Volhynia. He
studied at the Krzemieniecki Lyceum. In 1829 he moved to Warsaw, and enrolled in the
department of law and administration at the University. At the time of the November
uprising, he was with the National Guard, and then in the Lithuanian-Volhynian Legion.
Toward the end of the uprising he was living in Płock, where, at the grave of Boleslaus
Krzywousty, he realized that he was an atheist. He worked his way to Galicia; in Lwów
he made contact with Poniński's widow. In unexplained circumstances he left Lwów
suddenly, and after a short stay in Kraków, where he met his friend, doctor Hippolitus
Terlecki, and Louis Królikowski, he reached Switzerland. From there, in October 1833,
he made his way to Paris. There he mixed in the company of gamblers and card-sharks
and fell into poverty and illness. Wishing to extricate himself from this situation, in
January of 1834 he accepted a post in the editorial office of "A Chronicle of the Polish
Emigration". It seems that it was only from November 1834 that he began to visit Jański
at rue de Verneuil. At the time, the latter was undergoing an intensive process of religious
and moral rebirth, and was preparing for his great confession. Celiński became a kind of
charge of Janski, finding in him understanding, moral-religious assistance, and protection.
Jański and Celiński made their confession together at the beginning of 1835. In October
DIARY
238
To Saint-Mandé, vespers - rendez-vous for Monday. On the way, thoughts about
"The Pilgrim",43 about a letter concerning my return to Warsaw. Dinner in
Bercy, coffee - place du Châtelet.44 I deliver the vignettes to the printery.
Newspapers. Reflections.
[Saturday, December] 27
In the morning, Celiński, Semenenko.45 To the printery in order to make
arrangements for a cover for Niemcewicz's46 letter. To the Jełowickis. I take
42
43
44
45
of 1835, Celiński left Paris and moved to southern France, to Agen, Toulousse, and later
to Montpellier and Lunel. He lived with his friend Leon Przecławski, and became
involved in the religious-moral apostolate among the Polish exiles. For a time he was
secretary of the General Committee in Agen. At a distance from Paris, he corresponded
with Jański. In his letters he revealed his plans to organize an "order of knights"
possessing a religious-patriotic character, and urged Jański to resume publication of "The
Polish Pilgrim". With his deep religious faith he expressed himself as a poet who
possessed authentic talent. He died of consumption. Jełowicki and Jański were supposed
to see to the publication of his compositions, but this was never realized.
Cellerier (Celarier) - I do not know to what this refers.
"Pilgrim" - a reference to "The Polish Pilgrim". In its last number from 1833 ("half-sheet
32, the last of the second part", final page - 128), edited by Jański, the following
announcement was printed: "material difficulties force us to hold back from printing the
next part of the Pilgrim until a time which we cannot determine at present." Throughout
1834 and the following year, the thought of renewing "The Pilgrim" did not leave Jański,
which explains the mention of the title of the publication in the place mentioned in the
Diary.
Bercy - at the time, a hamlet in the vicinity of Paris, situated to the west of the Vincennes
Forest.
Place de Châtelet - a public square in Paris, at the mouth of the Change bridge, close to
the renaissance tower of the demolished church of Saint-Jacques. The name of the square
derived from the name of former fortress Cyran Châtelet.
Peter Semenenko (Semeneńko) (1814-1886), born in Tykocin. His father, a Russian
officer and official, belonged to the Polish nobility that had settled in White Russia. In
1830 Peter enrolled at the University of Vilno. He participated in the November uprising
as an officer cadet in the artillery. After the collapse of the uprising, he crossed over into
Prussia with the corps of Anthony Giełgud. There, influenced by lectures and
environment, he lost his faith. He went to France, and lived in the depots at Besançon and
Châteauroux (Levroux). At the time he belonged to the radical democratic wing of the
emigration. He was a journalist for the periodical "Progress", an organ of the central
section of the Democratic Society founded by John Nepomucene Janowski. Co-founders
were Semenenko, Henry Gracch, Peter Niewęgłowski (Charles Kaczanowski was the
secretary). After the sixth number of "Progress", Semenenko left the editorial staff (John
Czyński took his place). Sought by the French police, he hid in Paris. Here in 1835 he
met Jański, who took him under his wing, offered him material, and above all moralreligious, assistance. As a result, Semenenko the atheist became a believer. He was a
member of the House of Jański from its very beginning. He studied theology at Collége
Stanislas in Paris, and from 1837 continued his studies in Rome until the time of his
YEAR 1834
239
K.Z.R47 to the postoffice. To the library to consult Salverte48 concerning the
Ascension. Pecqueur. - Then to Roret.49 With Mickiewicz. To Oleszczyński
about the portraits. Dinner at rue Mazarine. To [Francis] Grzymała. Pecqueur at
my place. Discussion with Celiński, about our relationships before we got to
know one another, and about "The Pilgrim".
Sunday, December 28
I got up late. Went to the printery to deliver the "Nie-Boska Komedia"
[the "Non-Divine Comedy"]. For Mass to St. Roch. Jóźwik. To the Jełowickis -
46
47
48
49
ordination to the priesthood (December 5, 1841). After Jański's death he was chosen to be
the superior of Community in formation, whose statutes as the Congregation of the
Resurrection were approved in 1842, with the outstanding cooperation of Fr. Jerome
Kajsiewicz. In that same year, Semenenko was living in Paris, where he combated Towianism with the pen and the word. In 1845, as a result of slander, he was stripped of his
superiorship by his brethren. He spent 1847 in Tunis. He returned to Rome, and there, in
1866, he contributed to the establishment of the Polish College, of which he became the
rector. He enjoyed the confidence of the Holy See. After the death of Kajsiewicz, he was
chosen as superior of the Congregation. He was a religious writer, author of Mystika,
works for an innovative era (Thomism), an orator, apostle, and co-founder of the
Congregation of the Sisters of the Resurrection. He was the author of an as yet not
completely published Diary from the years 1851-1886.
Jański undertook to prepare for publication verses of Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, A letter
to Kniaziewicz, General of the Polish Army, written in France in the year 1834, at the
time when both were staying in Montmorency. Published by A. Jełowicki, it appeared in
Paris in 1835.
Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz (1758-1841) - poet, dramatist, novelist, satirist, journalist,
translator, and diarist. He was a close associate of Prince Adam Czartoryski, an envoy to
the Four Years' Diet. He was secretary and adjutant to Kosciuszko. In the years of the
Principality of Warsaw and the Kingdom of Poland, he worked indefatigably in the areas
of culture and politics. He was a member and president of the Society of Friends of
Learning in Warsaw. Regarded as "a national oracle" he was also "the moral dictator of
Warsaw". Although he was opposed to conspiracy, he joined in the November uprising.
He became a member of the National Government, which sent him to England in 1831 on
a diplomatic mission. From 1833 he lived in Paris, at the side of Prince Czartoryski. He
was an active member of the Literary Society (later the Historical-Literary Society). He
published his works in the emigrant press. Among the emigrants he was regarded as a
symbol and example of integrity and patriotism, and was also a living memorial of the
last years of independence for the emigration. He wrote, among others, Memoirs of my
times (to 1829).
K.Z.R. - What Jański has in mind here is unknown.
Salverte - Cf. 1832, footnote 79.
The article Ascension was ultimately prepared for the Encyclopédie nouvelle by Abel
Transon, and not by Jański.
Roret - a parisian bookseller.
DIARY
240
I read a little of Evenings of a Pilgrim.50 To Kazimirski. To Wodziński - J.B.
Ostrowski and Zaleski. Back home, dinner, newspapers; preparation for
confession.
[Monday] December 29
I got up very late. Took a letter to Aicard. To the Jełowickis; they were
out. I left [Maurice] Mochnacki. To Saint-Mandé. My mind was heavy.
Confession - I felt better immediately. Return, to the post office, and home for
dinner. Słowaczyński51 pays a visit; I am not satisfied with the conversation. I
always allow myself to be distracted; I lack control in what I say. - A reply to
Stecki,52 to rue Pot-de-Fer, Saint Sulpice, for the newspapers.
Tuesday, December 30
I got up very, very late. Aicard about Ascensions. To the goldsmith on Fr.
Chossotte's business; to the post office, to the library. - I am reading John Potocki53 and Ferrand.54 Projects dealing with works concerning Poland's most recent
history. To the "Revue Sociale"55 Courtet lends her collection, and Gurowski's
pamphlet;56 conversation with Mallace57 about the latter, after which I am not
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
In the autograph the note: Wiecz. Pielgrz. undoubtedly refers to Stephen Witwicki's
Evenings of a Pilgrim (Cf. above, footnote 10). Part II appeared in 1834.
Undoubtedly Andrew Słowaczyński (1807-?) - a geographer, alumnus of the University
of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising. He was an emigrant in France
from February 1832. Secretary of General Joseph Dwernicki's Committee, and editor of
the publication "The Polish Emigration Weekly", published in Paris from 1834.
Possible Adolph Stecki (1808-1889) - a first year student at the University of Warsaw. At
the time of the uprising he was an officer cadet of a battalion of engineers. An emigrant in
France, he studied in the staff school in the years 1832-1833. He received a diploma as an
engineer. In 1845 he returned to Poland and settled in Galicia as a gentleman farmer.
John Potocki (1761-1815) - Count, historian, traveler, writer of prose exclusively in
French. A student of the enlightenment; an envoy to the Great Sejm. He traveled
extensively, and studied the pre-history of the Slavs. A member of the Society of the
Friends of Learning in Warsaw; author of the famous novel A Manuscript discovered at
Saragossa.
Antoine-Francais-Claude Ferrand (1751-1825) Author, among others, of a three-volume
monograph Histoire des trois démembrements de la Pologne, pour faire suite a l'Histoire
de l'anarchie de Pologne, de Rulhiére, Paris, 1820.
To the Paris bureau of the periodical "Revue du progrês social" which managed to
publish only three issues in 1834. Sponsored by the editorial office, a "collection"
appeared, that is Revue du progrês social, Paris, 1834, 3 volumes in two volumes.
Adam Gurowski published in 1834 a pamphlet entitled La verité sur la Russie et sur la
révolte des provinces polonaises (The truth about Russian and the revolt of the Polish
provinces). Cf. 1831, footnote 14, where the content was characterized.
E. Mallac (Mallace) - a French journalist. Together with the former saintsimonist, Jules
Lechevalier (Cf. 1832, footnote 21) he signed a publication: 1834, Situation politique de
YEAR 1834
241
happy with myself. To the Jełowickis - at the Kathombe.58 Back home, I read
Gurowski's pamphlet - Patriotic projects. To Leroux - to the lecture by Beslay.59
Wednesday, December 31
Once again I got up late. Breakfast. Rostkowski tells me about [Camille]
Mochnacki's death, about Kurek from America.60 I leave the house not feeling
well; 46 francs from Encyclopédie pittoresque. To the binder, to Oleszczyński,
to the printery, to the paper-makers. and home at three. After dinner, musing on
the occasion of the last day of the present year - I would like to write down my
final reflections and projects. Łopaciński;61 I am not satisfied with myself in
conversation with him. I do not control or direct my conversation sufficiently. Later, once again I get lost in my reflections, until finally I make these notes.62
58
59
60
61
62
la France, principes d'une alliance politique, ayant pour but de mettre fin a la lutte révolutionnaire par l'initiative du progrês social, published by the editorial board of "Revue
du progrês social", Paris, 1834, p.32.
Kathombe (Cathombe) - the name of a restaurant.
Charles Beslay (1796-1878) - a French socialist. In 1830 he became a member of the
House of Deputies as a liberal, but later joined the republican party.
Francis Joseph Kurek (c.1805-1847) born in Lithuania. Before the November uprising, he
served in the Russian army as a bandmaster. In the years 1833-1834 he directed an
orchestra in Bourges. After moving to the United States, he worked as a member of an
orchestra, undoubtedly in Boston, where he died.
Possibly Louis Łopaciński, a lieutenant residing in Paris at the time.
In a letter of (March?) 1836, addressed to his old friend Louis Królikowski who was then
living in Kraków, Jański described his life in Paris in 1834 as follows: "In 1834, I worked
quietly here on behalf of an entrepreneur - Jełowicki - publishing, that is editing various
Polish books as a means of sustenance; along with this there was work relative to my
soul, interior and personal, as well as constant disturbances, poverty, thoughts that
tormented me all day, and sometimes all night, longing for the Kingdom of God and the
way that leads to it; added to this, finally, physical weakness - an ailment of the lungs - I
was already diagnosed as a consumptive, and destined for death by many.
Meanwhile, after two months of serious illness spent in bed, I arose well and healthier
than ever before. This was in August. At the end of 1834, I resolved to return fully to the
unity of Christ's Church, and I kept that resolution." (ACRR 8568, p.1107).
Jański's note about Modern times, located in the Supplement under II, dates from the year
1834.
DIARY
242
SUPPLEMENT
I.
8627
244-247 Sunday, December 28, 1834
WHY I RETURNED TO THE HOLY CATHOLIC FAITH
Because, O merciful God, this was your wish! Your grace accomplished
this, not any merit, work or reasoning of mine. I feel this in the depths of my
soul, and thank you, O God, for deigning to look upon my misery and suffering,
on my groaning, and my longing for the truth, for universal good. Come to my
assistance, Almighty Lord! Grant me the strength to remain worthy of your
kindness for the rest of my life.
However, O God, perfect Truth, your Word, our holy faith, does not
contradict reason; indeed it is its root, its law, and its life. Every healthy intellect can and should accept this - therefore, it allows itself to be explained most
clearly and most obviously by means of reason. I wish to undertake this task in
my own case with your help, to satisfy my mind and for a better arrangement of
my life - to put my relations with people in order, and instead of scandalizing
them, to edify them by my speech and my writing. Today, as a result of the lack
of order present in my soul, my whole life, until recently, I am in no condition
to accomplish this. I will accomplish it if you give me your grace, most loving
Father. I can scarcely indicate the steps by which I came to the beginning of this
wisdom, which is the fear of the Lord, and ultimately to your holy tabernacle,
the Catholic Church.
I confess, O God, that from the first inspiration by which you led me to
sense where the truth exists, I should have, I could have, seen it, recognized it,
and begun to live according to it. But weakness of will, overwhelmed by pride
and lust, human respect, lukewarmness, and the disorder growing within me,
served as an obstacle on my part; and so I continued to be troubled by my sins
against you for three more years. Thank you, dear God, for all of the affliction
and humiliation you allowed me to experience in the course of these years, by
which you enabled me to gain a sense of my misery and my insignificance. I
DIARY
244
thank you - I thank you three times over, for leading me finally to the source of
purest truth, the Ark of the New Testament!
The first step toward truth in the metaphysical question concerning spirit
and matter (pantheism disappears). Further: progress, recognition of the need
for its beginning, end, and direction; leading to faith in the fall of the first man
and salvation - and one mediator. Christianity, a revelation of ultimate destinies,
higher than all temporal goals.
Ordre de foi, de charité, d'autorité [the order of faith, charity, authority].
Ordres de sciences, des jouissances, de liberté [Orders of science, exercise of
liberty] (too great an attachment to this idea - I optionally place human orders
as a condition for accepting the first, neo-Christianity, and the question of
Poland).
De Lamennais, principe de certitude [the principle of certitude]. Gerbet.
Holy Communion. (Always neo-Christianity, arriére-pensées of pride and lust).
Mickiewicz. practice.
A vain desire for confession. - Saint-Martin.
I consider the fact of love of neighbor as a condition for the legitimate
existence of the Church. From dependence of the Church on temporal authority,
I wish to deduce the need for a revolutionary emancipation of the Church, for
only then will it be the true Church. - A desire to join some Christian Church
with the help of the reformed churches.
These two errors engage me for a whole year.
Finally, O Lord, you deigned to hear my prayer.
II.
8600
225 The year 1834
MODERN TIMES
The times, changing conditions, progress in human living are clearly
recognized by Christ as important.
Present-day Church authority does not have a sense of the present time,
and, as a result, its influence on society is both unskillful and ineffective.
Therefore, a good Christian, mindful of the eternal and unchanging obligations in his life, should also be mindful of the transitoriness of time.
YEAR 1834
245
Today, the spirit of political emancipation, the widespread nature of
education (printing), wealth (machines), mutual connections and conditions
(communications, etc.), should contribute considerably toward changing the
former course, the former temporary ecclesial and religious norm.
If misconceptions about Catholicism are universal today, shouldn't such
misconceptions be set aside first rather than starting ab ovo [from the very
beginning], and. above all, abide by the forms and words of the ancient Church?
226
It would be important to indicate how positive, principal, changes in
Church government, customs, and Christian practices were introduced, how
great reforms were effected, how innovators exerted an influence on Christian
society, and awakened within it a spirit of renewal? - Gregory VII.
III.
8627
235 [Saturday], December 6
[CONFESSION]
I have already confessed apostasy, profanation of holy things, leading
many souls astray +(a bad son, bad brother, bad friend, bad citizen)+, pride and
debasement.
Now I go on to confess in general that, in the last twelve years, that is,
from the time when I renounced the holy faith, my entire life consisted in
stifling and destroying the good, while fostering evil within myself. Intellectual
and sensual egoism continued to increase; while an ever greater lasciviousness
of spirit and body, an ever greater disorder in thought and act, an ever greater
relish in mortal sins took the place of true love of God and neighbor:
1. Incredible conceit; 2. greed, concern for temporal goods; 3. envy,
jealousy, distrust, destruction of all feelings of companionship and friendship; 4.
impurity, more and more unbridled, bestialized, subjugating all the other
faculties; 5. delight in lust, gluttony, drunkenness; 6. irritability, anger; 7. ever
greater laziness.
As a result, finally, extraordinary incompetence and despair, together
with constantly increasing pride and sensuality.
2236
My life over the past 12 years, full of errors and offenses, I divide as
follows:
DIARY
246
1. The first five years. Ever greater corruption and ever greater success. In the
last two years the apogee of pride, I ascribe an extraordinary mission to myself.
2. In the next seven years. Debasement by way of a woman; ever greater
inefficiency and debasement.
3. Finally, in the last three years, a return to the faith but held back by deeply
rooted faults and habits, especially pride and sensuality.
I thank God that, in spite of such numerous and serious sins, when I was
confirmed in evil, in spite of many occasions of sin, God placed external
hindrances in my way, preventing me from committing even more numerous
sins; and when he deigned to awaken within me a desire to improve, despite my
desire to persevere in my bad habits, without delay he drew me away from these
by the impossibility of exercising them. For this, O Lord, I should thank you
throughout my life.
I begin with confession of the first five years.
Year one - I cannot remember when and how evil began in me; I cannot
remember my last sincere confession and communion.
237
I remember that the revolt of the spirit and the flesh against God began
together. The renunciation of Christ and his faith, love affair, liberalism.
Fervor in fulfilling my obligations disappeared immediately, and
contempt for persons whom I had previously honored and loved ensued.
Unfortunately, also coldness toward such a good mother! Within a short time
God warned me about the evil by punishing me. Ziemecki. In a brothel for the
first time. Infection.
At the university. Renouncement of God under the influence of Systéme
de la Nature +(anti-Christian propaganda. Letter to Bronisz. Converting the
brothers at Christmas)+. An ever greater loss of shame. Increasingly dissolute in
speech and life (Ziemecki, a girl in the room).
238
Year two - Poverty forces me to work, but at the same time empty gaiety,
licentiousness, conceit. Confession to Fr. Onoszko.1
Greek platonic philosophy idealizes me somewhat; however political
economy unbridles all social notions, confirms me in materialism, irreligion,
and proud naturalism.
1
John Onoszko - Priest, professor at the university of Warsaw, Canon of Łuck, and later of
Mohylew. Rector of the Major Seminary in Warsaw. Honorary member of the
Government Commission of Religious beliefs and Public Education.
YEAR 1834
247
I lose faith in the soul. Arystyp.2 My mother's death! - Debauchery,
+Jabłońska, I cannot stand the company of honest women,+ drunkenness,
profanation of holy objects.
Year three - Poverty forces me to work. Śniadecki. Sensuality in logic, in
the formation of ideas. Philosophical and revolutionary exaltation. Systême de
la raison, Systême social.3
239
Year four - Jaroszyński. Sense of an extraordinary mission, greatness. Rejection
of former, limited views. Undertake translation. Closeness to Louis
[Królikowski] Undertaking de la Morale universelle, and Systême de la nature.4
+Lodgings with Rybicki and Kopytowski. With the Jewish women - at
the Child Jesus.5
Dissatisfaction with simple tasks, in fulfilling my obligations. My
thoughts about women. (Visits at the Child Jesus).+
Year five - Lordly demeanor. Pride. dissoluteness without limits, Pociejew. +Drunken carousing, the skull of a dead man, and meanwhile singing...+
Scandal. The great master of revolution and carousing.+ Immersed in self,
incapable of friendship, of the quiet and sincere love of neighbor.+ I am leading
Stephen into evil. An unfortunate song. Pride without limits. Success.
Patronage, impetuosity, sensuality, delights, wasting time.6
2
3
4
5
6
Arystyp (c.435-355 B.C.) - Greek philosopher and founder of the Cyrenian school, which
held that pleasure is the sole good (hedonism).
Cf. 1832, footnote 372.
Cf. ibid.
Through the efforts of the missionary and philanthropist Fr. Peter Gabriel Baudoin (16891768) the hospital of the Infant Jesus was built in 1733 in Warsaw (at the former
Warercki Square). The hospital was destined for foundlings, but also for the sick and for
the poor as a temporary shelter.
A continuation of the confession is found in the Supplement to the Year 1835, beginning
with January 4 (1835).
In the Diary for 1834 Jański did not write that on December 19 of that year The Society
of United Brethren was established in Paris "with a Christian and Polish purpose of
training in piety, as well as encouraging others among the Polish emigrants to the same
goal." The act of establishment of the brotherhood was signed by: Anthony Górecki,
Adam Mickiewicz, Stephen Witwicki, Caesar Plater, Bohdan and Joseph Zaleski. "In a
few days they were joined by Ignatius Domeyko, and Bogdan Jański." (P. Smolikowski,
History of the Congregation of the Resurrection, Vol.I, p.39).
DIARY
248
DIARY
Year 1835
8627
254 Thursday, January 1, 1835
I awoke quite early with my mind at ease - I cannot remember the last
time this was so - master of myself. +I picked up the letters to America from
Konarzewski.+ Celiński came by. We exchanged greetings and comforted one
another with hope, said prayers together and ate breakfast. At ten, I went to visit
the Jełowickis, and failing to find them at home, went on to the church de
l'Assomption.1 From there to Mickiewicz. He received me with a kindness I did
not deserve. I was ashamed to speak with him about an important matter between us. For some time we exchanged stories about a variety of strange things.
After leaving, I went back to the Jełowickis, but they still were not there. From
there to St. Roch, and for lunch to Lescophy - I spent too much - and then for
coffee. There until evening, and then to Walter. Ropelewski, Rostkowski and
Konopka came by - an empty, but pleasant, conversation until ten o'clock. Thus,
the first day of the new year was not spent altogether well. God grant that it will
be better on other days.
Friday, January 2
I got up late. To the Jełowickis - on business. To Caesar Plater.2 On foot
to Saint-Mandé; I have a headache. It is after three when I arrive. I meet Mrs.
1
2
A 17th century church in Paris, dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary,
located at the corner of rue Luxembourg and rue Saint-Jerome. At about the middle of the
19th century, the Archbishop of Paris designated this church for the needs of the Polish
mission.
Caesar Augustine Broel-Plater (1810-1869) - Count. He participated in the November
uprising in Lithuania, from the beginning together with Emilia Plater. An envoy to the
Sejm in 1831. After the collapse of the uprising, he emigrated to Paris. In December 1831
he was one of the organizers of the Lithuanian Society (later "and the Russian Lands" was
added to the title), and was its president until the end of 1833. A member of the Literary
Society, as well as the Council of Educational Assistance for Polish youth (until 1841).
He entered into friendly relations with Charles de Montalembert. On December 19, 1834,
he signed the act founding the Society of the United Brethren. He provided financial
DIARY
250
Bazard with her children.3 Initially I am a little embarrassed. Somehow she
seems changed for the better. In spite of low spirits during the conversation,
after that I feel better. Fr. pastor [Chaussotte] puts off confession until Monday.
Returning, I reflected upon family ties as a means to preserve nationality. - Life
is a struggle, a new characteristic of the sides that are fighting, etc. - I return by
bus. Dinner at rue Mazarine. Coffee at home. I scan the "Revue du progrês
social", articles about Bohemia [the Czechs] and Saint-Martin. I gave some
thought to introducing new issues in the public arena among the Poles, speaking
about various innovators, Lamennais, [Hoene] Wroński, etc. Went to visit
Wrotnowski. I read Fredro's4 proverbs. Unfortunately, I did not immediately
write down excerpts. It is already late night when I meet Séguin. I accompany
him to his room for tea. I introduce him to Wejssenhof.
255
Saturday, [January] 3
I get up late, ill at ease. To l'abbaye Saint-Germain to recite a litany. For
lunch to Viot. To Dien concerning Krasicki's portrait; to Anthony Oleszczyński,
to Montgolfier,5 to Januszkiewicz,6 (Grzymała, Boyer-Nioche,7 Ropelewski,
3
4
5
assistance for the House of Jański, a residence for the first Polish emigrants preparing for
religious service directed towards the moral rebirth of the emigration. As an "external
brother," he showed constant interest in the development of the House. He was unofficial
diplomatic agent of Prince Adam Czartoryski in Rome. There, in December of 1834, he
took up residence in the "little cloister" of the future Resurrectionist Fathers. At that time
he was preparing materials for the Roman Curia pertaining to the persecution of the
Uniates under the Russian annexation. In 1842 the married Stephanie Małachowska
(1818-1852), and settled in the region of Poznań. He was an advocate of constitutional
work. In the administrative district of Śrem he organized a Polish Brotherhood,
undertaking a variety of religious and charitable activities. He was a member of the
Poznań Society of Friends of Learning. He was a brother of Ladislaus Plater (Cf. footnote
45).
Claire Bazard - the widow of Saint-Armand Bazard who died on July 29, 1832 (Cf. 1832,
footnote 1).
Andrew Maximillian Fredro (c.1620-1679) - a political writer, moralist, historian and
collector of proverbs. He published Proverbs of current languages, or Cautions
concerning customs, advice, and the military (Kraków, 1658). George Samuel Bandtkie
prepared the Proverbs... for print, basing himself on the Warsaw edition of 1769, and
published them in Wrocław in 1802 and 1809. This is a collection of aphorisms,
including moral maxims and observations pertaining to inter-personal relationships in
daily life, various dictums and morals, dictated by sound reason and practical experience,
and recommended by stoic philosophers.
Undoubtedly a paper factory, a part of the Montgolfier firm. The Montgolfier brothers,
Joseph (1740-1810), and Jacques Etienne (1745-1799), inventors of the hot-air balloon,
assumed control of the paper factory at the request of their father, and managed to
develop it successfully.
YEAR 1835
251
discuss trifles with him unnecessarily). To the printery, and the for coffee at
home; delivered the letter to the bindery. Once more to Dien. At home I read
Raul Rochett's8 letter.
4 [stycznia], niedziela
Z rana do Jełowickich, zdaję Aleksandrowi rachunek. Wspomina mi o
miejscu u Ogińskich.9 Na mszą do église de l„Assomption. Do domu, zaczynam
pisać dalej spowiedź10 i ten dziennik. Do Cabinet de Lecture. Obiad w domu.
Przerzucam przez cały wieczór dawne notaty, dzienniki życia.
Monday, [January] 5
Finished writing my confession in the morning. I met Caesar on the way.
I reached Saint-Mandé at two. I waited an hour for the pastor in his study.
Confession - A DAY FOR JOY AND HOPE. Next Sunday, the Feast of Three
Kings,11 I am to receive Holy Communion. I eat dinner with the kind priest. I
return to Paris with joy in my heart. To Cauvin,12 to the bindery, to Januszkie6
Eustachius Januszkiewicz (1805-1874), received the nickname "Icek" due to his superior
business abilities. During the November uprising he was an aide-de-camp to General
Samuel Różycki. As an emigrant in Paris, with Hector Bossagne, he established a sales
bureau for Polish books in 1833, and in 1835, together with Alexander Jełowicki and
Stephen Dembowski, a bookstore and Polish publishing company. From November 1832
to the end of December 1833 he published the "Polish Pilgrim", and in the years 18381840, "Young Poland". In the first days of January he reprinted the Non-Divine Comedy.
