Big Brother is Watching You.
Big Brother is Watching You.
www.shakeandstir.com.au © www.shakeandstir.com.au Established in 2006, shake & stir has rapidly become one of Australia’s leading contemporary youth theatre companies. shake & stir produce an annual season of in-school and Mainhouse productions and in-school workshops reaching a combined total audience of over 180,000. Inschool productions include 50-minute Shakespeare adaptations, Shakespeare compilations and a program of moral-based performances targeting key issues affecting youth. shake & stir was the first company to offer a Shakespeare performance specifically created for primary students. shake & stir’s Mainhouse productions extend upon the in-schools program targeting audiences both young and young at heart. In 2011, shake & stir’s Helpmann Award nominated STATESPEARE embarked on a four-month national tour, visiting theatres in QLD, NSW, VIC, SA and TAS. In 2012, shake & stir staged their adaptation of George Orwell’s 1984 at QPAC. This sold-out production received rave reviews, broke box office records and embarks on an extensive national tour in 2014. In 2013 shake & stir presented 3 Mainhouse productions. In January, the company's youngest Mainhouse production Out Damn Snot was co-produced with La Boite Theatre Company, shake & stir’s multi award-winning adaptation of George Orwell’s Animal Farm toured theatres nationally and in August, the company’s newest production Tequila Mockingbird, premiered at the Cremorne Theatre QPAC. In addition to a busy annual performance schedule, shake & stir theatre co has an after school drama program reaching approx 400 primary and secondary students across South East QLD each week. shake & stir theatre co is a privately owned company, co-founded by Ross Balbuziente, Nelle Lee and Nick Skubij. For full information please visit www.shakeandstir.com.au www.youtube.com/shakeandstirtheatre www.instagram.com/shakeandstir www.facebook.com/shakeandstir www.twitter.com/shakeandstir www.shakeandstir.com.au © www.shakeandstir.com.au TABLE OF CONTENTS About the Show: All you need to know Shhh! Theatre Etiquette: The do’s and don’ts George Orwell: A brief bio In a Nutshell: A contextual summary Meet and Greet: The cast & crew Classroom Activities - Pre and Post Show Activity 1. Warm Ups: Touch your toes Comrade! Activity 2. He who controls the present controls the past Activity 3. Word Bingo Activity 4. What’s in Room 101? Activity 5. The Ministry of Graphics Activity 6. London’s Burning Activity 7. Big Brother is Watching You Activity 8. Newspeak Activity 9. Love at any cost? Activity 10. The Ministry of Tech Activity 11. Big Brother: Fiction to Reality Classroom Resources Discussion Questions and probing statements Character Profiles: Winston, Julia & blank Script Excepts Useful links Responding/Essay Questions Writing a Critical Review – modeled example Dramatic Elements 4 5 6-7 8 9-11 12 13 14-15 16-18 19-20 21 22 23-24 25-26 27 38 29 30-32 33-36 37 38 39-40 41-46 A note to Teachers using the Teachers’ Notes... All of the activities in this booklet have been created for pre or post show. Some are more suited to a Drama classroom, whilst others were created for English or History - BUT all can be adapted for use in your subject area! You are the teacher, you know your students best. Please enjoy the activities and the show. If you have any questions about the notes, please email the Education Manager, Naomi Russell: [email protected] Also, we would love to hear from you or your students - if they want to share any completed creative tasks or have questions please email: [email protected] 3 © www.shakeandstir.com.au ABOUT THE SHOW: ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW TIME: 85 mins + 10 min Q&A Suitability: Grades 9-12. Teacher discretion needed for early high school years due to high level adult themes, partial nudity and low level coarse language. ACTIVITIES FOR USE IN: Drama, English & Film, TV/New Media Big Brother is back. Oceania; a Nation perpetually at war, where cameras watch every move and Thought Police roam the streets. A place Winston Smith calls home. By day, Winston is an editor at the Ministry of Truth, rewriting history to align the past with the radical political agenda of the ruling party and its illusive leader, Big Brother. By night, Winston pursues a forbidden love affair with the mysterious Julia in an attempt to rebel against the oppressive regime set down by the party and maintain some control over his otherwise totally controlled life. When Winston and Julia are discovered, they are violently separated, detained and prepared for conversion. Locked in the Ministry of Love and interrogated by the quietly terrifying O'Brien, Winston is beaten, manipulated and subjected to sickening torture in an attempt to make him reject dreams of liberation and understand that free thought and logic is the only true enemy. From the team that brought you the sold out seasons of Animal Farm & Te quila Mockingbird, this new stage adaptation brings George Orwell's final novel screaming into the present. Strap yourself in for this terrifically frightening theatrical event featuring a cast of some of Queensland's most acclaimed artists, set against a dynamic digital backdrop. This production is sure to stun as it contemplates the ultimate crime against humanity - the total destruction of truth, freedom and individuality in favor of surveillance, obedience and conformity. CREDITS: Creators// Ross Balbuziente, Nelle Lee & Nick Skubij Co-Adapters// Nelle Lee & Nick Skubij Director// Michael Futcher Designer// Josh McIntosh Lighting Designer// Jason Glenwright Sound Designer// Guy Webster Media Producers// optikal bloc Education Manager // Naomi Russell Featuring// Ross Balbuziente, Nelle Lee, David Whitney, Bryan Probets & Nick Skubij © www.shakeandstir.com.au SHHH! THEATRE ETIQUETTE: THE DO’S AND DONTS shake & stir is a live theatre company and many of your students may be unfamiliar with standards of behavior for a live theatre audience. Below are some important guidelines for your consideration. Please go over these points with your students prior to the performance: We encourage your students to actively participate in our performances by applauding, laughing and asking/answering questions at the end. Food or drink is not allowed during a performance as it is distracting to both the actors and other audience members. General chitchat, talking and moving around the theatre while the performance is underway is strictly forbidden. Live theatre is different to Television or Film – the actors on stage can hear and see as well! If a student needs to leave the performance space for any reason during a performance, please ensure this is done quickly and quietly. Questions are welcome and encouraged but will be restricted to the designated 10min question time at the end of each performance. Please ensure that your students switch off their mobile phones and leave them in their bags before the performance begins. Photographs of any kind are strictly forbidden. Finally - enjoy the show! 5 © www.shakeandstir.com.au GEORGE ORWELL: A BRIEF BIO This was adapted from the biography found at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist and journalist. His work is characterised by clarity, intelligence and wit, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and belief in socialism. Considered perhaps the 20th century's best chronicler of English culture, Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry, fiction and controversial journalism. He is best known for the dystopian novel 1984 and the allegorical novella Animal Farm, which together have sold more copies than any two books by any other 20th-century author. Tasks: 1. Write a synonym for all the underlined words. 