Department of Psychology, Howard University

Transcription

Department of Psychology, Howard University
Rugrats! Goal Plans in Televised Narratives and Implications for
Children’s Comprehension
Silas E. Burris
CB Powell N-179
525 Bryant St. NW
Washington, DC, 20059
[email protected]
859-302-4666
Silas E. Burris, Chastity C. McFarlan, Ashley A. Jenson, & Danielle D. Brown
Department of Psychology, Howard University
INTRODUCTION
TENTATIVE DEFINITION OF GOAL PLAN COMPLEXITY
•  Comprehension of narratives encourages the development
of literacy skills in young children (Brown, Lile & Burns,
2011; van den Broek et al., 2005).
•  Hierarchical levels: Average number of hierarchical levels across all
subgoal structures in a particular narrative.
•  Subgoal structures: Number of unique superordinate goals that result in
goal structures; usually dictated by different character perspectives
•  Competing elements: Presence of competing goal structure elements; can
be competing character goals or entire subgoal structures
•  Goal object presence: Number/percentage of scenes in which goal object
is present
•  Goal object tangibility: Concrete goal objects are physical objects;
abstract goal objects do not have a physical form.
•  Goal abandonment: Number of times a character abandons a goal attempt
•  GAO episodes: Number of complete goal-attempt-outcome episodes
•  Underlying comprehension process are similar for
narratives of different media type (Kendeou et al., 2005).
•  Narrative comprehension requires identifying narrative
goal plans as well as causal inference generation
(Trabasso & Nickels, 1992; Wenner, 2004).
•  Understanding narrative goal structures facilitates
comprehension by allowing one to make inferences,
detect problems, and predict outcomes (Graesser et al.,
1994).
•  All narratives consist of goal plans or structures that can
be made explicit and include:
•  Superordinate Goal: the overarching main goal that
drives the narrative.
•  Subordinate Goals: lower level goals that aid in
achieving the superordinate goal, which may need to be
achieved before attempting to resolve the superordinate
goal.
•  Attempts: any action taken toward achieving a goal.
•  Outcomes: the resulting success, failure, or
abandonment of an attempt or goal.
•  The current study assessed the complexity of narrative
goal plans in popular children’s television narratives and
discusses their implications for comprehension processes
RESULTS
Subgoal
Competing Goal Object Goal Object Goal Object
GAO
Levels
Structures Elements
Presence
Tangibility Abandonment Episodes
Episode Title
Angelicon
3
3
Yes
Attention Please
3
2
Yes
Bad Shoes
2
1
No
Bigger Than Life
3
1
No
Cat Got Your Tongue?
3
2
Yes
Cuddle Bunny
3
1
No
Dil Saver
3
3
No
Falling Stars
4
2
No
Home Sweet Home
3
3
No
My Fair Babies
4
2
No
3/9 scenes
33%
1/3 scenes
33%
6/6 scenes
100%
1/4 scenes
25%
1/11 scenes
9%
5/6 scenes
83%
7/12 scenes
58%
1/5 scenes
20%
5/5 scenes
100%
5/5 scenes
100%
Concrete
1
13
Abstract
1
10
Concrete
4
8
Abstract
0
3
Concrete
0
7
Concrete
0
3
Concrete
0
11
Concrete
0
2
Concrete
2
7
Concrete
1
6
METHOD
Materials
•  10 Rugrats episodes meeting the following operational
definition of narrative:
•  A narrative is a story with a character, a goal, and a plot
or set of events that leads to the accomplishment of the
goal.
Procedure
•  Narratives were transcribed.
•  Goal plan elements were identified based on previously
used definitions.
•  Goal structure illustrations were diagramed from
previously used models (Trabasso & Nickels, 1992).
•  Narrative goal plans were characterized according to
complexity dimensions.
Rugrats Goal Structure: “My Fair Babies”
Black
Reverse to White
Blac
PMS 2757
Reverse to White
PMS 2
Goal Structure Description
This narrative contains two competing goal structures, Chuckie’s and his parents’. The parents’
superordinate goal (G1) is to make Kimi feel at home in her new family. To accomplish this goal, the
Elements
the HU
parents must do things with Kimi, which is the subgoal
at theofsecond
level (G2). In order to achieve the
second-level goal, seven subgoals need to be achieved at the third level. At the third level, the parents make
