oTar janeliZe apolon TabuaSvili leri TavaZe nana iremaSvili

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oTar janeliZe apolon TabuaSvili leri TavaZe nana iremaSvili
oTar janeliZe
apolon TabuaSvili
leri TavaZe
nana iremaSvili
saqarTvelos
istoria
9
oTar janeliZe
apolon TabuaSvili
leri TavaZe
nana iremaSvili
9
saqarTvelos istoria
grifirebulia 2012 wels ganaTlebis
xarisxis ganviTarebis erovnuli centris mier
gamomcemloba `klio~
2012
oTar janeliZe, apolon TabuaSvili, leri TavaZe, nana iremaSvili
saqarTvelos istoria 9
moswavlis wigni
avtorTa jgufis xelmZRvaneli
da mTavari redaqtori – elene meZmariaSvili
redaqtori – oTar janeliZe
wignze muSaobdnen: oTar janeliZe
apolon TabuaSvili
leri TavaZe
nana iremaSvili (meTodisti)
rukebis avtori – manana SeyilaZe
kompiuteruli
uzrunvelyofa – nana esarTia
© gamomcemloba `klio~, 2012
© oTar janeliZe, apolon TabuaSvili,
leri TavaZe, nana iremaSvili, 2012
Otar Janelidze, Apolon Tabuashvili, Leri Tavadze, Nana Iremashvili
History of Georgia
9th Grade Textbook
ISBN 978-9941-415-89-0
gamomcemloba `klio~
aRmaSeneblis gamziri 181, Tbilisi, 0112, saqarTvelo
tel.: (995 32) 234 04 30
E-mail: [email protected]
http://www.klio.ge
Sinaarsi
Sesavali .........................................................................................................................................8
saqarTvelos istoriul-geografiuli mimoxilva............................................................... 9
kari I
Tavi I.
uZvelesi xana
preistoria.......................................................................................................................... 14
1.1. pirvelyofili adamiani saqarTvelos teritoriaze.................................................... 14
1.2. miwaTmoqmedebis dasawyisi saqarTveloSi....................................................................... 17
1.3. brinjaos xana saqarTvelos teritoriaze...................................................................... 21
Tavi II.
saxelmwifoebriobis dasawyisi.............................................................................. 25
2.1. qarTveli xalxis warmomavloba......................................................................................... 25
2.2. uZvelesi qarTuli saxelmwifoebi.................................................................................... 28
Tavi III.
antikuri xana................................................................................................................... 31
3.1. saqarTvelo Zv.w. VI-IV saukuneebSi..................................................................................... 31
3.2. farnavaz mefe da misi epoqa................................................................................................. 33
3.3. saqarTvelos politikuri viTareba Zv.w. III-I saukuneebSi............................................ 36
3.4. saqarTvelo I-II saukuneebSi. qarTlis samefos aRzeveba............................................. 39
3.5. saqarTvelo III saukuneSi...................................................................................................... 43
3.6. saxelmwifo mmarTveloba antikuri xanis saqarTveloSi............................................. 45
3.7. socialuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareoba antikuri xanis saqarTveloSi................ 47
3.8. antikuri epoqis saqarTvelos warmarTuli panTeoni .................................................. 50
3.9. antikuri xanis saqarTvelos mosaxleobis yofa-cxovreba da kultura.................. 52
I Semajamebeli................................................................................................................................ 55
kari II
Tavi IV.
Sua saukuneebi
saqarTvelo IV-X saukuneebSi................................................................................... 58
4.1. qristianobis gavrceleba da damkvidreba saqarTveloSi........................................... 58
4.2. feodalizmis Casaxva saqarTveloSi.................................................................................. 61
4.3. saqarTvelos politikuri viTareba IV saukunesa da
V saukunis pirvel naxevarSi................................................................................................ 63
4.4. vaxtang gorgasali da misi epoqa........................................................................................ 65
4.5. saqarTvelo VI saukuneSi...................................................................................................... 68
4.6. qarTli da egrisi VI-VII saukuneebis mijnaze................................................................... 71
4.7. arabTa batonoba saqarTveloSi......................................................................................... 73
4.8. feodaluri samefo-samTavroebis Camoyalibeba............................................................ 75
4.9. socialuri da ekonomikuri viTareba IV-X saukuneebis saqarTveloSi..................... 78
4.10. qalaqebi da saqalaqo cxovreba IV-X saukuneebis saqarTveloSi.............................. 81
4.11. saeklesio da samonastro cxovreba saqarTveloSi..................................................... 83
4.12. ganaTleba Zvel saqarTveloSi......................................................................................... 86
4.13. kultura IV-X saukuneebis saqarTveloSi...................................................................... 88
II Semajamebeli............................................................................................................................... 91
Tavi V.