His brother Romuald (1808-1865) lived in Paris with E. Januszkiewicz in the 1830's.
7
8
9
10
11
12
Raoul-Rochette - Cf. 1832, footnote 212.
The Ogińskis - a princely Lithuanian family. Gabriel Joseph Andrew Ogiński (17841842) was a member of the family. He participated in the Napoleonic wars of 1812-1813,
and later in the November 1831 uprising in Lithuania. In the summer of 1833, he took up
residence in Paris along with his wife Kunegunda, nee Broel-Plater (1781-1865). There
he established a bookbinding atelier (a leaflet has been preserved: "Atelier Polonais de réliure, rue de Chartes No 12, dirigé par le prince Ogiński /refugié Polonais/"). King Louis
Philip was known to visit there. Ogiński's wife collaborated with Clementine Hoffman in
the Polish Women's Welfare Society. The Ogińskis had a son, Victor, whose "first tutor"
was Bogdan Jański. In a report by Fr. Peter Semenenko (Diary, Thursday, April 24,
1879), Victor was "the illegitimate son of Prince Gabriel Ogiński." After 1870 he married
Mary Plater, a cousin of Caesar Plater, of whom was born a son, Henry Caesar.
Gabriel Ogiński had received permission from Tsar Nicholas I to return to Lithuania, but
he was arrested there. He died soon after leaving jail.
Jański bean to write a continuation of his confession on the 4th of January. The text is
located in the Appendix to the Diary for the year 1835, under I.
...On the Feast of Three Kings... This feast, celebrated in the Polish liturgical calendar on
January 6, was celebrated by the French Catholic Church on Sunday, January 11, 1835.
This could be Thomas Cauvin (1762-1846) - a Paris historian and antique dealer.
DIARY
252
wicz (Wrotnowski and Weissenhof were there); to the Reading Room, and
home. Spent much time musing; brief reading. Thought about "The Pilgrim", a
religious journal, and about translating Gerbet.
256
Tuesday [January] 6. Feast of the Three Kings.
I inform Celiński that he can go to Saint-Mandé. We are to go together
next Saturday. A kind of patriotic conversation about Sułkowski; he begins to
declaim (an I allow him to do so needlessly) about Napoleon and St. Helena.13
Séguin interrupts him. I correct proofs and take them to the printery. I meet
Chodźko. I Attend Mass at St. Roch. To the Jełowickis (how long will I fail to
use the proper tone in conversation with him!); Orpiszewski14 comes in. - To
Mickiewicz; he is not at home. I leave the Voivode's15 work. I meet Witwicki.
To de Berry;16 for the paper for covers to Mickiewicz. To the printery; to
Wrotnowski. Home for dinner, and the entire evening at home. I glance through
Waga and Violet.17 I would like to continue writing my diary, but in vain;
constant thoughts about my future and my present situation. (From the material
standpoint this situation is very uncertain, until I reach a decision about plans
13
14
15
16
17
Joseph Sułkowski (1773-1798) - participated in the Polish-Russian war in 1792, and in
the Kosciuszko uprising. A Polish Jacobin, an aide-de-camp to General Napoleon
Bonaparte, he participated in the Italian and Egyptian campaigns. He died in Cairo. Adam
Celiński was the author of the poem Napoleon Bonaparte.
Louis Orpiszewski (1810-1875) - From 1828 he was a student of law and administration
at the University of Warsaw. He was interested primarily in literature, history and
politics, to which he gave priority over his scholastic studies. He took part in the capture
of the Warsaw Belvedere in 1830, and was a member of the Patriotic Society. He was an
emigrant in Germany and France, from the beginning of January, 1832, in Paris. He
renewed the contacts made in Warsaw and Dresden with Adam Mickiewicz, Maurice
Mochnacki, Thaddeus Krępowiecki and others. He became acquainted with Charles
Montalembert and other representatives of the Catholic movement in France. He was on
friendly terms with Bogdan Jański and Jerome Kajsiewicz. He was an advocate of the
politics of Prince Czartoryski. In 1839 he became a member of the Literary Society, and
editor-in-chief of Monarchist organ "The Third of May". He was a tutor to Witold, Prince
Adam Czartoryski's son. As a diplomatic agent of the Hotel Lambert, he resided in Rome,
in contact with Vatican Curia, in the years 1844-1849, seeking the neutralize Austrian
and Russian diplomatic influence. He was also interested in the belle lettres: He wrote
poetry, dramas, novels, and pursued the profession of journalist in the French language.
He was the father of Ladislaus (1856-1942), a future Resurrectionist and rector of the
Polish mission in Paris.
...the work of Voivode. - Cf. 1834, footnote 30.
Undoubtedly the paper store and graphic studio of the de Berry firm. Cf. footnote 62.
Alphonse Viollet - historian, translator of the works of James Fletcher (Cf. 1832, footnote
87).
YEAR 1835
253
for lessons; about [John] Potocki, work at specific objects, articles for the
encyclopedia, prepare materials for "The Pilgrim".)
Wednesday [January] 7
Offer advice to Celiński... together we read a few chapters of the Bible,
the Books of Esdras.18 Gautier; I sign a promissory note to him for the 20th. - I
continue reading the Bible, prayer, and would like to get down to the diary.
Suddenly Semenenko begins to talk about visions, and about the Przecławski's19
duels. Podczaszyński insists on reading the brochures, declaims about the Bible,
blasphemes - I am left with the worst impression from his company, sad that I
did not chastise him for his blasphemy. - J[ohn] C[asimir] Ordyniec about his
periodical20 - my neighbor. We go out; it is already four o'clock.
257
I invite Semenenko to have supper with me. I go alone to Wrotnowski,
taking with me Lamennais' A Christian's Day, which has been translated into
Polish.21 To the printery; a third correction of the last sheet of the Comedy,
covers. Home, dinner. Talk with Semenenko about printed materials, visions,
etc. Visit Burgaud des Marets, who has just arrived - He receives me graciously,
full of delicacy, and without pretense; we discuss various bits of news. After
returning home at eleven, I am writing this diary.
Thursday [January] 8
In the morning I go to visit Leroux in order to receive his recommendation to Magnin22 to obtain books from the latter's library. I do not find him at
"Revue" or at Encyclopedie [pittoresque]. I go to the library in the hope of
meeting someone who knows me and who could give me a recommendation. I
do not meet anyone. I read John Potocki. I froze. I go to the bindery, to printery.
To Januszkiewicz, to the Jełowickis, to Dembowski.23 I return home for dinner
18
19
20
21
22
23
...The Books of Esdras - This was the name given to the Old Testament book of Esdras,
and the book of Nehemiah, which the Vulgate calls Second Esdras.
Leon Przecławski (1806-1839) - a captain in the November uprising. As an emigrant, he
lived in Paris from 1832. Known for his frequent involvement in duels. In 1834, he was a
member of the Central Section of the Polish Democratic Society. Later he lived in
southern France. He became a friend of Adam Celiński, who lived with him.
From the beginning of 1835, John Casimir Ordyniec (Cf. 1832, footnote 64) published a
satirical-literary periodical, "The Common Touch". Only one number was published.
Fr. Theodore Kiliński was the translator of Lamennais' book. He published it under the
title "The Day of a Christian Catholic" (Kraków, 1834). Cf. 1834, footnote 31.
Charles Magnin (1793-1862) - Scholar, librarian; he possessed a valuable collection of
books, from which persons who were recommended were able to benefit.
Undoubtedly Stephen Dembowski (b.1795) - a major of a corps of riflemen in the
November uprising. An emigrant in Paris, together with Alexander Jełowicki and
DIARY
254
at six. I spend the evening reading Lamennais' A Christian's Day translated by
Kiliński, and in reflection.
Friday [January 9]
In the morning (I have a stomach ache) to the Jełowickis. I put the books
in order. (Hauke).24 He keeps me a very long time, until 2:30. I am to make a
decision within a few days concerning the Ogińskis. To the binder. I meet Mr.
Leroux, and tell him about my interest. To Walter. Fanny makes soup with wine
for me; I stay until seven.
258
To the printery for a minute; to the Reading Room until eleven. Reflections. I read Henrion's History of monastic Orders.25
Saturday, January 1026
Visits of Rostkowski, Ordyniec, and Kraiński.27 We go to Saint-Mandé
with Celiński. Confession. I feel better. However, I am not as fervent as I wold
like to be - undoubtedly due to my carelessness, delay in fulfilling most holy
obligations, neglecting inspirations of the Holy Spirit - and yet I am already
cleansed, united with God; I have received absolution. O merciful God, I thank
you over and over. Grant me the grace to assure that my new covenant with
your Church, with You, will be forever - that throughout my entire future life I
will prove myself worthy of your mercy. Tomorrow I am to receive Holy
Communion.
24
25
26
27
Eustachius Januszkiewicz, he established the Polish Bookstore and Printery (July 1,
1835), as well as a Commission House.
Ladislaus Leopold Maurice Hauke (1800-1852) - an officer of the Polish army;
participated in the November uprising. After the collapse of the uprising, he emigrated to
France. In 1833 he directed a course on artillery for the Polish armies in Paris. He moved
to England. In the period of "The Springtide of Nations" (the revolution of 1848-1849) he
was commander of the Polish Legion in Tuscany.
Matthew-Richard-August Henrion - French historian, director of the society "Ami de
Religion." Author of A History of religious orders... Paris, 1831 and 1835, A History of
the Papacy (1832), and A General History of the Church in the 18th and 19th centuries.
(1836, 4 volumes).
Under this same date, Jański wrote a prayer and a self-accusation (Cf. Appendix, II).
Vincent Kraiński (1786-1882) - a lawyer; participated in the November uprising;
secretary of Voivode John Anthony Ostrowski. In the years 1836-1839, he worked as a
lawyer in Paris. While living in Rome, he served as procurator (econom) in the
Congregation of the Resurrection. He did not profess religious vows. He studied theology
in the Roman College, and when he was 60 years old he was ordained a priest. Later, at
the Wrocław University, he was a lecturer in Slavic languages and literature. A writer.
YEAR 1835
255
On returning we meet Semenenko; he wishes to talk with me (?). We eat
dinner together, and drink coffee together after dinner. Walter comes, and I visit
with him until 10:30. We talk about his temporal projects, and about my plans,
and so about religion. O infinitely good God, turn him away from this evil road
on which I helped to confirm him. Enlighten his mind and set his heart straight,
awakening your holy faith within him.
259
Sunday, January 11
The forty-eighth day from the beginning of my confession.28 A day in my
life which will always be solemn! A day of a new covenant with God!
However, there was still laziness in the morning. After awakening I did
not rise immediately, and so we barely made it in time for Mass at 10:30. In
church, seeing the eyes of all turned toward me, I fell prey to weakness and
confusion. Holy Communion. I am not as zealous as I would wish to be.
Celiński was somewhat distracted (breakfast, together with the priest, amid
swarms of little girls). We return home; I feel weak due to a headache. Dinner.
We read a chapter of the Bible: the Lord's Last Supper according to St. John.29
Celiński makes his declarations to me.
I feel that the whole day was not spent in as holy a manner as it should
have been. There was not enough prayer; not enough pious exultation.
Monday, January 12
I arose earlier than usual. Prayer for spiritual zeal. Celiński talks nonsense. He justifies heresy, which leaves me feeling disgusted. After breakfast I
attend Mass for [Maurice] Mochnacki. I meet Semenenko. I sense his shady
situation, and feel that I should not associate with him publicly; but I do not
have the strength to take a proper position in his regard and act openly.
Therefore, I move toward the church with him, which results in confusion and
humiliation. In church I ought to have been able to lift my mind to God without
any regard for people, especially since this is a day after receiving Holy
Communion; but quite the contrary, I was occupied with people, consideration
for how I appeared in their eyes, distracted. - After Mass I went to the printery,
and the library. I read practically without any benefit - my mind occupied with
Celiński's talk and meeting with Semenenko. To the Cabinet littéraire and the
Palais-Royal; a waste of time. I go to Burgaud for dinner, but there too I do not
experience any interior peace. To Mickiewicz. He is kind and simple hearted; I
28
29
Jański began his confession on November 24, 1834. On January 10, 1835, 48 days had
gone by.
The Last Supper of Jesus with his disciples, described in the Gospel of St. John 13:1-30.
DIARY
256
am more alert than ever before in his presence, but still too occupied with my
own concerns. O God, help me in my interior improvement!
260
I return home with Domeyko, who is friendly; once again he justifies
Chełkowski,30 Łopaciński,31 etc. who he had been condemning so strongly not
too long ago. I continue reading Karamzin32, and reviewing notes on the
Asses.33
Tuesday, [January] 13
Morning prayer neglected. I write a little about the Asses. A letter to
Aicard. At eleven to the printery; to Jełowicki - question about the article he
submitted to the "Chronicle".34 I speak with him about my acceptance of a
position with the Ogińskis, At 1:30 to the library gathering further material
about the Asses. I meet Heyne [Heine]; confusion, I pretend needlessly that I
read his article; I am too absorbed in myself, etc. To the printery; to Wrotnowski
concerning Wroński. Dinner. I begin to read Wroński. I am dissatisfied with my
meeting with Heyne - why can't I let others see me as I am? Why do I not have
greater confidence in my good cause? Why not support it as far as I can?
Whence such secretiveness, falsity, conceit? O God! How sinful I am once
again! O God, have mercy on me! Semenenko stops by. I make a few
suggestions to him - he decides to go to confession. My joy is fearful, but
sincere. I thank God for the inspiration he granted me; I ask God to grant him
perseverance. O God, do not abandon him. Draw him out of the abyss of sin
and ignominy. Grant me the grace to be able to help him.
261
I consider my own self - I resolve that in the near future I will confess the
sins I have already committed in the last three days: sins of neglect, lack of zeal,
excessive concern with self, and human respect. O God, I wish to lead a holier
30
31
32
33
34
Valerian Chełchowski (1811-1872) - a student of law at the University of Vilno;
participated in the November uprising. As an emigrant he lived first in Avignon, and from
July 1833 in Paris. He first worked as a type-setter and, from 1841, as a polyglot and
sworn translator in the French judiciary.
Louis Łopaciński - Cf. 1834, footnote 61.
Nicholas M. Karamzin (1766-1826) - a Russian writer and historian. The author of a
work highly esteemed in his time, A History of the Russian Nation (1816-1829, 12
volumes). It began to appear in a French translation in 1819, and in a Polish translation
from 1824.
Asses, Yasses - in the early middle ages a tribe occupying lands north of the Caucasus, in
the area of Mount Elbrus.
Alexander Jełowicki published a Declaration on December 29, 1834, in the "Chronicle of
the Polish Emigration", Vol.2, pp.207-208.
YEAR 1835
257
life; but I feel that I will not achieve that goal without your loving grace. O
infinitely good God, grant me this grace! I think about my financial problems;
there are numerous deadlines for payment in the near future, and no funds are
available. I place myself in the hands of God, acknowledging my poverty to be
just punishment for my transgressions, resolving to appease the divine decrees
and merit better success by patience, humility, work.
262
Wednesday, January 14
In the afternoon, I accompany Semenenko to Saint-Mandé. I deliver a
letter to Vannier,35 asking him to extend the deadline to the 20th.
Thursday [January] 15
In the morning Semenenko goes to Saint-Mandé alone and makes his
confession. After he returns, he takes a room in my hotel, and spends the night
there.
Friday [January] 16
I find a position for Semenenko at Pinard. He is to begin work next week.
We dine at rue de l'Arbre-sec.
Saturday, [January] 17
We dine at rue des Canettes for 30 sous.
Sunday [January] 18
Attend Mass at St. Roch. Celiński and Semenenko at St. Sulpice, and for
vespers at St. Roch. In the evening to Walter - they are going to a masked ball.
Monday [January] 19
In the library; I froze terribly - I got my feet wet. To Maliński. I am glad
to hear that he has already been to confession; apologies, pledges. In the
evening at the Jełowickis, Dembowski, Louis36 - he continues to make fun of
me. I bear this patiently, but am unnecessarily confused and anxious. I take 35
francs for cases.
35
36
Vannier - Jański's creditor.
Valentine Anselm Louis (1805-1872) - the son of Michael, director of the Kraków
number lottery, progenitor of the famous Louis family. He participated in the November
uprising, serving in the 4th infantry regiment (the famous "fourths"). An emigrant in
France from May of 1832, he lived in Paris, and in the Oise department. About 1840 he
settled in Lyon.
DIARY
258
Tuesday [January] 20
Although I do not have money, I buy shoes; I sign an promissory note for
20 francs, and promise Vannier that I will come to him during the day - and God
provides me with money for all this. I give Vannier 25 francs.
Wednesday [January] 21
Once again Divine Providence comes to the rescue. I give the hotel
attendant 20 francs, which I am to return to Jełowicki.
263
Thursday,37 January 22
264
Friday [February] 6
I was supposed to visit either Lacordaire or Zieńkowicz in the morning.
In the meantime, I got up late - and Semenenko did not run the errands - I was
in bad humor. Asselin38 came by with the news of 100 copies at Beuchet.39 After
breakfast, prayer. Bohdan Zaleski came by with further discussion about SaintMandé on the 14th. I am supposed to purchase Journée du Chretien for him;
talk about his plans, about Semenenko, Mickiewicz and Rettel. They arrive
from the printery with proofs of the catalogue, and extra offprints of "Polonais";40 +a parcel of two packages, given a year ago for Gorecki.+ I go to see
Semenenko. Celiński write a letter in his way, mutual consolation, his promises.
I go to the printery to deliver two sheets that are ready for printing. To
Januszkiewicz to find out whether Eustachius will be at home in the evening.
For paper, d'Anglet41 at Palais-Royal. It is one o'clock already. I would like to
go to the library, but it is already too late. I go out for parchment.
265 Snack on figs. Day dreams; patience with worries and arduous tasks,
chasing about, etc. To Oleszczyński; the portraits are still not ready. It is so nice
there that I scarcely wish to leave. To Dien; he is sick; I leave the papers. To the
37
38
39
40
41
In the manuscript, on page 263, after the note: "Thursday, January 22", Jański left an
empty space for further notes, which he intended to write later. However he never got to
it. On the following page, 264, he already began to write under the date of "Friday, February 6".
Asselin - possibly a worker in a printery or bookstore.
Beuchet - undoubtedly a Paris book-seller or publisher.
A monthly, "Le Polonais, a Journal concerned with the interests of Poland", subsidized by
Adam Czartoryski, and edited by Ladislaus Plater in the years 1835-1836. The editors of
the monthly sought to gain French readers for the cause of Poland. Jański worked there
from time to time.
Undoubtedly a paper store of the d'Anglet firm.
YEAR 1835
259
packer; I send him to Cauvin. I go back home for my coat. To Januszkiewicz; he
is not longer there.
8586
984 Monday, March 2
To Leon [Przecławski]; to Domaradzki;42
to Adolph [Zaleski]43 for Celiński
to Carnot, asking what he has about Austria44
to Aicard (permission to use the library)
to Ladislaus Plater.45
("Revue" for the Princess [?Ogińska].
To Walter for an English dictionary.
Letters, if possible, to Vannieuwenhuysen,46 Gautier, Burgaud.
Tuesday, March 3
to Błotnicki47
42
43
44
45
46
47
This could be Adelbert Fortunat Domaradzki (1805-1888) - a second lieutenant in the
November uprising. As an emigrant he lived in Paris, where he obtained a position as an
inspector in the Crédit Foncier.
Adolph Zaleski (1810-1853) - He came from Płock. He studied law at the University of
Warsaw. During the November uprising he was a lieutenant in the infantry. As an
emigrant in France, he was engaged in political and conspiratorial activity (apparently he
was a Galician conspirator. An extreme revolutionary. For some time he lived in the
House of Jański. He died in Poznań as the result of an unfortunate accident.
Jański was collecting materials for an article on Austria, which appeared later in the
Encyclopédie pittoresque, 1836, vol. 2, pp. 281-187.
Ladislaus Broel-Plater (1808-1889), Caesar's older brother. - Participated in the
November uprising, was an envoy to the revolutionary Sejm, a journalist and an emigrant
politician. Together with his brother Caesar, he established the Lithuanian and Russian
Territories Society (1831). In his publications at that time he emphasized the common lot
of the three branches of one nation (The Poles, The Lithuanians, and the Ruthenians,
Paris, 1832). Initially a follower of the politics of Adam Czartoryski. He belonged to the
Literary Society, on behalf of which he undertook the publication of the monthly "Le
Polonais" (Cf. footnote 40). From the New Year, 1841, he began to publish the "National
Daily", which was to rest on the Catholic faith, and also to be monarchical, but not
dynastic like "The Third of May". The editor of the paper was Felix Wrotnowski.
Ladislaus Plater organized various social and political campaigns in which he was
concerned with his own publicity. He undertook the very valuable enterprise of
establishing the National Museum in Rappersville, where handwritten documents that
dealt with the Great Emigration were gathered.
Vannieuvenhuysen, van Nieuwenhuyzen - Cf. 1832, footnote 179.
Hippolitus Błotnicki (1792-1886) - a classical philologist, writer and educator. He was a
tutor of Julius Słowacki (1818-1821). From 1822 he was in the service of Prince Adam
DIARY
260
to Leon
to Karski48
to Peter [Semenenko] its., and Korycki
to Carnot - Chevalier, etc.
Letters, if possible, etc.
8627
269 [Sunday], April 26, 1835 Resolutions
Day of a new reconciliation.49 Confession, Holy Communion. Resolutions. A strange dream. I left for Saint-Mandé at 6:30; I received the Body and
Blood of the Lord during Mass at 8 o'clock. On the way back I was delayed by
rain. Mass at St. Roch. To the Giedroyces at one o'clock to take Napoleon50 for
48
49
50
Czartoryski, among other things, as a home tutor in Puławy. As an emigrant in Paris, he
was the prince's secretary and tutor of his sons Witold and Ladislaus. On the instructions
of Prince Adam Czartoryski, he busied himself with affairs of the Polish emigration and
the lot of emigrants needing assistance.
Marcellus Karski - a pseudonym for Edward Duński (1810- 1857) - Duński studied first
in Pułtusk, under the direction, among others, of Bogdan Jański. In 1829 he began the
study of law at the University of Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising,
emerging as a lieutenant of the 9th infantry regiment. As an emigrant he resided in
Avignon. He took part in the expedition of Joseph Zaliwski in 1833. Under the assumed
name of Karski, he served as an emissary in the western region of Poland. After the
defeat of Zaliwski's partisans, he returned to France and, in 1834, joined the Polish
Democratic Society. Accused of spying by the French government, he was imprisoned in
1835, and there he contracted tuberculosis. Freed from prison, he came under the
influence of Bogdan Jański, and became a member of the Brotherhood of National
Service. On February 19, 1836 he became a member of the House of Jański. In 1837, he
began to study theology at Collége Stanislas. In the following year, preparing for the
priesthood, he went to Rome together with Joseph Hube to pursue further studies. He
enjoyed Jański's confidence, and in the last months of the latter's life was a confidant of
his thoughts and decisions. He was ordained to the priesthood on January 9, 1842, and
along with the first six confreres, professed religious vows on March 17 of that year.
After that, while residing in Paris, he initially combatted the teaching of Towiański, but in
the end accepted it as the true teaching. As a result, in May of 1849 he left the
Congregation of the Resurrection. After that he served as a secular priest at the parish of
St. Roch. He was respected for his personal integrity and noble-mindedness. Before he
died he was reconciled with the Catholic Church.
On the previous day, April 25, Jański prepared an examination of conscience "from
February 1835". The text is found in the Appendix III.
The Giedrojćes (Giedroyćes) - a princely family of Lithuanian origin. The representative
of the line was Romuald Thaddeus Giedrojć (1750-1824), a Lieutenant General,
commander of the Lithuanian army in 1812, was a general in Napoleon's armies, on
friendly terms with Napoleon's first wife, Josephine Beauharnais. He was married to
Caroline, nee Borzymowska (1766-1858), who after the death of her husband lived in her
own home in Bellevue near Sévres.
YEAR 1835
261
gymnastics, but he doesn't go. To Mickiewicz; he is not in. Back home. The
Life of St. Teresa,51 I fell asleep. Dinner, Gerycz.52 Immediately a fall: unnecessary jokes, surrender my mind to the company there with me. After dinner,
home, a short period of reading, and then to bed. - Peter, tea, an unnecessary
joke with Celiński (sugar in three places).
Monday [April] 27
51
52
The Giedrojćes had two sons and two daughters. The older son, Joseph Stephen Francis
Xavier (1787-1855) was an aide-de-camp of the general staff of Napoleon I, and a general
of the French armies. After Napoleon's abdication, in 1814, he was released from a
Russian prison and emigrated to France. He returned to Poland and married Frances
Szymańska. He renounced allegiance to Tsar Nicholas I, and during the November
uprising he was taken to Russia. He remained in Siberia for a few years, along with those
who were convicted to hard labor. Thanks to the efforts of his brother, Alexander
Constantine Giedrojć (1805-1844), a chamberlain at the Tsar's court, and secretary of the
Secretariat of State of the Kingdom of Poland, he was set free. Along with his wife and
his son Thaddeus Napoleon (b.1821), in 1834, he emigrated to France and settled in Paris.
In Jański's Diary, Stephen and Frances Giedrojć are often spoken of as the "generalship".
Both of the Giedrojć daughters married. In 1812 the older daughter, Kunegunda Frances
Rose (1793-1888), was appointed by Napoleon I as a Lady-in-Waiting to his first wife.
She married a Napoleonic soldier, George Białopiotrowicz (1785-1871), a major and an
emigrant, a member of the Literary Society in Paris. From 1831 she resided in Paris, and
was involved in charitable work among the Polish exiles.
In 1826, Kunegunda's younger sister, Barbara Lucy (1798-1886) married General Joseph
Rautenstrauch (1773- 1842), president of the board of directors of theaters in the
Kingdom. She separated from him permanently in 1831. From October 1832 she resided
in Paris for five years, active in social projects. She kept in contact with Mickiewicz, and
especially with Cyprian Norwid. She travelled throughout Europe extensively. A novelist
and diarist, she published My memories of France (1839) The last trip to France (1841),
Cities, mountains, and valleys (1844), In the Alps and beyond the Alps (1847). She also
wrote memoirs which she apparently intended to destroy. She was acquainted with Jański, and undoubtedly had him in mind when, in her My memories of France, writing
about various Trappist mortifications, she referred to "a person who provided me with
these details, having spent a few weeks among the Trappists, and who assured me that no
one would never be able to see more happy people; one had only to look upon their
peaceful and contented faces, and one could not doubt, even for a moment, what seems to
be a miracle." (p.20)
In his Diary, Jański mentions Prince Romuald Giedrojć, a member of the Finance
Commission of the Polish Emigration. Later he became a Towianist, closely linked with
Adam Mickiewicz. He died in Paris in 1850.
St. Teresa of Avila (1515-1582), reformer of the Carmelite Order, visionary, author of
classical works of mystical theology, which have been translated into all of the European
languages. In 1565, on the orders of her confessor, she wrote her Autobiography.
Edward Geritz (Gerytz) (1811-1860) - Artist, painter. He was a member of the Officer
Cadet School in Warsaw. He participated in the 1831 uprising, then lived as an emigrant
in Paris. From 1844, a Towianist. He was a soldier in the Legion of Adam Mickiewicz.
DIARY
262
Breakfast etc. Łopaciński comes to see me after not having seen him for
some time. I leave, already too late, to visit Caesar - I find him in church (an
unnecessary lie concerning difficulties that prevented me from visiting him last
Wednesday), and finally we meet - a wrong response to Podczaszyński. I go to
the printery, unnecessarily, for thereby I am late in getting to the Giedroyces.
After the lesson, to Mickiewicz. We talk. I stay too long. I take the Non-Divine
Comedy and the "Revue du Nord"53 with me. I take them home; it is already
four o'clock (I lie to Celiński that I took the Comedy only for two days, and only
for two persons). I read two acts to Mrs. Giedrojć. Dinner without the master
and mistress; a lesson. Napoleon falls asleep. I leave. Mrs. Rautenstrauch.54
Once again I read the Non-Divine Comedy without paying enough attention to
what I am reading; and so I make it very unpleasant for Mrs. Rautenstrauch. I
return home after eleven.