2. Re-write the mini biography as if it was for Year 7 students. George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) © www.shakeandstir.com.au ORWELL: A BRIEF OVERVIEW Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair on 25 June 1903 in eastern India, the son of a British colonial civil servant. He was educated in England and, after he left Eton, joined the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, then a British colony. He resigned in 1927 and decided to become a writer. In 1928, he moved to Paris where lack of success as a writer forced him into a series of menial jobs. He described his experiences in his first book, 'Down and Out in Paris and London', published in 1933. He took the name George Orwell, shortly before its publication. This was followed by his first novel, 'Burmese Days', in 1934. An anarchist in the late 1920s, by the 1930s he had begun to consider himself a socialist. In 1936, he was commissioned to write an account of poverty among unemployed miners in northern England, which resulted in 'The Road to Wigan Pier' (1937). Late in 1936, Orwell travelled to Spain to fight for the Republicans against Franco's Nationalists. He was forced to flee in fear of his life from Soviet-backed communists who were suppressing revolutionary socialist dissenters. The experience turned him into a lifelong anti-Stalinist. Between 1941 and 1943, Orwell worked on propaganda for the BBC. In 1943, he became literary editor of the Tribune, a weekly left-wing magazine. By now he was a prolific journalist, writing articles, reviews and books. In 1945, Orwell's 'Animal Farm' was published. A political fable set in a farmyard but based on Stalin's betrayal of the Russian Revolution, it made Orwell's name and ensured he was financially comfortable for the first time in his life. 'Nineteen Eighty-Four' was published four years later. Set in an imaginary totalitarian future, the book made a deep impression, with its title and many phrases - such as 'Big Brother is watching you', 'newspeak' and 'doublethink' - entering popular use. By now Orwell's health was deteriorating and he died of tuberculosis on 21 January 1950. This biography was found at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/orwell_george.shtml 7 © www.shakeandstir.com.au A CONTEXTUAL SUMMARY The dystopian setting in 1984 is London, England; which has been renamed Airstrip One. The world is constantly at war, but the enemy changes all the time. London is an important setting in Orwell’s book as it was (and still remains) a power hub of the world. A great contextual lesson would be to read George Orwell’s essay “Why I Write” (http://orwell.ru/library/essays/wiw/english/e_wiw/) and discuss as a class. Does this put his work into context? Consider that it was written before he wrote 1984 - how does this change the reading of the novel? A brilliant animated summary of the novel can be found at SparkNotes: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/1984/ Key Facts: Oceania: North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom. Eurasia: Soviet Union and continental Europe. Eastasia: China, Japan, Korea. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nations_of_Nineteen_Eighty-Four Oceania’s Government: Ministry of Truth: [Minitrue] In charge of the falsification of the past in order to align with whatever Big Brother wants the public to believe. They are in charge of creating and using the new language Newspeak. Ministry of Love: [Miniluv] In charge of torture and the brainwashing of people into loving Big Brother. This is where Room 101 is. Ministry of Plenty: [Miniplenty] In charge of Oceania’s planned economy. They oversee the rations for the people in both the Outer Party and for the Proles. Ministry of Peace: [Minipax] The militant wing of the government - in charge of the armed forces. © www.shakeandstir.com.au Meet the Cast and Crew: Ross Balbuziente - Cast For shake & stir: Ross is the Co-Artistic Director of shake & stir and has created over 20 youth productions and performed in over 1000 performances. He cocreated and performed in STATESPEARE (2009, 2011, 2011 National Tour), ANIMAL FARM (2011, 2013 National Tour), 1984 (2012), Tequila Mockingbird (2013). Other Theatre: Romeo & Juliet (QTC), Julius Caesar (La Boite), Citizen Jane (JUTE), A Midsummer Night's Dream, Two Weeks with the Queen, The Taming of the Shrew, Little Shop of Horrors (Harvest Rain Theatre Company), Assassins (Warehaus Theatre/QPAC), Of Our Own Volition (Spangled Drongo Productions/Metro Arts), As You Like It, The Comedy of Errors, Titus Andronicus and Monkey and His Magic Journey to the West (Grin & Tonic Theatre Troupe). Ross developed and performed in an original Shakespeare compilation production Strangers on the Globe Stage London. As Director: Out Damn Snot, Statespeare (shake & stir/La Boite); Thus I Die!, Bard-Wired and Love is an Ass (University of Southern Queensland). shake & stir’s in-school productions including Romeo & Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet, Shake Up!, Tragic Magic, Chop Logic, Bard to the Bone, I Crave My Space, Say it to My Face Book, Vacant and Popular. Nelle Lee - Cast For shake & stir: Nelle is a founding member and CoArtistic director of shake & sir and is kept busy each dayperforming, teaching and creating youth theatre. Nelle co-created, wrote and performed in STATESPEARE (2009, 2011, 2011 national tour), ANIMAL FARM (2011, 2013 National Tour), 1984 (2012), Out Damn Snot (2013) and Tequila Mockingbird (2013). Other Theatre: The Crucible, Maxine Mellor's Mystery Project, Property of the Clan (Queensland Theatre Company). Complete Works of William Shakespeare by Chicks & ALICE (Harvest Rain Theatre Company). Nelle also appeared in Magda's Fascination with Wax Cats (The Forward Movement/Metro Arts Independence), Catholic School Girls (Three Sisters Productions) and Newton's Law (Strut 'n' Fret/QLD Arts Council). Film & Television: Sea Patrol seasons 2 & 3, Mortified and the feature film JUCY which premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival in 2010. Training: Bachelor Theatre Arts (Acting) from the University of Southern Queensland. Awards: 2011 USQ Alumnus Award, 2011 USQ Arts Faculty Award. 9 © www.shakeandstir.com.au Bryan Probets - Cast For shake & stir: ANIMAL FARM (2011, 2013 National Tour), 1984 (2012), Tequila Mockingbird (2013). Other Theatre: Pygmalion, Waiting For Godot, Taking Aim, The Alchemist, The Importance of Being Earnest, Private Fears in Public Places, A Christmas Carol, The Venetian Twins, Scapin, The Lonesome West, Mano Nera, The Cherry Orchard, The Road to She-Devil's Salon, The Works 2003 (Queensland Theatre Company); Edward Gant's Amazing Feats of Loneliness (with Sydney Theatre Company), As You Like It, The Wishing Well, The Danger Age, The Year Nick McGowan Came to Stay, Operator, Crèche and Burn, Way Out West, Milo's Wake, Hermes and the Naked Flame (La Boite Theatre Company/Queensland Arts Council) all for La Boite. The Composer is Dead (Out of the Box); Australia The Show! (Hothouse Theatre Company); The A to Z of Cabaret (Brisbane Cabaret Festival/Qld Arts Council); Zooillogical (Kite Theatre/Schnapper Head), Credo the Innocence of God (Queensland Music Festival); The Amazing Magician Goes Troppo (Queensland Ballet); Love's Labour's Lost, As You Like It, The Woman in Black (Harvest Rain); King Lear (Trocadero); The Legend of King O'Malley (On Giant's Shoulders); The Zoo Story (QUT); Hamlet (Matrix Theatre/QPAC). Film: The Great Gatsby, Singularity, A Heartbeat Away, Daybreakers, Triangle, The Proposition, Nim's Island, Subdivision, The Horseman, Punishment and Hildegarde. Television: Monarch Cove, Starter Wife, Fat Cow Motel, Love Weights, Farmkids. Awards: Matilda Award (2012), Two Matilda Commendations (2003), MEAA Award for Emerging Artist (2003). Training: Bryan is a graduate of USQ. Nick Skubij – Cast For shake & stir: Nick co-created and performed in STATESPEARE (2009, 2011, 2011 National Tour). As a co-founder and Co-Artistic Director of shake & stir theatre co, Nick has devised, directed and performed in numerous productions including: ANIMAL FARM (2011, 2013 National Tour) , 1984 (2012), Out Damn Snot (2013) and Tequila Mockingbird (2013). Other Theatre: Nick has performed with some of Australia's leading entertainers including Zoe Ventoura, Colin Lane, Glenn Shorrock and Rhonda Burchmore. Performances include Romeo & Juliet (QTC), EUROBEAT (QPAC), Citizen Jane (JUTE), Crackle, Snap, Pop (JUTE/QTC), Surviving Jonah Salt (KEDT/JUTE), Flutter (JUTE), The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee (Oscar Theatre Co), The Fiveways (Brisbane Festival) and A Midsummer Night's Dream (Harvest Rain Theatre Company). Nick has also worked for Grin & Tonic Theatre Troupe in 2005-2006. He has performed at a number of major arts festivals including Scene Change Playwrights Festival (Tasmania), NT Festival of the Arts, Festival Cairns and Brisbane Festival. Film & Television: Second series of Channel 7's popular children's television program TOYBOX. © www.shakeandstir.com.au DAVID WHITNEY- Cast For shake & stir: Debut Other Theatre: Mrs Warren’s Profession, Much Ado About Nothing, Summer Rain, Darlinghurst Nights, Woman In Mind (Sydney Theatre Company) Henry 4, The Duchess Of Malfi, The Alchemist, As You Like it, Macbeth, The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet(Bell Shakespeare) The Power of Yes(Belvoir). The Winter’s