saqarTvelo XI – XIII s. dasawyisSi............................................................................93
5.1. brZola saqarTvelos gaerTianebisaTvis........................................................................ 93
5.2. bagrat III-is mefoba .............................................................................................................. 96
5.3. saqarTvelo-bizantiis urTierToba XI saukuneSi......................................................... 99
5.4. Turq-selCukebi saqarTveloSi. `didi Turqoba~........................................................... 102
5.5. daviT aRmaSeneblis reformebi.......................................................................................... 105
5.6. daviT aRmaSeneblis brZola Turq-selCukTa winaaRmdeg. didgoris brZola......... 108
5.7. saqarTvelo demetre I-isa da giorgi III-is dros............................................................ 112
5.8. Tamar mefis saSinao politika............................................................................................ 115
5.9. Tamar mefis sagareo politika........................................................................................... 117
5.10. saqarTvelo – erTiani kavkasiuri saxelmwifo............................................................. 120
5.11. giorgi IV laSa....................................................................................................................... 123
5.12. saxelmwifo mmarTveloba da samxedro organizacia
XI-XIII saukuneebis saqarTveloSi..................................................................................... 126
5.13. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTareba. qalaqebi XI-XIII saukuneebSi..................... 129
5.14. socialuri jgufebis uflebrivi mdgomareoba.
mosaxleobis yofa-cxovreba XI-XIII saukuneebis saqarTveloSi................................ 133
5.15. saqarTvelos kultura XI-XIII saukuneebSi..................................................................... 136
Tavi VI.
saqarTvelo XIII-XV saukuneebSi............................................................................... 140
6.1. rusudanis mefoba (1222-1245)............................................................................................. 140
6.2. monRolTa mier saqarTvelos aRwera. qveynis daSla.................................................... 143
6.3. qarTvelebi monRolTa laSqrobebSi. demetre II Tavdadebuli.................................. 146
6.4. giorgi brwyinvales mefoba da saqarTvelos erTianobis aRdgena............................ 149
6.5. Temur-lengis Semosevebi..................................................................................................... 152
6.6. aleqsandre I didi (1412-1442) ............................................................................................. 155
6.7. saTavadoTa sistemis Camoyalibeba. qarTuli kultura
da sazogadoebrivi cxovreba XIV-XV saukuneebis saqarTveloSi................................ 158
6.8. saqarTvelos daSla samefo-samTavroebad...................................................................... 162
III Semajamebeli.............................................................................................................................. 165
kari III
Tavi VII.
Sua saukuneebidan axali droisaken
saqarTvelo XV-XVIII s. pirvel naxevarSi........................................................... 168
7.1. saqarTvelo XV saukunis miwurulsa XVI saukunis dasawyisSi..................................... 168
7.2. dasavleT saqarTvelo XVI saukuneSi................................................................................. 171
7.3. qarTlis samefo XVI saukuneSi............................................................................................ 173
7.4. kaxeTis samefo XVI saukuneSi.............................................................................................. 176
7.5. samcxe-saaTabago XVI saukuneSi.......................................................................................... 178
7.6. aRmosavleT saqarTvelo XVII saukunis dasawyisSi........................................................ 180
7.7. qarTveli xalxis brZola Sah abasis winaaRmdeg............................................................. 182
7.8. aRmosavleT saqarTvelo XVII saukunis 30-50-ian wlebSi.............................................. 185
7.9. aRmosavleT saqarTvelo XVII saukunis II naxevarSi. baxtrionis ajanyeba................ 187
7.10. dasavleT saqarTvelo XVII saukuneSi.............................................................................. 189
7.11. qarTuli kultura XVI-XVII saukuneebSi......................................................................... 192
7.12. vaxtang VI-is mefoba............................................................................................................ 195
7.13. `osmaloba~ da `yizilbaSoba~............................................................................................ 199
7.14. saxelmwifo mmarTveloba XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi............................................................ 201
7.15. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri mdgomareoba da qalaqebi XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi........... 203
4
istoria IX
7.16. samarTali, socialuri garemo da yofa-cxovreba
XVI-XVIII saukuneebis saqarTveloSi................................................................................. 207
IV Semajamebeli.............................................................................................................................. 211
Tavi VIII.
