Idioms and Quotes


Idioms and Quotes
Idioms and Quotes
Badger someone into doing something
Method in ones madness
Play into someone’s hands
Put out feelers
Sit on the fence
Spoon-feed someone
Take someone for a ride
Text walking
• “Our natures are a lot like oil, mix us with anything else
and and we strive to swim on top” (Beaumont,
Correction and homework for this
Inuit not intuit
Q-skills Listening and Speaking
Grammar Modals expressing attitude
Grammar extension
Vocabulary skill
• Aitken, R., (2002) Teaching Tenses, ELB
Publishing, UK
• Bonner, M., Fuchs, M., & Westheimer,(2006)
Focus on Grammar: An Integrated Approach,
Pearsons Longman, NY
• Scrivener, J.,(2009) Teaching English Grammar :
What to Teach and How to Teach it, Macmillan
• Swan, M., 2005, 3rd ed. Practical English Usage,
Oxford University Press
Modal Verbs
Prohibition, strong obligation,
recommendation and no obligation
What is a modal verb?
• Modal verbs are helping / auxiliary verbs
• They can have more than one meaning
• A modal usually expresses a persons
attitude connected to certainty or obligation,
• We are going to discuss modals of
• They are important for rules and laws
Modal Verbs
Modals are followed by the base form
of a verb( the infinitive without to)
Form subject + modal= basic verb
they have no ‘s’ in the third person
they have no past participle
• I can dance, and she can dance too.
• NOT She cans dance
Negatives are always made using
• She can’t sing
• NOT She doesn’t can sing
Questions can be made by placing
the modal verb before the subject.
• Mary can dance
• Can Peter dance too?
• NOT Does can Peter dance too?
Strong obligation
• Must and have to show that
something is necessary not
optional for example
following the laws of a
country, or the rules of an
• Must is the strongest and
most common in writing
• Must and have to in
questions are used to show
someone that what they are
doing annoys us
•I must study tonight.
•In the UK you must drive on
the left.
•You have to finish all your
assignments before the end of
the month.
•Must you speak with your
mouth full?
•Do you have to make so
much noise ?
Have to
• Have to is the most
• I have to study tonight.
common (more common in
American English in British
English it is have got to) it is
known as a semi-modal and
does not follow all the
grammatical rules for
• Do I have to study tonight?
• It is useful for forming
• and negatives
• I don’t have to study to
• Past
• I had to study last night
• To show that something is not allowed,not
permitted we use “must not”= mustn't
• It has an opposite meaning to must
• Students must not copy their work from the
internet. It is illegal .
• People mustn't smoke.
• It has no question form
• It has no past form.
• More common in writing.
Can’t is also used for prohibition
They can’t say anything false
You can’t come in here
Weak obligation or recommendation
• You use should to give advice and opinions
• Should is weaker than must and have to
• Amanda should go to the doctor = that we
think it is a good idea for Amanda to visit
the doctor
Ought to
• Ought to has similar meaning to should.
• We use ought to to say what we consider to be
sensible , necessary or correct thing to do.
• He ought to lose weight.
• It is different because it takes a to infinitive rather
than the bare infinitive
• It has no past tense and we make the negative
using not
• Teachers ought not to swear in front of the children
• American English doesn’t use ought in the negative
it uses shouldn’t
No Obligation
• Don’t have to indicates a lack of obligation
• Advertisers don’t have to send ads for
approval. ( you can if you want but you
don’t have to)
• You don’t have to use this door. ( you can if
you want to but you don’t have to)
What kind of verbs are modal verbs?
What kind of attitudes do they express?
What is an example of a modal verb that expresses
Is ‘must/ must not’ more common in writing or speaking?
Why is ‘ought’ different?
Is ‘have' a modal verb?
Basic coordinating
and, but, or, so.
Look at the two sentences:
It was raining.
I took my umbrella .
We can join these sentences together by usi
a conjunction : and, but, so, or.
Which is the best conjunction to join this
It was raining, so I took my umbrella with me.
The two sentences are joined together with
Conjunction “so”
This is a coordinating conjunction.