270 Tuesday, [April] 28
Peter came in the morning; we had already finished breakfast. I am scanning through Menzel55 for my articles about German matters. At eleven, to
Napoleon. We are drawing up a schedule; lesson until two o'clock. I am correcting the third sheet of The Songs of Janusz,56 and it is already 4 o'clock. For a
lesson, dinner; the General detains me and expounds his philosophy. At 7:30 to
the printery, to Podczaszyński and Słowaczyński. We talked, among other
things, about reform [changing one's life]. I am still a cowardly Catholic; I still
am afraid to affront the errors and weaknesses of others. Home already long
after 10 o'clock. Impure temptations. Rum, tea. I am reading "The New Po-
53
54
55
56
"Revue du Nord" - this is an abbreviated title of a French monthly periodical, which
began publication in 1835 in Paris: "Revue des États du Nord, et Principalment des Pays
germaniques". It was established by J.B. E. Boulet, an educator and lawyer from Metz,
and R.O. Spazier from Lipsk. There was a separate Polish section in this monthly
periodical under the direction of Eugene Breza, who was then a student at German
universities. Among other articles space was given to a survey of Polish Literature in
Paris. The periodical acknowledged of the activity of the Polish Bookstore, with which
Bogdan Jański was connected by reason of his work in publication. The March 1835
number of the periodical contained an article written by Adam Mickiewicz, De la
peinture religieuse modern et Allemagne, and in the May issue the poet's La Semaine de
miel d'un conscrit.
Lucy, nee Giedrojć, Rautenstrauch - Cf. footnote 50.
Karl Adolf Menzel (1784-1855) - a German historian, author of Geschichte der
Deutschen in 8 volumes (1811-1823), Neure Geschichte der Deutschen von reformation
bis zur bundesakte (from 1826).
Pieśni Janusza (The Songs of Janusz) - a collection of 51 verses by Vincent Pol,
published anonymously in Paris in 1835.
YEAR 1835
263
land"57 which I brought with me from the Giedrojćes, and then "Revue du
Nord". Talleyrand.58 An impure dream.
Wednesday [April] 29
Peter arrives at 7:30 and wakes me up. Breakfast. Unnecessary laying
around in bed. Wasted time on the "Revue du Nord". At eleven, for a lesson.
Napoleon's self-will and fractiousness make me impatient. Mr. Bocquel.59 I go
home at 2 o'clock and write these notes, if only for the sake of memory. I will
have to write my resolutions either today or tomorrow, and most sincerely set
about making moral arrangements in the greatest detail.
My God, do not desert me! In you is all my trust!
271 At three o'clock I go to the bindery; not open. To the printery. Lesson at
four. Dinner. For coffee. To the Ogińskis. Greeted very sincerely. I leave the
Non-Divine Comedy. I am asked to bring the Life of St. Teresa, and a list of the
winning numbers in the Hütteldorf lottery. I am invited for dinner on Sunday.
Thursday, [April] 30
I get up at six, and go out for a lesson. After I return, breakfast. Breza60
comes for addresses; I give him a letter to Kunatt. I go out for the "Revue des
Deux Mondes"61 and take it to Ogiński. To the printery and then to obtain vi57
58
59
60
61
I am reading "The New Poland"... In August of 1835 Josephat Boleslaus Ostrowski
revived the publication in Paris of "Young Poland", previously an organ of the insurgent
left, which he had organized along with Maurice Mochnacki. Reviving the periodical,
Ostrowski preserved its numbering from the time of the uprising. "The New Poland" was
now a periodical expressing the views of the editor-emigrant, a libellous, defamatory
periodical viciously attacking John Czyński's "Progress" and the democratic left. It was
published from 1835, with an interruption in the years 1837-1839, when the publisher
was expelled from France due to the intervention of the Russian Embassy. Ostrowski's
assistant editor was Andrew Smolikowski, with the pseudonym "ibus" (Cf. 1832, footnote
114).
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754-1838) - A French statesman. From 1788,
a Roman Catholic Bishop. As a member of the Estates General, he contributed to the
secularization of Church goods, for which he was excommunicated. He worked as a
diplomat; up to 1834 he was the French ambassador in London. From November 1834
until his death he lived in Paris.
Bocquel - possibly a tutor of Napoleon Giedrojć.
Eugene Breza (1802-c.1860) - journalist, envoy to the insurgent Sejm. As an emigrant he
cooperated in the publication of "Revue de Nord" (Cf. footnote 53). Under the influence
of the contemporary theosophy, he was transformed internally, and kept at a distance
from National affairs. After 1840 he returned to Great Poland.
"Revue des Deux Mondes" - a bi-weekly periodical established in 1831 in Paris. It dealt
with politics, history, literature and the arts. Due to the efforts of its enterprising editorin-chief, François Buloz, it became a rostrum for a circle of famous French writers.
DIARY
264
gnettes of Laurent and Berry.62 I bring them home. Out for a lesson. I bring
Napoleon to my place. He plays ball with Celiński. We choose the vignettes.
After dinner, to Walter. Ropelewski and Konopka - an idle conversation until
ten.
Friday, May 1
I get up at about eight. Peter comes. They are to go for their pensions at
one. At about nine, I go out for breakfast, and stay out until 10:30. I go back
home for a while. To Jełowicki; I step into a church - prayer. To the printery. I
return by way of the Tuillery,63 +thoughts about the past, arousing desires to
reform my life+. I read the "Gazette [de France]". I meet Leroux and Reynaud.
To Courte; I meet his teacher - about magnetism.64 I go to Jełowicki. We choose
the vignettes. He is to leave in two weeks. Back home, I recite a litany. Peter. I
think about Ban, and prepare notes.65 Before five, for dinner. I receive 40 francs
a month. Later, with Napoleon for a walk, along the Champs-Elysées, for the
fireworks. I take Napoleon back home at nine, then Princess Giedrojć to her
home. Home. Peter, tea with rum - and I fall asleep.
272 Saturday, May 2
I got up before eight. Prayer and litany. I write these notes from Wednesday. - Most merciful God, help me to improve my life!
After breakfast, I take notes fromEncyclopédie des Gens du Monde66
about Ban and Banat. I go to the library and read Schöll,67 Malte-Brun, De62
63
64
65
66
67
...for the vignettes of de Laurent and de Berry - undoubtedly graphic artists drafting
vignettes, that is titular or end illustrations for a book.
Tuillery - Cf. 1832, footnote 228.
Magnetism - a physico-medical theory, the creation of a Viennese doctor, F. A. Mesmer
(1734-1815), also called mesmerism. According to this theory, within the organism of a
living being a mysterious force appears, which can influence the organism of another
person and evoke in that person a hypnotic state. Magnetists used magnetic objects to
heal patients (Cf. 1832, footnote 298). At the turn of the 18th century, magnetism as a
medical theory evoked discussions which stimulated naturalistic-mystic tendencies.
These reached back to ancient views of doctors - naturalists (Paracelsus) and mystics, and
were supported by some illumanists of the 18th century.
Jański was gathering encyclopedic information for articles such as Ban, Banat, etc. which
were to be prepared by him.
Ban in Croatia signified a deputy, and in medieval Bosnia, a lord.
Banat - an ancient country in southwestern Europe, on the borders of Rumania and
Jugoslavia.
In the years 1831-1834, the Parisian publishers Treuttel and Würtz published 22 volumes
in octavo of Encyclopédie des Gens du Monde. Répertoire universel des sciences sur les
personnages célebres morts et vivants.
Maximillian-Samson-Friedrich Schöll (1766-1835) - a French diplomat and historian.
YEAR 1835
265
mian68 for this article. A return home, and then go out for a lesson at four (catechism, geometry, arithmetic). After dinner to the printery. I give the third sheet
to Lionette.69 To Aicard; he is not in. Later I meet him with Reynaud and
Leroux - I am not to work on Ban and Banat, but Bar70 as soon as possible. To
Peter; he is not in. To Podczaszyński to obtain some information about Bar;
nothing. I return home, temptations - for bavarois [tea with milk] to the café. At
home I read something from Fletcher about Bar. Distracted the whole day.
Sunday [May] 3
I get up at eight, breakfast, continue to look for information about Bar. I
make a list of Wroński's71 works, and take an article about steam engines to
Modliński.72 First, to St. Roch for Mass. To the printery. I read the third corrected copy of the second sheet and finally choose the vignettes for the third
sheet. To Aicard - I am expected to deliver Bar on Wednesday. I take an article
on Bavaria from an English encyclopedia. Home for the Life of St. Teresa for
Mrs Ogińska.
273 I go to fetch Napoleon for gymnastics - I begin to read Hagay-Kan.73 I
seem to recognize the style - discover the author. I take Napoleon home. To the
Ogińskis - very good. We go to see Caesar. He is not in; he is already healthy.
For coffee and the newspapers. Home and in bed.
[Monday], May 4
68
69
70
71
72
73
Andreas Johann Demian (1770-1845) - An Austrian statistician. He was the author of
Darstellung der österreichischen Monarchie nach den neuesten statischen Beziehungen
(Vienna 1803-1805): Vol.I: Specialstatistik von Böhmen und dem österreich. Schliesen;
Vol.2: Ostgalizien u. Siebenbürgen.
Lionnet - possibly a printer.
Bar - a city in Podolia. In 1768 a confederation, called Barcan, was formed there, an
armed federation of noblemen, united under the watchword: defense "of faith and
freedom". - Jański's article entitled Bar (Conféderation) appeared in the Encyclopédie
nouvelle (1836, vol.2, p. 408).
Hoene-Wroński published a work in Paris written in French: Noveaux systémes de
machines á vapeur (1834-1835). Cf. 1833, footnote 10.
This could be Joseph Ignatius Modliński (1811-1888) from Warsaw - an insurrectionist in
1831, he came to France in 1835. He studied medicine in Montpellier, and received his
doctorate in 1838.
Agaj-Han - a novel by Zygmunt Krasiński, finished in Geneva in 1832. It appeared in
print in Wrocław in October 1833 under the title: Agaj-Han, a historical novel, originally
written by A.K. in Wrocław, at Wilhelm Bogumił Korn, 1834.
DIARY
266
Peter wakes me up after five. I delay without necessity and come for the
lesson too late, after seven. Breaifast. For Mass at Chapelle Expiatoire.74 Home,
and mulling over problems and these notes. I go to the library. To go, or not to
go, at twelve...? I am still uncertain.
Unfortunately I went; as a result, for forty days, that is to the next confession, June 13th, weakness of spirit, and wild fancies of the flesh.75
[May] 6 or 7, that is, Wednesday or Thursday I receive a letter from Przecławski; Górecki - and after him, at twelve, Jełowicki with plans from Mrs.
Komar.76
On Friday, [May] 8, I want to speak with Mrs. Giedroyć about these plans, but
somehow it passed.
On Saturday [May] 9, a letter from Mrs. Ogiński inviting me to come to see her.
Polish school, classes at Mrs. Łuszczewski.77
74
75
76
77
Chapelle expiatoire on rue d'Anjou-Saint-Honoré. A penitential chapel - a mausoleum
erected at the behest of Louis XVIII on the grounds of a former cemetery next to the
church of St. Magdalene where the bodies of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, as
well as thousands of other victims of the bloody terror of the Great Revolution were
buried.
To the "May" notes in his Diary, the author later added an opinion formulated in June.
The Komars belonged to an old noble Russian family that had settled in Podolia. Thanks
to Stanislaus Delfin Komar, a major in the Russian armies, his line achieved great
dignity, significance and wealth. Stanislaus Komar married Honorata Orłowska (d.1854),
and had with her 6 children who were brought up in a cosmopolitan atmosphere. The
Komars purchased villas in Naples and Nice. After the death of her husband (1832), the
wife lived with the children primarily in Paris. Her son Vladimir ("komarek") and her
daughters Louise (Ludmila) and Natalie were tutored by Bogdan Jański.
Natalie Komar married an Italian, Count Medici-Spada, and Louise married a Frenchman,
Prince Charles de Beauveau de Craon, An elder sister of the Komars was Delphine
Potocka (1807-1877), who in 1825 married Mitchell Potocki (1799-1879), the son of a
Szczęsny Targowician. After a few years they decided to separate, and their formal
divorce took place c.1843. From among her children Delphine most favored Vladimir,
(d.1860 as a bachelor). She led a social and artistic life, and was on friendly terms with
the painter P. Delaroche, and Frederic Chopin, among others. She met Zygmunt Krasiński
in Naples in 1838; from that time on, she was his muse and his companion. Other
members of the Komar family were Alexander (d.1875), and Mitchell (1804-1880).
Theophile, nee Skarżyńska, Łuszczewska (d.1851) - from 1829 the wife of the envoy
Adam. She was a member of the Welfare Society of Polish Women (initially Polish
Daughters) established by the wife of Prince Adam Czartoryski on March 12, 1834.
YEAR 1835
267
Monday, [May] 11, visit with Mrs. Komar. I next inquire of Mr. ....about various
pensions from Montalembert.
Sunday, [May] 17 - for the program at Collége Juilly,78 and to l'abbé. Poiloup.79
To dinner at the Ogińskis - with the Platers and Montalembert. End of the
school. Wednesday I write the article on Bar.
On Tuesday, [May] 19, I receive a letter from l'abbé Salinis.80 Meanwhile there
is no decision, delay - On my part, I say nothing.
The housekeeper gives me the bill. This week dinner with Napoleon at
Montmartre.81
274 Sunday, May 24
In the morning, Mass at St. Roch. Meet with Decourdemanche;82 he gives
me his address. The kind Konopka loans me 5#.83 In this same week, I also
meet Transon.
278 For [Wednesday] May 27
78
79
80
81
82
83
Collége de Juilly - a college (formerly the Académie de l'Oratoire) for the education of
future priests, established in the village of Juilly in the district of Meaux, in the
department Seine-et-Marne, northeast of Paris.
Ferdinand-Marie Poiloup (Peoloup), (1792-1861), a Catholic priest, honorary Canon
(1837), founder of the Collége Vaugirard in Paris.
Antoine-Louis De Salinis (1798-1861) - After completing his studies at the Paris
seminary of St. Sulpice, he was ordained a priest. He dedicated himself to religious work,
cooperating closely with Fr. de Lamennais. He became rector of the college in Juilly. He
was co-editor of "Université Catholique". In 1849 he was consecrated Bishop of Amiens,
and later appointed Archbishop of Auch.
Jański does not reveal the name of the author of the letter that was mentioned, Charles de
Montalembert, who had recommended him to Fr. de Salinis as "a great friend of
Mickiewicz and Mr. Margerin, presently exerting a very successful, and very strong,
influence upon his exiled compatriots in the name of religion. In a word, he is an true and
excellent Catholic, whose posture has always been in complete agreement with the
principles to which he only recently returned together with Mr. Margerin."
Montmartre - the highest hill near Paris, on which the villagers cultivated vineyards.
Parisians used it as a favorite place for a walk. As early as the 11th century an abbey was
erected there, which was destroyed by the Great Revolution.
Alphonse Decourdemanche (De Courdemanche) (1797-1871) - a French lawyer and
journalist. Initially he was a co-editor of the periodical "Globe", and later published
articles in the "Revue Encyclopédique". Among other articles, he wrote Est-ce légalment
que le gouvernement á fait suspendre l'exercise du culte saint-simonien? Questions á
poser au jury, Paris, 1832.
# - an indication of the value of money in gold, usually a ducat.
DIARY
268
Deliver the letter to [Mr] Vannierwenh[uysen].
To Kołysko,84
to Fr. Skórzyński85
to Carnot
to Konopka, to Korzychowski86 and Kunatt
to the printery
to Decourdemanche.
Tomorrow [Thursday, May 28]
Philosophie des traditions87 to Łopaciński.
[Friday, May] 29
To the printery. Article mies [?]. Tailor, etc.
Sheet.
274 I go to see Decourdemanche. - He sends me the works of Cöessin;88 on
[May] 28, the Feast of the Ascension of the Lord, I read them during the
gymnastics. I read Philosophie des traditions and take it to Łopaciński.
On Friday [May] 29, with Konopka to Mickiewicz. Chopin. I return the NonDivine Comedy to Mickiewicz, and take Hagay-Kan with me. - On Saturday, a
letter to Vannieuwenh[uysen].
Sunday, May 3189
In the morning I go to Walter, to Clichy.90 There are to be further classes
at Mrs. Komar's house.
84
85
86
87
88
89
At the time there were a few Kołyskos. Undoubtedly here the reference is to Adam
Kołysko (Cf. 1832, footnote 189).
Simon Skórzyński (b.1806), from Zamojszcz. In the November uprising, he was a captain
in the Lithuanian-Volhynian legion, and its chaplain. As an emigrant in Paris, he served
as a priest at the church of Saint-Louis d'Antin.
This could be Anthony Kożuchowski, an insurgent of 1831, a second lieutenant in the
artillery. From January 1834 he resided in the department of Oise.
Philosophie des traditions - the title of a German work Philosophie der Geschichte oder
über die Tradition written by F.J. Molitor, and translated into French in 1834 (Cf. 1832,
footnote 287).
François-Guillaume Coëssin (1782-1851), "a fascinating mystic" who contributed to the
conversion of Transon, among others. (Cf. 1830, footnote 85).
Jański erroneously wrote "June 1, Sunday" (1835), whereas Sunday fell on May 31. As a
consequence he also erroneously listed the days June 4, 5, and 6, (whereas they should
have been 3, 4, and 5). He correctly marks the following date: "[June] 7, Sunday,
Pentecost".
YEAR 1835
269
[Wednesday, June] 3, Nopoleon is sick with the measles.
Thursday, [June] 4
We resolve to go to confession together on the Feast of Pentecost. In the
evening at the Konopkas.
On Friday, [June] 5, visit with Jóźwik and Cheruel.91 I did not learn anything
about the Encyclopédie catholique.92 At the Ogińskis.
On Saturday, [June 6] a fall and a great degradation.
[June] 7, Pentecost Sunday.
Adam [Celiński] is sick, and so we do not go to confession. I go to St.
Roch.
I think that it was on [June 8], Monday, that I visited Świrski,93 and Włoch.
[Tuesday, June] 9
To the library. I read Schöll, about Bavaria.94 J.B. Ostrowski. I go out to
breakfast and over-eat. I return to the library for Mr. Thaddeus and take it with
me to the printery and to Montgolfier; however one cannot take the paper without money. Ogiński, Giedrojć, Dąbczewski.95 I go to a funeral,96 having eaten
90
91
92
93
94
95
Clichy - a summer resort area, mainly for the residents of the capital.
Pierre-Adolphe-Ibert Chéruel (1809-1891) - a French historian, a former saintsimonist, a
friend of Frederick Ozanam.
Encyclopédie Catholique. Répertoire universel et raisonné des sciences, des lettres, des
arts, et des métiers avec la biographie des hommes célébres. Only in 1838 did the editors
of the Encyclopédie, directed by Fr. Glaise and Viscount Walsh, begin to print fascicles
presenting articles in alphabetic order in areas designated by them. Jański cooperated with
the editors of the Encyclopédie, and it was through him that Adam Mickiewicz included
his article on St. Adalbert there. The edition of Encyclopédie Catholique was finally
completed in 1849, having reached 18 volumes in quarto.
Undoubtedly Joseph Świrski (?1783-1854) - an envoy to the insurgent Sejm, a Minister
of Affairs in the National Government of 1831. From October 10, 1832, an emigrant in
France. A follower of Czartoryski.
Janski's article on Bavaria appeared in the Encyclopédie nouvelle, 1836, Vol.II, pp.502506.
Jacob Dąmbczewski (1779-1850) - participated in the Napoleonic campaign and was
awarded the medal Legion of Honor "for being the first to break through the Spanish
batteries on the Somossiera mountain pass." He participated in the November uprising
with the rank of major. He was an emigrant in France.
DIARY
270
before that at Mazurier. There were only 8 people at the funeral..., tombstone. I
return with Skórzyński in a cab. To the Giedroyćes. Salad. Celiński, a proposition about confession in greater numbers.. - Ice cream!!
Wednesday, [June] 10
I receive 40 francs from Jełowicki for proof-reading Janusz. I take the
type to the post office to send it to the Kraków "Quarterly".97 I buy paper at
Montgolfier for the cover. I borrow The Day of a Christian and Guidebook
from Januszkiewicz. Podczaszyński, Ropelewski. I buy Dupin's History of the
Church.98 To the printery. Back home. To the Giedrojćes; it is already four. After dinner I am to go to Clichy. There is a downpour. For beer. Karski and
Broniewski99 - in the "Reformateur" about the Cossacks.100 I begin reading
Wyżygin.101
+Jóźwik drops by.+ I daydreamed and dozed until twelve. And I went
out, tempted by Siw...,102 , and then I meet and run around like a scurvy beast until one. - Sainte-Beuve, Wyleżał,103 Saint-Cheron.104 I go to the printery, for
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
This was the funeral of Jacob Pągowski, who died on June 7, 1835, and was buried in the
Montparnasse cemetery. This notice was published in the "Chronicle of the Polish
Emigration", 1835, Vol.III, p.111.
"The Scientific Quarterly" was published in Kraków in the years 1835-1836, under the
editorship of Anthony Zygmunt Helcla and Joseph Kremer. - Letters - graphic marks
(printer fonts).
Louis Dupin (1657-1719) - A Polish writer and historian, author, e.g., of L'Histoire de
l'Eglise (Paris, 1712).
Undoubtedly Joseph Broniewski (1793-1853) - an 1831 insurgent, second lieutenant in
the 9th infantry regiment. A member of the Polish Democratic Society.
"Reformateur, Journal des noveaux intérets matériels et moraux, industriels et politiques
littéraires et scientifiques" - a daily paper published in Paris from October 1834 to
October 1835; it favored the cause of Poland.
A novel entitled Peter Iwanowicz Wyżygin. A moral-historical romance of the 19th
century in four volumes, appeared in Warsaw in 1830 and 1835 (II edition) in the
translation of Alexander Prokopowicz from the Russian language. The author of this then
popular novel was Thaddeus Bułharyn (1789-1859), a poet, fiction writer, Polish-Russian
journalist. As a Russian officer, he took part in the Napoleonic campaign, enlisted in the
Polish legion and fought in Spain. He returned to Vilno and took up permanent residence
in Petersburg. A member and correspondent of the Warsaw Society of the Friends of
Learning (from 1828). Bulharyn's novel mentioned above was translated into various
languages, e.g., into French (Paris, 1829 and 1832), German and Dutch.
Siw... - a pseudonym provided by the author of the Diary.
Anthony Wyleżał (Wyleżoł) (b.1800) - earned a degree of Master of Philosophy at the
University of Warsaw in 1827. He taught classes in mathematics in the Preparatory
School for the Polytechnic Institute. He participated in the November uprising as a
second lieutenant in the artillery. As an emigrant in Paris, he studied at the Central School
YEAR 1835
271
beer, and to kill time reading the newspapers until three. The Giedrojćes. Wyżygin. After dinner, to Clichy.
Friday, June 12
I return from visiting Walter at ten. Having reflected, I will not go. Make
an effort... Tomorrow, confession. Redlections... Resolutions. - Louis Zwierkowski drops by.105 We speak about our families, and about Valentine.106 At
two, to the printery, to Jełowicki, to the Giedrojćes; I am reading Wyżygin, and
leave at 8:30, very tired. Until two o'clock.107
276 [Saturday] June 13, the Feast of St. Anthony, and a day of the week dedicated to the Blessed Virgin - We go to confession.
We leave the house at 6:30, and arrive in Saint-Mandé at 8:30. The pastor
is not in; he went to Vincennes.108 We go to the park. There we do some spiritual reading. At ten we return to the rectory. Finally, fifteen minutes later we
meet the pastor. Confession. O God! I thank you for granting me the grace of
making this confession! What sweet, consoling and encouraging admonitions
and advice I received! Most merciful God! Help me to benefit from them. Mass,
Holy communion. - Breakfast with the priest. We go to Vincennes through the
park. I plan to speak to Peter and Adam: about love through Christ, and always
in Christ, as the basis of our brotherhood and our common life; 109 about obligations, as well as about mutual prayer, and mutual improvement. Prayers:
1. to ask God's pardon for our sins, and to obtain the graces needed to improve,
104
105
106
107
108
109
of Arts and Crafts thanks to the Society for Assistance to Education. In 1845 he was
granted amnesty, but did not return to Poland.
Alexandre de Saint-Chéron - a former saintsimonist, Bazard's nephew: a historian and
translator; he worked as an editor of "L'Université Catholique".
Louis Zwierkowski (1803-1860) - the son of Florian and Catherine, nee Jański, the sister
of Peter, Bogdan Jański's father. The brother of Alexander and Ignatius Frederick (Cf.
1833, footnote 20). All of the brothers participated in the November uprising. Louis was a
lieutenant in the 7th infantry regiment. In later years he was an emissary in the East
among the Circassians.
Here: Valentine Zwierkowski; Cf. 1833, footnote 19.
Until two - i.e. until 2 o'clock in the morning, when Jański was preparing for confession.
The record of his confession is found in the Appendix under IV.
Vincennes - a locality southeast of Paris. The famous castle was once surrounded by a
forest, of which only the Vincennes Grove (Bois de Vincennes) remained. The village of
Saint-Mandé was located at the edge of the grove.
...love through Christ, and always in Christ, as a basic principle of our brotherhood, and
our common life... a principle of the Brotherhood of National Service which was being
organized.
DIARY
272
2. for our Country,
3. that Mary, Mother of God and Queen of Poland will accept us for service in
the national cause,
4. and ask her to present all of this to God.
277 At that point, Peter and Adam indulge in a variety of light and worldly talk.
I leave them in the Bois de Vincennes. I travel 45 minutes back to Paris, arriving there at 3 o'clock. To Pinard; the last sheet of Janusz is still lot printed. To
the Giedrojćes with apologies that I will not be there for dinner. Napoleon is
feeling better. To Vincennes. I arrive there at 6:30. Dinner. A walk in the woods.
Travel to Paris on foot. - After reflection, Adam apostatizes. I am at fault, for in
response to his foolishness, I persuaded him about their consequences and, by a
kind of impatience I prodded him to reveal his evil thoughts, in all their ugliness, and then finally left everything without any response. On my part, this
was a lack of love, a lack of zeal. - Returning through the boulevards, seeing the
prostitutes, even today, unfortunately, evil thoughts and desires. We returned
home at eleven. Tea.
Sunday [June] 14
Peter wakened me at six; we accompany him to Mass at St. Roch. Breakfast at home. Adam adds to his apostasy (for him, all learning, philosophy, religion are sirens for a Pole; all he wants to do is fight for Poland). I finally ask
him not to blaspheme. But I do not have enough love and zeal to enable my
words to produce any effect upon him. I decide to separate from him as regards
living quarters.
279 I go to visit Mrs. Hoffman110 to take Thiers111 from Mrs. Rautenstrauch, etc.
She intends to offer a Course of Encylopedic Studies for women. She asks me
for help, speaks about classes at Komar, etc.
110
Clementine, nee Tański, Hoffman (1798-1845), the wife of Charles Boromeo (Cf. 1832,
footnote 337), the author of books for children and young people; teacher, translator,
editor and publisher. Already in 1819 she published a pedagocial treatise in novel form,
Souvenir of a good mother. In 1824-1828 she published the first Polish periodical for
children "Entertainment for Children". She outlined a new educational model for girls,
e.g., encouraging the cultivation of their native language. Writing for young people as
they were growing up, she expressed her own attachment to national affairs, e.g. in books
such as Letters of Elizabeth Rzeczycka... (1824 and 1827), The Diary of Frances
Krasińska (1825), John Kochanowski in the Black Forest (1842) After the collapse of the
November uprising she resided in Dresden, where she worked together with Claudia Potocka in the Polish Committee. In August 1832, she and her husband were expelled by the
Dresden authorities, and came to live in Paris. She continued to write and publish, e.g.,
Stories with a moral (1834), and Memoirs of travels in foreign lands (1834). She was also
the author of books dealing with education. She was active in Paris in the Welfare Society
YEAR 1835
273
To Gorecki. I find our conversation very edifying - about first escaping
from slavery to people, before engaging in any apostolate. About prayer, prayer,
prayer above all. (Korylski112 comes by, and reads some verses to Wroński.)
Back home; cheese from Italy for breakfast.
To the Giedrojćes at 2:30, where I sit and sit unnecessarily because of
visits by Horain,113 and Gerycz for five hours +(a failure to keep a watch on
myself)+. I read Wyżygin. Napoleon's father is angry with him for picking and
choosing while eating; he want to spank him etc. etc. I go for coffee, place
Beauveau, newspapers, to Kaczanowski114 about work for Celiński in his factory; he is out. I return home about ten. Celiński reassures me. I should have
written two days here, but somehow I was not in the mood, either to write letters, or resolutions concerning order in my life - meanwhile, laziness. Evil
thoughts caused by the woman who lives nextdoor.