Tale, The Maids’ Tragedy, On Our Selection ,The Real Thing, Medea ,A Fortunate Life, Cyrano De Bergerac (Melbourne Theatre Company) Cho Cho (National Theatre of China). Commercial Musical Theatre includes: Rock Of Ages, Damn Yankees, Monty Python’s Spamalot, The Producers, Sunset Boulevard, Man Of La Mancha, They’re Playing Our Song, Cabaret, The Phantom of The Opera, A Chorus Line, The Wizard of Oz, Chess, Little Shop of Horrors. Film: Fatal Honeymoon, A Wreck A Tangle, Doomrunners, Les Patterson Saves the World. TV includes: Wonderland, Penelope K By The Way, Legend Of The Seeker, Media Watch, Home And Away, McLeod’s Daughters, Marriage Acts ,Water Rats, Captain James Cook, Palace of Dreams, A Country Practice, Prisoner. Training: NIDA Graduate 1982. Proud member of Actors’ Equity. Michael Futcher - Director Fo r s hake & s tir: ANIMAL FARM (2011) , 1984 (2012), Tequila Mockingbird (2013). Othe r The atre : Michael has worked over the past 25 years with many of Queensland's major theatre companies in various capacities, including actor, director, dramaturg and writer, and, with Helen Howard, is the joint artistic director of Matrix Theatre. As Dire c to r: For Queensland Theatre Company: Grimm Tales, Rabbit Hole, The Glass Menagerie, Oz Shorts, A Life In The Theatre (Noosa Long Weekend), Blithe Spirit (Assistant Director) and Explosions (education production); For La Boite: Walking By Apple Tree Creek, The Drowning Bride, James and Johnno, Salt and, in co-production with Matrix Theatre and the Brisbane Festival, the critically-acclaimed A Beautiful Life, which toured nationally in 2000 winning Michael Best Director at the Victorian Green Room Awards along with three other awards; For Matrix Theatre: The Wishing Well, The King and the Corpse!, 1347 and Cutting Loose. In 2009, Michael's production of The Kursk (Matrix/Metro Independents/Critical stages) toured nationally to over 35 venues receiving a Helpmann Award nomination and 3 Matilda Awards, including Best Director. Other productions include: Dirty Apple (Opera Qld/Backbone), Jane Eyre, Cymbeline, The Crucible, Three Sisters, The Duel, The Cherry Orchard, Camille (QUT), Jane Eyre (USQ) and Macbeth (Rheingold Theatre Club, London). Awards : Michael has won several Matilda Awards, a Green Room Award and a Playlab Award, and been nominated for a Helpmann Award, an Awgie, and 2 Queensland Premier's Drama Awards. 11 © www.shakeandstir.com.au CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES // PRE AND POST SHOW ACTIVITY 1. To uc h Yo ur To e s Co m rad e s ! A traditional warm up with a twist. Teacher in role as a Party Member who shouts the warm up orders to the students. Teacher should only use a student’s last name or “comrade” when ordering them to do something. Laughing or general laziness should not be tolerated. Students should get “vaporized” if they do something wrong. It is up to you to decide what is involved with being ‘vaporized’! Orders/warm ups could include: S tre tc hing : “6079 Smith, W! Yes, you! Bend lower, please! You can do better than that! You’re not trying. Lower, please! That’s better comrade. Now stand at ease, the whole squad, and watch me.” Chanting the Party S lo g an: “War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength” To uc hing to e s : “You see m y knees aren’t bent. You can all do it if you want to....anyone under forty-five is perfectly capable of touching his toes.” Bre athing e xe rc is e s “, nothing was your own except the few cubic centimetres inside your skull.” © www.shakeandstir.com.au ACTIVITY 2. He w ho c o ntro ls the p re s e nt c o ntro ls the p as t. This activity takes a little bit of forward planning. As the teacher, think of something that you can change about the appearance of the room (eg remove some of the display) or a particular outfit, item of jewelry, tie etc, or play a new game one lesson and make some sort of comment about it. Don’t make a big deal about it, but take a note of what you changed (for your memory’s sake). A few lessons later hand out slips of paper to the students and ask them to write down everything they remember about the item. EG: ‘Write down as much as you can about the old display in the room OR what I was wearing on Tuesday OR the rules of...’ Make sure they write down details of the event/item. They must be specific. Then... get them to walk around sharing their details with others. They need to find the people who agree with their memory. Once they have formed little clumps get them to decide on their main ‘facts’. One by one each group should say their facts and fight out to get to the truth. The aim of the activity is to show students that their memories are not always correct, and everyone remembers different details. Whe re to ne xt? This could be a starter activity to lead into discussion about thoughtcrime, the Thought Police, O’Brien’s torture of Winston etc. “When you delude yourself into thinking that you see something,, you assume that everyone else sees the same thing as you.” 13 © www.shakeandstir.com.au ACTIVITY 3. Wo rd Bing o ! The following game is great as a starter in class. This game gets students familiar with some of the language in 1984 and also gauges their prior knowledge. It can be played multiple times with the same or different words depending on the level of the class or challenge required. Ho w to p lay .... 1. Put up a list of 20 words on the board. 2. Students draw a naughts and crosses table in books. 3. Students c ho o s e 9 wo rds that they think they know the me aning of and write these in their table. 4. Teacher rando mly reads out the me aning s of the words on the list (but not the word itself). 5. Students cross off words they have when they hear the meaning of it. 6. Bingo is won by being the first to get a line of 3 (or all 9 depending on how long you want the game to last!). Two example lists can be found on the following page... slavery proles facecrime newspeak fraught conscious perjury room 101 rebel © www.shakeandstir.com.au List One Meaning to read out.... List Two Meaning to read out.... Orwell The author of 1984 and Animal Farm. Oceania The new name for England and its surroundings. newspeak The new language Winston must translate articles into. vaguely Indefinite, unclear or uncertain. thoughtcrime To think about doing something against Big Brother. Capitalism A belief system where a country’s wealth is controlled by the wealthy and they invest in the poor to make money. proles The ‘common people’. saccharine artificial sweetener. conscience The little voice in your head that tells you when you’re doing something wrong. telescreens The way in which Big Brother can watch and send messages to people in their homes. conscious To be awake and alert. Brotherhood The secret society that Winston believes are against Big Brother. ignorance The be oblivious to what’s really going on around you. Inner party The people who are the closest to Big Brother and get all the best rations. revenge To seek justice for a wrong especially in a mean way. Eastasia One of the continents that Oceania can be at war with. facecrime To commit a crime through your expression on your face. impoverishment To make people or an area poor. doublethink To think about two opposing ideas at the same time. hierarchical The rank or order of things/people in society. Thought Police The people who seek out criminals and punish them. indefatigable untiring, incapable of being tired out. Room 101 The room where your biggest fears are realised. drudgery hard, menial or dull work. interrogation To question someone in order to seek the truth. falsification To tell or create a lie. manipulate To twist something to your own advantage. primitive rude, crude or vulgar. betrayal To be unfaithful or disappoint someone by turning against them. omnipotent All powerful. blame When you hold someone else responsible. double plusgood Very very good. coward Being too scared to do something. blackwhite To claim that up is down or left is right, even when it contradicts the facts. despise To hate. Goldstein The man who wrote ‘the book’ that was written as a bible for the Brotherhood. The enemy. tedious Boring or long winded. O’Brien A character who Winston believes to be good, who ends up betraying him the most. Winston The main character in 1984. Ministry of Truth The place where Winston works re writing history so it matches what Big Brother wants. envious To be jealous of someone or something. espionage spying on, or using spies to find out information. 