The result is a longer sentence made up of
independent clauses
Conjunction Function
Joins two similar ideas
Joins two contrasting
Joins two alternative
ideas, gives a choice
Shows that the second
idea is the result of the
He lives in
Riyadh and
studies at LSE.
Fawzia is Saudi,
but Tung Chi is
I could cook
some supper ,or
we could order
some pizza.
She was sick, so
she went to the
Extra information
These conjunctions are also used
nor = joining two negative sentences
for = because
yet = but
Things to remember
Three things to remember when using coordinating
1.Coordinating conjunctions join independent clauses. Each
clause must be “a complete thought” which could be a
sentence on its own.
•With coordinating conjunctions, put the conjunction in the
middle. You see some sentences starting with ‘but’ or ‘and’,
but this is usually wrong, so it is best to avoid it.
•With coordinating conjunctions , use a comma unless both
clauses are very short.
Complete the sentences by choosing the best coordinating
conjunction for each space-
1. Bill was cold,________
he put on a coat.
2. Maria tried to read a novel in French,___________ it was
too difficult.
3. To get from Vancouver to Victoria, you can fly, _____you
can ride the ferry.
4. I bought a bottle of sparkling juice,________ we drank it
5. The waiter was not very nice,________ the food was delicious.
6. I went to buy a Quran CD,_____ the shop didn't have
7. Anna needed some money,____ she took a part-time
8. There's so much rain lately! Maybe it's because of
El Nino, ______maybe it's just coincidence.
9. Julie has a drum,_____she plays it really well.
10. The lecture was cancelled,_____ we went to
a restaurant instead.
We add things to the beginning or
the end of a word to change its
meaning or grammatical status
• The ending of a word will often show what
part of speech the word has become. For
• –tion at the end of authorization tells us
that the word is likely to be a noun;
• -s at the end of hides tells us that this is
either the third person singular of the verb
hide or the plural of the noun hide.
• What things have you bought because of an
• Has an advertisement ever helped you in some
• What kind of ad was it?
• How did it help you?
• Are there any ads that you really like?
• Why do you like them?
• What are some things you would never buy
based on an ad?
Does advertising help or harm us?
Memory recall after learning
• ‘your boss has a bigger vocabulary than
you have. That’s one good reason why
he’s your boss. ( Dr Wilfred funk and Dr
Norman Lewis).
• A simple formula to keep your memory
1. You must repeat something five times for it
to stay in your long-term memory
• Your repetitions should be spaced out roughly
according to the following formula:
First repetition- after one hour
Second repetition- after one day
Third repetition – after one week
Fourth repetition- after one month
Fifth repetition- after six months
How can advertisers change our
• What are some of the techniques that
advertisers use to influence consumers?
• What are the different types of products
that may be marketed with those
Could used in the past
We use could to talk about the past.
She could read when she was four.
My grandmother could sing like an angel.
My last car could do 200kmp.
In those days everybody could find a job.
Review Present Perfect
• When is present perfect used?
• What is its form?
Present perfect is used to show that
an action started in the past and is
still happening ( up to now)
Form: have/ has + past participle
Ex. I have lived in Riyadh for 5 years.
I am still living in Riyadh
Past Perfect/ Simple Past
• The smart board had fallen down before I
arrived at the class.
• Are we talking about the past?
• How many actions are there in the past?
• Did both actions happen at the same
• Which action happened first ?
The smart board falling 1st action
Arriving at the class is the 2nd action
Two past actions , one happened
before the other.
Past perfect = 1st action
Simple past= 2nd action
She had called her boss before she
went home.
past perfect
had called
simple past
had called
went home 2nd action
They had made many mistakes
before they did it right.
past perfect
had made
simple past
mistakes = 1st action
right = 2nd action
You had left before the meeting
past perfect
had left
simple past
past perfect
simple past
had called 1st action
had made 1st action
had left
1st action
went 2nd action
did 2nd action
started 2nd action
the past perfect tense is also
used with when, by the time,
and until
He had been at work for hours when we called
The had already eaten dinner by the time I
got home.
They hadn’t heard anything about it until they
read twitter this morning.