Monday,[June] 15
I got up a little late, that is, not immediately after awakening. Prayer.
Dmochowski115 drops by; breakfast. Jóźwik invites me to visit him today. He is
bent on involving me in his own speculations.
111
112
113
114
115
of Polish Women as secretary (from March 1834). She planned to establish a private
school in Paris, and also in Poznań. She left her Memoirs (1849).
Louis-Adolphe Thiers (1797-1877) - a French historian, lawyer, journalist and statesman.
In the years 1823-1827, he published Histoire de la Révolution francaise, and then the
Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire (from 1845). In 1832 and 1836, as Minister of
Interior Affairs, he served for a short time as head of state.
Ludmilew Korylski, a pseudonym of Louis Kubiecki (1780, or 1784-1857) from
Samogitia. Kubecki was a teacher in Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising
as an artillery-man. From 1832 he lived in Paris and supported himself by tutoring. He
gave lessons to young Mary Mickiewicz. A poet.
Undoubtedly Vincent Horain (1799-1850), the son of Anthony and Caroline, nee
Giedrojć. A major, quartermaster in the Polish army; a military engineer. He participated
in the November uprising. He moved to Paris from the depot in Bourges in July 1833.
From March 1835 he was a member of the Polytechnic Society established in Paris by
General Joseph Bem.
Charles Kaczanowski (1801-1873) from Pińsk - an army engineer, he participated in the
November uprising; in 1831 he was a captain in the artillery. As an emigrant he worked
on the construction of a bridge in Paris, and in a foundry producing cannons. He became
a priest in 1842, and entered the Congregation of the Resurrection. He worked as a
missionary in Bulgaria.
Włodzimierz Dmochowski (1814-1882) - from Grodzieńsk. He studied at the University
of Vilno. He participated in the November uprising, serving in the 13th uhlan regiment.
Together with Marcellus Karski (Edward Duński) and Edmund Korabiewicz, (in
DIARY
274
280 Why not send him somewhere since he has a desire to work? He left; I go
to Peter; Dmochowski is there. In the conversation I am not in control of myself
- a kind of wordy chatter, not strictly directed toward a goal, insinuates itself in
my talk. - I return to my own room. I wish to write this diary. But I begin to
meditate, to pray for divine assistance, for I admit that I do not have sufficient
strength of myself to fulfill the simplest and easiest obligations - for example,
writing letters to the brothers etc.
At about one o'clock I go to the Jełowickis; only the marshal 116 is there. I
eat breakfast. To the library where I read Schöll about Bavaria. Słowaczyński,
Smolikowski,117 J.B. Ostrowski. On returning there is a conversation, but I do
not have a proper sense of self at the time. I browse through second-hand bookstores, and then move on to Pinard; the final sheet and the cover are already
printed. To Aicard; he is out; only Mrs. Roland118 is there. To the bindery.
To the Giedrojćes, already after five. I begin to speak about how it will be
living with Napoleon etc. I leave at seven, and go to Jóźwik, for a meeting on
magnetism; but the father [Giedrojć] does not want to accompany his son at this
time. There [at Jóźwik], coffee; he walks back home with me, and reveals his
plans and principles to me. It is already 9:30. I would like to read Coëssin in
bed - my mind wanders - and I fall asleep.
281 Tuesday, June 16
I got up at seven. Wondering about my situation, about what I should do
first of all (1. prayer, 2. pay my debts, 3. study of religion, writing for publication, an apostolate). I am writing these notes from the day of my confession, it
is already the ninth day; I go to visit Jełowicki.
283 Margerin
116
117
118
November 1834) he was a member of the Central Section of the Polish Democratic
Society. A doctor of medicine.
This refers to Edward Jełowicki, who was a marshal of the Podolian nobility. He was a
blood brother of Alexander (Cf. 1834, footnote 40).
Alexander Smolikowski (1806-1856) - initially an officer in the Government Commission
for Religious Beliefs and Education. He participated in the November uprising. He came
to France in December 1831.
Pauline Rolland (1810-1852) - a writer and journalist; a follower of the theory of Pierre
Leroux. She was an active socialist, and author of articles in the Encyclopédie nouvelle.
After the coup d'état in 1851, during the repression of republicans by Napoleon III, she
was deported to a penal colony in Algeria.
YEAR 1835
275
Wednesday, [June] 17, Niemojewski's119 funeral.
Sunday, [June] 21
[Thursday, June] 25, Benoiste.
Friday, [June] 26, Świętosławski's funeral.
Sunday, [June] 28
Monday, June 29, Gorecki.
282 Wednesday, July 1, 1835, Benoiste.
Concerning falsity and truth in our times. Presenting a written account of
the matter by way of etc.
283 [Thursday], July 2, I received from the Giedrojćes.
[Saturday, July] 4, Podczaszyński's death.
Sunday, [July] 5
[Monday, July] 6, Podczaszyński's funeral, my remorse and thoughts.
[Tuesday, July] 7, Council at Ordyniec. Fr. Korycki.
Wednesday, [July] 8, Sobański120 leaves; I go to see Mr. Pelassa.121
Sunday, [July] 12, Funeral service for Princess Czartoryski.122
119
Bonaventure Niemojowski (Cf. 1831, footnote 49) died in Vanves near Paris on June 15.
His funeral took place on June 17, at the Paris cemetery Pére Lachaise, where he was
buried temporarily. On July 15, Niemojowski's body was transferred "to a burial plot
purchased by the family". In the manuscript "pogr." can mean "pogrobne", that is
payment for the funeral.
120
Undoubtedly Isidor Sobański (1796-1847) - an officer in the Polish army; he participated
in the November uprising. As an emigrant, he was an agent of Adam Czartoryski. He was
one of the founders of "Chronicles of the Polish Emigration".
121
Pelassa - unidentified.
122
The funeral services for Isabel (Elizabeth), nee Fleming, the wife of Adam Casimir
Czartoryski, born in 1746, died in June 1835. She was the author of A Pilgrim in
Dobromil, or rural studies. She made Puławy a lively literary center, and after the
DIARY
276
Wednesday [July] 15, departure of Princess [Giedrojć?], and so I cannot visit
Kajsiewicz.123
123
partitions she established the first museum housing Polish souvenirs in the so-called
"Sibyl's Temple". She was the mother of Prince Adam Czartoryski.
Joseph Jerome Kajsiewicz (1812-1873) - came from Samogitia, from a lesser-nobility
family. He studied with the Piarist Fathers, and then in a public school in Sejny. In 1829
he enrolled in the department of law and administration at the University of Warsaw.
Already then he manifested an interest in literature, attending the lectures of Brodziński
and Osiński. In the "Polish Decameron" (1830, Vol.2, nr.14-15), he published a story, A
Seduced Spouse. On the first evening of the November uprising he took part in battles on
the Długa ulica near the arsenal. He fought in the corps of General Dwernicki at Stoczek
and Nowa Wieś, where he was seriously wounded. He was taken captive, but then rescued. He continued to fight until the collapse of the uprising. He became an emigrant in
France, first in Strasbourg, in the faculty of law, and finally in the depot at Besançon. On
March 20, 1832, he was chosen to be the secretary of the depot, and as their delegate he
travelled to Lelewel's National Committee in Paris. At that time he voiced radical sociopolitical views. He worked at physical labor, and wrote poetry on the side. Taken
together, he published Sonnets (Paris, 1833). He addressed one of his works To the
workers of Paris. In July, 1833, he was expelled from Paris because of his ties with the
republican Society of Human Rights. He lived in Nogent on the Marne, then in Angers. In
1835, with the consent of French authorities, he once again resided in Paris. He belonged
to the closest circle of friends of Bogdan Jański. In February 1836 he resided in his
House, and then at Collége Stanislas, with Semenenko preparing himself for the
priesthood. In the following year, thanks to help from the Elder Brother Jański, he left for
Rome together with Semenenko to pursue further theological studies. He was present at
Jański's death. He was ordained in 1841. In the following year Semenenko and
Kajsiewicz received ecclesiastical confirmation of their religious rule, and with the title of
the Congregation of the Resurrection they began pastoral activity on a grand scale.
Kajsiewicz left for Paris to combat Towianism. His preaching in the Church of St. Roch
earned him a reputation as an outstanding orator. He travelled on missions to Belgium
England, Ireland and Germany. In the regions of Poznań and Kraków he was hunted by
the Austrian authorities. He became more and more of an ultramontanist; moreover, he
condemned participation of Poles in the "Springtide of Nations". In 1845 he became
Superior General of the Congregation; however, in 1847 ceded this position to Fr. Hube.
In 1854 he was once again elected General of the Congregation, and exercised this
function until his death. In 1861 he made a missionary journey to Bulgaria. He opposed
Polish revolutionary efforts, and wrote a famous open letter (January 22, 1863) To Our
Brother Priests Involved in Sinful Conspiracy, and to Brothers of the Nobility Not
Exercising Wise Moderation. The National Government condemned Kajsiewicz for this
letter, accusing him of treason. He did not change his convictions, and continued to work
with great energy at organizing a Polish College in Rome (in accord with the the mind of
Bogdan Jański). As Superior General of the Congregation he visited Polish parishes in
North and South America. He paid another visit to Galicia and Bulgaria. As he writer, he
gave preference to sermons and letters. In the years 1870-1872, in Berlin, He published
his writings in three volumes. This included his Memoirs concerning the beginnings of
YEAR 1835
277
Sunday, [July] 19
282 Friday, [July] 24, the Feast of St. Kunegunda. A new project. About truth,
the future, Poland. Three volumes, together with an additional volume.
284 Sunday, July 26 - July holidays.124
[Thursday, July] 30 - News from Semenenko about the death of my brother
Anthony!... I go to visit Karski.
Sunday, August 2
Meeting.125 Konopka. To Walter. To...
[Tuesday, August] 4, funeral ceremonies.126 Konopka's departure.
Thursday, [August] 6, at Montalembert; I take with me material about the
Czechs.
Sunday, [August] 9, to Saint-Sulpice (to Dugied; he had already left), to
Luxembourg, the Botanical Gardens,127 a walk after dinner.
Wednesday, [August] 12, I learn from Semenenko that Karski128 was put in jail.
I look for a room all day.
285 [Thursday], August 13, 1835
Urgent tasks: To Olbratowicz...129
124
125
126
127
128
129
the Congregation of the Resurrection. In 1836 he had published a second novel, Nunc
Dimittis Domine. He died suddenly near the Fontana Trevi in Rome.
The July holidays - July 27-29, the anniversary of the July Revolution in France in 1830.
It is difficult to determine accurately the "meeting" Jański mentions here. From elsewhere
we know that on August 2 a "family meeting" of envoys living among the emigrants was
to take place. This meeting was to take place under the auspices of Voivode Anthony
John Ostrowski (Cf. 1832, footnote 256).
Funeral rites, undoubtedly for his deceased brother Anthony.
Luxembourg - The Luxembourg gardens and environs. The Botanical Gardens were
established by Henry IV and his minister Sully. This was an educational institution and a
favorite place of relaxation for Parisians.
Marcellus Karski (a pseudonym of Edward Duński) - on the basis of a false denunciation
as one of those suspected of a conspiracy against the King, he was arrested and
imprisoned. (Cf. footnote 48).
Valentine Olbratowicz (1806-1868) - After receiving a Master's degree in philosophy at
the University of Warsaw in 1823 he moved on to study medicine there. During the
DIARY
278
To the library, concerning Siberia.
Auguste Chevalier130 concerning schools and the Encyclopédie.
Margerin, Lacordaire, Montalembert, and Cheruel concerning
Encyclopédie catholique.
Translate for Dwernicki - also for Włoch, Jóźwik, Kunatt.
Think about a Requiem Mass for my brother Anthony
- visit former
students of the Polytechnic Insti tute.
Visit Dobrowolski131
Letters to Dugied - to Stephen - to Maliński.
to America - Przecławski
to Królikowski - to Rettel
to Jabłoński
- (to Łempicki)
- to Koźmian.132
Return [J.N.] to Janowski.
286 For Wednesday, August 19
talk about money - ask about trips to Sêvres.
to Zwierkowski - to Semenenko. Ask him about a day with Karski, etc.
to Dąbrowski.133
to Wrotnowski - Weissenhof
to Margerin
to Chevalier
to Szwejger134 rue de l'Ouest
to the printery - returning, to Walter's house
to Ogiński.
November uprising, as a fourth year student he became a doctor in the barracks of the
engineers. After the collapse of the uprising he moved to France as a emigrant. He
received his diploma as a doctor of medicine in Paris in July of 1835. He returned to Poland, and in the years 1850-1867 he was a doctor in the Hospital of the Child Jesus in
Warsaw.
130
Auguste Chevalier (b.1806?) - a mining engineer; in 1831 a professor of physics.
131
Undoubtedly Casimir (?Boleslaus) Dobrowolski, whom Jański had known already in
1831. Born in Volhynia, a doctor of medicine, and staff doctor. He committed suicide in
1843.
132
Undoubtedly John Koźmian - Cf. 1834, footnote 35.
133
Dąbrowski - difficult to identify.
134
Joseph Szwejger (1801-1878) - pharmacist and surgeon. At the time of the November
uprising, a staff doctor of a battalion. An emigrant in France. From 1834 he studied
medicine in Paris. In 1837 he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine at the University
of Paris.
YEAR 1835
279
URGENT TASKS
Schnitzler135 Cheruel Plater Vismara136 Dwernicki Sinner137 Montalembert Nisard Rivoli, 30
Siberia Margerin Biernacki138
Charton Lacordaire
Thursday, Friday and Saturday, if possible, go to the library (Dupré de
Saint-Maur).139
287 [Thursday] August 20, I travel to Versailles.
[Friday, August] 21
go to Mr. Guerard140
- take the second part of Encyclopédie pittoresque to the binder, so that
later I can give it to Pecquer (Rue des Mathurins, 31)
- list the letters E, F, G, H, J141 for Auguste Chevalier
- to the library concerning Siberia
- Schnitzler
at six o'clock to Faliński142
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
Undoubtedly Johann Schnitzler (1802-1871) - a journalist and historian of modern times.
Vismara - person unknown.
Gabriel Rudolf Ludwig von Sinner - Cf. 1836, footnote 101.
There were a few Biernackis among the emigrants: Aloysius (1778-1854) - a former
minister of the treasury of the National Government (Cf. footnote 278); and Charles
(1805-1878) - a second lieutenant in the 6th regiment of artillerymen during the
November uprising. He received a doctorate in medicine as an emigrant.
Jean-Pierre-Émile Dupré de Saint-Maur (1772-1854) - a translator from the Russian
language; author of Antologie russe, suivie de poésies originales, dediée a S.M.
l'empereur de toutes les Russies. Paris, 1823. He published a book of information
Petersbourg, Moscou et les provinces..., Paris, 1831.
Guerard - person unknown.
This refers to a list beginning with the letters mentioned - of articles-topics for the
encyclopedia.
It is uncertain which of two Faliński brothers Jański refers to here. Francis Faliński
(1815-1887) - participated in the November uprising; a painter as an emigrant. His
brother John Stanislaus (1812-1850) was a student at the University of Warsaw,
dismissed because of his membership in the Patriotic Society. He participated in the
November uprising, and was an emigrant in France. He received a doctorate in medicine
at Montpellier, lived in Poitiers in 1835, and from 1837 in Paris. In July, 1834 he was a
member of the Polish Democratic Society, but was removed from the list of its members
in 1837.
DIARY
280
For [Friday, August] 28
Obtain the money for books for Napoleon - a Greek grammar - Gradus
ad Parnassum143 - a Latin author - a poet - a Greek book.
A letter to Fr. Skórzyński - speak of Dąbrowski, that he is with me, ask
about Waga.
To the library - look up Esterhazy,144 Estonia, etc.
to Ogiński - to Januszkiewicz, take the second sheet for Mickiewicz, to
Ordyniec, to Kunatt
obtain information from Wrotnowski about Warsaw
To Montalembert for "Université Catholique'.145
8586
995 For Saturday, August 29
To Wrotnowski - Januszkiewicz - Ordyniec - to Szymański.146
To the library.
8627
290 Tuesday, [September] 8, Birth of the Blessed Mary
We leave at seven to meet Kajsiewicz. At nine we arrive at Saint-Mandé.
Confession.147 A sung Mass at ten. At breakfast Kajsiewicz reads Et nunc dimittis.148 - I return by bus at three. For coffee, and for a lesson. They have already
143
Gradus ad Parnassum - the title of a handbook-lexicon of poetic arts, whose author was a
Jesuit, Paul Aler.
144
Estérhazy de Galántha - one of the oldest lordly families in Hungary. This article, as well
as the following one on Estonia, was prepared by Jański for Encyclopédie catholique,
where the articles Esterhazy and Esthonie were published only after the death of the
author. (Vol.IX, Paris, 1846, pp. 354-355, and 356).
145
"L'Université Catholique" - a periodical established in Louvain (Belgium) in 1834, in
which Charles de Montalembert published his articles. In 1836, in Paris, another
periodical with the same name began to appear, edited by Fr. Gerbet, Bonnetty and
others.
146
Undoubtedly Anthony Marcellus Szymański (1813-1894) - In 1830 he began to study law
at the University of Warsaw. In the November uprising, he was a second lieutenant in the
5th regiment of riflemen. He was an emigrant in France. He completed his legal studies
and received his diploma "licence en droit" at Aix-en-Provence. In 1835, he came to
Paris, where he continued his legal studies in the school of law, supporting himself by his
work as a tutor and by writing articles for French encyclopedias. He settled permanently
in Paris and obtained French citizenship.
147
The text of the September 8, 1835 confession has been preserved. It is located in
Appendix V.
148
The poetic story Nunc dimittis, Domine, a story from the Scotch annals dating from the
end of the XVI century, written by Jerome Kajsiewicz, was printed in volume III of the
periodical "Melitele", and then appeared once again in print in Paris in 1836.
YEAR 1835
281
decided about a place to live. A question, how will I do it. Trouble. After dinner,
Mrs. Rautenstrauch, in conversation about Lelia149 etc. I already forget that this
is the day for confession; I wait and wait, not knowing for what - until nine. At
home, Kajsiewicz, Dalen,150 Szymański; Celiński is wild, I am reserved, listless.
Wednesday [September] 9
Tea at home, preparation for a lesson; return at ten. Reflections: what
should I do here with our plans for a common house. Meditation about the difficulty.
Plans to go to Solesmes.151 (A second breakfast, coffee). A lesson at four.
I tell the Giedrojćes about Chine.152 After dinner, coffee - and a lot of coming
and going. Thoughts about how to arrange time; disturbance due to carnal desires.
291 Thursday, [September] 10
I get up at eight and write a note to Chine. I go out for a lesson at nine
and deliver the note. Konopka. Home at 11:30; excuse myself to Konopka. A
letter to Kajsiewicz asking him to come. I deliver the calendar to Nakwaski;153
149
150
151
152
153
Lelia - the title of a two volume novel written by the famous French author, Aurora
Dudevant (1804-1876), who was known under her pseudonym George Sand. It was
published in Paris in 1833. The author presented there the lot of a woman held captive by
social conventions and customs. It was a declaration in favor of the emancipation of
women.
Stanislaus Dahlen (1810-1843) from Podlasie - He studied law at the University of
Warsaw. He participated in the November uprising, achieving the rank of second
lieutenant in the first regiment of riflemen. From 1832, an emigrant in France.
Solesmes, a village near Cambrai in the department of Sarthe, noted for the Benedictine
Priory established there in the 11th century. The present Solesmes Abbey came into being
through the initiative of Prosper Guéranger (Cf. 1835, footnote 312).
Wilhelm Hühne (1803-1863) - In 1819 he began to study drawing and painting in
Warsaw in the department of Fine Arts. His work included portrait, religious and scenic
paintings, under the direction of, e.g., Anthony Brodowski. He pursued further studies
abroad. He participated in the Warsaw Exhibition of Fine Arts. He was also worked as a
restorer of paintings. He remained in close contact with Joseph Maliński.
Henry Mirosław Nakwaski (1800-1876) - the son of Francis and Anne, nee Krajewski,
who was noted as the author of novels, and a patriot who directed a literary salon. He
studied law and administration at the University of Warsaw, but because of his
disagreement with the behavior of the students there, he left the university to pursue
studies abroad. After his return to Poland, he worked in Płock in the Provincial Commission. He was an envoy to the insurgent Sejm in 1831. He was a habitué of the
salon of Cecilia Chłędowska. After the collapse of the uprising, he was an emigrant, first
in Dresden, where he made the acquaintance of Adam Mickiewicz, and then, from
October 1832 in Paris .From August 1833 he resided in Geneva. He published writings
such as Observations dealing with the most profitable use of time in the emigration
together with a general plan for an association of emigrants (Paris, 1833). In 1835 he
DIARY
282
he is not in. I leave it there. To Jełowicki; he had already left. To Januszkiewicz
(Ropelewski, Aksenfeld154). To Bibliothéque Mazarine;155 it is closed. Home
after two; Kajsiewicz arrives. They agree on plans to go to Solesmes - conversation, and it is 4:30. For a lesson. Tiers; I am embarrassed by a compliment: he
knows me from my good reputation. The Princess Giedrojć, Białopiotrowicz after dinner for a cab; after eight for coffee, etc.
292 +Friday [September] 11
Urgent tasks
Letter to Jabłoński to Stephen
Letter to Maliński to Anthony
to Przecławski
Work for Włoch - for Dwernicki
Bohême - for Héreau156+
Friday, [September] 11
I return from a lesson about ten, and write a letter to Hühn. To Nakwaski
- (Zwierkowski, Kossobudzki157) - I feel ill at ease in their company, and I sit.
To Pinard; I do not give the deposition to Agen; he reminds me of the debt. To
the Sainte-Geneviéve Library; it is closed.158 I look at lodgings. I go to Kajsie-
154
155
156
157
158
appeared in Paris once more, and renewed his contacts with Mickiewicz. He oscillated
between the aristocratic and democratic camps, and in the end came out in opposition of
the politics of Adam Czartoryski. In the year 1835 in Paris he wrote A few words about
democracy, a treatise On conferring property on Polish peasants as a reward, and When
my declaration... against Prince Czartoryski. He moved toward re-establishing the Sejm
in the emigration. In 1838 he returned to Switzerland, helping Mickiewicz during his stay
in Lucerne. He was also engaged in economy and banking. He wrote a Diary for the years
1830-1850 (the manuscript is located in the Library at the University of Lwów.
Aksenfeld - A. Krosnowski's Almanac notes only an Abraham Axenfeld, from Kijowo
and living in Metz, and his son Joseph.
Bibliothéque Mazarine was located at the rear of the French Institute, in the former palace
of Jules Mazarine (1602-1661), a French statesman, Cardinal, and founder of the library
(1643).
E.J. Héreau - editor and publisher of Dictionnaire de la Conversation et de la Lecture...
(Cf. footnote 186).
Possibly Michael Alexander Kossobudzki, a participant in the November uprising, second
lieutenant in the engineers. In 1833 he was an emigrant, living in the depot at Dijon, then
move to Switzerland. In 1837 he graduated from the school of agronomy at Grignon.
Bibliothéque de Sainte-Geneviéve - a library established in 1624 `y Cardinal de la
Rochefoucauld, the Abbot of the Saint Genevieve monastery. In the first half of the 19th
YEAR 1835
283
wicz, aimless (Mr. Nicolas),159 as a result I am dull. For a sous I have a bun for
breakfast. Home, lay down; Korycki and Brawacki, Szymański. Four o'clock. A
lesson, and dinner. I receive 10 francs from the Giedrojćes. After dinner, coffee;
I am well disposed for letters. In the meantime I run around and around, wild
with impure desires. I meet the Falińskis and Henszel.160 I buy syrup for the
canisters, and having drunk, I fall asleep.
Saturday, [September 12]
It is already about ten when I go for the lesson. I return before eleven; a
pipe, day-dreaming, getting down to these notes. Suddenly to Peter, to examine
the spoiled paper in "The Pilgrim". Celiński arrives - an apostolic letter, my
article about national universality.161 We chat; a kind of friendly relationship
with Celiński. At three o'clock for oyster and wine. At four for a lesson. The
blood is pounding in my head. After dinner we talk about revolution, secret
societies among women. For coffee. Domejko. We go to visit Bernatowicz,162
Mickiewicz (about societies); I got drenched. Semenenko, concerning Charles
[Kaczanowski].
Sunday [September 13]
At eight I was still in bed. John brought me a letter from the Giedrojćes
asking me to go to Matuszyński163 for Napoleon. At ten I went out for coffee
(and gave poor Semenenko only a few sous for breakfast), and then on to
Matuszyński. I feel very good, refreshed, clean in soul. For Mass to St. Roch at
159
160
161
162
163
century, this was the university library at the Panthéon square, bearing the name of the
patroness of Paris.
Nicolas - person unknown.
Henszel - further information lacking (Cf. 1832, footnote 295).
Possibly Adam Celiński proposed to write an article-letter addressed to Poles living in
France bearing the message of the Christian Gospel. We know that Celiński carried on an
active apostolate among the Polish emigrants living in Agen and Lunel. It is also possible
that Jański intended to write an article about "national universality" but did not realize his
intention. In any case, so far there is no trace of such an article in his written or printed
legacy.
Undoubtedly Anthony Bernatowicz (d.1868), a colleague of Adam Mickiewicz at the
school in Nowogródek. He participated in the November uprising with the rank of
captain. He was an adjutant to General Rybiński. He lived in Paris as an emigrant.
John Matuszyński (1809-1842) - a class-mate and one of Frederick Chopin's closest
friends. In the November uprising of 1831, he served as a doctor in the 5th battalion of
mounted riflemen. He emigrated to Germany, and completed the course in medicine in
Tubingen with the degree of doctor . He came to Paris in the summer of 1834, and lived
with Chopin at rue Chaussée d'Antin nr.5. In 1837 he received a second doctorate. He
taught at the École de Médecine.
DIARY
284
twelve. To the Giedrojćes (Olizar,164 Gierycz); I am immediately disconcerted
by the company, and become an entirely different person, practically without a
soul. I return home, tossing one empty thought after another over in my mind,
move from one reading to another (about the Czechs), and finally fall asleep. At
five, dinner, to the pharmacy; at seven for coffee, and eight back home. I spend
two more hours on empty reveries, conjectures, until the time when God will
surely grant me the grace to set down some kind of preparation in writing.165
295 Monday, September 14, Exaltation of the Holy Cross
At seven I leave for Saint-Mandé. I arrive there in time for Mass at 8:30.
Confession. Inspirations. Resolutions. At 10:15 I return to the church. Breakfast
with the priest. Talk about governments. The priest is a legitimist 166 - Why
didn't I speak more openly to him? At 12:15 I returned to Paris. I met Latour.167
Why was I embarrassed in speaking with him? True, I am guilty, for, through
neglect, I did not return the books I borrowed from him two years ago. For
coffee. I spend too much time on the newspapers (on such a holy day). Home.
Chine. Having urgent work, preparation for a Greek lesson, why didn't I speak
openly to him about this? At 2:30 to the Giedrojćes. Napoleon is weaker. I read
Greek history to him. I am too lenient in dealing with his willfulness. (Mrs.
Białopiotrowicz). Dinner. After dinner, Mrs. Rautenstrauch - In conversation I
am still not myself, and yet my conscience is already clear. I take a letter to the
postoffice for Mrs. Giedrojć. I go home at seven. Today I noticed impatience in
conversation with others, a habitual sin (with Chine and with Peter). I begin to
164
165
166
167
Narcisus Olizar (1794-1862) - a member of the secret Volhynian Society of Scythebearers. He organized an uprising in Volhynia, was an envoy to the Sejm in 1831, and a
senator-castellan of the Kingdom of Poland. He belonged to the Patriotic Society. After
the collapse of the uprising, he was captured by the Russians, but managed to escape
from jail. He lived in Paris as an emigrant, and worked together with General Joseph Bem
in the Polytechnic Society (1835), which had as its purpose the education of emigrants
and the provision of assistance in finding work. He was a zealous follower of Prince
Adam Czartoryski. A co-founder and leader of the Secret Insurrectionist-Monarchical
Union which was established in 1837. In 1839 he was a co-editor of the Monarchist
periodical "The Third of May". A diarist and journalist. In Paris he conducted an open
house, where Poles from Poland and the emigration met.
Jański was preparing himself for the confession which he made - as he noted - on
September 14, 1835, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. The text of this
confession is found in the Appendix to the Diary for 1835, under VI.