15 © www.shakeandstir.com.au ACTIVITY 4. What’s in Room 101? Ask students to access shake & stir’s promotional website for 1984: www.whatsinroom101.com either before or after this activity, depending on their prior knowledge. Starter: As students walk into the classroom hand out the fear statements on the following page and ask students to read them aloud. Lead the class in a discussion around the idea of fear, and then move onto Room 101 and its purpose in 1984. Lead students through what types of things they might find in Room 101. After the discussion allow students time to think about what would be in their Room 101. Ask them to write it on a slip of paper and place in a box at the front of the room. Teacher can then read these all out to the class, allowing for anonymity. “We shall meet in the place where there is no darkness.” © www.shakeandstir.com.au fear statements: Fear is the path to the Dark Side. Fear leads to anger, anger leads to hate, hate leads to suffering. (Yoda; Star Wars Episode 1) Cowards die many times before their deaths The valiant never taste of death but once. (Shakespeare; Julius Caesar) If there is one thing which I would banish from the earth it is fear. (Henry Ford) There is no living thing that is not afraid when it faces danger. The true courage is in facing danger when you are afraid. ( The Wizard of Oz) Fear cannot hurt you anymore than a dream. (William Golding; The Lord of the Flies) There is nothing to fear except fear itself. (Anonymous) Fear is contagious. You can catch it. (Neil Gaiman; The Graveyard Book) The fear of death is the most unjustified of all fears, for there Is no risk of accident for someone who' is dead. (Albert Einstein) 17 © www.shakeandstir.com.au STUDENT TASKS: 1. Create a series of freeze frames / movement pieces depicting Winston’s time in Room 101. Have a narrator read out paraphrased quotes in a variety of ways. EG: as David Attenborough, as a Mad Scientist, as Big Brother (from the novel) or an immitation of the TV show. Discuss the effect each of these have on the audience, which was their favourite and why. 2. Why was it important that Winston knew about Room 101 whilst he was being tortured in the Ministry of Love, but he didn’t know what was in it until the very end? What are rats symbolic of? Why were they the thing that broke him in the end? In small groups create Julia’s version of Room 101 and decide what broke her in the end. Dramatise and show to the class. 3. Imagine that Room 101 is now a room where every fear is held, but it could be locked away forever. Write a speech aiming to persuade listeners to banish forever one thing that you would hate to be in Room 101 so it can never scare you again. For example: If you wanted to banish clowns to Room 101 you must persuade listeners why clowns should be locked in Room 101 forever. 4. How is fear used as a weapon in 1984? Why could it control people? Create a propaganda poster (for a real or imagined event/political agenda) that uses fear as its main device. You could link this to a modern political event with news articles relevant to your class. 5. Complete the following statements to create a poem (use as a starting off point if your can’t get going on your own) When I was 5 I was afraid of... When I was 10 I was afraid of.... When I was 15 I was afraid of.... Right now I’m afraid of…. In 5 years time I don’t want to be afraid of.... In 50 years time I might be afraid of.... © www.shakeandstir.com.au ACTIVITY 5. The Ministry of Graphics. [Minigraf] Using a memorable moment from 1984 (there are plenty) create a graphic novel page that represents this moment visually. Use as many of the following conventions of graphic novels as possible: Graphic Novel Conventions: **Speech/Thought Bubbles **Text Boxes **Sound words **Movement lines **Titles **Various angles and shot sizes **Framing / guttering **Emotive words Long Shot MID Shot Extreme Close Up Close Up 19 © www.shakeandstir.com.au The s e pages are from a 1984 comic which is has a fre e download from http://www.1984comic.com/comic_book.html © www.shakeandstir.com.au Activity 6. Lo nd o n’s Burning This activity focuses on visual media to create a music video with a message. Use the worksheet below with students as a homework task, in class project or formative assessment item. War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength. Tas k: Using your knowledge of the themes of 1984 and George Orwell, create a music video depicting a particular didac tic me s s ag e . Co nditio ns : Use a combination of still and moving images Use a combination of retrieved video (eg from youtube) and your own recordings Use a variety of shot types/camera angles/filming techniques Be creative in your approach! Think outside the square. Que s tio ns to c o ns ide r: What is the message you are trying to convey in the video? What parallels can you draw from real life that you could include in the music video? What conventions could you use to make your video interesting/unique? How can you make your message known without explicitly telling the audience? Can you juxtapose music and images in any way? If you can’t think of a s ong to us e , cons ide r one of the following: “Orange s and Le m ons ” -traditional nursery rhyme “Us and The m ” -Pink Floyd “Eve ry Bre ath Y ou Take ” -The Police “Te s tify” -Rage Against the Machine “London’s Burning” - The Clash “Mis s ing” - Everything But the Girl 21 © www.shakeandstir.com.au Activity 7. Big Bro the r is Watc hing Yo u. Imagine a world where the government saw everything you did; read every text message you wrote; every site you visited online; heard every word you spoke. You live in constant fear, you have no escape. Now imagine you have found one place where they can’t find you, one place where you cannot be traced. What would you do? What would you say? Choose one of the following formats and write a creative piece responding to these ideas. Diary entry Dystopian short story Script writing Protest poetry “Anything that hinted at corruption always filled him with a wild hope.” © www.shakeandstir.com.au Activity 8. Ne w s p e ak. This activity focuses on the idea of words and the power in them. In pairs, ask students to workshop the script below and then complete the activities that follow. Extract from Scene 5: S yme : It’s a beautiful thing, the destruction of words. Of course, the great wastage is in the verbs and the adjectives, but there are hundreds of nouns that can be got rid of as well. And antonyms. After all, what justification is there for a word which is simply the opposite of another word? A word contains it’s opposite in itself. Wins to n: Really? S yme : Take ‘good’ for example. What need is there for a word like ‘bad’ when ‘ungood’ will do the just the same thing, or better because it’s an exact opposite. Or if you want a stronger word than ‘good’ what sense is there in having a huge string of vague useless words like ‘splendid’ or ‘excellent’? ‘Plusgood’ covers the meaning, or ‘double-plusgood’ if you want something stronger still. Don’t you see the beauty in that Winston? It was BB’s idea originally of course… W ins ton’s inne r thoughts . Wins to n: One of these days you will be vapourized. You are too intelligent. You see too clearly and speak too plainly. The party does not like such people. One day you will simply disappear. It is written in your face. 23 © www.shakeandstir.com.au Student Activities: 1. Discuss with a pair what you think the purpose of this excerpt is. What do we learn about each of the characters? 2. Why would Big Bro the r want to decrease the amount of words in the dictionary? What would that do to communication? 3. Look up the word po rtmante au and write down its meaning. What examples exist in this script excerpt and in 1984? 4. Binary Opposites are two ideas that are opposite and are used in texts so the audience understands the message. For example love/hate is a binary opposite. We only understand love because we understand hate. What will happen if Big Bro the r abolishes some words/ideas? 5. Recreate the extract using words in a non conventional way. What conventions could you use to show Winston’s thoughts? Present back to the class for feedback. 