saqarTvelo XVIII saukunis II naxevarSi.............................................................. 213
8.1. qarTlisa da kaxeTis qristiani mefeebi – Teimuraz II da erekle II............................ 213
8.2. erekle II-is reformebi......................................................................................................... 216
8.3. solomon I................................................................................................................................. 220
8.4. ruseT-osmaleTis 1768-1774 wlebis omi da saqarTvelo.............................................. 222
8.5. georgievskis traqtati........................................................................................................ 225
8.6. saqarTvelo XVIII saukunis 80-iani wlebis Sua xanebsa da
90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi..................................................................................................... 228
8.7. aRa-mahmad xanis Semoseva..................................................................................................... 231
8.8. qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gauqmeba.1801 wlis manifesti................................................. 235
8.9. qarTuli kultura da politikuri azris
ganviTareba XVIII saukunis meore naxevarSi..................................................................... 239
V Semajamebeli............................................................................................................................... 243
kari IV
Aaxali dro
Tavi IX.
erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba 1802-1832 wlebSi...................... 246
9.1. rusuli mmarTvelobis damyareba..................................................................................... 246
9.2.1802 wlis kaxeTis TavadTa SeTqmuleba............................................................................. 249
9.3. avtokefaliis gauqmeba......................................................................................................... 251
9.4. qarTlis mTianeTis 1804 wlis ajanyeba............................................................................. 253
9.5. imereTis samefos dapyroba................................................................................................. 257
9.6. 1812 wlis ajanyeba kaxeTSi.................................................................................................. 260
9.7. 1832 wlis SeTqmuleba........................................................................................................... 263
Tavi X.
ruseTis damkvidreba saqarTveloSi................................................................... 266
10.1. ruseTis imperiis eqspansiis Sedegebi saqarTveloSi................................................. 266
10.2. XIX saukunis pirveli mesamedis ruseTis kavkasiuri omebi da saqarTvelo........... 270
10.3. cvlilebebi ruseTis imperiis koloniuri mmarTvelobis
sistemaSi – mTavarmarTeblobidan mefisnacvlobisaken.......................................... 274
Tavi XI.
saqarTvelo XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi....................................................... 277
11.1. ruseTis omebi XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi da saqarTvelo.................................... 277
11.2. samTavroebis gauqmeba........................................................................................................ 280
11.3. Tergdaleulebi................................................................................................................... 283
11.4. ilias epoqa............................................................................................................................ 286
11.5. batonymobis gauqmeba. XIX saukunis 60-70-iani wlebis reformebi........................... 289
11.6. qarTuli kultura XIX saukuneSi: ganaTleba, mecniereba, literatura, presa.... 293
11.7. XIX saukunis qarTuli xelovneba..................................................................................... 296
VI Semajamebeli............................................................................................................................. 299
kari V
saqarTvelo XX saukunesa da XXI saukunis dasawyisSi
Tavi XII.
revoluciuri moZraoba ruseTSi da saqarTvelo....................................... 302
12.1. politikuri partiebi saqarTveloSi.............................................................................. 306
12.2. saqarTvelo 1905-1907 wlebis revoluciis periodSi................................................. 306
12.3. pirveli msoflio omi da erovnuli sakiTxi saqarTveloSi...................................... 309
5
12.4. ruseTis 1917 wlis Tebervlis revolucia. oqtombris
saxelmwifo gadatrialeba da saqarTvelo.................................................................... 313
12.5. saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis gamocxadeba............................ 315
Tavi XIII.