Legitimist - a advocate of the restoration of the older line of Bourbons after 1830,
recognizing the historical right of this dynasty as the basis for governing authority in
France; a monarchist.167. Louis-Antoine Tenant de Latour (1808-1881) - a French poet
and translator.
YEAR 1835
285
read St. Ignatius.168 I fall asleep at about eight. Waking up, I recite the Salve
Regina.
Tuesday, [September 15]
I rise at eight. Nakwaski at about ten; in conversation with him I am still
not myself, occupied with what I was thinking about before, what I should now
do first. Breakfast with Peter. To Adam. He decides to go to Agen next month,
and first to confession.
At 11:30 to the Giedrojćes. I read Greek history to Napoleon, and offer
his mother sincere and mild advice on how do deal with him.
296 I go for a walk along the Champs-Elysées, and reflect upon how, here and
now, I am to accomplish my preparation for death. I decide first of all to set my
papers in order; then, prepare a list and payment of debts; third, write letters and
"Final Words" (about the most important truths: for an individual, for mankind,
and especially for Poland), to friends of the Truth and Mankind, to compatriots
and companions of my youth, to friends and companions concerning my present
plans, etc.
At 4:30 I come home. For dinner. After dinner, a cigar with Giedrojć. I
leave at 7:30 for coffee. Home. Once again reflections. Podolski.169 I still had
not gone to see Kunatt in order to proofread materials for him. I lied to Celiński
that I had no tobacco. At about eleven, Kajsiewicz - I support his plan to travel
to Ireland.170 In conversation I am not sufficiently recollected, or mindful of
God, and too thoughtlessly cheerful. He leaves at eleven. I should have gotten
right down to work; meanwhile I continue to think and think, without any clear
168
169
170
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) - author of the famous Spiritual Exercises, the fruit of 19
years of contemplative life, and founder of the Jesuits. Initially a Spanish officer. Living
as a hermit, he experienced an interior conversion. He resided in Paris, and studied at the
university there. In the course of his studies he became acquainted with Peter Favre,
Francis Xavier, and five other companions. In the morning of August 15, 1534, all of
them gathered in a chapel on the slope of Montmartre, and there, during Mass, they
professed religious vows. This was the birth of a Community which, after obtaining the
approval of the Apostolic See, quickly spread its activity over the whole of Western
Europe, the Indies, and South America. The founder of the Order was canonized in 1622.
Possibly Anthony Podolski, who participated in the November uprising as a second
lieutenant in the 9th infantry regiment. He was an emigrant in France. In January of 1835
he came to Paris.
Catholicism in Ireland at this time was experiencing a period of revival, a process which
was led by "the uncrowned king of Ireland" Daniel O'Connell.
DIARY
286
goal. And so, once again my habitual sin, wasting time, dreaming. Great God,
grant me the grace to rid myself of this habit.
Wednesday [September] 16
It was already nine when I rose. I get myself ready, think about the need
to avoid wasting even a moment of time, the need for prayer and effort, the
need to remind myself of the presence of God constantly and to commit myself
entirely to the fulfillment of God's will.
297 After meditation and prayer, after eleven, for a lesson, without breakfast,
but I do not feel hungry. For Mass. Before one, to Kunatt, and I amuse myself
until four o'clock talking about political economy and about Ireland. For a lesson; dinner; I am ashamed to ask for ten francs. Coffee on credit. To Mickiewicz; Montalembert, Witwicki. With Montalembert to the Ogińskis, keeping
quiet, etc. I go back with him. My attitude is cold, and I speak to him critically
of the Giedrojćes. After I returned home, I was still too occupied with impressions from the conversation that took place at Mickiewicz's place (with literary
works dealing with the Slavs etc.), and I forget about my principal resolutions.
Thursday [September 17]
I am reading a manuscript, etc. Laurent stops by and I send him away
coldly. At eleven I go out for a lesson. Then to Mickiewicz to tell him he should
not tell anyone that he knows about Kunatt going to Ireland. He is not in.
Home; work on the manuscript, Greek studies. Before four, for a lesson; dinner,
I receive 10 francs; for coffee, I pay for yesterday's coffee; a newspaper for 10
sous. I read the "Sławianin"171 and about the Czechs until one. I feel triumphant,
and forget about more urgent work, setting my papers in order, letters, etc.
Friday [September] 18
I rise at eight, and write an exercise for Napoleon. Notes for Celiński and
Brawacki. At eleven for a lesson; at one for coffee and to Mickiewicz - he is not
home. To Montalembert, discomfiture. I am received coldly, a bad attitude; but
in my soul I still find joy and an admonition. After two, home; Thomas a Kempis. Needlessly, I succumb to fatigue and fall asleep. At four Szymański,
[Charles] Królikowski172 - I am not myself; once again I am not content with
171
172
"Slavonian" - Cf. footnote 334.
Charles Królikowski (1806-1871) - the son of a wealthy nobleman, born near Łuków. In
1823 he began to study law in Warsaw, while at the same time he was working to support
three younger brothers. He participated in the November uprising, and belonged to the
Patriotic Society. After the collapse of the uprising, he lived in the depot at Avignon,
YEAR 1835
287
myself. I meet Mickiewicz. A lesson, dinner, for coffee; while returning, lustful
glances along the way. Someone had come to see me, some young lady from a
man named Talawy; as a result, suppositions, memories of my relationships
with women. Letters from my wife.
298 Saturday, September 19
I left for a lesson at nine, clearly invited for coffee with an old woman
(Mrs. Białopiotrowicz). I leave at eleven. To Mickiewicz; he is not in, but I
leave the manuscript. Home; sadness in my heart. I read the Imitation of Christ,
and all is well; but I feel weak. For breakfast at 12:30, 28 sous, coffee 8 sous.
Return home at two, strong temptations. I go out looking for a way to commit
sin. Borysiewicz.173 After four to the Giedrojćes (Dąmbczewski - why am I so
cold toward him?), a lesson, dinner, for coffee at seven; once again temptations
and I begin to look for opportunities to commit sin. At 7:45 back home. With
Peter, I go to visit Dahlen; along the way lustful glances. Kajsiewicz, Ropelewski; spend a pleasant evening, but I lack a proper attitude, I lack heart. At home,
consultation about "The "Pilgrim".174
300 Monday, September 21
173
174
where he became addicted to politics. Expelled from the depot in 1837, he began to live
in Paris, where he became a member of a masonic lodge. Next, expelled from Paris, he
lived in Bordeaux, where he began to work as a printer. In 1835 or 1836 he began a
correspondence with Jański, who exerted a moral and religious influence on him, and ultimately brought him to Paris. There Królikowski began working in the printery of
Alexander Jełowicki and Eustachius Januszkiewicz. At the same time he conducted the
Paris House of Jański, whenever the latter was either absent or sick. When Jełowicki
withdrew from the publishing partnership, Januszkiewicz turned the printery over to
Królikowski, who continued the publishing and book-selling activity. He became an
acquaintance of Charles Sienkiewicz, and maintained contacts with Mickiewicz and
Towiański. He participated in the work of the Historical-Literary section of the Literary
Society. He organized help for families after the death of some of the emigrants,
establishing in Paris first the Taxation Association, and then an Institution for Bread and
Worship, of which he was the president.
Undoubtedly Anthony Borysiewicz (1809-1854) from Volhynia - He studied in Warsaw
in the University department of arts and sciences. He participated in the November
uprising. As an emigrant in France he worked as a conductor of roads and bridges. In
1834, he enlisted in the Polish Democratic Society, and as a member, in 1840 he entered
into the Union. In that same year his name was removed from the list of members of the
Society by reason of "immoral conduct". He died in poverty in London.
From the time when the "Polish Pilgrim" was discontinued at the beginning of 1834
because of financial difficulties, Jański kept returning to plans for publishing the
"Pilgrim", this time as a daily paper for the Polish emigration. He even went about
preparing articles with this in mind. However, nothing ever came of these plans.
DIARY
288
Confession,175 but I do not receive Communion. I feel too confused; but
later I am sorry that I did not. Meditation, writing out resolutions. 176 I receive a
letter from Włodzimierz Potocki,177 asking me to visit Mrs. Komar.
8627
329 [Monday] September 21, 1835
My main plans for now
1. Complete preparation for death.
2. Common life, Brotherhood of National Service.
3. "The Pilgrim", etc. etc.
Lesser projects
1. Give an account to the Nation concerning Poland and France.
2. A quarterly.
3. A course dealing with history and literature etc. - meet with Cousin, etc.,
concerning Schnitzler in the "Journal des Dêbats".178
4. Christian political economy - for the "Revue des Deux Mondes",
"Univ[ersité] Cath[olique]" - belgique.179
756
Things to do
from September 21 to September 29
1. Put papers in order. Speak with Montalembert about a priest confessor, ask
him for the de Coux's180 lectures on economy in "Dominicale".181
175
176
177
178
179
Cf. The Appendix to the Diary for 1835, VII: Confession on October 21, the Feast of St.
Matthew.
... a list of resolutions. - These are: My main plans for now, October 21, 1835; Lesser
projects, as well as Things to do, from October 21 to October 29. - These "resolutions"
were placed immediately after the Diary notes for October 21.
Vladimir Potocki (1810-1880) - the son of Vladimir and Tekla, nee Sanguszek; the heir
of Daszów and Podwysocek; participated in the 1831 uprising in Podolia, a Polish officer
and emigrant. He lived for some time in Paris.
"Journal des Débats" - published in Paris from 1815, a daily with a large circulation,
favorable to the cause of Poland. Leonard Chodźko was a contributor. In addition to the
daily, a "Journal des Débats politiques et littéraires" was also published (a weekly).
"Université Catholique" - a Belgian publication. Cf. footnote 145.
YEAR 1835
289
2. Work for Vismar and Dwernicki.
3. copies of letters:
1. to Stephen
2. to Anthony to Dugied
3. to Leon to Caesar [Plater]
4. to Maliński to Królikowski182
5. to Jabloński (to Liebelt183 etc. perhaps)
6. to Leonard and Kremer184
7. to Hube to Ignatius Zwierkowski185
8. to Łempicki to Joseph Zawadzki
9. to Koźmian to Jaroszyński
10. to Trepka to the Narzymskis
4. Return books to Latour, Jóźwik, Sinner, and take Schnitzler from Słowaczyński.
180
181
182
183
184
185
Carl de Coux (1787-1864) - a famous expert of political economy, a leading precursor of
social Catholicism. The author of a publication appearing in the years 1830-1836, initially
in "L'Avenir". In November of 1834, at the invitation of the Catholic University in
Louvain, he accepted the chair of political economy and began his Cours d'économie
sociale. In his understanding, "political economy is a teaching about the rights that
govern production, distribution and growth of the wealth of nations"; a part of this
teaching is "social economy", whose basic purpose would be to reach "an understanding
of the laws governing a social organism." In 1845 he resigned from giving lectures, and
became the editor of the publication "Univers". He exerted an influence on Frederick
Ozanam.
"La Dominicale. Journal des paroisses." A periodical appearing in Paris in the years
1833-1836, and then later with the title "Revue du XIX siécle", and "Chronique de Paris",
1836-1840.
This refers to Louis Królikowski, who was then living in Kraków. (Cf. 1830, footnote 4).
Charles Liebelt - Cf. 1832, footnote 18.
Joseph Kremer (1806-1875) - Completed the course in law at the Jagellonian University
in 1828. He moved to Berlin for further studies, and there attended the lectures of Hegel.
Next he went to Paris, where he attended the lectures of Cousin and Guizot, and also was
present at gatherings of the saintsimonists. In 1830, he visited London. In the spring of
that year, he obtained the degree of doctor of both laws at the Jagellonian University. He
participated in the November uprising. He was on friendly terms with Vincent Pol. From
1835 in Kraków he worked with Anthony Zygmunt Helcle in editing the "Scientific
Quarterly." In 1837 he was living in Kraków, taking over a private school for boys after
Louis Królikowski. In 1847 he assumed the chair of philosophy at the Jagellonian
University, becoming professor of esthetics, and the history of the arts, in the School of
Fine Arts. He was co-founder of scientific societies, and an honorary member of
scientific and artistic institutes. Toward the end of his life he was the Rector of the
University. He was the author of many scientific, and popular-scientific works. Kremer
could have become a personal acquaintance of Jański, in Berlin, Paris, or London. He had
a brother, Charles Roman (1812-1860), a doctor of philosophy and an architect.
Ignatius Frederick Zwierkowski - Cf. 1833, footnote 20.
DIARY
290
Take "The Globe" to be bound.
5.Read necessary clarifications for the article in the Dictionnaire de Conversation186 in the Sainte-Geneviéve Library, and in the reading room.
6. Read concerning Bohéme at least Malte-Brun and Bradtke;187 look into Lelewel's work, ask about Thibaudeau. Make an excerpt from the article De vérifier
les dates (About verifying dates), from Feller188 about the Hussites,189 Saints
Cyril190 and Methodius,191 Wenceslaus,192 Adalbert193 etc., Borzywoj.194 From
Biographie universelle195 about Przemysł,196 Ottocar,197 Charles IV.198
Tuesday, [September] 22
I return books to Latour; some discussion. At Montalembert. AT
Jełowicki.
[Wednesday, September] 23
I go to visit Mrs. Komar in a borrowed frock-coat, with feelings of a foolish marriage and ceremony.
Thursday, [September] 24
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
Dictionnaire de la Conversation et de la Lecture (52 volumes) was published in the years
1832-1839 in Paris, E.J. Héreau editor.
George Samuel Bandtkie (1768-1835) - historian, bibliographer, librarian, scholar of the
history of Śląsk, teacher of Slavic languages, and numismatist. Author, e.g., of History of
the Kingdom of Poland... (2 volumes), Wrocław, 1820; a third edition under the title of
History of the Polish Nation, Wrocław, 1835.
Joachim Feller (1673-1726) - a German historian, publisher of documents, author of A
World History, Various Monuments.
Hussites - Followers of the teaching of John Hus (1371-1415), a Czechoslovakian
religious reformer.
Cyrill (Cyryl) (826 or 828-869), a saint, a monk, the brother of St. Methodius, and his
missionary companion in the Slavic regions. Author of the so-called Cyrilic alphabet.
Methodius (815 or 820-885), Saint, monk, missionary companion of Cyril.
Wacław I, reigned as King of the Czechs in the years 921-935; martyr, saint.
Adalbert (Wojciech in Poland) (956-997) - Bishop of Prague, missionary, martyr; saint
honored in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary.
Borzywoj I, the first Christian prince of Czechoslovakia, reigned in the years 872-888.
Biographie universelle et portative des contemporaine ou Dictionnaire historique des
hommes vivants et des hommes morts depuis 1788 jusque nos jours... Publié sous le
direction de Vieth de Boisjoslin, Paris, 1830.
Przemysł, from the dynasty of Przemyślids, a Czechoslovakian prince (c.700).
Ottocar, or Przemysław Ottokar I, who ruled in Czechoslovakia in the years 1192-1193,
and 1197-1230.
Charles IV, Czechoslovakian king and emperor; he ruled in the years 1346-1378.
YEAR 1835
291
Kajsiewicz comes to visit us in the evening; on my part there is a lack of
sincerity, a kind of silly pretense; as a result, our parting is not sufficiently affectionate. Peter and Jerome went to visit Fr. [Chaussotte[, but he was not in.
Friday, September 25
Peter and Jerome leave.199 I go to Mrs. Komar for a lesson, then to Napoleon. In the evening I go to see Karski, but he was not in.
[Saturday, September] 26
After lessons, I go to see Karski to inquire about the pilgrims'journey. I
go to the Sainte-Geneviéve Library - after a breakfast of sausage and coffee and on rue Mazarine an extremely shameful fall.
301 Sunday, September 27
I sleep until twelve. Napoleon wakens me. I hurry out to the carriages. At
one o'clock to Sévres. I have a head-ache, and am out of sorts at the princess;
Kniaziewicz. Dinner. At seven, return to Paris. Celiński went to confession.
Monday [September] 28
At eight to Komar for a lesson; at ten to Napoleon. Celiński swam in the
Seine. I ask Jełowicki to remind Mrs. Komar about the money. I go to say goodbye to Montalembert. I met Gorecki at Januszkiewicz's house and he promises
to come to see me. Rostkowski confirms the news.
[Tuesday, September] 29, Saint Michael
Celiński obtains permission; he remains for the evening and tells me
about his curriculum, which I then sign.200 At Mickiewicz to see Mary. The
evening comings and goings are beginning once again.
[Wednesday, September] 30
I bring Celiński's papers from Kunatt.201 Princess [Anne Caroline] Giedrojć and Mrs. Białopiotrowicz are coming for dinner. I am at Mickiewicz's
199
200
201
Peter Semenenko and Jerome Kajsiewicz together began a journey on foot to Solesmes,
in order to make a retreat there. Marcellus Karski-Duński accompanied them as far as
Versailles.
Curriculum vitae of Adam Celiński, written by Jański, is preserved in the Jagellonian
Library, call number 9290, k.10-12.
Stanislaus Kunatt was a member of the editorial staff of "Chronicles of the Polish
Emigration", where Adam Celiński worked for some time, borrowing money from the
cashier. This led to Celiński's later financial problems, which Jański tried to remedy.
DIARY
292
house for mushrooms; Domejko. I do not mention anything about the Society of
the Lamb of God, about which I learned when I visited Januszkiewicz.202
Januszkiewicz drops by. On my way home, a heavy rain.
For a lesson. The Giedrojćes are moving. Breakfast with Mrs. Rautenstrauch. Dinner at the place du Panthéon. It is already nine before I return home.
Deliberating with Celiński about expenses.
Friday, [October] 2
I obtain 35 francs from Mickiewicz, his money. To Karski. I speak with
him about Celiński's business. Credit is impossible; nevertheless, to the
Financial Commission,203 to Montalembert. Lacordaire stops by, and so does
Janvier;204 there is talk, but I am too silent. I go to see the Archbishop's
secretary. A fall on rue de la Th[or]igny. To Collége Rollin205 for information.
To the Giedrojćes, [Charles] Wodzyński, a lesson with Napoleon. Go home
after eight. Adam [Celinski's] departure is postponed.
Saturday, [October] 3
A lesson. To Karski; I meet Zaleski. I tell him about the Society of the
Lamb of God. I hand a petition to Broniewski; return the sheet to Kunatt
(Kożuchowski, Bronikowski). To the Giedrojćes, etc.
302 Sunday, October 4
202
203
204
205
In the emigrant publication "The North" (year 1, October 12, 1835, an anonymous author,
John Czyński, in an article entitled A Catholic-Papal Congregation, accused the
community in the process of formation (the "Society of the Lamb of God") of "recognizing the authority of the Pope, and ordering (its members) to pray for the salvation
of Poland." It announced that Adam Mickiewicz was the head of the society, and that
"Bogdan Zaleski, Kajsiewicz, and Jański had taken it upon themselves to give new life to
Papism. Semenenko, who supposedly discovered Russian nationality in Poland, was
converted and is one of the most zealous preachers of the new order." It also listed
Edward Duński and Joseph Ordęga as members of the society. The anonymous libeller
saw this as a tactic on the part of the aristocratic Polish emigration, which was trying to
"prevent the progress of ideas, and, with the aid of bigotry and Jesuitism, is determined to
regain what it was not able to preserve by its dying nobility."
On March 25, 1834, upon the motion of Alexander Jełowicki, a Commission of Funds for
the Polish Emigration was established in Paris as part of the National Committee of the
Polish Emigration. This Commission was supposed to collect a "fraternal tax", that is,
gather "offerings from brothers who have little, for those who have nothing." Members of
the Commission, among others, were Joseph Bohdan Zaleski, and Karski-Duński as secretary.
Elias Janvier (1798-1869) a ministerial official.
Collége Rollin - Charles Rollin (1667-1741) - a humanist and historian, a Rector of the
University of Paris, author of books on pedagogy and a handbook for teachers. One of the
Paris colleges was named in his honor.
YEAR 1835
293
I wake up late; breakfast with Adam at home. We go to Mickiewicz; he is
not at home. To Phillipe du Roule,206 I go to St. Roch for Mass. Loman.207 I stop
by to see Aicard, rue du Colombier, but he has moved. I look for Lacordaire,
and Auguste Chevalier. To the Giedrojćes; we read André.208 Home at eight, tea.
We pack his [Celiński's] papers and belongings.
[Monday] October 5
At nine, I go with Celiński to see Mickiewicz; he is not at home. At ten,
(the first time beginning today) I go for a lesson, and then return home.
Nakwaski drops by; I am to bring him the law journal on Wednesday. I and
Celiński go to Mickiewicz; he is at home. He receives us well. At about three
we leave. We meet Sobański. Later with Mickiewicz, discussion of future
works. He shows me a letter from Peter.209 We meet Mrs. Rautenstrauch; they
are going to the Wołoskis.210 I have a lesson with Napoleon and a quick dinner.
206
207
208
209
210
The 18th century church of Saint-Philippe du Roule built in the style of primitive
antiquity, was located on rue du Faubourg-Saint-Honoré.
Undoubtedly John Lohman (d.1848) - a former secretary of Louis Pac. He held the
position of secretary of the Polish Women's Welfare Society in Paris.
André - the title of a novel by George Sand which appeared in a Paris bookstore in 1835.
A letter of Peter Semenenko from Solesmes, dated October 2, included a greeting
("personal regards") to Adam Mickiewicz (ACRR 1210).
The Wołowskis (Wołoskis) - in the first half of the 19th century in Warsaw, a wellknown family of Jewish origin. The Wołowskis were first followers of the "Messiah"
Jacob Frank (1726-1891), and after his death they passed over in time to Catholicism, and
polonized themselves. There were two Wołowski families, bearing various coats of arms.
Francis Wołowski (1787-1844) lived in Paris, with the escutcheon "On the Helmets" - a
Warsaw lawyer, a State Councillor, an envoy to the Sejm in 1825-1831. He was married
to Tekla Wołowska (1786-1871), a close relative of Celine Mickiewicz. After the
collapse of the uprising, he and his family emigrated to Paris in October 1832. He was
active among the emigrants; one of the founders of the Literary Society.
The sons of Francis and Tekla Wołowski were: Louis (Cf. 1832, footnote 314), and
Casimir (1813-1877), who participated in the November uprising. He emigrated in 1833,
and completed legal studies in Paris. He worked in the Railway Administration. From
1837 he was a member of the Literary Society, and later a member of the Board of
Directors of the Institute of Bread and Worship. He married a Frenchwoman, Henriette
Martin (1813-1861).
At this same time Stanislaus Wołowski (1797-1847), of the Buffalo escutcheon, was
living in Paris. He was a brother of Mary, nee Wołowski, Szymanowski, a pianist, and
uncle of her daughter Celine Mickiewicz - a Warsaw doctor, he participated in the
November uprising as the head surgeon of the staff of the Polish Army. In 1832 he
became a member of Lelewel's Committee. The French Government decorated him with
the Legion of Honor in recognition of his self-sacrificing assistance in the time of the
cholera epidemic in Paris in 1832.
DIARY
294
Before six, to Celiński. He wrote a letter to Kunatt. We go out for coffee, past
barriére d'Enfer. I write a letter to Dąbrowski,211 giving him my future address
and return 25 francs. Then we go outside. We bid one another a very fond
farewell, but I lack sincerity. I return by the favorite;212 temptations return.
[Tuesday], October 6
At ten, to Komar for a lesson. She asks me about a pension; she does not
have one. I meet Broniewski; he gives me 20 francs for Celiński. To the
Giedrojćes. The General recalls the Collége. I learn that classes have already
begun; therefore, I need to make arrangements for registration. A lesson.
Dinner. On my way home, I would still like to stop at the Cabinet de Lecture.
Meanwhile, temptations and a fall on rue Helder. - The landlady gives me a bill
to be paid.
Wednesday, [October] 7
After breakfast and newspapers, to Mrs. Komar at ten; I still do not return
the money. At about one, two, to the Giedrojćes. I tell them about the difficulties of moving; they offer help, but not very willingly. Dinner, coffee, home.
Thursday, [October] 8
For a lesson at ten. At one to the Giedrojćes to register Napoleon. We buy
books at Delalain213 etc. They give me 100 francs. I go back to move at about
three. I receive 25 francs from Januszkiewicz, pay the landlady, and look for a
mover and baskets. Dinner at the Englishman; for coffee to place de la
Madelaine. To the Giedrojćes, tell them about the impossibility. Home. Friday,
[October] 9
At the Komars at ten. Before twelve I am packing. I hire a mover for 5
francs, and move.214 I get there just before five; letter from Mrs. Rautenstrauch.
Dinner, coffee, a lesson - unpacking and arranging.
211
212
213
214
It may be worth mentioning that on July 22, 1834, after the wedding of Adam
Mickiewicz and Celine Szymanowski, a wedding took place at the home of Francis
Wołowski at which Bogdan Janski was present.
It is not known which of the Dąbrowskis Jański has in mind here. Probably this would be
the Dąbrowski mentioned in the Diary five days later, under the date of October 10, and
also October 13 and 16. (Cf. footnote 133).
Favorite - An omnibus of the Favorite company. In Paris there were several hundred
buses belonging to various companies, such as: Batignollaises, Citadines, Gazelles, etc.
Delalain - This could be a Paris bookseller.
Jański moved, from the house on rue Suréne 14, to the home of the Giedrojćes on rue
Souffolt 10.
YEAR 1835
295
Saturday, [October] 10
I escort Napoleon. For Mass. To the Komars. I receive 100 francs. I meet
Mr. Sobański. I go to visit Karski, pay him 20 francs for Celiński. We have
breakfast together, and talk about becoming associated. I babble about the
Democratic Society etc.215 I meet Dąbrowski; we go for coffee. After three to
Mrs. Rautenstrauch. I give her the writing samples for Mrs. Białopiotrowicz
and a letter. I take the Encyclopédie des Gens du Monde with me and go home.
I return 60 francs to the General. Dinner. To Zdzienicki, and return 10 francs to
him. I put my books in order.
303 Sunday, October 11
It is already eight when we get up. We buy books. Then I go to visit
Dąbrowski, Gronostajski;216 talk too much unnecessarily. Home at 11:30,
breakfast. To church at twelve. After Mass a short walk, and then home after
one; a Greek lesson until six. Dinner. I go out for coffee, and return about eight.
Talk about Gerbet's book etc. etc. (I admit unnecessarily that for the last ten
years I have been wanting to get up early, but cannot do so); further work on the
Greek lesson until almost ten, and I stay up until twelve.
Monday, [October] 12
After eight to Dąbrowski. For Mass to abbaye. To Broniewski, give him a
receipt. For a lesson - Włodzimierz is very polite - until twelve. Mrs. Komar
proposes that I give lessons to her daughters.217 To Januszkiewicz. Jełowicki
returned. I go to see him. I am not myself, and don't know what to say. To the
office of the Encyclopédie, where I meet Leroux; once again I am not myself
etc. I return home at 1:30, work with Napoleon, and then fall asleep. At four I
go to see Aicard, rue Férou Saint-Sulpice. I promise to have the article
"Bohéme" ready for next week. Back home, Gerycz. Dinner, Mrs.
Rautenstrauch. I go to rue des Mathurins for coffee. On returning, tea, and chat.
At ten upstairs. I read and write about the Czechs.
[Tuesday, October] 13
215
216
217
At this time discussions were going on within the Polish Democratic Society dealing with
its program and a profession of its faith ("manifesto"), which lasted for many months. It
was only on December 4, 1836, that the Great Manifesto (as distinguished from the Small
Manifesto of 1832; Cf. 1832, footnote 65) of the Polish Democratic Society was
proclaimed.
Gerard Bruno Gronostajski (1804-1846) - professor of ancient literature in a Vilno
grammar school. He participated in the November uprising, and was an emigrant in
France from 1832.
Mrs. Komar's daughters: Natalie and Louise (Ludmila). Cf. footnote 76.
DIARY
296
After eight to Dąbrowski, Kazimirski; I venture to ask for a loan. I have
coffee a second time. To St. Roch; inspirations. To Mrs. Komar. I am well
received; she asks me about Stawiarski. I accompany Włodziu to the boardingschool, and visit a house on rue Courcelles. To Karski for a loan, and
concerning Borysiewicz's 3 francs. I catch sight of them in a coffee house. The
feast of St. Edward, namesday; I remain without waiting to be asked. In the
course of the celebration, until eight, I forget myself once more - my destiny,
obligations, etc. My and Zand's218 song. Back home; work with Napoleon until
eleven.