6. According to the novel, Ne ws pe ak is supposed to be fully integrated into mainstream life by 2050. After referring to the Appendix: The Principles of Newspeak and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Newspeak_words have a go at writing a scene between Syme and Winston that uses more Newspeak words. “dont you see the whole aim of newspeak is to narrow the range of thought?” © www.shakeandstir.com.au Activity 9. Lo v e at any c o s t? Do you think Winston and Julia were in love? Were they simply clutching at any human contact they could find? Consider that before Winston received a love note from Julia he had “c o nte m p late d s m as hing he r s kull w ith a c o b b le s to ne ”. Student Activities: 1. Recreate Julia and Winston’s first encounter as a series of freeze frames with no dialogue. Make the movements strong and your emotions evident. The audience should be able to feel exactly what you feel. (The encounter can be found at the beginning of Part II of the novel) 2. Add in two words per freeze frame. Choose wisely. Are they spoken aloud or are they thoughts in the characters’ heads? 3. Now, add in the entire script, but keep the heightened movements. Try out different emotions to play with the idea that these two simply crave human affection. 4. Modify the scene to change Winston’s reactions. Pretend, instead, that he does hate her and would contemplate “s m as hing he r s kull w ith a c o b b le s to ne .” Workshop and improvise the scene with Winston reacting in this way. “at the sight of the words i love you the desire to stay alive had welled up in him.” 25 © www.shakeandstir.com.au EXTRACT FROM PART TWO SCENE 8 Winston is returning to his cubicle from the bathroom. As he makes his way back to his desk, he spots JULIA coming toward him from the other direction. Her arm is in a sling. When she is near him, she falls flat on her face. Winston tosses up whether to run or to help her. He stops and makes toward her to help her up. Winston: You’re hurt. Julia: It’s nothing. It’ll be all right in a moment. Winston: But it your arm alright? Julia: It’s fine. I just hurt it on the printing press. That’s all. He helps her up. Julia: It’s nothing It only hurt for a second. Thanks, comrade. She moves away. Winston is left standing alone. He very subtly acknowledges his hand – Julia has slipped a folded piece of paper into it. He puts his hand in his pocket and heads back to his cubicle. He throws the piece of paper on his desk among the other papers and gets back to work. He continually glances at the paper. Winston rolls up his completed work and slips it into tube. He draws a new bundle of work towards him and on top of it is Julia’s paper. Winston sits at down at his Speakwrite. Rolls a bundle of work and deposits it. Winston: Ref times January, 1984. Rewrite full wise… He can’t wait any longer. He pulls out the note and flattens it out on the desk in front of him. Julia (V/O): “I love you.” Winston freezes. Reads it again and then shoves it down the memory hole. © www.shakeandstir.com.au Activity 10. The Minis try o f Te c h. [Minite x] Technology plays a very important part in all our lives. It helps us, brings us closer together, and in some ways, controls us. Bearing in mind that YOU are the tech savvy generation, s hake & s tir the atre c o would like you to create a piece of multimedia for them! Your task is to create a documentary/multi modal piece teaching the youth of today about the issues surrounding technology. BE CREATIVE with it and try and think about the various ways technology, the media and its applications control our lives. What does the youth of today NEED to know NOW? Send a link to your project to s hake & s tir: [email protected] 27 © www.shakeandstir.com.au Activity 11. BIG BROTHER: Fic tio n to Re ality The Big Bro the r TV show stems from Orwell’s 1984. What components of this TV show were inspired from the novel? Make a list as a class of all the conventions, techniques & ideas that are similar in both the novel and TV show. What’s different about it? What have they changed for a Reality TV generation? BIG BROTHER IS back... Similarities The Diary Room / Winston’s diary TASK: Differences Contestants win a prize on TV show The Channel 9 Production team has asked for some fresh ideas from teenagers for the TV show BIG BROTHER. Thinking about the novel and the play versions of 1984, what concepts could be taken and used in the TV series? Write a pitch to present to the Channel 9 Production team with at least 3 new ideas that could be incorporated into the show. © www.shakeandstir.com.au DISCUSSION QUESTIONS/ PROBING STATEMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What is power? Think about leadership and what makes someone a good or bad leader. Write down the 5 best/worst qualities of a leader. Technology is all around us, there is no escaping it. What control does it have on your life? Could you give it up for a period of time? How long? What differences did you notice between the play and the novel? Which did you enjoy more and why? Create a PMI (plus/minus/interesting) chart with your findings. How do you release anger? What makes you angry? How can anger be used in a healthy way? What is the purpose of 2 m inute s hate ? Have you ever felt that leaders contradicted themselves? Think about politicians and the promises they make before getting elected. Why does this happen? Why are humans such hypocritical people? Have you ever done something you said you wouldn’t do? What is meant by the Party Slogan: War is Pe ac e , Fre e do m is S lave ry, Ig no ranc e is S tre ng th? Why is Oceania constantly at war and what effect does this have on its inhabitants? How does Orwell use foreshadowing in the novel? Think of specific examples. How were these shown in the stage version? Discuss the quote “If the re is ho p e , it lie s in the p ro le s ”. What do you think would happen if the proles did revolt? Compare to real life revolutions/protests/riots. Research the recent London and Cronulla riots and discuss their outcome in society. Do you think Big Brother actually exists? What about Goldstein? The novel ends with the quote: “He had w o n the v ic to ry o v e r him s e lf. He lo v e d Big Bro the r.” Why did the novel end this way? Did it have to end this way? What is totalitarianism and where else in history has it been seen before? Discuss the pros and cons of socialism VS communism. If you had to live under one way of life, which would you choose and why? 1984 has been banned in several parts of the world since its publication in 1949. Why would this be so? What parts of the novel would cause the most concern? References to 1984 exist in all forms of pop culture. Why has it had such an impact on writers/directors/musicians/illustrators? 29 © www.shakeandstir.com.au CHARACTER PROFILE: WINSTON SMITH A Name: Winston Smith Age: 39 Occupation:: Member of the Outer Party. Works for the Records Department in the Ministry of Truth. Family: Married with no children. Doesn’t know where his wife is. Physical description: Looks older than he is. Has varicose veins. Has 5 false teeth. Biggest Fear: Rats. Feelings towards Big brother: Hates Big Brother and wishes to join the Brotherhood. Ends up loving Big Brother. If he found $1000 dollars on the ground what would he do? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ If he could divorce his wife and marry Julia would he? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ what else could have been in Room 101 for Winston? ____________________________________________________________________ Quote that sums him up: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ If he could change one thing about himself what would it be? Why doesn’t he? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What is silenced about this character? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ © www.shakeandstir.com.au CHARACTER PROFILE: JULIA Name: Julia Age: 26 Occupation:: _______________________________ _____________________________________________ Family: ____________________________________ _____________________________________________ Physical description: _____________________ _____________________________________________ Biggest Fear:______________________________ Feelings towards Big brother: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ If she found $1000 dollars on the ground what would she do? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Likes/Dislikes: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Quote that sums her up: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Her main role in the narrative: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ What is silenced about this character? ____________________________________________________________________ 31 © www.shakeandstir.com.au CHARACTER PROFILE: Name: __________________________________ Age: ___________________________________ Occupation::___________________________ Family: _______________________________ ________________________________________ Physical description: _______________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Biggest Fear: ________________________ ________________________________________ Feelings towards Big brother: ________________________________________ ________________________________________ If they found $1000 dollars on the ground what would they do? