16 September 2015, 19th International Academic Conference, Florence
ISBN 978-80-87927-15-1 , IISES
DOI: 10.20472/IAC.2015.019.004
Associate Professor, Selcuk University, Faculty of Communication, Türkiye
Research Assistant, Selcuk University, Faculty of Communication,, Türkiye
Lecturer, Gazi University, Vocational School of Social Sciences,, Türkiye
Today, virtual world and its online experiences come into prominence. In terms of advertising in new
media, understanding what users do and how they behave online is crucial for not only computer
scientists, but also advertisers and marketing professionals. Traditional communication and
advertising models fall short to explain online behaviors of consumers because none of them
considers interactive nature of Web 2.0. Advertising and computer science theorists develop
interactive models to gain insight into online behaviors of consumers. By this way, computer
scientists design their clients’ web sites and other online channels user-friendly and marketing
professionals perform their online campaigns in a manner which users cannot refuse or ignore. Also,
they may even make a part their audience in advertising campaigns.
Although, interactive advertising is a commonly used concept, there are limited number of studies
specially focus on this issue in related literature. In this study, a meta-analysis is made on existing
interactive advertising models. By this way, studies about interactive advertising is analyzed
interrelatedly and chronologically.
interactive advertising models, meta-analysis, interactivity
16 September 2015, 19th International Academic Conference, Florence
ISBN 978-80-87927-15-1 , IISES
Communication technology which develops rapidly today, shows ability and the
different mediums arise from the traditional implementation. While new media which
indicates the new ones, refers CD-ROM 20 years ago, it defines the digital and its
return. ‘’New’’ word not only refers current as technology, but also the newness
related to function and transference of the meaning. Also, new media tools transform
advertising in terms of both form and content, make to be questioned the validity of
explanations which convey the traditional advertisement models. While it is observed
that the campaigns are composed with the creative strategies and approaches, in this
direction, it is seen that effective creative opinions and implementations for the target
groups become important. Especially, the Internet which is a deeply significant media
in terms of advertising, becomes one of the most effective advertising mediums as an
interactive data provider between the source and the receiver.
The interactive advertising notion composes the core of this study. In this study,
digital advertising and interactive advertising models, the development process of the
models and its current situations with interactive (interaction) notion have been
Today’s human being cannot almost perform their own any works without the
Internet, for this reason, this situation gives way to technology in every field of life.
This technology is used in order to sometimes spend leisure time and for sometimes
data seeking, commercial meaning of this technology means that potential customers
knock companies’ virtual doors as conscious or unconscious but volunteer in order to
get the commercial message of them. On the other hand, the users who are the part
of a digital flow, are also the consumers of the commercial messages come into this
flow as embedded. They surf not only the web site but also the advertisements
included in that web site. While the users are sharing a viral video, they share not
only the content but also the commercial messages included in the content, in fact
they turn into a part of the ad.
All digital tools provide big data with the digital tracks (marks) which their users leave.
The companies which can manage these big data, reach the opportunity to
accompany their target audience and meet with them at any time with rather low
16 September 2015, 19th International Academic Conference, Florence
ISBN 978-80-87927-15-1 , IISES
price (by comparison with traditional media). In addition to this, they reach the
opportunity to have insight for the campaigns by providing deeply and specified
information about who the target audience is. Such context brings with the ethic
discussions because the users are always followed by the data hunters and their
personal confidentialities are under the threat. For example, to download an
application to the mobile phone without any charges actually does not mean that the
application is not without charge. Its charge cannot be money, but there is a price
such as giving access permission to the mobile device and mobile actions made.
When examined in the long run, instead of download prices like 1-2 dollars, it is seen
that to have deeply, specific and concurrent information for target audience on the
level advertising/marketing research companies cannot achieve yet, is more
valuable. Thus, the videos which the users watch seems as if without any charges,
searches which they make into search engines, social media accounts which they
connect the applications, web sites which they visit, their friends who they have,
places which they visit etc. provide the clues to the companies and data
professionals about users. Besides, with analytics or metric data of web sites such
as exposure to numbers, click, mapping of the course and tending to buying or not,
can be followed, from this point of view the strategies can be developed. In this way,
the companies can use the digital medium as an insight source into their advertising
campaigns included in traditional medium and reach to specified groups included in
target audience and execute their digital campaigns. On the other hand, the
companies which adapt their traditional campaigns to the digital campaigns, can
extend the time they have with commercial messages. The most common view is QR
code (Quick Response Code)1, it allows to reach directly to the content and detailed
However, it does not matter that the process is digital or traditional, the process
performs on behalf of advertiser. The users do not like exposure to the ads, they try
to block them with variable software. New methods help advertisers because content
and ad is in a grift structure so borders between ads and content are ambiguous.
