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! Euro Palace Casino No Deposit
Oil and Gas Production
and Exploration, Part I
Presented by:
Steven Marzuola
American Translators Association
52nd Annual Conference
Boston, October 26, 2011
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Introduction
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Dope, Joints, Tripping
Internal Flush
Strippers
Casing, Tubing, Liner
API - American Petroleum Institute
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Why oil?
Convenience of liquid fuel
Large amount of power in small volume
(“Energy density”)
Refined products 45 megajoules
/ kg
One gallon carries one airline
passenger 45 miles
z Coal: 24 megajoules per
kilogram
z Club sandwich: 1.3 megajoules
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Life of an Oilfield
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Reservoir formation
Discovery and exploration
Drilling
Primary production
Second production, interventions
Abandonment
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Early oil discoveries
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Usually guided by surface seepage. Lake
Maracaibo, Caspian Sea, western
Pennsylvania
Used by ships, seeking tar for repairs.
Oil was usually a nuisance encountered when
drilling water wells
Research in mid 1800’s, search to replace
whale oil used in lamps
First rotary drilled well - 1859, Titusville, PA
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Blowouts
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In movies, often
portrayed as
success.
Today, a blowout
is a huge and
expensive
mistake.
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Historical practices
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On land, in the USA: Surface owner owns
everything to the center of the earth.
Often led to inefficiencies, legal battles.
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Today, mineral rights on most property
are bought and sold separately from the
surface land. Field or reservoir usually
managed as a single unit.
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Congestion
Spindletop, Texas, 1902
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Requirements of a Reservoir
1. Source or Generator rock
2. Reservoir
3. Seal or cap rock
4. Structure, hydrocarbons trap
5. Timing
6. Maturation
7. Migration
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Exploration aided by geology
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Surface features
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Anticlines
Faults, Salt domes
Presence of iron
Subsurface surveys
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Gravimeter, Magnetometer
Seismic - 2D, 3D
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Anticlines
Salt dome
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Structural trap
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Gravimeter
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Seismic surveying
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3D Seismic images
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Rig = factory
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Today’s drilling
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Most wells drilled using rotary drilling
Steel drill pipe comes in 30-foot sections
that are threaded on both ends.
Each section of drill pipe is called a joint.
After drilling 30 feet, the kelly must be
raised and another joint of pipe added
below the kelly. This is called making a
connection.
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Drill string components
Typical rotary drilling
Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA)
Additional components: mud
motors, LWD / MWD tools,
steerable subs
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Drill bits
Diamond bits
Tricone rock bit
Tungsten carbide inserts
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Surface components
• Kelly, kelly bushing, swivel, hose
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Pipehandling tools
Drill pipe slips
Tongs
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Top Drive
Advantages
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Drill with “triples”
Reduced connection
time
Quickly restore
pressure control while
tripping out
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Pressure control
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Flow of drilling mud
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Hydrostatic pressure
Pressure is proportional to:
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Height (depth) of fluid column
Density (i.e. lbs/gallon)
Mud column must
counterbalance formation
pressure
Drilling mud 1.5 - 2.5 times
more dense than water
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Mud system components
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Shale shakers
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Desanders and desilters (hydrocyclones)
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Degassers
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Centrifuges
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Mud agitators
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Cuttings washers
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Water-based vs. oil-based muds
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Water most widely used, but can cause
“skin” damage, contaminate formation
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In response, oil-based muds were
developed
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Adverse effects on rubber products,
(seals, pump parts), environmental
concern
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Modern improvements
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Major changes in past 20 years are:
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Computers and software => 3D seismic
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Top drive - all offshore rigs, big/deep onshore
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MWD - Measure While Drilling technology
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Mud motors
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Directional drilling => horizontal wells
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Horizontal drilling
Multilateral completions
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Multiple exit points from
main well bore
Increased length of hole
exposed to productive
formations
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Completions
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Most wells lined with steel casing.
Purposes:
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Protect from cave-ins
Protect surface formations, water supply
Isolate producing formations
Prevent blowouts
Innermost pipe is “tubing”, removable, to
isolate flow from casing
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Casing and wellhead
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Casing and tubing
connections
Non-upset
www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com
External upset
IF = “internal flush”
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Wellheads/Christmas trees
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Flange connection
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Separation
equipment
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Stages of production
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Primary recovery - natural flow
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Secondary recovery - mechanical pumping,
gas lift
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Tertiary or Enhanced Oil Recovery - Gas
injection, thermal, chemical
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Workover and well servicing
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Together known as “intervention”
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Workover rig similar to drilling. Performs
acidizing, fracturing stimulation,
cementing, deeper drilling, recompletion
to a different zone, sidetracking
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Well servicing - wireline, rod pulling units,
flexible tubing
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Well servicing rig
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Flexible tubing rig
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Pumping
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Typical
Subsurface
Pump
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Other methods
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Flowlines and Pipelines
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Flowlines link individual wells or groups to a
processing facility.
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Gas / oil / water separation
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Metering
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Sand removal
Pipelines lead from field / process facility,
ultimately to refinery
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“Pigs”
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Dumb pigs: Cleaning, water displacement,
chemical treatment
Smart pigs: Measure internal diameter, inspect
for cracking, corrosion
z Magnetic flux, X-ray, ultrasonic, video
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Peak Oil, or Hubbert’s Peak
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M. King Hubbert - Shell geophysicist
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Theory: production tends to follow bellshaped curve. Can be predicted in
advance.
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Production increases early due to
discoveries and new infrastructure. Later
declines due to depletion.
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Peak Oil (cont.)
Source: http://www.theoildrum.com/node/8310
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Peak Oil (cont.)
In 1956, Hubbert predicted peak of USA
production late 1960s - early 1970s.
Controversial, but proven right by 1976.
Actual peak was in 1970.
Is it applicable to world production?
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Rapidly growing demand in China, India
New technologies, increased depletion rates
What is the effect of higher real prices?
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Historical oil production
Source: http://wikipedia.org
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Steven Marzuola
281-381-9337
www.techlanguage.com
Houston Interpreters and
Translators Association
American Translators Association
© 2011 Steven Marzuola
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