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ____________________________ Likes/Dislikes:____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ main role in the narrative: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Does this character remind you of anyone from another text/real life? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Quote that sums them up: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ © www.shakeandstir.com.au Script excerpt – Obrien’s house O’Brien’s apartment. O’Brien sits studying a slip of paper. After some time, he pulls a speakwrite towards him. O’Brien: Items one comma five comma seven approved full-wise stop suggestion contains item six doubleplus ridiculous verging crimethink cancel stop unproceed constructionwise antegetting plusfull estimates machinery overheads stop end message. Julia and Winston enter, lead by a servant. They stand at the opposite end of the room. O’Brien see’s them and stands up abruptly and walks towards them with a stern look on his face. As he passes the telescreen, he stops turns aside and presses a switch on the wall. It switches off. Julia utters a tiny sound of surprise. Winston: You can turn it off! O’Brien: Yes. We have that privilege. O’Brien stands opposite Julia and Winston. No one speaks. After some time, O’Brien loses his stern expression and his face turns almost to a smile. O’Brien: Shall I say it, or will you? Winston: I’ll say it. That thing is really turned off? O’Brien: Yes. Everything is turned off. We are alone. Winston considers. He looks at Martin. O’Brien: Martin is one of us. Winston takes a deep breath and decides to plunge in. Winston: We have come here because we believe that there is some kind of conspiracy, some kind of secret organisation working against the Party, and that you are involved in it. We want to join it we want to work for it. We are enemies of the Party. We disbelieve in the principles of the Party. We are thought-criminals. We are also adulterers. I tell you this because we want to put ourselves at your mercy. If you want us to incriminate ourselves in any other way, we are ready. Martin pours wine from the decanter into the glasses. Julia picks hers up and sniffs it curiously. 33 © www.shakeandstir.com.au O’Brien: It is called wine. You will have read about it in books, no doubt. I’m afraid not much of it gets to the Outer Party. A toast - to our Leader: To Emmanuel Goldstein. Winston/Julia: To Goldstein. They all drink. Winston: Then there is such a person as Goldstein? O’Brien: Yes, there is such a person, and he is alive. Where? I do not know. Winston: Thought Police? And the Brotherhood? It is real? It is not simply an invention of the O’Brien: No, it’s real. You will never learn much more about the Brotherhood other than it exists and that you belong to it but I will come back to that presently. O’Brien looks at his watch. O’Brien: It is unwise even for members of the Inner Party to turn off the telescreen for more than half an hour. You will understand that I must start by asking you certain questions. In general terms, what are you prepared to do? Winston: Anything that we are capable of. O’Brien turns his chair a little to face Winston, almost ignoring Julia. O’Brien: You are prepared to give your lives? Winston: Yes. O’Brien: You are prepared to commit murder? Winston: Yes. O’Brien: To commit acts of sabotage which may cause the deaths of hundreds of innocent people? Winston: Yes. O’Brien: To betray your country to foreign powers? Winston: Yes. O’Brien: If, for example, it would somehow serve our interests to throw sulphuric acid in a child’s face – are you prepared to do that? Winston: Yes. O’Brien: so? You are prepared to commit suicide, if and when we order you to do © www.shakeandstir.com.au Winston: Yes. O’Brien: another again? You are prepared, the two of you, to separate and never see one Julia: No! Winston looks a Julia and seems to be lost for words. Winston: No. BEAT O’Brien: You did well to tell me. It is necessary for us to know everything. Martin tops up the drinks and exists. O’Brien: You understand that you will be fighting in the dark. You will always be in the dark. You will receive orders and you will obey them, without knowing why. Later I shall send a book from which you will learn the true nature of the society which we live in, and the strategy by which we shall destroy it. When you have read it, you will be full members of the Brotherhood. No doubt you have formed your own world of conspirators, meeting secretly in cellars, scribbling messages on walls. Nothing of the kind exists. Nothing holds The Brotherhood together except an idea, which is indestructible. You will have to get used to living without results and without hope. You will work for a while, you will be caught, you will confess, and then you will die. There is no chance of any perceptible change happening within our own lifetime. We are the dead. He raises his glass. O’Brien: What shall it be to this time? To the confusion of the Thought Police? To the death of Big Brother? To humanity? To the future? Winston: To the past. O’Brien: Yes. The past is more important. They finish their drinks and Julia and Winston stand to leave. O’Brian: I shall send you a copy of Goldstein’s book as soon as possible. We shall meet again -- if we meet again – Winston: In the place where there is no darkness? O’Brien nods. O’Brien: In the place where there is no darkness. 35 © www.shakeandstir.com.au Script excerpt: Charrington’s Shop The room above Mr Charrington’s shop. Winston sits on the edge of the bed. Nervous. Julia enters carrying a brown canvas tool-bag. Winston steps forward to embrace her. Julia: Wait a second. Just let me show you what I brought. Look. She opens the bag pulls out a few old tools that were on top and then hands a brown paper package to Winston. He feels the bag. Winston: …It isn’t sugar? Julia: Real sugar. Not saccharine. And here is a loaf of bread, proper white bread, not the shit we get and - a little pot of jam. And here’s a jar of milk – but look... this is the best one. This is the one that I am really proud. I had to wrap a bit of sacking round it because – Winston sniffs the air. Winston : Coffee. It’s real coffee! Julia: It’s Inner Party stuff. There’s nothing those pigs don’t have, nothing and – I got a little packet of tea as well. Julia: There’s been a lot of tea about lately. They must have captured India, or something. I do have one more thing but you need to turn around. Go Over there and DON’T turn around till I tell you. Winston looks out of the window through the muslin curtains. The prole woman’s song strikes up again Woman’s voice: They say that time ‘eals all things, They say you can always forget; But the smiles and the tears across the years They twist my ‘eart strings yet! Winston: She’d be perfectly happy to stay there for a thousand years, pegging out nappies and singing rubbish. © www.shakeandstir.com.au USEFUL LINKS/REFERENCES: Social Media: www.facebook.com/shakeandstir www.twitter.com (@shakeandstir / use #shakeandstir1984) www.youtube.com/shakeandstirtheatreco Room 101: http://www.whatsinroom101.com Room 101 (UK TV show): http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01b4547 ‘Why I Write’ George Orwell Essay: http://orwell.ru/library/essays/wiw/english/e_wiw/ Newspeak: http://www.newspeakdictionary.com/ Spark Notes: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/1984/ Wikipedia: 1984: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineteen_Eighty-Four George Orwell: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_orwell Nations in1984: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nations_of_Nineteen_Eighty-Four Newspeak: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspeak Newspeak words: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Newspeak_words Big Brother TV Show: http://channelnine.ninemsn.com.au/bigbrother/ IMDB: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0087803/ Teacher Tube: http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=259029&title=1984_Gr eat_Books_George_Orwell_s_1984 1984 Comic (Chapter 1&2): http://www.1984comic.com/comic_book.html 1984 Production Gallery (from the 2012 QPAC Season): https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.10150986248428565.428873.26562678564&type=3 1984 Teaser Trailer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XnTnR6Y4MEo 37 © www.shakeandstir.com.au Assessment questions Question 1: ‘1984 is a story of opposites: love vs hate; freedom vs slavery; good vs evil; ignorance vs strength. But opposites are important as we cannot understand one without the other. We only understand good because we have seen evil. Both are necessary in a functioning world.’ Discuss this statement in relation to shake & stir’s 1984. Do you agree/disagree with it? In your response you should discuss both the live theatre experience and the novel when supporting your arguments. Question 2: ‘If there is hope, it lies in the proles.’ Discuss this statement in relation to shake & stir’s 1984 and Orwell’s novel. You should also aim to reference any similarities from the world as we know it today. In your response consider the following: What does Winston mean by this statement? What warning is Orwell trying to give us? Does this statement foreshadow anything in the text? Question 3: ‘Appropriate A/V design enhances the overall effect of a production and enables the director to tell parts of story without the need for spoken word.’ What elements of design, lighting, Audio/Visual were used in shake & stir’s 1984? Examine the effect they had on the audience and critique their overall suitability. In your response you should consider the symbolism of these design features and how well they helped shape the drama on stage. Question 4: You are a writer for The Courier-Mail and you’ve been asked to write a critical review of shake & stir’s 1984. You should focus on 2 - 3 key scenes/moments and the validity of these. Remember to include a brief synopsis; critique of the acting, representation of characters, direction and style; strengths and weaknesses of the production and an overall opinion. It should be presented as a newspaper review with relevant images headings and other conventions. A modelled example can be found on page 39-40. © www.shakeandstir.com.au 39 © www.shakeandstir.com.au © www.shakeandstir.com.au Dramatic Elements DRAMATIC ELEMENT ROLE Performers will take on one or more roles throughout a dramatic piece. This requires them to embody someone or something beyond themselves to make a believable and credible character for the audience. It is also important to think about their role in the dramatic action. Is it pivotal? Supportive? Language The words that are spoken. It’s the foundation of a textbased play. Subtext should also be analysed as well as stage directions when reading and interpreting a play. // 1984 GENERAL QUESTIONS APPLICATION in 1984 W as the pie ce character or plot drive n? How we re the role s us e d to he lp cre ate the story? Did the actors play m ore than one role ? How did the y do this ? W hat change s we re e vide nt in the ir perform ance ? W as the role convincing? How we re the role s e stablis he d and m aintaine d? W hat role did that characte r have in the dram a? All the actors except Bryan Probets (Winston) play more than one role. Identify with students that they were changed by costuming, props, voice and movement. Think about how different roles served different purposes. EG Parsons was used to lighten to mood and show an innocence in a party member. Charrington’s role was of the ultimate betrayal - and this was built throughout the play. He preyed on Winston’s weakness (privacy) and used this against him in the betrayal (he was a member of the Thought Police the whole time). How we re words us e d to cre ate powe r? W hat was the s ubtext be hind s om e of the m em orable line s ? How did the language he lp to s hape the dram a? W hat was inte re s ting about the language ? W as it hard to unders tand? Language is pivotal in 1984 - they are creating a new language - Newspeak. Also words have a lot of power behind them most words used actually mean the opposite EG ‘Ministry of Love’ is actually torture, friends are enemies, the concept of privacy does not exist. Think about the power of the words used the impact of simply saying ‘Room 101’ and the reaction it draws. It’s also important to look at the fact that audience members bring their own meaning to words - each comes with a different level of prior knowledge of the text - and with this comes personal subjectivity. 41 © www.shakeandstir.com.au DRAMATIC ELEMENT GENERAL QUESTIONS APPLICATION in 1984 Movement W as the m ovem e nt s ym bolic in anyway? The way an actor uses How was m ove m e nt their body to show contraste d by stillne s s ? emotions/reactions. W hat e ffe ct did this Blocking on stage. have ? How did the Movement can be literal blocking change the or abstract, depending way you interprete d the on the piece. play? W as the m ove m e nt dire ct or fluid? W hy was it done this way? Movement is used a variety of ways in 1984 - including repetition, rhythm, fast and slow paced. During the opening 2 Minute Hate sequence the characters’ movements are strong and directed, whereas in scenes between Julia and Winston the movement is more fluid and messy. In scenes where Winston is at work movement is used to show the dull and repetitive nature of his work. In the Ministry of Love choreographed stage fighting is used to show torture and violence. Throughout the play there are moments when Winston is still whilst others move around him. How was the s pace us e d? Did it fe e l ope n The personal and or clos e d? W as it cold general space used on or warm ? How did the stage. This can refer to actors interact with the ‘the space between’ or s pace ? W hat did the how the actors used the s pace betwe e n the stage space to create a actors te ll you about the specific reaction. characters ? The contrast between ‘real’ and ‘imaginary’ space in 1984 is used to great effect. There is always reference to Winston’s physical space and his mental space - sometimes this is shown on the telescreens behind him. It’s clear that he is in two different ‘spaces’ at the same time. Space is also used in the set design and use of lighting. EG Shafts of light are used to emphasize the small space of the cubicles in the Ministry of Truth. W ho had the powe r in e ach s ce ne ? How could you te ll? How was the s tatus s hown? W hat te chnique s were us e d to cre ate s tatus on the s tage ? Doe s anyone challe nge the status ? W he re doe s the power s hift in the play? W hy doe s it s hift? Can you rank the characte rs in orde r of s tatus ? W hat ke y m om e nts s hift this ? Power is shown on stage through levels, blocking, movement, language and the telescreens. In particular status is evident when Winston is being tortured in Room 101. O’Brien is physically strong and stands over a weak and fragile Winston. The status shifts between Julia and Winston, she begins with the power but Winston ultimately takes it when he betrays her and she is left empty and converted but so does Winston. Charrington is seen as a lower status character - a common shop owner who lives amongst the Proles - but the ultimate betrayal comes when he reveals himself as a member of the Thought Police. Status and power are manipulated a lot in the play - we see children having power of their parents - with Parsons being turned in by his own daughter. SPACE STATUS The power behind a role. Who has control in a scene and how the power shifts between characters. This can be determined through language, movement, gesture, voice, costuming, staging, lighting and A/V designs. © www.shakeandstir.com.au DRAMATIC ELEMENT focus How attention is directed on stage to what is most worthy of attention. This also relates to an actor’s focus. MOOD The atmosphere created. It helps to focus the action and ‘move’ the audience into different feelings and emotions throughout the piece. SYMBOL The deeper or implied meaning of props, costumes, lighting, text, sound or movement. GENERAL QUESTIONS APPLICATION in 1984 W hat do we look at? How we re you m ade to look at this ? How did the characte rs cre ate focus ? How did the s et, lighting or A/V he lp focus the action? W hat or who ke pt your focus on the s tage ? The telescreens are used to create and maintain focus throughout the play. The use of A/V is of utmost importance in the play - it is used heavily to shift the focus both between scenes and between characters. The idea of ‘facecrime’ and ‘thoughtcrime’ are used to focus the drama - we see Winston on stage with a blank look on his face, but the telescreen behind him gives away his act of thoughtcrime - he cannot keep it in. W hat did you fe e l throughout the dram a? Do you think this was the inte nde d re action? How we re e le m e nts s uch as lighting, s et de s