Wednesday, [October] 14
To church at 8:30. Back home, a man comes from the police to ask about
Celiński. I think about sending letters to friends here concerning the need to
become associated. Inspirations. At 10;30 downstairs to take Napoleon to
Collége [Rollin]. Breakfast at eleven. Work with Napoleon. At 1:30 to Komar
for my salary; a lesson until three. To Mickiewicz; he is out. I meet Karski, and
Bronikowski; I am mixed up. To Czajkowski219 for Waga. An article in
"Północ"220 [North] - I am confused. Gorecki is not in. To Ogiński to ask about
prices. For dinner at five, and then for coffee; I continue to be lustful. At eight
work with Napoleon and I myself waste time.
Thursday, October 15
I escort Napoleon to school and go to church; a devotion with exposition.
The feast of St. Teresa; I have to offer greetings to Mrs. Ogiński. Breakfast,
work with Napoleon, translating Greek until dinner. After dinner, to Kazimirski
for Asiatic transactions221 for Mickiewicz; he doesn't have them. To Domejko;
218
Zand - an emigrant; member of the Polish Democratic Society, who recruited new
members for the Society.
219
There were many Czajkowskis living among the emigrants. The best-known of these was
Michael Czajkowski (1804-1886). During Jański's stay in France he was a budding
writer, active among the emigrants. At the beginning of 1835 he came to Paris, and made
contact with Adam Mickiewicz, and Kunegunda Białopiotrowicz, among others. It is very
probable that Jański has him in mind here. (Cf. 1838, footnote 262).
220
"The North" - a periodical edited by John Czyński and Simon Konarski, which appeared
in Paris from January to October 1835. The mention of it here concerns the last, the
sixteenth, number, of October 12. (Cf. footnote 202).
221
Adalbert Kazimirski - an orientalist (Cf. 1832, footnote 249).
"Asiatic Transactions" - this concerns an English periodical, "Transactions of the Royal
Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland", published in 1823/24-1833/35 (I-III). The
title was changed to "Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland"
1834-1863 (I-XX), London.
YEAR 1835
297
he isn't in. On my way home, to Café de Varsovie. I read about the Czechs, and
take brief notes.
Friday, [October] 16
After eight to Dąbrowski and Gronostajski; they are cold. For a lesson.
To Mickiewicz. I tell him about celebrating St. Edward, and Czyński's 222 ideas.
I take Bandtki and a book on Czech literature. To Karski. We go to Ordęga; on
the way I try to collect myself, but there is always some pretence. I show him a
letter from Peter, [the entry breaks off here].
304 a lack of sincerity and endurance of hunger. To Ordęga, Tymoski 223 - the
conversation is listless. We go to Celarier;224 there without aplomb. On
returning once again there is a conversation with pretence, and not in a sincere
Christian spirit. On the way back. I meet Kołysko; reserved. To Gorecki; he is
not in. I buy Gerbet for Mrs. Giedrojć. I meet Kazimirski and Aicard (Bohéme
fifteen days from now). Dinner, and then immediately a lesson with Napoleon. I
leave at 8:30, unable to stand it without coffee. I would like to drink on credit at
Café de Varsovie, but I restrain myself and go home. I read a little of Bandtki
and fall asleep.
Saturday [October] 17
I got up at six, but did nothing before breakfast. For Mass at 8:30. Back
home, meditation, and I fall asleep. At eleven a lesson with Napoleon;
breakfast. O go out at one. To Korycki; he is out. I meet Dobrowolski: just
reproofs; unjust reproofs of deception, coldness, and insincerity. To Walter; he
has returned already. To Karski; he is out. I leave Janusz225 for him. To
222
223
224
225
At the time Adam Mickiewicz was interested in the the issue of "The Slavic Nations,
from the time of their egress from Asia" in his work on The first centuries of Polish
history.
The allusion here is to an article by John Czyński which was published in "The North".
(Cf. footnote 202).
Undoubtedly Thomas Canterbury Tymowski (1790-1850) He participated in the
Napoleonic wars in Spain. In the years 1817-1822, he was a high-ranking official of the
Warsaw Education Commission. A freemason. During the November uprising he was an
envoy to the Sejm, vice-president of the Patriotic Society, and a journalist in the insurgent
press. As an emigrant in France, he was active in Lelewel's Committee. In 1835 he was
an envoy to the emigrant Sejm. In February of 1836 he signed the Act of Confederation
of the Polish Nation. He was Expelled from Paris by the French authorities, and settled in
Bordeaux. He took an active part in the political life of the emigration. A poet.
Cf. 1834, footnote 42.
This refers to Vincent Pol's Songs of Janusz. (Cf. footnote 56).
DIARY
298
Mickiewicz; I give him Olearius;226 he allows me to keep Bandtki (many
people, Grzymała, Pietkiewicz227). For a lesson; too much indulgence,
practically indifference, sluggishness. To Witwicki; discussion about my
activities. To Ogiński; I meet the princess and beg her pardon that today I am
not coming to pay a visit. Back home. After dinner, at 7:30, to Walter; I meet
Bourgeois.228 Coffee at Walter's house; he talks about his interests. At 9:30 to
Pietkiewicz, Wejssenhof - apparently he has a grudge against me, rightly so,
because of my indifference. I return "Univers Catholique" to Bourgeois, and
write these recollections. I think about letters.
Sunday, [October] 18
I get up only after eight; for breakfast at nine. I go to my room, where I
write these remembrances until 10:30. To church.
305 After eleven, breakfast. After that I intended to write letters; however at
twelve a Greek and Latin lesson with Napoleon until 3:30. Daydreaming. At
four to Walter. I take Symbolik229 to him, and borrow 2 francs. Dinner, a chat, to
Café de Varsovie. I return at eight, and go to my room at 8:30. Napoleon is
copying the exercises, while I reflect lying down, and about eleven, after
writing a few lines in these notes, and thinking about letters, I go to sleep.
306 Sunday, October 18
226
227
228
229
Olearius, that is Adam Olschläger (c.1603-1671) - a German traveler and cartographer.
He participated in trade missions to Moscow and Persia. The descriptions of these travels
appeared in 1647 : Beschreibung der Newen Orientalischen Reise... Schleswig. These
were translated into French: Relation du voyage de Moscovie, de Tartarie et de Perse,
Paris, 1656. This was supplemented with maps and copper-plate engravings presenting
scenes of places visited by Olearius, and was published in two volumes: Voyages tréscurieux et trés-renommes faits en Moscovie, en Tartarie et en Perse avec cartes
géographiques..., Amsterdam, 1727.
Undoubtedly, John Bogumil Valerian Pietkiewicz (1805-1843) - A teacher of the history
of Roman law at the university in Vilno. An envoy to the Sejm of 1831. He lived in
France as an emigrant. He was a member of the Society of Lithuania and the Russian
Territories.
Probably J. Bourgeois - editor of the "Gazette de France"; a newspaper man; a legitimist;
a Catholic thinker; a social worker, in his views similar to the theories of Buchez. A
future associate of the "Association Catholique", a periodical of the Catholic working
classes.
The principal work of Adam Möhler (1796-1838) - a Catholic theologian of the Tubingen
school. Symbolik (1832) - a study comparing Catholic and Protestant doctrine in the area
of ecclesiology. In it, the author tried to show that Christianity, before it accepted
philosophy, was a teaching about salvation, and that a knowledge of Tradition leads to the
acceptance of the unity of the Church and the primacy of Rome.
YEAR 1835
299
Next week: to Mrs. and Mrs. Ogiński, and for a song for Witwicki.
I must visit:
Kunatt, Benoist, Dobrowolski, Chine
Wejssenhof, Aicard, Korycki, Cheruel
Karski, Gorecki, Domejko
Write to: Dalen, Konopka, Brawacki, Laurent
Vannier, Gautier.
(N.B. On Wednesday, the 28th, wish Skórzyński a happy feastday)
Vismar, Drewnicki.
Take the colored paper to Kraiński.
305 Monday, [October] 19
I get up at seven, very lazy, needlessly remain at the [Giedrojć] home
until 8:30. Went to Mass; comfort and hope. To Zdziennicki; he is not in.
Świerczewski230 with complaints about Januszkiewicz. To Korycki, he is happy
to see me, a conversation to no purpose. After ten, home; I work with Napoleon
until 2:30. To Zdziennicki; he is not as friendly as when he is drunk. I sit there
needlessly until 3:30. For a petit verre; I learn that, in Batignolle, fifteen of our
people were arrested.231 I had practically reached the house, when I returned to
Januszkiewicz to learn further details. On the way, as in my room, my mind is
always full of idle thoughts. I return before five, and go to my room upstairs;
idle reflections, but also some mental prayer. Dinner. Mrs. Rautenstrauch; a
discussion about illusions. Gerycz drops by, Krasiński.232 At seven Zdziennicki
arrives, takes pants to be repaired, while I go to Café Voltaire ("Revue des Deux
Mondes", "France Littéraire"233). After ten I return home, and these reflections.
I write letters to Solesmes, and to Mrs. Białopiotrowicz.
230
231
232
233
Possibly Charles, or Joseph Świerczewski (1809-1883), or Charles - both participated in
the November uprising, and initially lived as emigrants in Bourges.
The "Battignole" section of the Polish Democratic Society met in Battignole, a village in
the outskirts of Paris. On Sunday, October 18, 1835, the French police, sniffing a
conspiracy, descended on the individuals meeting there and put them in jail. Those who
had been imprisoned were released a month later.
There were a few Krasińskis among the Polish emigrants. In 1835, Zygmunt Krasiński,
the poet, was not yet in Paris. The reference here is possibly to Henry Krasiński (18041876)), a distant relative of Zygmunt. Henry Krasiński was a writer, a poet, a participant
in the November uprising, who lived as an emigrant first in France, and then from 1837 in
England. He was the author of a few historical works.
"La France Littéraire" - a Paris periodical, which also published articles dedicated to
Polish issues.
DIARY
300
308 Tuesday, October 20
After coffee and Mass, I rewrite the letter to Solesmes. Breakfast at
eleven. Work with Napoleon. At one to Zdziennicki. He is drunk, arguing with
his wife; he promises the pants for tomorrow morning. I meet Wilczyński.234 He
tells me about some kind of tutorship available through the Ogińskis. To
Kaczanowski at two at Chaillot;235 Karski was arrested. I do not meet Dmóchowski. For at lesson to the Komar boy (I think about accepting a position
with Mrs. Komar, if she were to travel to Rome). She gives me some kind of
letter for rue Ville-l'Évéque. At Januszkiewicz's place, I write a postscript to
Solesmes, and take it to the postoffice. Dinner. To Walter at about eight; coffee,
Rostkowski, I tell him about Wodziński and Mrs. Piotrowski.236 I stop by to see
Wejssenhof; his accusations and gibes about coldness (Pietkiewicz); mention of
Adele and Celine. Back home at ten. I look for the anniversary of my wedding
etc.
Wednesday, [October[ 21
Mass. Lesson with Włodziu at 10:30. He gives me a letter for the porter,
which I do not deliver. To Dmóchowski. I meet Ledóchowski237 and Trzciński238
on their way to offer greetings to Mrs. Krysiński - Ursula.239 Dmóchowski is not
in. I hurry back for a second breakfast, and a lesson with Napoleon. My mind is
full of thoughts about Rome, as well as lofty religious, and spiritual thoughts. I
get home, and a fall: I gorge myself on cheese and drink wine like a pig. A
lesson with Napoleon. A slipshod reading of Bandtki. Dinner. A letter from
234
Possibly John Wilczyński (1805-1869) - a lawyer. He participated in the November
uprising. A member of the Patriotic Society. As an emigrant in France, he worked as a
railway official. He lived in Paris.
235
Chaillot - a village in the outskirts of Paris - a summer resort near the Bois de Boulogne.
236
Piotrowska - unknown.
237
John Ledóchowski (1791-1864) - a former staff officer and aide-de-camp of General
Joseph Poniatowski. He participated in the November uprising. He presented a motion in
the Sejm to dethrone the Tsar, and to abolish compulsory labor. As an emigrant, he lived
in Paris, and was involved in social-political work. Exiled from France, he worked in
London. He organized and supported various cultural activities.
238
Francis Trzciński (1786-1861) - In 1824 he was an envoy to the Sejm of the Kingdom of
Poland. He participated in the November uprising. After 1831 he was an emigrant in
France. A member of the Polish Democratic Society.
239
Ursula Krysińska - the wife of Ildefonse Krysiński (1795-1870), a surgeon who
participated in the November uprising. He was a relative of Celine Mickiewicz, and
worked in Paris as a doctor.
YEAR 1835
301
Szymański. (Przeciszewski240 and Dołubowski.241) I am out of tobacco. I go to
Walter, meet women there; there is no coffee. I stop to get my pants from
Zdziennicki. I return home, angry with myself for my lack of perseverance.
Soon after I go to bed.
Thursday, [October 22]
I get up at six. After coffee, to Benoist. A friendly, effective conversation.
I would like to borrow money, but am ashamed to do so. Thoughts about association, and with Frenchmen. I return after eleven, already half of breakfast.
Napoleon goes out for an overcoat. I go to the library, where I read Malte-Brun
and Koch. I wanted to borrow a book from Menestrier,242 but he disappeared
before three. I stop in to see Gorecki. He tells me that Mickiewicz has received
a letter from Solesmes. On my way home I want to stop by to see Fanny to
borrow money. Home after four. A lesson and dinner. Immediately after dinner,
a lesson. Soon after that I go to bed.
309 Friday, [October] 23
The anniversary of my marriage to Alexandra. I get up at six. At 9:30, for
a lesson. I stepped into Assomption for prayer. I meet Dmóchowski. We talk
about Karski; a bad situation, they will remain in jail for a long time. At the
lesson I lie that I gave the letter to the porter. To the library; I read Schöll, and
take Pelzl's243 Czech History. I meet Wejssenhof. He tells me about his interests;
he wants Catholic books. We go for vodka, and I am tempted to ask him for a
loan. Home about four. I receive 20 francs from the General and go out to
redeem by watch. I return after five. A letter from Smolikowski asking me to
return his 3 francs. After dinner I go to Dąbrowski with tickets for Gymnase
Musical;244 he is not in. I go to Konopka; he doesn't want the tickets. To Café
Voltaire. I return at about eight. In the parlor conversation with the princess
240
241
242
243
244
Anthony Przeciszewski (1797-?) - an officer in the army of the Kingdom of Poland, an
envoy to the Sejm, he participated in the November uprising. He was expelled from Paris
by French authorities in 1832 for signing a proclamation to the Russians. Along with
other envoys, he aimed at assembling the Sejm in the emigration. He lived in hiding in
Paris, but ultimately was forced to settle in Bourges. He supported the politics of Prince
Adam Czartoryski.
Possibly Constantine Ferdinand Dołubowski (b.1803) - a participant in the November
uprising in Lithuania who lived in the depot at Bourges.
Carl Menestrier (1804-?) - a former saintsimonist; a journalist.
Martin F. Pelzel (1735-1801) - a Czech historian who wrote in the German language:
Geschichte von Böhmen (Fourth edition, Prague, 1817).
Gymnase Musical - A musical theater operative in Paris, situated next to the Gymnase
Dramatique on the Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle.
DIARY
302
about my marriage. Work with Napoleon, and excerpts from Bandtkie until
almost twelve. Napoleon sits with me.
Saturday, [October] 24
I get up at six, and make further excerpts from Bandtkie and Winarzyc245
ki.
With Napoleon, I purchase a German grammar. After coffee, to
Dąbrowski; he is always cold and refined. He is supposed to go to Versailles
today. Back home, Vannieuvenhuysen; parting was unpleasant; further,
Winarzycki. I think about my mistakes not so long ago - about a lack of faith
and zeal, and about my surrender to sensual needs. At ten I go to the Collége to
see Mr. de Calonne,246 but I cannot wait for him. I return for a lesson until
eleven. Breakfast. I buy Cours des Thêmes247 with Napoleon. A short lesson. At
one o'clock to the library (I meet Oleszczyński). I scan through Schöll, and take
Malte-Brun with me. I leave at two, and deliver the letter to Gauthi.248 To
Mickiewicz in order to return Bandtkie and Winarzycki; he is not in. In the
doorway I speak with Mrs. Mickiewicz.249 During a lesson, my disinterest,
sluggishness, a kind of hypocrisy, faint-heartedness, excessive concern for
appearances rather than on my own disposition. - O God! My only hope is in
you!
310 To Pecqueur for the Encyclopédie. We talk about Coëssin, the Encyclopédie
catholique etc. Malte-Brun from Menestiere; a calendar from Słowaczyński. To
Gorecki (Orpiszewski has not yet arrived). When I return it is already 5:30.
Dinner. Przeciszewski and Dołubowski. I go out about seven to Café Voltaire,
for my watch, it is already redeemed. To Aicard. Maugin;250 I behave well, with
reserve. Home; the guests are still there; tea. At 9:30 I go to my room. The stove
is already lit. I sit up until one o'clock loitering, and skimming through books,
and my articles in the Encyclopédie.
From this week my conscience is burdened by:
245
246
247
248
249
250
Charles Winarzycki - the Polish form of Karel Vinaricky (1803-1869) - the Czech author
of a work entitled Concerning present-day Czech literature, which appeared in Kraków
in 1834.
Pierre-Fabius de Calonne (1794-?) - a professor in the Collége Royal de Henri IV in
Paris. He translated and published works of Tacitus and Cornelius Nepos.
Cours des thémes et de versions grecques et latines, Paris, 1815, Vol.13.
Gauthi - perhaps Gauthier (Gauti), a tailor. (Cf. 1834, footnote 7).
Celine Mickiewicz, nee Szymanowska, (1812-1855) - from July 1832 the wife of the poet
Adam Mickiewicz.
François Mauguin (1785-1854) - A French deputy, a member of the Central FrancoPolish Committee.
YEAR 1835
303
1. not keeping my word to the Ogińskis. I was supposed to visit them on
Monday; and no response to Szymański's letter;
2. not keeping my word to Mickiewicz;
3. my lie to Włodziu;
4. wasting Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday by surrendering to the
needs of the flesh, especially coffee and tobacco, and by a lack of
confidence in God, due to a lack of faith in prayer.
311 Sunday, [October] 25
Reminding myself of time spent in the past week, reflecting on my
mistakes, writing the above notes. At ten for Mass; inspirations, interior peace.
Then to Mr. de Calonne; he is not in. A second breakfast. Work with Napoleon.
He irritates me, disturbs my peace; however, I catch myself and try to gain
control over myself. I consider that perhaps it is God's will that I am experiencing obstacles in my domestic situation, in order that I might learn to fulfill my
obligations in spite of these. At five to Mr. de Callone; a polite reception by the
professor, le duc de Montpensier.251 Dinner with Przeciszewski and
Dołubowski; I allow myself to overeat somewhat; I feel the wine in my head
and on my cheeks. At about seven, Mr. de Callone arrives. We speak about
Napoleon. I adopt an improper position, as though I were receiving him at my
place. He leaves, and I leave shortly after him. I still go for coffee to the place
Saint-Michel, then for the key and upstairs to my room. Napoleon comes back
after ten - and then almost immediately goes to bed. I skim through Malte-Brun,
and write notes until one o'clock.
307 [Sunday], October 25
Next week:
Mickiewicz,
Mr. and Mrs. Ogiński
Dalen
the book for Wejssenhof
Dobrowolski, first to Pecqueur for Richer252
Chine - to Chodzkiewicz,253 to Łopaciński
Kunatt, Cheruel
251
252
253
Antoine-Marie de Monpensier (1824-1890) - the fifth, and youngest, son of King Louis
Philip.
Adrian Richer (1720-1798) - a French historian.
Undoubtedly Ignatius Chodkiewicz (1810-1861) from White Russia. He participated in
the November uprising as a lieutenant. From 1832 an emigrant in Paris. Later he became
a Towianist. A member of the Legion of 1848.
DIARY
304
Gerbet to Benoist
to Charles Wodziński
Letters to Smolikowski
buy calling cards
Dictionnaire de Conversation et de Lecture
Monday [October 26]
I am finishing excerpts from Malte-Brun. Breakfast at eleven. I return
Malte-Brun to Menestrier; read Marcel de Serres,254 de Courtin's255
Encyclopédie. To Mickiewicz at three, but he is out. To Mrs. Ogiński at four. (I
meet Princess [Caroline] Giedrojć, and needlessly do not stop to talk). Once
again complete agreement; I propose [Joseph] Hube. She invites me for dinners
on Saturdays. For Dinner to Katcombe; it is past time. On the rue des
Capucines, I finish at six. To the Cabinet de Lecture. I ask for an English encyclopedia; none is available. At Galignani; there too none is available. To PalaisRoyal; under 156 I read and make excerpts concerning the Czechs from "Revue
Britannique".256 Thiers; once again I am inattentive in conversation. There is
nothing in Michelet. Home at eleven. (While returning I think about a condition
for our fraternal association, so that we might have something to do together.)
312 Tuesday, October 27
After eight to Dąbrowski. I tell Gronostajski about the proposition of the
Ogińskis; he is to visit them today. Home; on a shirt marks of Napoleon's habit
can be discovered. At ten to Bibliothéque Sainte-Geneviéve. I read Histoire
universelle, Paris,257 Bouquinerie de Charles, by Montgaillard.258 Breakfast at
eleven. Talk with the princess about Napoleon's habit. He overhears, and this
leads to an argument; at first he denies, but later admits his fault) - a lecture.
The General expresses some discontent with our conversation. He challenges
254
255
256
257
258
Marcel de Serres (1782-1862) - A french geologist and traveller.
Encyclopédie de Courtin - Eustachius M.P.M. Antoine Courtin, publisher of the
Encyclopédie moderne, ou Dictionnaire abrégé des sciences, des lettres et des arts, avec
l'indication des ouvrages oû les divers sujets sont développés et approfondis, par...et une
Societé des Gens de Lettres, Paris, 1825-1832, 24 volumes.
"Revue Britannique, ou choix d'articles traduits des meilleurs écrits périodiques de la
Grande-Bretagne" ... and then "Revue Britannique. Recueil international" which was
published in the years 1833-1835.
Histoire universelle depuis de commencement du monde jusqu'a présent. Composé en
anglois... nouvellement traduite en français par une Société des Gens de Lettres.
Published in Paris in the years 1779-1791 in 126 volumes.
Bouquinerie de Charles - a second-hand bookshop... a further entry: Montgaillard,
undoubtedly Jean-Gabriel Maurice Rocques de Montgaillard (1761-1841) journalist.
YEAR 1835
305
his wife, and engages in a tug of war. Work with Napoleon. I go out after one.
At two I am at Mickiewicz's house; he is not in. I do not know what to do with
my time. I go for a petit verre, rue Pépinière; I doze. For a lesson; I cannot
maintain Włodziu's attention. One my way back, I stop once again to see
Mickiewicz. He is not there, but at a dinner in the city. I go home, dinner. After
eight, to Walter, Ropelewski - I am lacking in all zeal or purpose in my
conversation, as though I had no faith. I add a postscript to Zenon
[Świętosławski]. I return for a lesson with Napoleon.
Wednesday [October] 28, Saint Simon
Lesson with Włodziu. To the library. Menestrier gives me Lichtenstern.259
I read further form Schöll. Francisque Michel260 gives me his address, and
promises assistance, etc. I am introduced to Danielo;261 he is extremely affable,
tells me about his works, and speaks about Bonetty, 262 Rain; I am chilled. To
Walter, where I meet his aimée [mistress]; vodka, empty conversation.
Rostkowski stops by. I borrow 4 francs from Walter (in order to pay Mrs.
Rautenstrauch for the tickets). Dinner. In the evening, after coffee at home, I
scan through Lichtenstern, making excerpts concerning Czech regions. A letter
from Szymański, asking me to write to Hube with a proposal.
Thursday, [October] 29, Saint Narcissus
I seem to think that I first attended Mass, and then wrote here notes from
the first two days of this week (holy thoughts, about renouncing all pride and
worldly interests).
313 It was only today that I went to see Mr. de Callone in order to inquire about
cahier de correspondence [a correspondence register], but he was not in. Back
home, a lesson with Napoleon. Breakfast with meat. At two, to the Sainte-
259
260
261
262
Joseph Liechtenstern (Lichtenstern) (1765-1828) - geographer, cartographer, statistician.
Author of the work: Umriss einer geographischstastischen Schilderung des Königreiches
Böhmen, Breslau - Leipzig, 1822.
François Michel (1808-1887) - French historian and archeologist.
Jean-Paul Danielo (1808-1857) - one-time secretary of Chateaubriand; a journalist.
Augustin Bonnetty (1798-1879) - French journalist, philosopher, and historian. He
studied theology in a seminary, but remained a lay person. He propagated Christian
philosophy and defended religion. He entered into contact with Fr. Lamennais, and in
Paris in 1830, established the Annual "Annales de la philosophie chrétienne". which he
edited until 1836. In the years 1836-1840 he worked in the editorial office of the "L'Université Catholique", and wrote articles in the spirit of fideism and moderate traditionalism. He was opposed to scholastic philosophy because of its "rationalism."
DIARY
306
Geneviéve Library, where I read about Wallenstein263 and Zychy264 etc. in
Biographie universelle, and Bohême in d'Alembert's265 Encyclopédie. Napoleon
does not want to study the lessons that were neglected; I force him to do so, etc.
After dinner, to Café de Varsovie, and to look for the "Revue du Nord" in
Palais-Royal, at Galignani, and at Neuve-Saint-Augustin; I cannot find it
anywhere. I meet Krasiński, who invites me to accompany him to Olizar.266 I
inquire about the "Revue du Nord" at the passage du Commerce, on rue
Monsieur le Prince - then go home at nine.
Friday, [October] 30
At ten for a lesson with Włodziu, and then go to see Mickiewicz. He lets
me read a letter from Peter.267 Gorecki stops by, and I needlessly show him the
letter, even though it contained things about which he was not to be told. I went
with him to see Witwicki, telling him to visit Mickiewicz; then to church 268 (I
meet Dmochowski). I am overwhelmed with holy thoughts, inspirations, wishes
to hide good works and dedicate my whole life to the glory of God, and the
good of my neighbor. Unnecessarily I press forward with an offer of my capriole for Mrs. Plater.269 On my way back, I meet Gorecki once again. Nothing
moves from my heart to my lips; cold silence. To the library. A meeting with
Konopka and with vodka. To Langiaconi, for permission to visit SaintePélagie;270 He is not available. Then to Lacordaire to seek his advice concerning
a confessor for Napoleon in Sainte-Geneviéve,271 Cheruel is sick; I am
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
Albrecht Von Wallenstein (1583-1634) - from 1626 the commander-in-chief of the
emperor's armies during the thirty-years war.
John Žižka (c.1360-1424) - a Czech national hero, leader of the Taborites.
Jean Le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783) - a French philosopher, mathematician and
physicist, a member of the French Adademy; one of the founders and co-editors of The
Great French Encyclopedia.
Narcissus Olizar - Cf. footnote 164. - Henry Krasiński - Cf. footnote 232.
This deals with a letter of Peter Semenenko sent from Solesmes on October 26, 1835. The
letter is preserved in the Roman archives (ACRR 1209).
The "Polish Emigration Weekly" (part VII, p.8) published in Paris in 1835, informed that:
"On the 30th of this month, at 12 noon, in the church of Saint Louis d'Antin, a funeral
service was held in memory of the deceased General Voivode Pac. Poles living in Paris
attended this service." ...
Maria Anna, nee Brzostowska, Plater. After the death of her first husband Idzi Joseph
Hylzen in 1801, she entered a second marriage with Louis Plater. She belonged to the
Polish Women's Welfare Society in Paris. She died in Poznań in 1843.
Langiaconi - a French official who issued permits to visit the Sainte-Pélagie jail.
Sainte-Geneviéve - the church of St. Genevieve, the patroness of Paris. King Louis XV
vowed that if healed of a serious illness he would build a church in honor of St.
Genevieve. The work of building lasted 33 years, and was completed in 1789. At the time
YEAR 1835
307
especially confused, and reserved in conversation. Upon returning, I find a
letter from Bohdan [Zaleski], instructing me to be in Chaillot tomorrow at ten.
Saturday, [October] 31
From early morning at home various occupations and reflections; as a
result, I was late in going to meet Zaleski. I met them at breakfast in a café. A
conference about writing some kind of declaration from those who are in jail at
Sainte-Pélagie. We remained with Dmuchowski until about one o'clock. Then,
while waiting for a steam engine for Versailles, we spend about an hour with
Bohdan. He speaks to me about Brodziński,272 Ostrowski,273 Grabowski,274 etc.
