# AP WORKSHEET 0: Significant Figures

## Transcription

AP WORKSHEET 0: Significant Figures
```AP WORKSHEET 0: Significant Figures
1. Determine the number of significant figures in each of the following. (6)
(a) 0.7680
(b) 1230.00
(c) 1000.01
(d) 120.0
(e) 1.09 x 104
(f)
0.0080060
2. Use a calculator to find the results of the following and then round the answer to the correct
number of significant figures. (6)
(a) 34.66 + 333.0
(b) 1.23 + 9.66
(c) 445 - 1.22
(d) 18.2 + 1.998
(e) 10.2 – 1.34
(f)
100 - 23
3. State the significant figure rule that is associated with “captive zeros”. (1)
4. State the significant figure rule that is associated with “leading zeros”. (1)
5. State the significant figure rule that is associated with “trailing zeros”. (1)
6. State the significant figure rule that is associated with addition and subtraction operations. (1)
7. State the significant figure rule that is associated with multiplication and division operations.
(1)
1
8. Use a calculator to find the results of the following calculations and then round the answer to
the correct number of significant figures. (6)
(a) 12 x 11.45
(b) (1.23 x 103) x (6.4 x 102)
(c) 5.233 x 6.324
(d) 34 / 22
(e) (1.8 x 105) / 14
(f)
100.23 / 5.22
9. Round each of the following to three significant figures. (6)
(a) 167.789
(b) 0.0000456922
(c) 23.00567
(d) 3.4569
(e) 7903.0005
(f)
11.044
10. How many significant figures in each of the following? (6)
(a) 654.001 nm
(b) 6.02 x 1023 particles
(c) 1.0079 g
(d) 13 neutrons
(e) 11.22201 mg
(f)
0.004504 g
2
AP WORKSHEET 0: Unit Conversions
This worksheet utilizes the conversions given at this web site http://www.onlineconversion.com
1. Perform the following conversions. In each case show the full, dimensional analysis. Source
any conversion factors from the web site above. An example is given below. (6)
Question: 3.00 cm to mm.
 3.00 cm   10 mm 


 = 30 mm

  1 cm 
(a) 120 J to MJ
(b) 3 m to cm
(c) 400 miles to km
(d) 25 hectares to acres
(e) 34 inches to ft
(f)
289 s to hrs
2. Perform the following conversions. In each case you do NOT need to show the full,
dimensional analysis. Source any conversion factors from the web site above. (6)
(a) 120000 J to kJ
(b) 13 kg to lbs
(c) 83.2 K to oC
(d) 48 mins to ms
(e) 34 oF to oC
(f)
13.2 kg to lbs
1
3. Perform the following sequences of conversions. In each case show the full, dimensional
analysis. Source any conversion factors from the web site above. An example is given below.
(6)
Question: 3.00 cm to m VIA mm.
 3.00 cm   10 mm   0.001 m 



 = 0.03 m

  1 cm   1 mm 
(a) 679 nm to cm VIA m
(b) 23 miles to m VIA km
(c) 567 feet to m VIA yd
(d) 12 L to UK gal VIA mL
(e) 8 MJ to J VIA kJ
(f)
418 s to hrs VIA min
2
AP WORKSHEET Unit 0: Inorganic Nomenclature I
1. The following compounds are all binary compounds. Give the name of each one. (6)
(a) SrO
(b) K2O
(c) Na2S
(d) Cs3P
(e) AlCl3
(f)
2.