Logotype: The specially set type style for HU and
3/26/13
3:03
PM
seven different efforts to do things with Kimi in GAO episodes 3.1-3.7. Chuckie’s superordinate goal (G1)
is to get attention from his parents. To accomplish
this goal,
he must
copybe
Kimi’s
actions,
is thewith
1867
should
never
altered
or which
replaced
subgoal at the second level (G2). In order to achieve the second-level goal, three subgoals need to be
another
typeface.
achieved at the third level. At the third level, Chuckie
copies
Kimi’s actions in GAO episodes 3.1, 3.2, and
3.3 which directly compete with the parent’s GAO episodes 3.4, 3.5, and 3.7. In an external event Chuckie
plays ball with Kimi successfully making her feel at home. This in turn causes the external event of
Chuckie’s Dad giving him attention and offering to read him a story.
Official Uses
• Marketing,
communicatio
Legend
(G) = Goal; number indicates level on the
hierarchy
(A) = Attempt
(Q) = Quit/abandoned goal
(O+) = Successful outcome
(O-) = Negative outcome
(O?) = Unclear/marginal outcome
capital campaign efforts
• For use by all offices, dep
and schools
CONCLUSIONS
•  Televised narratives often contained characteristics that were considered
complex for many of the dimensions.
•  Many underlying comprehension processes required for these narratives are
immature in 3- to 8-year-old children, indicating that the goal plans of these
narratives may be too complex for target audience to comprehension.
•  Future studies should assess the effects of different dimensions of goal plan
complexity on comprehension and recall.
REFERENCES
Brown, D. D., Lile, J., & Burns, B. M. (2011). Basic Language Skills and Young Children's Understanding of Causal
Connections during Storytelling. Reading Psychology, 32(4), 372-394.
Graesser, A. C., Singer, M., & Trabasso, T. (1994). Constructing inferences during narrative text comprehension.
Psychological Review, 101(3), 371-395.
Kendeou, P., Lynch, J. S., van den Broek, P., Espin, C. A., White, M., & Kremer, K. E. (2005). Developing Successful
Readers: Building Early Comprehension Skills through Television Viewing and Listening. Early Childhood Education
Journal, 33(2), 91-98.
Trabasso, T., & Nickels, M. (1992). The Development of Goal Plans of Action in the Narration of a Picture Story. Discourse
Processes, 15(3), 249.
van den Broek, P., Kendeou, P., Kremer, K., Lynch, J., Butler, J., White, M., & Lorch, E. (2005). Assessment of
Comprehension Abilities in Young Children. In S. G. Paris, S. A. Stahl, S. G. Paris, S. A. Stahl (Eds.), Children's
reading comprehension and assessment (pp. 107-130). Mahwah, NJ US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Publishers.
Wenner, J. (2004). Preschoolers' comprehension of goal structure in narratives. Memory, 12(2), 193-202.
Goal Structure Description
The superordinate goal (G1) is for the babies to be allowed to attend Angelica’s business luncheon.
To accomplish this goal, the babies must prove to Angelica that they are “grownups”, which is the
subgoal at the second level (G2). In order to achieve the second-level goal, four subgoals need to be
achieved at the third level. At the third level, Suzie must teach the babies to act “grownup” and the
babies must learn to act “grownup” G3.1). The babies then learn to act grownup in GAO episodes
4.1, 4.2, and 4.3. Once G4.3 is achieved, the babies make attempts to prove to Angelica that they are
grownup in GAO episodes 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 by performing a series of tasks. In external event,
Angelica discovers that the babies are still wearing diapers. The babies are then unsuccessful at
proving that they are grown up and are not allowed to attend her luncheon.
Rugrats Goal Structure: “Attention Please”
Legend
(G) = Goal; number indicates level on the
hierarchy
(A) = Attempt
(Q) = Quit/abandoned goal
(O+) = Successful outcome
(O-) = Negative outcome
(O?) = Unclear/marginal outcome
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank Porsche M. Boddicker, Laura O’Shea, and Leah Hairston for their
contributions.

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