I am disconcerted once again, for contrary to resolutions, I wanted to display
my talents in conversation. I asked him for a loan (to repay "New Poland"). He
refuses my request, and I feel greatly humiliated. I go to see Ogiński about
Hube and the tutorship. Then, for a short stop at the library, and for a lesson.
After than, having shaved, I go to the Ogińskis for dinner; in conversation I am
so-so. At eight I leave, and go upstairs to Szymański. He wants to talk with me
about religion, but there is a lack of zeal in me. I want to borrow money from
him, but he has none. I take the bus home. To Café de Varsovie; I meet
Domeyko, and, unnecessarily, I show him the letter from Solesmes.
314 Sunday, November 1
Napoleon begins his work after six, and I get up. After breakfast to Mr. de
Callone for information about the register of correspondence. He gives me his
poems about Poland.275 To Stawiarski; he wants me to provide him with a
suitcase so that he can move. To Hine; he is not in. I meet Smolikowski. He
treats me in a very friendly manner, invites me to visit him, etc. (I no longer
pawn my watch). I leave de Callone's Myzyla at home. To church. I meet
272
273
274
275
of the Great Revolution, the church was changed into a temple of Fame. After that it was
called the Panthéon, and became the burial place of famous people (Wolter, Rousseau...).
Napoleon I restored its primary function as a church and from 1806 it once again became
a place for ecclesiastical rites. This situation continued until 1885.
As he was returning from treatments for illness, Casimir Brodziński (b.1791) died in
Dresden on October 10, 1835. He was a poet, historian and literary theorist, a journalist
and translator. From 1823 he was a professor at the University of Warsaw. A member of
the Warsaw Society of the Friends of Learning. He was noted for his liberal and
Slavophil views. He supported the November uprising.
Undoubtedly Josaphat Boleslaus Ostrowski (Cf. 1832 footnote 114; 1835, footnote 57).
Together with Maurice Mochnacki, he criticized Brodziński's contemporary tendencies.
Michael Grabowski (1804-1863) - a literary critic, novelist and journalist. He was
regarded as an authority in the field of Polish literature.
In French academic bibliographies there is no mention of de Calonne's poetry dedicated
to Poland.
DIARY
308
Korycki; we talk about moral philosophy, his sermons, etc. I meet Princess
Giedrojć, and then return for breakfast. Korzeniowski276 stays until two. In
conversation with him I do not show sufficient life or zeal. I missed Mass. After
two o.clock I did not feel well, and so slept until dinner without writing the
letter to Hube. Conversation with John before dinner about religion and about
his confession. I go out at eight for coffee (after talking about fears with the
Princess). Domejko at Café de Varsovie. Unnecessarily, I give him Peter's letter
to read, etc. Łopaciński (I am reserved). Przecławski had a house visit.
Domejko accompanies me a part of the way. He praises Chełchowski etc.
Home, to be, and I soon fall asleep.
[Monday], November 2
After Napoleon leaves, I finish a letter to Hube in which, thpough lack of
attention, I present the proposal to him with too great a certainty.277 At eleven to
church for Mass, for it is All Souls Day. Meat at breakfast. With Napoleon, I
purchase a correspondence register. A lesson. I rewrite the letter to Hube, and
take it to the post office at three. I pawn my watch. To Kunatt for de Lamennais;
he hasn't got it. I meet Leroux, Maugin. To Januszkiewicz. I meet Morawski
and Biernacki.278 Once again I am perturbed, feel uncertain, and do not sit down
to write a letter to Aicard; I write it and deliver it. I stop in at the office of the
Encyclopédie; a letter to Korzeniowski. Home. After dinner to Café Procope (on
the way I meet Korycki, who is distant). I meet Chodkiewicz and
Zakrzewski,279 and later Frydrych.280 Once again I am short on self-assurance,
lack moral zeal and a sure direction in conversation. To Cabinet de Lecture
where I read articles about the Czechs in the Biographie universelle. Konopka I walk home with him needlessly and stop in, already after eleven.
276
277
278
279
280
Undoubtedly Humphrey Anthony Joseph Korzeniowski - Cf. 1832, footnote 58.
In the Roman archives of the Congregation of the Resurrection (ACRR 8514) a letter of
Bogdan Jański to Joseph Hube has been preserved which contains the proposition: "A
very favorable teaching position has become available here: all the conveniences of
home, and more or less 2,000 francs a year. This is at a French home, in the family of Mr.
Benoiste, once a peer of France. Because of their confidence in our moral and religious
character, they definitely wish to hire some learned Pole to tutor their 14 year old boy.
They want such a tutor to be able to teach Latin, Greek. and German, and especially to be
able to give a proper religious direction to the whole of education. [...] This entire matter
is being handled through the agency of the Ogińskis, with whom I have a good
relationship and to whom I have recommended you."
Undoubtedly Aloysius Biernacki (1778-1854) - envoy to the Sejm of 1831, a farmer,
stock breeder, and former minister of the National Government (1831). Along with
General Dwernicki, and envoy Nakwaski, he established the Society of National
Education.
Perhaps Alexander Zakrzewski, captain, engineer, who lived in Paris from 1833.
Bartholomew Frydrych - Cf. 1832, footnote 336.
YEAR 1835
309
Tuesday, [November] 3
After breakfast I still go for a petit verre to Café Voltaire. I meet Frydrych. I leave at nine to visit Januszkiewicz. They played cards until four in the
morning - I am wasting time.
315 Eustachius gives me an overcoat. At 9:30 I go to Mrs. Komar. I meet
Szymański; am well received. He wishes to talk too much unnecessarily; he is
mixed up. I deliver a letter to Mrs. Rautenstrauch. I meet Skorzyński. I stop in
to see Czaykowski; I am looking for Korzeniowski. To the library, where I
continue to read Schöll about the Czechs, Wallenstein, and Potocki. I make
excerpts about the Slavs. Miss Roland; my article must be ready by next
Wednesday. +Day-dreaming about lessons with the Komar girls.+ To Włodziu
for a lesson. He has a glandular sickness; we waste time talking. To
Januszkiewicz. I apologize for being late, and take Wiszniewski's Monuments of
history and literature.281 Home, and dinner. I excuse myself from tomorrow,
and waste time unnecessarily. After dinner, work with Napoleon until nine. I go
out to Café du Panthéon. I have a letter from Celiński, and am happy for him. I
read the Monuments practically the whole evening. It is late when I go to see
Pelzl.
Wednesday, [November] 4
Napoleon makes me angry, and I rebuke him. After breakfast to Chin; he
is out. To Friedriech,282 I seek to appear big, without necessity; I wish to make
an impression on him, so that he would talk about me in Poland in the light of
that impression. At 9:30 to Włodziu; he is in bed. At ten to Mickiewicz. A very
open and friend conversation about his Polish history, 283 the Slavs, Avars284 etc.
I go to see Mrs. Rautenstrauch and pay her for the three tickets. She tells me
281
282
283
284
Michael Wiszniewski (1794-1865) - literary historian, professor at the Krzemieniecki
Lyceum, and later at the Jagellonian University. In 1835, in Kraków, he published the
first volume of Monuments of Polish history and literature, with his own foreword:
Concerning the history of the ages of the Piasts and Polish chronicles before Długosz,
which preceded the dissertations of Thaddeus Czacki. He published three more volumes,
one after the other, until 1837.
Friedriech - the Bartholomew Frydrych mentioned above in footnote 280.
In the years 1835-1838 Adam Mickiewicz wrote the first volumes of the history of
Poland, which appeared only in 1868 with the title: "The first ages of Polish history.
The Avars - a Mongol people who came from Asia and settled near the Danube in the 6th
century. They established a state, and conquered a part of the territory occupied by Slavs.
Conquered by Charles the Great in the 9th century, they were dispersed among the Slavic
tribes.
DIARY
310
about Fr. Deguery285 etc. I do not behave properly. To Princess [Caroline]
Giedrojć. I offer her greetings, and am received very well also by Mrs.
Białopiotrowicz. But, as always, here too I am not sufficiently careful in my
responses. I was treated with ham and vodka. To Dmochowski at one; he is not
in. I leave a ticket for Kaczanowski. I return Wiszniewski to Januszkiewicz. He
tells me of the news Jełowicki received about Anthony. I feel sad! Eternal rest
grant unto him, O Lord! And have mercy on me. Grant me forgiveness through
the sufferings of Christ the Lord!
Home at two. I send Napoleon away. I stay with the Princess and help her
to iron, etc. He returns at three. We go to the Jardin du Roi; 286 he tells me about
Dumiński.287 We look for him; conversation. I do not recognize who he is. I
speak blindly, without any definite purpose. I should have asked him about his
philosophy, of which he spoke to me. He is a non-Catholic. I do not speak from
the heart, or with zeal. I do not speak briefly and emphatically, but rather
without any definite and clear intention about my concern. He asks me about
Ostrowski. I talk, we talk, without reaching any conclusion, etc.
316 We go to Januszkiewicz. With regard to the letter, Jełowicki asks to be
excused for the time-being. We meet Kunatt. He does not want to go back for
De Lamennais. We go to Wodziński. I meet Danielo, and go with him to
Bonnnetty. He showers me with compliments, which confuse me. He gives me
a copy of "Annales de la Philosophie Chrêtienne" in which there is an article
about saintsimonism. To Charles Wodziński. I congratulate him. In a cabriolet
with Korzeniowski, and an agreement about when we should go to visit
Mickiewicz. At five, to Walter. Dinner. I fall into an empty, happy mood, so that
I practically cease to be myself. I speak practically not a single word that
touches Philip's heart. Konopka stops by. The situation is the same (the younger
brother of Kremer288 came to Paris with the Florkiewiczes289). At eight to
Wejssenhof. I meet his concubine; I am too tolerant. To the Cabinet de Lecture
in the Cour de Commerce. I waste time unnecessarily reading newspapers
instead of the Biographie universelle. (Korzeniowski's letters come to mind.
285
286
287
288
289
Gaspard Deguerry (1797-1871) - with the restoration of military chaplains, he was
initially a priest with "socialistic tendencies".
Jardin du Roi - The Tuilleries Gardens; Cf. 1832, footnote 228.
Undoubtedly Narcissus Dumiński (b.1808) - a second lieutenant in the artillery during the
November uprising, who lived first in Avignon and then in Creuse. In 1841, he was
placed in an institution for the mentally ill.
Charles Roman Kremer - the brother of Joseph (Cf. above, footnote 184).
Undoubtedly the Florkiewicz brothers, Julius and Stanislaus, from Kraków.
YEAR 1835
311
What am I to do with them? I would like to burn them.) I leave at 9:30 in a state
of confusion, exhausted. I read through an article on saintsimonism, make a fire
in the stove, and nap. John comes by with an invitation for tea. I ask him to lie
that I am not here. Then Napoleon comes in. He goes to sleep, and I begin
writing these notes. I write them until three o'clock in the morning.
Thursday, [November 5]
After eight, and after Mass, I went to see Benoist in order to return
Gerbet to him, and also to ask him for a recommendation to his tailor. He
agreed to the latter without any difficulty. I tell him what I am doing, and about
my lessons, perhaps in too great detail. In my mind I am once again unsure of
myself, confused, repeating myself to a point where he did not understand me at
all when I proposed procuring a teaching position for him. At eleven, a too
sumptuous breakfast from what remained of yesterday's feast. I drink too much
wine. It shows on my face and goes to my head. Work with Napoleon, and then
I go to see the pastor of Saint-Étienne;290 he is busy, and so I cannot speak with
him. I go to see Korycki. My conversation with him is brisk, friendly, effective he will teach catechism to Napoleon, but I promise him the Catéchisme de
Montpellier.291 Upon returning, I inform the Princess about this. Work with
Napoleon. Thoughts about the article concerning the Czechs (I do not take
advantage of the urge to write). I find a letter from Dumiński. After dinner, a
rendez-vous with Benoist, and to the Cabinet de Lecture on rue Vaugirard. We
290
291
Saint-Étienne - the 17th century church of Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, near the Place
Pantheon.
Charles-Joachim Colbert de Croisey (1667-1738) the Bishop of the diocese of
Montpellier in the years 1696-1738. He ordered the Catéchisme du Dioecése de Montpellier to be prepared and published. Due to the accusation of unorthodoxy (Jansenism),
the Montpellier catechism was placed on the Church Index in 1721. The next Bishop of
the Montpellier diocese, Georges-Lazare Berger de Charancy (1689-1748) ordered the
catechism to be reworked, and brought into conformity with the demands of the binding
teaching of the Catholic Church. In 1817 the Catéchisme du Dioecése de Montpellier,
avec un abrégé pour les petits enfants, augmenté d'une Instruction sur les principales
Fétes de l'année was published. Imprimé par ordre de Monseigneur Marie-Nicolas
Fournier, Éveque de Montpellier.
The question of the orthodoxy of the Montpellier catechism was of great concern to
Jański. A hand-written note, entitled Jansenism (ACRR 8627, p.931) from June 1839,
testifies to this: "The Father Abbot of La Grande-Trappe insists that the Montpellier
Catechism was corrupted by Charancy, and urges one to hold to Colbert. (...) Contrary to
pére Jean, Father Abbot, a died in the wool Thomist, claims that the fact that the
Catechism was placed on the Index proves nothing, for even the Imitation is on the Index
for some single verse. In this way the Pope retains his right to make a pronouncement of
himself, and temporarily refuses to grant his approval."
DIARY
312
go to the tailor; he takes my measurements. I stop by at Café Voltaire. Home
and work with Napoleon. I sit there until one o'clock.
Friday, [November 6]
After breakfast, Chine drops by to say goodbye. He tells me that Maliński
thought it was I and not Anthony who died. A deliberate like to the Princess
concerning the pastor of Saint-Étienne and Napoleon's confession. I write a
letter to Dumiński, with an apology that I cannot wait until ten and asking for
an address. To Włodziu for a lesson; by the time I get there it is already 10:45.
He is well again, but distracted during the lesson. After the lesson I speak to Mr.
Reynaud,292 telling him that Włodziu did not do his work and about his
impertinence. I leave immediately neglecting their rebukes, disturbed, mixed
up, feeling humiliated. I go to see Kopczyński293 in order to meet with
Korzeniowski; he is not there. To Mrs. Białopiotrowicz. I am well received; too
many compliments. I speak about Kajsiewicz. I return to Mr. Reynaud and
demand that he punish Włodziu. At one to the library. I ask for Lenfant's,294
work. They don't have it. I read Szyller's Thirty year War295 and Koch's296
Genealogical tables. I was supposed to visit Cheruel after three; I do not go.
Instead, I look for a room for Peter and Jerome on the rue Saint-Jaques, des
Cordiers (Olszewksi297 at Stawiarski's), Saint-Hyacinthe, etc. I receive a letter
from Hube. After dinner I lay down on the bed, and from about 8:30 I fall
asleep.
Saturday, [November] 7
292
293
294
295
296
297
Reynaud - this could be Napoleon's tutor.
Peter Kopczyński (1793-after 1859) - a flint-worker and chemist. From 1832, together
with Michael Skibicki and Joseph Zienkowicz, he was Julius Słowacki's closest friend in
Paris. A member of the Lithuanian and Russian Territories Society. Author of a diary
from the years 1831-1834 in which he mentions Bogdan Jański (Mss in the Polish Library
in Paris).
Jacques Lenfant (1661-1728) - pastor, preacher of French reformed protestantism,
preacher at the court of the king; a historian. Among other works, he wrote Histoire des
Husites et du concile de Bâle (1729, 2 volumes).
Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) - a German poet and dramatist, aesthetician and historian,
next to Goethe the most eminent representative of German classics. He wrote a historical
treatise Die Geschichte der Dreissigjähringen Krieges (1790-1792), which appeared in a
Polish translation in 1837. He tied Schiller's Wallenstein trilogy to the theme of the thirtyyears war.
Christian-Guillaume Koch (1737-1805) - Historian, lawyer and journalist. Author of
Tables généalogiques des maisons souveraines du Nord et l'Ouest de l'Europe (1802).
Olszewski - unknown.
YEAR 1835
313
Mass, at which I was very confused and inattentive. I am looking for a
room on rue Saint-Jacques in the Hôtel d'Espagne. I am writing a letter to
Maliński (there is far too much self-abasement in him, promise of friendship).
Dumiński finally comes (with some person named Matuszyński);298 I am still
not sufficiently engaging. Meat at breakfast. I rewrite the letter to Maliński. 299 I
leave a letter for either Kajsiewicz or Semenenko. At about two I deliver a letter
to Chine. I meet Brawacki (John Barciński300 is coming). I carry with me
Veith301 for Walter, thinking of returning it to him on my way back. To Kunatt; I
do not stop in for lack of time. Columbus' Travels302 for Włodziu, Koch, etc. I
stop in to see Ogiński. I tell him about my letter to Hube and look over a missal
for Kłągiewicz, the Bishop of Vilno.303 A lesson. They give me a strange look.
318 Włodziu apologizes to me; he tells me it was only a joke. I do not assume a
proper tone. At four to Mickiewicz. He tells me about finding Lechs in Spisz304
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
Undoubtedly Alexander Charles Matuszyński (1813-after 1870) - participated in the
November uprising as a second lieutenant in the mounted artillery of the 4th regiment. In
December 1836, he began to study at the Paris School of Fine Arts. He complete the
course and was awarded the title of architect. He worked in Paris, restoring churches.
The Roman Archives of the Congregation of the Resurrection (ACRR 8585, p.955)
preserve the draft of a letter which Jański wrote to Joseph Maliński, who was living in
London at the time.
John Barciński (1815-1884), the brother of Anthony (Cf. 1830, footnote 9) - participated
in the November uprising as a second lieutenant in the Lithuanian Legion. He lived in
France as an emigrant - in 1832 at the depot at Bourges, and from 1835 in Paris. He attended the agricultural school in Grignon near Versailles in the years 1837-1840. He
married a Frenchwoman, Maria Eugenia Maurel. In 1857, thanks to the amnesty, he
returned to Warsaw.
Perhaps Lorenz Weith (1725-1796) - a German theologian who defended Christianity in
the period of the enlightenment.
The Voyages of Columbus - The original diary, as well as copies, of the voyages of
Christopher Columbus disappeared. Only a shortened version of the diary in a corrected
version was preserved, and was published in 1825. Along with this, the American writer
Washington Irving (1783-1895), a historian, wrote and published a History of the life and
Voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1828. It was undoubtedly this publication that gave
rise to the popular literature for young people dealing with voyages.
Andrew Benedict Kłągiewicz (1761-1841) - an Auxiliary Bishop, an administrator of the
Diocese of Vilno. He was sentenced to exile in Jarosław for one year for his defense of
members of the diocese defeated by the Cossacks in 1831. After he returned from exile,
he assumed a conciliatory posture toward the Russian authorities.
Spisz - a historical country in the western Carpathians, mainly in Slovak territory, but
also partly in Poland. In Book I of his The first centuries of Polish History, Adam
Mickiewicz wrote: "In the high Carpathians, in the neighborhood of Krępak (the later
Spisz county), the Lechs, as legend tells us, found a nest of eagles, their national
caucasian birds." In this deduction, the poet based himself on contemporary Polish
historiography.
DIARY
314
county, and about Kajsiewicz's arrival. To the Ogiński family. I tell him about
Bohdan Zaleski and the proposed declaration - he criticizes it; Miss de
Martin.305 I am especially silent, dull - why should I expose myself to such a
difficult situation? I would like to leave at nine, but detained by Miss de Martin,
I give way needlessly, and so waste time. I return with her, once again dull and
silent. I go home at eleven. Peter is waiting for me at Café du Panthéon; for my
part the greeting is not sincere enough. They have changed their minds about
"The Pilgrim", and plan to become monks. We look for a place for him to sleep.
Finally he goes to Stawiarski. I go home, and having accomplished practically
nothing, I fall asleep.
Sunday, November 8
The General comes to wake me at six, and Peter comes in later. We go to
breakfast. I put Peter to work. Kajsiewicz stops by. His greeting to me is especially cold. I take them to Hôtel d'Espagne, and rent a room. O go off to work
with Napoleon. At eleven we go to church. The Mass comforts me after the
confusion I experienced on Friday. I offer God my distress, and thank him for
humiliation. Meat at breakfast. The Princess is writing a letter to Petersburg. I
ask her to give my greetings to Romuald Hube.306 I go upstairs to finish lessons
with Napoleon. I take out these notes, wish to write them, but am lost in reverie.
Peter stops by with Korycki. Invited to dinner, Korycki tells us about his
embarrassment with regard to the Bishop of Dordogne.307 I advise him to visit
him, beg his pardon, and to make amends - he agrees. Peter reads to me about
Maria Teresa.308 I work hard and become impatient with Napoleon. I make
some genealogical notes concerning the Czechs. My thoughts about my article
arrange themselves in better order - I plan to write a short article. At three Peter
goes to visit Słowaczyński; I behave somewhat coldly toward him(!). After that
305
306
307
308
Miss de Martin - perhaps Henriette Martin, the future wife of Casimir Wołowski (Cf.
footnote 210).
Romuald Hube (1803-1890), the son of Michael, the brother of Joseph - From 1825 he
was a professor of the history of penal and canonical law at the University of Warsaw. He
was one of the founders, and editor, of the legal publication "Themis Polska" (Warsaw).
In May of 1830, he left Poland for six months of study in Paris. There he met Bogdan
Jański. He returned to Poland in the spring of 1831. Summoned to Petersburg in 1833, he
performed responsible functions in the Russian courts of law. From 1834, he was married
to Theophile Rościszewska, with whom Jański would become acquainted during her stay
in Paris in connection with conflict in the Hube families.
Dordogne - a departmental city in the southwestern part of France; an episcopal see.
Maria Teresa (1717-1780) - Ruler of Austria, from 1741 Queen of Hungary, and from
1743 of Czechoslovakia, from 1745 Empress of Austria. When he was preparing the
encyclopedia article on Bohemia Bogdan Jański must have had in mind the role of Maria
Teresa in regaining the monarchical rights to Moravia and Czechoslovakia.
YEAR 1835
315
I think about my obligations, about my behavior toward Peter and Jerome, and
about my article. Times passes in that way until dinner. I forget that I was
supposed to visit Cheruel, Kunatt and Walter. Dinner. Serż309 has not yet
arrived, but Lutkiewicz310 is there, and Mrs. Rautenstrauch. Once again I am
especially not myself, silent and confused. While we are at dinner, Stawiarski311
drops in; I send him away. After dinner the conversation deals with crosses,
suffering, happiness, loving, etc. Peter calls. I get up, say good-bye to the
company, and leave with obvious impatience. This must have been evident and
offensive. Upstairs I make a fire. Stawiarski comes in. I am cold, confused, not
myself - his father died. Peter tells me about his conversations with the Prior
[Gueranger],312 and the history of their decision to become Benedictines. At
eleven we go to their room; we move some odds and ends, and make tea. I act
badly, for while I intending to speak to him about money, I do not do so
immediately, but put it off for who knows when. This creates within me, as
always, all kinds of after-thoughts and anxiety. Kajsiewicz drops in; tea. The
conversation is somewhat stiff. He shows me a letter from Rettel - a kindhearted person. It seems that he still loves and respects me. I have to write to
him. On account of money, it almost came to an argument between myself and
Peter and Jerome. I tell them about Bohdan, and about the conference dealing
with writing a declaration from those in jail; I spitefully take a dig at Bohdan. O
God! Help; me to root out on my heart all envy, spite, detraction! I leave
together with Jerome. I take him to rue Vaugirard. I feel that he is not happy
with the fact that Peter spoke to me about their plans concerning Solesmes. I
take 20 sous from him. O God! When will I cease to be a burden to others in my
as yet excessive needs? I stop in for coffee and two petit verry. I return at about
twelve. Napoleon is not yet asleep. I light a second candle in the first room. I
309
310
311
312
Serż (Serge) - a boy of the same age as Napoleon who was living with the Giedrojćes.
Apparently a member of an aristocratic Prussian family, who was subject to the
supervision of Frederick Wilhelm Charles (1763-1851), a Prince of Prussia and a
diplomat.
Undoubtedly Ignatius Lutkiewicz (1812-1839) - a captain in the Lithuanian uprising in
1831. He lived in the Oise depot near Paris, and from November 12, 1835 in Sarron.
Very probably Bohdan Ignatius Stawiarski (1816-1896) - a lieutenant of the first Krakus
regiment in the November uprising. He was an emigrant in France. In the years 18341836 he attended the École Polytechnique in Paris.
Prosper Guéranger (Géranger) (1806-1875) - a Benedictine priest, and a student of
Lamennais. In 1832 he bought back the former Saint-Pierre priory in Solesmes (Cf.
footnote 151), and established a monastic community of which he was the Prior. On the
strength of a brief issued by Pope Gregory XVI on September 1, 1837, Guéranger became
the Abbot of the Solesmes monastery. He restored the Benedictine Community in France,
was an architect of liturgical renewal, and an animator of liturgical spirituality. He was
the founder of the center of the history of liturgy in the Solesmes monastery.
DIARY
316
wish to work. I am filled with inspirations concerning improvement and order
in my life; but after lying down on the couch, I surrender to laziness and sleep.
319
320 Monday, November 9
Awakened by the General at six, I delay getting up until seven. I am late
for a review of Napoleon's lesson and sending him off. I feel that the General
and his wife must not be happy with this. The Princess does not come to
breakfast with me; I ascribe this to anger for my departure yesterday. The
General had recommended that I write to Matuszyński, and so I write a letter to
him and to Jóźwik. I want to get down to writing these notes. Semenenko stops
by. I put him to work on Czech history. At ten I go to deliver the letters to the
post office, and go to Sainte-Geneviéve to read Lenfant. I go back upstairs at
eleven. There is a letter from Gronostajski. It is already after breakfast.
Napoleon had a fight with of one his colleagues; undoubtedly this is a new
cause for discontent on the part of the General and his wife. I am not invited to
breakfast even though I send Napoleon downstairs for a ruler and a pencil, and
he surely told them that I had returned. Peter continues to work on Czech
history; I decide to endure my hunger. At about eleven I send him out to find
out if Słowaczyński brought him the weekly.313 Someone comes from the tailor
Heis, I do not know for exactly what purpose, to find out whether I had
recommended anyone to come to him. Słowaczyński comes by; he wants to
pick up the almanac, etc. We talk about the Slavs. I think about my work on that
subject, about Sznitzler314 etc. Unexpectedly Edvard Séguin315 stops by; he proposes collaboration with "Droit".316 I am confused when I receive him.
Korzeniowski drops in while I am listening to Napoleon's lesson. I send him to
Kajsiewicz, to take him to Mickiewicz. We go out together. First I go to
Korycki, where I meet Kiersznicki.317 Korycki had dinner with the pastor; he
will not go to see the Bishop of Dordogne.318 To Januszkiewicz for
Chotomski's319 address (Jełowicki, Ropelewski). To Kunatt in order to obtain
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
This refers to the "Polish Emigration Weekly", a periodical edited by Andrew
Słowaczyński.
Sznitzler - Johann Schnitzler; Cf. footnote 135.
Edvard Séguin - editor of "Le Droit".
"Le Droit, Journal des tribunaux" - a legal periodical published in Paris in the years 18351838.
Undoubtedly Richard Kiersznicki - a lieutenant in the November uprising.
Bishop of Dordogne - Cf. footnote 307.
Undoubtedly Ferdinand Chotomski (1797-1880) - superintendent of schools in Kraków,
an ornithologist. He participated in the November uprising, and was an emigrant in Paris.
YEAR 1835
317
De Lamennais. My conversation is lively enough, but not too certain, clear and
to the point. To Ogiński for The Clairvoyant from Prevorst320 for the Princess;
he is not in. I look at Dembiński's binding for the Turkish ambassador. I stop in
to see Wejssenhof; he is not in. To Lacordaire to obtain the sermons for Korycki. He gives me a footnote of authors, receives me as usual with great
reserve; as usual I speak with some stiffness and confusion.
321 Cheruel is not in. Home for dinner. It seems to me that the Princess greets
me coolly. Once again Lutkiewicz. The General wishes to look at my books of
Lammenais and Weith; I grow impatient with this. He notices this, and it seems
to me that he is angry as a result. After dinner, the Princess reads me letters
from de Milde321 and Mrs. Chłędowski.322 I leave, go upstairs for a pipe, and
then to Walter with Weith - in passing I deliver the letter with tickets to
Szemiatow - with the hope for coffee, but none is available. At 8:30 I go to see
Peter and find Sidorowicz323 there. I stay there for about a quarter of an hour.