Mg3N2
Some of the following name and formula combinations are incorrect. Identify the correct
combinations. For the others, suggest corrected combinations. (13)
(a) barium hydroxide, BaOH2
(b) sodium oxide, SoO2
(c) barium chloride, BCl 3
(d) strontium oxide SrO2
(e) boron trifluoride, BoFl6
(f)
(g) magnesium oxide, MgO4
3. Write the name of the following compounds. Use Roman numerals in the names. (7)
(a) FeI3
(b) MnCl2
(c) HgO
(d) Cu2S
(e) CuS
(f)
SnI4
(g) MnBr2
1
4. Write the name of each of the following. To help get the correct name, use the periodic table
to determine which elements are metals, which are non-metals and which compounds should
include Roman numerals in their names. (16)
(a) N2Br5
(b) P2S5
(c) Ge2O3
(d) N2O5
(e) SiO2
(f)
AlH3
(g) FeO
(h) CuCl2
(i)
OCl2
(j)
XeF6
(k) RaCl2
(l)
SeCl2
(m) PCl5
(n) Na3P
(o) CuF
(p) V2O5
2
AP WORKSHEET 0: Inorganic Nomenclature II
Add either a name or a formula to complete each table. (100)
1. Potassium dichromate
2. Lithium sulfide
3. Potassium bromide
4. Cesium iodide
5. Calcium phosphide
6. Sodium fluoride
7. Strontium oxide
8. Beryllium sulfide
9. Magnesium bromide
10. Lithium oxide
11. Strontium chloride
12. Barium bromide
13. Magnesium sulfide
14. Magnesium iodide
15. Hydrogen fluoride (Hydrogen monofluoride)
16. Barium phosphide
17. Sodium hydrogen phosphate
18. Potassium chloride
19. Lithium nitride
20. Calcium sulfide
21. Rubidium oxide
22. Strontium nitride
23. Cesium phosphide
24. Magnesium carbonate
25. Beryllium sulfate
1
26. Dinitrogen Tetraoxide
27. Carbon dioxide
28. Mercury(I) chloride
29. Hydroiodic acid
30. Iodic acid
31. Perbromic acid
32. Hypobromous acid
33. Phosphorus pentachloride
34. Iodine monochloride
35. Antimony(III) fluoride
36. Bromine monofluoride
37. Bromine dioxide
38. Dinitrogen pentoxide
39. Carbon monosulfide
40. Tellurium dioxide
41. Phosphorus tribromide
42. Carbon tetraiodide
44. Zinc carbonate
45. Silver hydroxide
47. Mercury(II) iodide
48. Uranium(V) nitrate
49. Nickel (III) nitride
50. Sulfuric acid
2
51. ScCl3
52. HCl
53. PtO2
54. Sb(ClO3)5
55. GeS2
56. ZnO
57. VSO4
58. CuCl2
59. TiO2
60. NiN
61. Ni3(PO4)2
62. CoF3
63. Au2O3
64. Zn3P2
65. Cr(NO3)6
66. NaIO2
67. NaIO3
68. NaI
69. H2SO3
70. H2CO3
71. AlN
72. AlH3
73. Li3AsO4
74. NaCN
75. Na2O2
3
76. Li3PO3
77. KHCO3
78. HF
79. AuI2
80. KMnO4
81. Na2Cr2O7
82. Ag2CrO4
83. AgCl
84. NaCH3COO
85. RaF2
86. KSCN
87. FeS
88. Fe2(SO3)3
89. FeSO4
90. MgS
91. Na2S2O3
92. RbCl
93. Cu(OH)2
94. Mg3N2
95. Cu3N
96. LiH
97. K2O
98. K2O2
99. Li3N
100. DsCl3
4
AP WORKSHEET 0: Elements, Mixtures & Compounds
1. Classify each of the following as either, an element, a compound or a mixture. If you classify
something as a mixture then also state whether it is a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture.
(10)
(a) Helium
(b) Nitrogen
(c) Pure water
(d) Pure table salt (sodium chloride)
(e) Flat (un-carbonated) Coca-Cola
(f)
Air
(g) Fruit cake
2. If three, different samples of a particular compound are found to have exactly the same elemental %
by mass, what does that tell us about;
(a) the three samples in relation to one another? (2)
(b) the purity of the three samples? (2)
1
4. Match the following particulate diagrams to the correct description. In each case a black circle and a
red circle represent the atoms of different elements. (4)
1 2 3 4 5
A.
A single, pure, monatomic element.
B.
A mixture of two elements.
C.
A single, pure compound.