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublika....................................................... 318
13.1. saSinao politika.konstituciis SemuSaveba da miReba............................................... 318
13.2. brZola teritoriuli mTlianobisaTvis....................................................................... 322
13.3. sagareo politika. saqarTvelo da erTa liga. urTierToba ruseTTan.................. 326
13.4. qarTuli kultura 1900-1921 wlebSi............................................................................... 330
VII Semajamebeli............................................................................................................................. 334
Tavi XIV.
saqarTvelo 1921-1945 wlebSi.................................................................................. 336
14.1. brZola saokupacio reJimis winaaRmdeg sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirvel wlebSi.......336
14.2. saqarTvelos sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis Camoyalibeba........................... 339
14.3. sabWoTa reJimi saqarTveloSi 1920-30-ian wlebSi....................................................... 343
14.4. politikuri represiebi XX saukunis 20-30-ian wlebSi............................................... 347
14.5. meore msoflio omi da saqarTvelo................................................................................. 350
Tavi XV.
saqarTvelo sabWoTa kavSiris
SemadgenlobaSi (XX saukunis meore naxevari).............................................. 353
15.1. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis saprotesto gamosvlebi 1956 da 1978 wlebSi............. 353
15.2. erovnuli moZraobis aRmavloba...................................................................................... 357
Tavi XVI.
damoukidebeli saqarTvelo.................................................................................. 361
16.1. damoukideblobis gamocxadeba. 1991-1992 wlebis saxelmwifo gadatrialeba...... 361
16.2. brZola separtizmis winaaRmdeg...................................................................................... 365
16.3. vardebis revolucia........................................................................................................... 368
16.4. saqarTvelos integracia evrostruqturebSi.............................................................. 371
16.5. qarTuli kultura XX saukunis meore naxevarSi.......................................................... 374
VIII Semajamebeli............................................................................................................................ 378
qronologiuri cxrili............................................................................................................... 379
6
istoria IX
5.4.
Turq-selCukebi saqarTveloSi. ``didi Turqoba~
sakvanZo sityvebi:
 Turq-selCukebi
 sulTani
 manaskertis
brZola
 `didi Turqoba~
mTavari kiTxva: ra safrTxes uqmnida `didi Turqoba~
saqarTvelos?
Turq selCukebis gamoCena saqarTveloSi
XI saukunis 60-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis bagrat IV-s, liparit baRvaSis damarcxebis Semdeg, kaxeT-hereTis SemosaerTeblad brZolis dawyebis SesaZlebloba mieca. marTlac, mefem
TiTqmis mTeli kaxeT-hereTi daikava, magram saboloo warmatebas xeli Turq-selCukTa Semosevam SeuSala, riTic kaxeTis mefe
aRsarTanma isargebla da dakarguli poziciebi kvlav daibruna.
davaleba 1
wyaro 1. bagrat IV-is
sawinamZRvro jvari
daxaze sqema: `vici, minda vicode, viswavle~. pirvel grafaSi Cawere is, rac ukve ici Turq-selCukTYa Sesaxeb, II grafaSi Cawere,
ra gsurs icode Turq-selCukTa saqarTveloSi laSqrobebis
Sesaxeb. mesame grafa `viswavle~ Seavse gakveTilis bolos.
Sua aziidan wamosuli Turq-selCukTa momTabare tomebi maxlobel aRmosavleTs Seesivnen. XI saukunis 50-ian wlebSi maT
daipyres irani, bizantiis imperiis aRmosavleTis sasazRvro
provinciebi da samxreT kavkasiis mniSvnelovani nawili. 1064
wels Turq-selCukTa sulTani alf arslani (1063-1072) didi
jariT saqarTvelos sazRvrebs samxreTidan moadga, qveynaSi SemoiWra da axalqalaqi daarbia. 1068 wels, is kvlav SemoiWra saqarTveloSi, amjerad hereTidan.
wyaro 2
„matiane qarTlisai“ 1068 wels Turq-selCukTa Semosevis Sesaxeb
da iyo qarTlSi puri da Rvino friadi. dayo (sulTanma) eqvsi kvira da daiwyo aoxreba da adamianebis xocva da gadavida misi marbieli laSqari argveTs.
daxoces da tyved waiyvanes qristianTa didi raodenoba. qarTli iyo saSineli
sanaxavi: mooxrda eklesiebi, aq Cadga TurqTa laSqari...
davaleba 2
a)daadgine, wyaro 2-is mixedviT, saqarTvelos romeli regionebi daarbies
Turq-selCukebma 1068 wels?