They are product placement, advertorial, advertainment, viral ad, advergame etc. The
QR code provides opportunity to directly reach the content obtained through hyperlinks without exposure to
information bombardment with their smart phones by previously using the users’ laptop or desktop
computers(Baik, 2010:434).
16 September 2015, 19th International Academic Conference, Florence
ISBN 978-80-87927-15-1 , IISES
advertising process changes and the traditional definition is transformed by given
technics. Rodgers, Thorson and Jin (2008:199) use the fluency metaphor for the
advertising. This is completely explanatory. Especially, the consumers and brands
with new media are everywhere at any time and the brands has to be new everytime
to reach the potential consumers. This situation extends the advertising limits, reforms and tries to catch the consumers in everywhere.
The concept of interactive advertising which is the core of this study, derives from
interactive word meant to be communicated as mutual between technologic system
and the user(Gülsoy, 1999:263). Liu and Shrum (2002:54), Deighton (1996) defines
two features of interaction are to address the person and get the their reaction and
remember, and add three dimensions to these features: active control, two-way
communication and synchronization.
Active control dimension can be understood by comparing with the best banner
advertisements and TV commercials. TV commercials cut into the programs the
audiences watch without the audiences’ approval and thereby the audiences change
the channel in order not to see the advertisement.
In fact, this is in use for magazine advertising, they have control over whether the
readers read the advertisement or not. Mostly, the readers turn over the
advertisement pages in order to read content what they want. This behavior is very
different in the banner advertisements. The banner advertisements are not in the
same page and the users do not have to make anything not to see the
advertisements. If they are interested in the advertisement, they can click to get more
information or they can simply ignore without making anything. Therefore, internet
users can control their experiences according to their own preferences and
decision(Liu and Shrum (2002:55). In today’s context, Bezjian-Avery, Calder and
Iacobucci (1998:24) which is one of the first studies about interactive advertising,
conceptualizes the interactivity as control ability of information. So, it is discussed
that active control dimension is itself of direct interactivity and its own definition of
interactive within the aforementioned study.
16 September 2015, 19th International Academic Conference, Florence
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Siemens, Smith and Fisher (2015:50) which question the relationship between active
control in game advertising and brand memory, model the aforementioned
conceptual schema like in figure 1.
Allocation of
primary cognitive
capacity to the
Positive free
recall of the
Allocation of
spare cognitive
capacity to the
Positive cued
recall of the
Poor memory
for the brand
Figure 1: Conceptual diagram of the relationship between active controland
brand memory
Aforementioned model is developed in specific to in-game advertising and active
control dimension included in here contains personalization of the game. This study
includes that the car chosen and the sponsor placed in the car can be selected
among options or found in virtual billboard within the game. The brand and logo are
seen on the car chosen for high active attendance, during the race audible
announcement is heard for the sponsor car. The brand in low active control is seen
on billboard during the race. The brand plays a passive role. While the primary work
capacity refers to the most important work according to model, secondary capacity is
directed to less important works and environmental stimulus. Thus, the advertisers’
aim is to direct the primary work capacity to the brand processing. Conceptual
fluency happens as a result of superficial movement and instant awareness and
mostly recognized thing is stimulus-based (such as assisted recall/brand notice test)
On the other hand, conceptual fluency can be affected during exposure time and it
becomes more clear for memory-based choices like recall tests(Siemens, Smith and
Fisher, 2015:44-50).
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ISBN 978-80-87927-15-1 , IISES
Two-way communication which is second dimension, indicates the mutual
communication ability between the companies – the users and the users-the users.
Internet provides opportunity to get instant feedback both implicitly and prominently
by changing the marketing communication which is old and one-way. Implicit
feedback composed of some measures like monitoring the consumers’ online
actions, registering the click rates for the banner advertisements and the time visitors
spend in web sites. On the other hand, prominent feedback, as is an evident from its
name, indicates the feedback activities which the users directly make through the
form included in mail or web site(Liu and Shrum (2002:55).
Moriarty, Mitchell and Wells (2012:102) point out that the source and receiver’s
positions change with entry of interactivity to marketing communication, the ideas
bounce back and fort (like table tennis), the source is the audience and the receiver
is the sender. In this manner, interactive communication is modelled like Figure 2.