On leaving, I experience an unnecessary desire to express compliments and
affirmations to Sidorowicz; but this comes out unnaturally and coldly. Back
home. Napoleon is asleep. He doesn't want to work. This angers me and I slap
him. I myself would like to do something, but instead I lie down, even though
the article on the Czechs is urgent and I have so many letters to write. I doze, I
wake, and finally do nothing. Once again, I waste a whole evening. O God!
Grant me your mercy, your grace! (In my mind, this idleness, this laziness,
320
321
322
323
He studied medicine from 1837, and received his doctorate in 1842. A member of the
Historical-Literary Society. He occupied himself with painting. He returned to Poland.
The clairvoyant from Prevorst - the title of a book written by Andreas Justin Kerner
(1786-1862) - a German doctor and poet, a friend of Poland, author of song Lied eines
wanderden Polen. His two-volume work Seherin von Prevorst, published in Stuttgart in
1829, was dedicated to the "clairvoyant" Frederika of Wannerów Hauffe (1801-1829).
Vincent Topór Matuszewski translated it into Polish (Warsaw, 1832).
de Milde - further information lacking.
Cecilia, nee Narbutt, Chłędowska - at the time of the November uprising she directed a
literary salon in her house in Warsaw, where the Patriotic Society was established, and
which was maliciously referred to as "Mrs. Chłędowska's club". She was the wife of
Adam Chłędowski (1790-1855) a newspaper man, bibliographer, journalist and publisher
in Lwów and Warsaw. He was an assistant state official. After the November uprising he
was an emigrant and founder of a French-German bookstore in Paris.
Victor Sidorowicz (b.1813) - a student of medicine at the University of Vilno. He
participated in the November uprising as ensign in the artillery. In 1833 he attended the
medical school in Besançon. For some time he lived in the House of Jański. In 1836 he
enrolled in the School of Medicine in Paris. In 1840 once again he resumed his medical
studies, and worked in a hospital. He did not receive his diploma. In 1852 he applied for
applied for a visa to the United States.
DIARY
318
stemmed in great part from the fact that I did not drink coffee after dinner. What
weakness! What slavery to the flesh!)
Tuesday, November 10
The General did not wake us, and so we slept in. We got up at about
seven, when John stopped by. After coffee - for which the Princess came;
however, it seems to me that she continues to be cool toward me - I go home
and write these notes until ten o'clock. Kajsiewicz arrives at ten, manifesting a
very friendly attitude, of which I do not know how to take advantage, for
somehow I lack life, peace, certainty, and zeal within my soul. He waits until
eleven, for Peter is supposed to come to him at that time. I go to breakfast with
Napoleon; he has received reprimands and admonitions from me and his
mother, as well as threats from his father. Somehow it seems to me that the
Princess behaves better towards me. She puts together a copy-book. We go upstairs where I finish writing these notes at about one.
322
323 Thursday, [November] 19324
I do not go out in the morning, but continue to write about the Czechs.
After breakfast, a letter from Lachevardier.325 I promise to be ready tomorrow.
Work with Napoleon. At about three, coffee at Place Saint-Michel. I go to SaintSulpice seeking the Catéchisme de Charancy;326 it is unavailable. I meet the
Princess and put her on a bus while I go home. After dinner and coffee - I feel
too dull to work, and instead of prayer - unfortunately! - I surrender to
temptation: a very terrible, deliberate fall. I return after eleven and write a little
more of the article.
324 Friday, November 20
After tea, for a lesson. I seek to return Frachn327 to Mickiewicz, but he
isn't in. I take perfumes to Mrs. Rautenstrauch - a conversation about
324
325
326
327
There is a break in the Diary from Wednesday, November 11 to Wednesday, November
18. On November 12, Jański began to write his resolutions, which are contained in their
entirety in the Appendix to the Diary for the year 1835 under IX.
Lachevardicre - a Paris publisher.
Catéchisme de Charancy - Cf. footnote 291.
Christian Martin Joachim Frähn (1782-1851) a German orientalist and numismatist,
professor of oriental languages in Kazan, director of the Asiatic Museum in Petersburg,
and author of many scientific books, such as Notice d'une centaine d'ouvrages arabes
etc., qui manquent en grande partie aux bibliotéques d'Europe, (1834).
YEAR 1835
319
newspapers. I take Gołębiowski's328 Polish History to Mrs. Białopiotrowicz. I
go home before one o'clock. After breakfast, to work. (Napoleon does not know
modern history). A boy sent by Lachevardier does not find me at home. I
continue writing the article about the Czechs. After dinner and coffee I write
some more.
Saturday, [November] 21
Early in the morning to Benoist; he is still in bed. I read my article to him
until... [the sentence breaks off here].
Sunday, [November] 22
In the morning I continue writing the article. I give Peter 5 francs which I
received from the Princess for Dąbczewski. At eleven, for Mass. Breakfast. Ziomecki329 comes by with a letter from Hube. I take him to Peter; Gorecki is there.
We rent a room for Ziomecki. I return home to continue writing, but my mind
turns to thoughts about Miemcewicz's330 nameday and the greetings offered to
him by the Polish children, as well as about plans for historical works. I write
until five, and finish. Dinner. The Princess' mother [Caroline Giedrojć] is
present; we talk about Polish families. After dinner, for coffee to place SaintMichel, and to Benoist; he is not in. Back home, and then to Peter; he tells me
about Dąbczewski. Back home. I feel an inflammation of the throat, the
beginning of a cold.
Monday, [November] 23
328
329
330
Luke Gołębiowski (1773-1849) historian, librarian, translator and diarist. From 1823 he
worked in Warsaw in the Society for Elementary Books. From 1827 he was a professor in
the Pedagogical Institute as well as librarian at the public library in Warsaw. He
continued the work of Adam Naruszewicz. He wrote works such as: Information from
Polish history, adapted for use in girls' schools and boarding schools (1827). A second
edition, amplified, appeared in Warsaw in 1830.
Joseph Ziomecki (1810-1874) - a graduate of the Krzemieniecki Lyceum. He participated
in the November uprising as a lieutenant in the 13th uhlan regiment. An emigrant in
France, he attended the Polytechnic Institute in 1836. In Toulouse he completed the
course in exact sciences. In 1843 he received the degree of licentiate in mathematics. He
was a teacher at the lyceum in Saint-Geron. He left France for Galicia. He was extradited
to the Russian authorities as a subject of the Tsar and was sentenced to life imprisonment.
After the death of Nicholas I, he took advantage of the amnesty and worked as a home
tutor. He married, and settled in Żytomierz.
Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz wrote in his unpublished memoirs that he celebrated his
nameday on the anniversary of his birth, that is, on February 16.
DIARY
320
I arise quite late with a cold. After breakfast, to Benoist; I read the rest of
my article on the Czechs to him. We talk about Bonald,331 Leibnitz, principe de
certitudo. I am obtuse in the conversation, but scientific and philosophical
intentions emerge in me, intentions of jotting down my observations. I return
home at eleven. Breakfast. A letter from Reynaud; I promise to return
everything today. I rewrite until dinner at six, and after dinner. Peter helps me. I
take the material to Reynaud at 9:30. (Kajsieiwcz speaks of the legend of St.
Florian,332 from Kazimirski). Back home, where the Princess makes me a omelpomel [an omelette with apples]. I want to read the Opuscules of Madame
Guyon,333 but I fall asleep.
Tuesday, [November] 24
It was already nine when I arose. After tea, to Mass - the anniversary of
my first confession. Breakfast. Konopka. I take the "Sławianin" for
Mickiewicz334 and at one o'clock I go out for a lesson. To Korycki; he reminds
331
332
333
334
Louis-Gabriel-Ambrose de Boland (1754-1840) - a philosopher, politician, journalist,
Royalist, minister of state, peer, and member of the French Academy. After he returned
from the emigration which was a result of the revolution in France, he cooperated with
Chateaubriand, among others, in the publication of "Journal des Débats". In 1830 he
withdrew from politics. He was an opponent of liberalism. In his opinion, the Church, the
monarchy, and the family, were safeguards for the Christian system of government. He
presented his views in the following works: Théorie du pouvoir politique et religieux
dans la société civile (1796), and Demonstration philosophique du principe constituif de
la societé (1827). He was an advocate of traditionalism. He was an admirer of Leibniz,
considering him to be "perhaps the greatest genius to appear among men."
St. Florian - a Roman soldier who suffered a martyr's death for the faith in the reign of
Diocletian, c.304.
Jeanne-Marie Bouvier de la Motte Guyon (1648-1717) - a French mystic, propagator of
the quietistic ideal of piety. In her writings she recommended a completely passive and
disinterested interior position, completely disinterested love of God, deprived of all
activity and interest in one's own salvation. The views of Madame Guyon were shared by
Archbishop Fénelon. However. these views were questioned and condemned by an
investigating committee headed by Bishop Bossuet. The decree was confirmed by the
Roman Church. Madame Guyon and Fénelon submitted humbly. She was imprisoned,
and for a long time lived in complete isolation. Her writings were printed in Amsterdam
(1713-1822) and Cologne (Opuscules spirituelles, an autobiography, 1720).
"The Slav. A weekly publication dealing with the crafts, agriculture, commerce,
housekeeping, and the practical needs of life in general." The publisher of this periodical
was Adam Maximilian Kitajewski, professor of chemistry at the University of Warsaw. It
appeared in Warsaw from January 1829 until January 1830. Among the articles printed in
this publication were 16 segments translated from a German work by George Gottlieb
Pusch, a miner and geologist, a professor at the Government School of Mines in Warsaw:
A geognostic description of Poland. Pusch's study in the original version was later
included in that author's work: Geognostische Beschreibung von Polen so wie der übrigen
YEAR 1835
321
me about [Lacordaire's] Conferences. I return books to Menestrier. I arrive
early, and cannot restrain Włodziu's insubordination. At three to Mickiewicz; he
is not in. I meet Miss Białopiotrowicz, and accompany her to the Palais-Royal. I
meet "The New Poland",335 Słowaczyński and Janowski. In conversation with
Miss Białopiotrowicz I forget myself, and do not speak from the heart.
Returning, I am lost in thought about the reform of my life. I meet [Charles]
Królikowski, Januszkiewicz (Jełowicki from Nancy336). Dinner. Work with
Napoleon, and I succumb to laziness. I forget about my good intentions. Not
having done anything, I fall asleep - omel-pomel.
Wednesday, [November] 25
I arise quite late. I go downstairs for breakfast and forget that I have to
hurry for a lesson. It is already nine when I leave. By the time I get there, it is
too late. During the lesson I still cannot manage with the boy; I give him too
much leeway. On leaving I run into Iwanowski,337 and make the mistake of
leaving him with Włodziu. The teacher arrives, and undoubtedly was angry; this
disturbs me greatly. I go to see Skorzyński, ill at ease (Trepki is not in Paris). To
the library. I ask for Poiret,338 but he is not available. I don't know what to read.
I converse with Wysłouch;339 my affectation is unnecessary. He tells me that he
will visit me. I read Aimé Martin.340 to the Cabinet de Lecture at 25 sous. I
glance through all the periodicals. There is nothing for women and children, but
335
336
337
338
339
340
Nordkarpathen Länder, Vols. I-II, Stuttgart, 1833-1836. Mickiewicz required Pusch's
study for his work on the History of Poland. Cf. footnote 304.
I meet the "New Poland"... that is, its editor, Josephat Bolesław Ostrowski; Cf. footnote
57.
Alexander Jełowicki was living in Nancy in 1835. He wrote of this in My memoirs
(Chapter XVI).
Perhaps Stanislaus Iwanowski - a student prior to the uprising; in Paris from 1834. He
worked as a conductor, and then as a teacher of languages.
Pierre Poiret (1646-1719) - a French mystic and theosophist and author of works
published in Amsterdam: Cogitationes rationales (against Spinoza), L'Économie divine
(1687), La Theologie du coeur.
Perhaps Julian (Julius?) Wysłouch (1810-1863) - a student at the University of Vilno; he
participated in the November uprising. An emigrant in France. In 1838 he enrolled in the
school of law at Strasbourg. In 1834 he attended lectures in administration and commerce
in Paris. A member of the Polish Democratic Society. In 1835 he left for Galacia as a
emissary. Finally he settled in Vienna as an Austrian official and diplomat.
Aimé-Louis Martin (1782-1847) - a French writer, conservator of the Library of St.
Genevieve in Paris. He was the secretary of the writer J.H. Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
(1737-1814), author of Paul et Virgine, Les Harmonies de la nature, and publisher of his
collected works. He was the author of a famous work on the methods of educating
children which was honored by the French Academy: De l'éducation des méres de familie
ou De la civilisation du genre humaine par les femmes (Paris, 1834, 2 volumes).
DIARY
322
I find the "Revue de l'Économie Politique".341 At about three I go to see
Ogiński. I am received quite coldly. To Januszkiewicz; I deliver the address to
Skorzyński. I meet Skorzyński and he accompanies me. Back home, beefsteak,
and a chat with the Princess. Napoleon at 4:30, then upstairs. Work with him.
Dinner at six. After dinner, work with Napoleon; I read a little about
Bolesław.342
325 N.B. A letter from Reynaud. He praises my Bohême.343 At nine to Peter;
tea, conversation, in which there is not much spirit, until 10:30, and then home.
I punish Napoleon - and go to sleep. A wasted day.
Thursday, November 26
Both I and Napoleon overslept; he barely made it in time for class. For
breakfast at about ten. To Peter for a handkerchief. To Korycki; he is out. Home.
My mind and heart are extremely heavy. I lie down. I am despondent,
remembering that two years ago it was almost exactly the same - full of the best
plans, and yet constant idleness, a terrible fall, and misery. Prayer, after which I
feel better and resolve to write down immediately the reminders of the past few
days, as well as arrangements for the future. At eleven, for breakfast. The
General is in a bad mood etc. At eleven, back upstairs. Reflections about myself
and my improvement. It is almost two o'clock! (and Bolesław is on my neck).
[prior to December 13]
For the past two weeks I have completely neglected this written control
of my life. After the inspirations and resolutions of November 12344
- First, I collapsed completely in mind and heart under pressure of the
urgent work on the Czechs;
341
342
343
344
"Revue Étrangére de Législation et d'Économie Politique", a periodical published in Paris
from November 1834 to 1843. Joseph Hube cooperated with the editors of this
publication in the years 1834-1837.
Bolesław I Chrobry (967-1025) - the first king of Poland - Jański prepared his biogram
for Encyclopédie nouvelle (Paris, 1836, Vol.II, pp.758-759).
On the topic of Jański's article Bohême, the editor of the periodical "Květy" expressed his
opinion. Narodnj zabawnjk pro Ĉechy, Moravany a Slováky. Piskem a wedenjm Jana H.
Pospišila (Praha, 1834-1848). "Young Poland" did not neglect to mention this (nr.16,
June 10, 1838, p.186): "The publication "Czech Flowers" praises Bogdan Jański's article
which is included in the French Encyclopedia [i.e., Encyclopédie nouvelle 1836, Vol.II,
pp. 739-742], which deals with ancient and modern literature, as well as Czech history. It
states that this article that was written is better and more faithful than those which have
appeared in foreign publications up to now."
Cf. above, footnote 324.
YEAR 1835
323
- second, intimate conversations with the Princess aroused in me a kind
of stupid vanity; further
- third, newspaper articles, while promising so much, also served to upset
me;
- fourth, a new overcoat, and money in my pocket, somehow again turned
me away from the interior life, in spirit;
- fifth, a letter from Maliński, letters to companions, from Przecławski,
filled me with bitterness for some time;
- sixth, a terrible sin, on Thursday;
- seventh, thoughts about the successes of lessons given to the Komar
young ladies.
In a word, I have spent the last two weeks badly, neglecting prayer, and
the holy inspirations which God continued to send me. Mercy, O God! Graces!
May I be resolved not to live for myself, but for Your glory and for the good of
my neighbor. But I will not manage to do this without Your merciful assistance.
Mother of Christ, most holy Virgin, intercede for me, a sinner! Watch over me,
holy Angel, to whose protection I owe so much! All you Saints, help me by
your protection and intercession! I have spent so much of my life on no good.
Once and for all, may I renounce the world and all of its pride, its pleasures and
vanities, and surrender myself, soul and body. to God.345
326 Sunday, [December] 13, Saint Lucy
I skimmed through Korzeniowski's work on literature.346 I will return it to
Wrotnowski this evening. I next take up Bentkowski.347 Mrs. Rautenstrauch
arrives; I wish her a happy feastday.
345
346
347
This text was not dated by the author. From the context it appears that Jański wrote it
before December 13, 1835.
Joseph Korzeniowski (1797-1863) - novelist, dramatist, and teacher; professor of speech
and poetry at the Krzemieniecki Lyceum, and member of the Society of the Friends of
Learning in Warsaw; author of A course in poetry for pedagogical purposes.
Felix Bentkowski (1781-1852) - literary historian, linguist and archivist. In the years
1817-1832, professor of universal history at the University of Warsaw. A member of the
Warsaw Society of the Friends of Learning. In 1814, he published a two-volume A
history of Polish literature set forth in a list of printed works in which he offered a
bibliographical summary of contemporary knowledge concerning scientific literature and
writing. He categorized the materials gathered - in accord with the classification of
classical poetry - in types and classes. When this work appeared, "all of the Bentkowskis
offered corrections and additions." - Fr. Alfred Bentkowski, a future Resurrectionist.
DIARY
324
Monday, [December 14]
In the morning I go to visit Mrs. Komar. I am well received in spite of my
unreliability. I show her Gerbet. I go to see Mickiewicz. He relates his historical
views concerning Poland, Bolesław Chrobry, etc. This lifts my spirits. I got to
see Letellier concerning the Encyclopédie catholique;348 he is not in. Back
home. I skim through Bentkowski dealing with theological literature.349 In the
evening, to Dalen. A waste of time.
Tuesday, [December 15]
Wednesday, December 16
I meet Miss Rautenstrauch at the home of Mrs. Komar. After a lesson
with Miss Komar, I am experience great confusion which lasts a whole day. I do
not even venture to begin reading the letter from Agen.350
327 Thursday, December 17
Reflection. I wish to put these notes together. I cannot. I attempt to read
Gerbet, preparing for tomorrow's lesson. For Mass. From eleven o'clock with
Napoleon. At three o'clock I go with him to Mrs. Rautenstrauch. On returning, I
begin to read a letter from Celiński. To Witwicki for the Lives of the Saints.351
To Pecqueur; he is not in. After dinner Mrs. Białopiotrowicz stops by; I leave in
a hurry. A session with Jerome on explaining the dogme générateur352 etc. I borrow Skarga from Wrotnowski.
Friday, [December] 18
348
349
350
351
352
Charles Letellier (1768-1848) - a professor, and collaborator on the Encyclopédie
catholique.
Bentkowski, in A History of Polish literature... distinguished the "category": "Theology"
(vol.II, part three, Chapter seven, p.475-566): 1. Church history; 2. Exegesis, or
interpretation of Sacred Scripture; 3. dogmatic and polemic theology; 4. Ascetical and
pastoral writings, sermons, prayers, and lives of the saints which are to serve as a model
to imitate."
A letter to Bogdan Jański from Adam Celiński who was living in Agen, written on
December 11, 1835. The information is provided by F. German, Adam Celiński... pp.126130.
Lives of the Saints - a hagiographical work by Peter Skarga (1536-1612), theologian,
preacher, and Catholic polemicist. His Lives of the Saints enjoyed great popularity and
numerous publications: the first appeared in Vilno in 1579; a second revised edition in
Kraków in 1585; further editions appeared in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Jański refers here to Gerbet's work: Considérations sue le dogme générateur et de la pieté
catholique (Cf. 1831, footnote 59).
YEAR 1835
325
I return home after the lessons. Waste time chatting with the Princess. I
read a letter from Agen. To Korycki where I meet a priest who is a
physiognomist.353
Saturday, December 19
Attend Mass. In the evening I announce big news to Peter and Jerome. I
receive payment for my article on Bohemia from the Encyclopédie. I buy a
dictionary for Włodziu. Barrois354 takes my address. A lesson (an
embarrassment with cookies for Włodziu). I borrow a book from Pecqueur on
Swedenborg. To Maliński; a rendezvous for tomorrow. Karski comes to visit us
in the evening. I read them the letter from Agen, and lie to them about a
response.
Sunday, [December] 20
I go out to redeem my watch and return - temptations, chasing about.
Mass and breakfast. Demi-tasse. Walter pays a visit; I am reserved. The day
passes, but nothing is accomplished. Maliński drops by in the evening. The
conversation with him lifts my spirits; but after he leaves, in Estaminet Belge temptations, running around.
Monday, [December] 21
To Letellier at nine; he is not in. To Maliński. I give him 50 francs. Demitasse. I redeem my watch, purchase socks, give Peter money to redeem his coat,
and return 50 sous to Ziomecki. - Temptations; a fall on rue de la T[hor]igny. I
remember Konopka. Szymański talks of plans to publish a newspaper, and
concerning Nieszokoć.355 In the evening for coffee. Peter tells me about
353
354
355
Physiognomist - an advocate of physiognomy, a theory which describes a person's
character and intellectual and emotional qualities on the basis of his exterior appearance
especially his face. In the first half of the 19th century, due to the influence of the Zurich
pastor J.K. Lavater (1741-1801), physiognomy gained renown as a "philosophy" dealing
with the dependence of a person's external appearance upon his spiritual qualities.
Barrois takes my address... We know of a Paris bookseller Jacques Barrois (1704-1795),
whose firm was undoubtedly taken over by Théophile Barrois, also a Paris bookseller.
Vincent Nieszokoć (1792-1865?) - Participated in the November uprising as a captain in
the artillery; a military theorist. He lived as an emigrant in France. With the permission of
French authorities, he moved to Paris in 1835. That year, in December, he enrolled in the
Young Poland organization. He declared himself in favor of a union of all shades of
democrats among the emigrants, and prepared a corresponding plan to realize this.
However, the Confederation of Polish People had already begun to realize a similar plan
at this time. Nieszokoć agreed to join the Confederation in April of 1836. He cooperated
with Michael Czajkowski in the publication of "The Polish Nation", the organ of the confederation.
DIARY
326
Raulin.356 At Peter's place - with Jerome; Karski is there. A discussion about
democracy. After I return, I lie down, and without having done anything, I fall
asleep.
328 Tuesday, December 22
Korycki drops by at eight. He tells me about Przecławski, about the
money he took from the Italians for the murder of Philip, 357 about his laziness,
sensuality, his bragging, etc.
I think about the necessity of withdrawing from the world for some time
and doing penance, prayer for getting rid of my bad habits.
N.B. Since November 26 how many holy inspirations have I neglected.
Moreover, I also completely neglected these notes controlling my life.
749 For [Friday], January 1, 1836
To Letellier
To Mr. Benoiste
To Saint-Roch
To the Ogińskis
To Walter and Wejssenhof
To Café de la Providence, to Nieszokoć and Szymański
356
357
Arthur Raulin, born in Tykocin, an insurgent in 1831, and an emigrant. He lived in
Belgium, where Lelewel expressed the following opinion about him: "a man eager for a
duel, a genuine idler, a youngster who has joined those who "gad about, waste time,
gamble, and who has broken off relations with many, with the result the youngster listens
to no one." "Raulin lives in great poverty. He has no funds. His wages in a printery are
small, for in return for employment, the Belgians have graciously required that he work
for more than a month without wages. In a word, his situation is terrible." (From a letter
to Valerian Pietkiewicz, Brussels, July 13, 1834). He left for England and then came to
Paris. Wounded in a duel and recuperating in a hospital, Semenenko cared for him. Jański
took him under his wing, and in 1837 entrusted him to Adam Celiński. After the latter
died - according to Duński - in 1838 Raulin became involved in love affairs, fell into
debt, and left Montpellier. Krosnowski in his Almanac, notes that Raulin was still living
in Paris in 1846.
Louis Philip I (1773-1850) - King of France in the years 1830-1848, a descendent of the
Orleans line of Bourbons. At the time of the Great French Revolution he was a member
of the Jacobin club, and fought in the revolutionary army. Involved in a plot, he
emigrated, but returned to France after the restoration of the Bourbons. After Charles X
was deposed by the July revolution (1830), he was acclaimed king of France. Representatives of financial interests exerted a decisive influence on his rule. A liberal initially, he
gradually became a conservative. He was opposed by the legitimists, democrats, and
Bonapartists. In 1848, overthrown by the February revolution, he abdicated and
emigrated to England.
YEAR 1835
327
To Januszkiewicz and Heiss
Buy New Year's gifts for mother, Napoleon - tickets.
For [Saturday], January 2
To Gorecki
To Justin358
To Mr. Benoiste
To Lacordaire
For [Sunday, January] 3
To Mr. de Callone
To Carnot
358
Justin - further information is lacking. In his Diary for the year 1836 Jański mentions
Justin Maurice.
APPENDIX
I.
8627
240 [Sunday], January 4
[CONFESSION, continued]1
Since I am to continue my confession in the next seven years, I will once
more gather together here my sins and offenses of the past five years.
During the first three years, there was a growth of complete godlessness,
atheism, revolutionism:
1. a rejection of the sacred mysteries and faith in God,
2. a rejection of faith in a soul and obligations
3. a rejection of faith in all independence of the mind.
A corresponding growth of personal demoralization and revolutionism.
+shoving Henry [Jaroszyński] into an abyss.+
In the next two years, growth in pride, in a sense of some kind of special
mission, in egotistical secretiveness. +Ascribing my own insane ideas to
Christ.+ +However, in spite of this pride, and such feelings of my own power,
almost any set-back shook me completely.+
Thoughts about women,
about possessions,
about my future - resulting in contempt and insincerity in relations with
friends +(other common revolutionists prompted by hatred of tyrants, I for the
good of mankind - a new reason for pride, contempt and secretiveness).+
+Strange ideas about the strength of my will and my influence on others.+
The next seven years were already punishment, just suffering for such
great profanities.
The first year.2 A woman shattered all of my greatness.3 I was drawn to
her by a good intention, a desire to save her from the abyss. Weakness, vanity,
1
2
Cf. 1834, footnote 68.
Initially Jański intended to recall his past, beginning with the "first year" (1828) up to the
seventh year (1834), but he abandoned this plan.
YEAR 1835
329
contempt (I suffered the loss of reason and will) for society were in the end the
sole motives for keeping my word to her and of doing good for one whom not
only did I not love, but whom I could not stand. I lost my peace completely.
241 Humbled pride, a humbled intellect, inability to correct a mistake,
tormented me constantly. Nevertheless, instead of serving as a lesson, and
leading me to a better way, they confirmed me in evil. I accepted my affliction
as fatal, submitted to it - the slave of a mistaken idea - not seeking any
assistance +(without thinking about fulfilling the obligations I had accepted in
Poland, counting on my great abilities)+ - until later in rapture, in slavery to the
flesh. And I was overcome alternately by bestiality and despair +(it was no
longer enough to have one concubine)+; (Hortense, Fanny - America, suicide).
My great opinion of myself did not cease. However, not having found
anything here in studies or in people, after so much suffering and so many
errors, I want to be sensible, cautious, positive. At that point, a whim to learn
about saintsimonism. I accept the radicalism, the organism - I am opposed to
revelation, papism. I become involved. My conduct in the course of three days
causes my fervor to decrease. +(Once again, despair, America, bestiality.)+
Soon after that, I return. I struggle with pantheism, with a desire to live religiously - however, pride is there always. Because of a sense of my temporary
weakness and its soundness, I fully accept the principle of authority, which then
disabled me completely. Discouragement, an incapacity for accomplishing the
slightest work, writing letters.
This incapacity has lasted up to the present time. Our November uprising
approaches. It makes an impression on me. - I am completely involved in the
apostolate of our faith.
In 1831 I arrived in Paris. I feel the falseness of my situation and of our
religious principles; but there is still the principle of authority, and the hope that
I, that time, will one day correct the evil, and hold me back from the ultimate.
Unbelievable suffering. +(A desire to find solace, to strengthen my spirit by
way of carnal pleasures).+ I cannot open my heart to anyone. Finally I lose
complete control over the will. After the collapse of saintsimonism, I am alone,
without any certainty, without any sure hope.
3
"By a woman" - this could be Alexandra Zawadzka, with whom Jański struck up a closer
acquaintance in 1827, and whom he married in October of the following year.
DIARY
330
242 After leaving saintsimonism, over the last three years, I ought to accuse