b) ivaraude, ra safrTxis winaSe dadga saqarTvelos soflis meurneoba momTabare Turq-selCukTa tomebis Semosevis Sedegad?
g) moZebne wyaro 2-Si fraza, Tu rogor ebrZodnen Turq-selCukebi qristianebs
da maT sakulto nagebobebs.
bagrat mefe gadamwyvet brZolas moerida, dasavleT saqarTveloSi gamagrda da saomar samzadiss Seudga. bagratis mebrZolTa mcire razmebi mters
moulodnelad Tavs esxmodnen. zamTris moaxlovebisTanave, Turqebi aiyarnen
da mtkvris qvemo dinebisken wavidnen.
1071 wels Turq-selCukebma manaskertis brZolaSi bizantielebi daamarcxes da aRmosavleTis provinciebis daTmoba aiZules. saqarTvelo selCukebis winaaRmdeg mokavSiris gareSe darCa.
selCukTa sulTani bagratisagan xarks moiTxovda. bagrati diplomatiurad moqmedebda, saCuqrebiT datvirTul mociqulebs ugzavnida da xarks ar
kisrulobda. amasobaSi, 1072 wels, SeTqmulebma alf arslani mokles. imave
wels bagrat IV-c gardaicvala.
102
istoria IX
saqarTvelos samefo taxtze giorgi II (1072-1089) avida. mefis
gamoucdelobiT feodalebma isargebles. gamefebisTanave mas
didebulebi aujanydnen. giorgi II-m ajanyebulebi didi wyalobis
fasad Semoiriga.
davaleba 3
Seadare giorgi II-isa da misi winamorbedebis taqtika ajanyebuli feodalebis mimarT? romeli migaCnia ufro marTebulad?
pasuxi daasabuTe.
`didi Turqoba~
male Turq-selCukTa Semosevebma mefe axali sirTulis winaSe daayena. momdevno sulTanma maliqSahma (1072-1092) saqarTveloze Tavdasxmebi ganaaxla. Tavdapirvelad, giorgi II selCukebs
winaaRmdegobas uwevda da 1074 wels farcxisTan maTi jari daamarcxa kidec, Tumca Zalebi aSkarad uTanasworo iyo.
selCukTa Semosevebi grZeldeboda. 1080 wels TurqTa axali didi jari saqarTvelosken daiZra. mefe giorgi II Turqebs
SeebrZola, magram damarcxda da dasavleT saqarTvelos Seafara Tavi. Turqebi mTel saqarTvelos moedvnen. mravali qalaqi
da sofeli ganadgurda. eklesia-monastrebi nangrevebad iqca.
mosaxleobis didi nawili TurqebTan brZolaSi gawyda, nawili
tyved Cavarda. gadarCenilebi mTebSi gaixiznen. Turqebi dap­
yrobil teritoriebs ojaxebiTa da jogebiT ikavebdnen da ayvavebul baR-venaxebsa Tu yanebs saZovrebad aqcevdnen. maT saqar­
TveloSi TavianTi tradiciuli momTabare-mejoguri cxovrebis
wesis damkvidreba daiwyes.
am movlenas qarTveli mematiane `did Turqobas~ uwodebs.
selCukebi saqarTveloSi zamTramde rCebodnen, zamTris moaxloebisas ki qveyanas tovebdnen, gamozafxulebisTanave isev saqarTveloSi brundebodnen. ase grZeldeboda zedized ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi.
wyaro 3. maliqSahi
wyaro 4
XII saukunis qarTveli anonimi istorikosi Turq-selCukTa
saqarTveloSi Semosevis Sesaxeb
asisforni, klarjeTi zRvis piramde, SavSveTi, aWara, samcxe,
qarTli, argveTi, samoqalaqo da Wyondidi aivso TurqebiT. ganadgurda am mxareebSi yovelive. da erT dRes dawves quTaTisi, artanuji da udabnoni klarjeTisa. darCnen qveyanaSi Turqebi Tovlis
mosvlamde, moWames qveyana da moswyvites. da es iyo pirveli da
didi Turqoba, rameTu qoronikoni iyo samasi (1080 w.). xolo Tu
mTiuleTs an simagreebSi sadmes vinme darCa mosaxleobisagan,
zamTris siciviT, usaxl-karobiT da SimSiliT daixoca.