D.
A mixture of two compounds.
E.
A mixture of an element and a compound.
2
AP WORKSHEET 01b: Empirical Formula
1. A common oxide of nitrogen contains 25.93% N. Deduce the empirical formula of the oxide.
(2)
2. A compound that is usually used as a fertilizer can also be used as a powerful explosive. The
compound has the composition 35.00% nitrogen, 59.96% oxygen and the remainder being
hydrogen. What is its empirical formula? Given it is ionic, suggest a name for the compound.
(3)
3. What are the empirical formulae for these compounds, that both contain five carbon atoms?
(2)
(a) C5H10
(b) C5H12
4. A substance has an empirical formula of CH2Br and a molar mass of 188 g mol-1. What is the
molecular formula of the compound? (1)
1
5. The common pain medicine, Advil, contains the active ingredient Ibuprofen that has a molar
mass of 206 g mol-1. Ibuprofen contains 75.73% C, 8.74% H, the remainder being oxygen.
What are the empirical and molecular formulae for Ibuprofen? (4)
6. The molar mass of the common antibiotic oxytetracycline is found to be 460 g mol-1 and a
2.000 g sample contains 1.1478 g of carbon, 0.10435 g of H, 0.62609 g of oxygen and the
remainder being nitrogen. What is the molecular formula of the oxytetracycline? (4)
2
AP WORKSHEET 01c: Isotopes and Mass Spectrometry
1. Many elements have a number of isotopes.
(a) Define the term isotope. (2)
(b) Complete the following table. (22)
Row
Isotope symbol
Atomic #
# Protons
# Neutrons
Mass #
13
1
C6
2
17
18
3
26
56
4
17
37
5
2
6
52
7
3
128
50
70
(c) Consider the 2nd and 4th row in the table. What three things do they have in common?
(3)
(d) Consider the 2nd and 4th row in the table. Give two differences? (2)
(e) Naturally occurring Ni is found to have the following approximate isotopic abundance;
58
Ni 68%, 60Ni 26%, 62Ni 4.0% and 61Ni 2.0%
Calculate the average relative atomic mass of Ni to two decimal places. (2)
1
2. The results taken from a mass spectrum of chlorine gas show peaks at m/z 35.00 and m/z
37.00 (The m/z peaks on a mass spectrum identify the different isotopes of an element that
are present in the sample).
(a) Given that the relative abundances of Cl 35.00 and Cl 37.00 are 77.50% and 22.50%
respectively, calculate the average relative atomic mass of chlorine atoms to four
significant figures. (2)
(b) Suggest all the possible masses of CI2 molecules that are made when two chlorine
atoms bond together. (3)
(c) Which of the molecules you have suggested in (b) will be the most abundant? Explain
2
3. Naturally occurring bromine molecules, Br2 have masses of 158, 160 and 162. They occur in
the relative abundances 25.69%, 49.99% and 24.31% respectively. What is the average
atomic mass of bromine atoms? What is the relative abundance of
79
Br and 81Br isotopes? (4)
4. An unknown element ‘Z’ is analyzed in a mass spectrometer and is found to have the
following isotopes with the corresponding relative abundances.
Isotope
Z50
Z52
Z53
Z54
4.34
83.79
9.50
2.37
Relative
abundance
(a) Using the axis below, sketch the expected mass spectrum that these data would
provide. Label the axes and pay attention to the size of any lines that you draw. (4)
(b) Calculate the average atomic mass of Z and identify the element. (3)
3
5. Consider the following mass spectrum that was generated from the analysis of an element.
Relative Abundance
100
24
25
26
27
28
29
m/z
(a) What does the existence of only a single peak in the spectrum suggest about the
element?
(b) Identify the element.
6. Copper has an atomic mass of 63.5456 amu and has two stable isotopes. Copper-63 has a
mass of 62.9296 amu, and copper-65 has a mass of 64.9278 amu.
(a) Calculate the percent abundance of each isotope of copper.
(b) Sketch the expected mass spectrum of the copper.
4
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