ign and A/V us e d to he lp cre ate and m aintain the m ood? This is a dark play. The mood is almost constantly down, but it still goes through waves. See if students can plot the mood on a graph, showing key moments of heightened mood. The mood is lightened through Winston and Julia’s relationship. They manage to find some pleasure in their lives, and this changes the atmosphere on stage particularly when in the ‘golden country’. Music is used to shape the mood onstage ‘Oranges and Lemons’ and the song sung by the female prole are used to establish atmosphere and foreshadow Winston’s capture. W hat could the de e per m e aning have be e n for things you s aw on s tage ? W as lighting, s ound or A/V us e d in a s ym bolic way? W as this e ffe ctive ? W e re props or costum e s us ed in a s ym bolic way? 1984 is full of symbols. Discuss the symbolism of the following: ‘Oranges and Lemons’ (symbol of the past, foreshadow of the future); Julia’s red anti-sex league sash; Winston’s diary; the telescreens; the song the Prole sings & the lady herself; Charrington’s shop;the piece of coral; the rats, Room 101; Winston’s skeleton like face on the telescreens; the bells (of St Clement’s) are used as a symbol of warning. Also characters are symbolic: Winston represents the eve rym an fighting against authority; Parsons is symbolic of innocence/ignorance; Charrington - the wolf in sheep’s clothing. 43 © www.shakeandstir.com.au DRAMATIC ELEMENT GENERAL QUESTIONS How did the te ns ion e ngage you? W hat The driving force of the we re you inve s te d in? dramatic action. It must How was it built be built, maintained or be twe e n characters ? broken at various points W hy was the te ns ion in the dramatic action. broke n? How did it happe n? TENSION CONTRAST The use of polarised or opposing elements is important to highlight differences in the dramatic action. W hat binary oppos itions we re us e d in the dram a? (EG light VS dark) How we re the s e highlighte d? How did the y he lp to cre ate dram atic action/m e aning? W ere the y effective ? How we re costum e s us e d to s how role ? The clothes and props W ere the y s ym bolic? a character has are W ere the y e ffe ctive ? important when creating W hat change s were and establishing role for m ade by characters both the actor and the playing m ore than one audience. role ? costume APPLICATION in 1984 Tension exists in every scene of 1984. In particular: the tension of relationships between Winston and each character can be explored in great detail. Tension of mystery is a constant as we never know when Big Brother is watching; when the Thought Police will strike; who the enemy is and when betrayal will come. Tension of surprise comes with Winston and Julia are captured. Tension of the task surrounds all that this play stands for: standing up against Big Brother - but it breaks when Winston does. The telescreens and voice overs are used to highlight the tension and at times, to break the tension. Language is constantly contrasted in the script. Words can mean their exact opposite: Ministry of Plenty (rations), Ministry of Truth (rewriting the past), ‘W e s hall m e e t in the place whe re the re is no darkne s s ’ - Winston interprets this ‘light’ to be good - when it’s the lights used in the torture chambers. Telescreens contrast the real and the unreal - particularly Winston’s thoughts, the ‘entity’ of Big Brother and Goldstein. The ideas of facecrime and thoughtcrime are contrasts. We give away our thoughts on our face, or are we always wearing a mask? Binary opposites drive the narrative: good VS evil; hope VS hopelessness; dark VS light; truth VS untruth; we must understand and experience one in order to fully understand its opposite. The dark blue boiler suits are worn by all actors and help to show the conformist nature of Big Brother’s power. The also highlight the lack of personality and the extreme control of this totalitarian society. When characters change role they substitute an element of their costume Parsons has glasses, Charrington is in ‘normal’ attire, O’Brien wears an all in one black boiler-style ‘suit’, Julia has a red anti sex league sash and wears a dress at one point - signifying her change into a more feminine and ‘individual’ role. © www.shakeandstir.com.au DRAMATIC ELEMENT GENERAL QUESTIONS APPLICATION in 1984 W ere the lights us e d to s how tim e pas s ing? Lighting can be used for W as a s pot light us e d to several purposes - to highlight ke y establish mood, characters/s ce ne s/e le m emphasize space, show e nts ? How effe ctive a change in day/night, we re the us e of or to symbolise a blackouts ? W as colour variety of things. us e d in the lighting? If s o, why? Unconventional lighting was used in 1984 as the telescreens also act as a lighting fixture. The ever moving spotlight starts the show and stops on audience members, highlighting our voyeuristic role. Lighting was also used to show space. Shafts of light highlight the characters at work at The Ministry of Truth. The lighting changes when Winston and Julia are in Charrington’s shop and out in the ‘golden country’ - this is also symbolic of the double life that they are trying to lead. Lighting was also used in the A/V on the telescreens - EG Winston is lit to resemble a skeleton. What did you see or hear that didn’t come from an actor onstage? What impact did the A/V have on the telling of the story? Did it support your understanding of what was going on? Was it effective in creating mood? Did it help to show emotion/thought? How was diegetic and non-diegetic sound used? Orwell’s novel is full of technology - and so is the stage version. The A/V design is beautifully woven into the production and the use of the plasma telescreens and voiceovers are of extreme importance in 1984. Many elements of the story are told through inner monologues, voice overs, flashbacks and images that are played on the telescreens. Winston’s inner thoughts are of particular importance - they are an example of thoughtcrime, and, as the audience we have a sense of dramatic irony as we can predict his downfall much more easily than him. Live cameras are also used when Winston is being tortured - this adds to the voyeuristic nature of the play. The use of non-diegetic sound also highlights the impersonal and detached feeling surrounding the control of Big Brother. The booming voice overs and lack of face to face interaction create this sense of separation. What did the set look like? How did you react when you first saw it? Did it move during the play? How effective was it in establishing the setting? Was it symbolic? 1984 has a minimal but effective set. The huge plasma telescreens form the back wall of the set and stage left has a moveable wall to create Charrington’s shop. Tables protrude from the walls and slide back in when not in use. Props are kept to a minimum and are used simplistically and symbolically. The colour of the set is also important. Most of the set is grey, dull and industrial, whereas Charrington’s shop is brighter and full of hope (albeit false). lighting audio/visual Any external sound or image that is used on stage to help tell the story, create mood, establish the setting, show inner thoughts and/or subtext. Set The design on stage. It may be minimal or detail, moveable or stagnant. 45 © www.shakeandstir.com.au DRAMATIC ELEMENT context’ Context is the lens in which we view the drama. It is the background information that audiences bring with them to a performance, which ultimately influences their interpretation of the play. Context can also be created on stage through the way the narrative is shown. GENERAL QUESTIONS APPLICATION in 1984 What do you already know about the text before seeing it? When was it written? Why was it written? Can it be set anywhere/anytime or is the setting and time pivotal to the meaning? What do you need to know in order to make sense of the narrative? When going to see 1984 every audience member brings their own context to the show. It is a novel that has sparked much political debate and conversations. It has been banned in some countries in the past and Orwell’s own political beliefs are steeped in the text. The great thing about the work is that it could have been written anytime in the last 50 years - the text was written in 1948 - but projected and predicted a future that is not too dissimilar from what we see today. CCTV follows us, computers are monitored, internet usage is watched, the government likes to be ever present in the running of our day to day lives...
1984 - Teachers` Notes
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