davaleba 4
a) gadmoeci Seni sityvebiT wyaro 4-is Sinaarsi.
b) aRwere Turq-selCukebis saqarTveloSi Semosevis Sedegebi.
giorgi mefem ver SeZlo qveynis mTeli Zalebis mobilizeba da
selCukebisaTvis saTanado winaaRmdegobis gaweva. man TurqebTan dazaveba gadawyvita. giorgi II sulTans didi ZRveniT eaxla,
103
morCileba gamoucxada da yovelwliuri xarkic ikisra.
sulTani mefes dahpirda, rom qveyanaSi momTabareoba Sewydeboda, magram Turqebi mosaxleobas Zveleburad arbevdnen. amasobaSi, kaxeTis mefe aRsarTani sulTans eaxla da morCilebis niSnad islami miiRo.
qarTveli xalxi fizikuri ganadgurebis safrTxis winaSe dadga. amas daerTo stiqiuri ubedureba. 1089 wels
didi miwisZvra moxda: `mtvrad iqca maRali mTebi, daingra mravali qalaqi da sofeli, daeca eklesiebi da sacxovrebeli saxlebi~. aseT kritikul momentSi patriotulad ganwyobilma saxelmwifo moRvaweebma giorgi II
aiZules gadamdgariyo da taxti16 wlis vaJiSvilis daviTisaTvis daeTmo. giorgi II saxelmwifo saqmeebs CamoSorda, Tumca, kidev ocdasami weli icocxla.
wyaro 5. aRmosavluri
miniatura Turq-selCu­
kebis gamosaxulebiT
cnobari
Turq-selCukebi –
Sua aziaSi mcxovrebi
sunituri islamis
mimdevar tomTa
gaerTianeba,
romelsac erT-erTi
beladis, selCukis
saxeli ewoda.
sulTani – mefis
tituli zogierT
muslimur qveyanaSi.
davaleba 5
a) Seafase giorgi II-is gadawyvetileba Turq-selCukTaTvis morCilebis gamocxadebis Taobaze.
b) rogor fiqrob, ramdenad gamarTlebuli iyo giorgi II-is taxtidan gadayeneba?
g) Seavse sqemis `vici, minda vicode, viswavle~ III grafa. mokled
Camowere is siaxleebi, rac gakveTilze iswavle.
istoriis saintereso furclebi
bizantiuri titulebi da qarTveli mefeebi
bizantiis imperiaSi arsebobda sakariskaco titulebi: kurapalatis, novelisimosis, sevastosis da kesarosis. es ukanaskneli
yvelaze maRal pativad iTvleboda da mas saimperatoro ojaxisa
da karis umaRlesi garemocvis wevrebi iRebdnen. qarTvel mefeebs
bizantiis imperatorebi sakariskaco titulebs aniWebdnen, riTac xazs usvamdnen maT bizantiaze damokidebulebas. amave dros,
kurapalatis pativze maRal tituls qarTvel mefe­ebs TiTqmis
arasodes aZlevdnen. Turq-selCukebis gaaqtiurebam mcire aziasa
da kavkasiaSi bizantiis imperiaSi sakariskaco titu­lebis gacemis weszec moaxdina gavlena. bizantielebs qarTvel mefeebTan
ukve kargi urTierTobis SenarCuneba surdaT. amitom axla ufro
advilad gascemdnen adre Znelad misawvdom titulebs. bizantielebma giorgi II-s TanmimdevrobiT mianiWes kurapalatis, novelisimosis, sevastosis da kesarosis umaRlesi pativic ki.
davaleba
6
Seavse cxrili „saqarTvelo – bizantiis urTier­Tobis dinamika V-XI saukuneebSi“.
epoqa
bizantiis
politika
saqarTveloSi
104
V s.
VI-VII ss.
vaxtang
erismTavrobis
gorgaslis
periodi
epoqa
VIII-IX ss.
samefosamTavroebis
warmoqmnis xana
XI s.
X s.
gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos
daviT
mefeebis – bagrat III-is,
kurapalatis
giorgi I-is, bagrat IV-is,
epoqa
giorgi II-is periodi

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