Source /
Source /
Figure 2: An Interactive Communication Model
This two-way flow indicates a central importance for interactivity, McMillan (2002:165)
defines that “interactivity” is to look from audience’s eyes’’. When traditional
advertising and marketing communication models which do not include interactivity
notion, are examined, one-way communication can be seen. Traditional advertising
theory goes into division: administrative and psychological.
However, it can sometimes have the hybrid of these two things. Although most of
main advertising theories are administrative, its core has psychological factors as
well, because of focused to the big Picture, and are not interested in psychological
processes having micro level. Aforementioned models present all processes from
exposure to the advertisement to the purchasing to the corporations. The questions
related to what to say about the brand, how to say, which tool will be used and the
most suitable access and the most suitable frequency, are included in the core of
administrative models. On the other hand, psychological theories are put into work in
the process of testing of the advertisements(Rodgers, Thorson and Jin, 2008:198).
16 September 2015, 19th International Academic Conference, Florence
ISBN 978-80-87927-15-1 , IISES
Traditional models go into three divisions: hierarchical models, involvement-based
models and Elaboration Likelihood Model obtained from social pyschological (ELM)
(Elden, 2009:279). Hierarchical models have a specific linear platform, another stage
can not come before previous stage is not completed. Human factors in here are
almost ignored. The people are passive exactly like first period communication
studies and the messages will directly come true the desired effect. AIDA which is
known as hierarchical model of effects, is the most known model in this regard. The
hierarchy model of the effects is a model which tries to explain how the conviction
comprises. The some models such as NAIDA, NAIDAS, DAGMAR can be given as
an example for this type(Huizingh ve Hoekstra, 2002:360).
FCB Grid model which has been developed within the next period as traditional
advertising models, adds some stages such as thinking, feeling by disposing of
process mechanic working which human factor comes into play with the models like
Rossiter & Percy model. On the other hand, It is revealed that people do not look
every product group in the same way and they do not decide by following the same
way. ELM model explains the conviction based upon information needs and defines
two ways for the conviction.
Korgaonkar and Wolin (1999:56) think that the brands of the users who have positive
cognitive related to the Internet are more positively by making an explanation with
hierarchy of the effects in the same direction and mention that they are closer for the
purchasing. In other words, firstly it obtains information on the level of cognition, in
this direction comprises of an attitude and after that goes towards a behavior.
Huizingh and Hoekstra (2003) have applied hierarchy model of the effects to the web
space by adding interactivity (interactivite) to the process in their studies. Interactivity
in here is entitled as learning, and also includes that learning of the consumers and
their usage habits plays an active role in the modeling of web sites.
According to figure 3 advertising affects consumers in four stages: labelled attention
(realization of stimuli), cognition (information, sensation and belief about stimuli),
affection ( the senses and feelings for he stimuli) and behavior/conation (behavior
developed as a reaction against the stimuli) (Huizingh and Hoekstra, 2003:351).
16 September 2015, 19th International Academic Conference, Florence
Hierarchy of the effects
Web usage
ISBN 978-80-87927-15-1 , IISES
Figure 3. Huizingh and Hoekstra’s model developed on effectiveness of web
sites in terms of hierarchy of the effects and flow
According to the model, the learning process of the marketers reflects from the
learning process of the consumers and there are two factors preparing the learning
process of the marketers. First of them is that the consumers, more technically, have
to obtain about a tool (for example, How can I find an electronic shop sending the
flowers to Paris in Texas?): Second is that the consumers have to learn how they
integrate this new tool with purchasing process (for example, Which products can I
purchase from the internet under which conditions? or Which stage can I use internet
for purchasing?) This is the difference between traditional media and web sites.
Classical media defines that the customer is passive, but the visitors of the web sites
is active and they specify themselves to get which message for what and how long.
Thus, the customer comes from back seat of the advertisement tool to front seat.
Because of this, the starting points of the companies are the customers while they
are establishing their web sites.
Involvement for web site subject and flow explaining the visitors’ experiences during
web visit are two important premises about effectiveness of web advertising(Huizingh
and Hoekstra, 2003: 352-360).
Rodgers and Thorson (2000: 43) underline that even if most of traditional models
adapt to the Internet advertising, because of the fact that there is not a directly
development for the Internet, it does not include the dimensions such as inherent
interactive for the Internet, virtual reality and is insufficient to explain interactive
Synchronization which is the third dimension, indicates synchronization degree
related to the user’s reaction obtained for communication input and end of the
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communication. Traditional media presents less number of channels for the input of
the audience and the time between sending the input to these tools and getting
output (reaction) is rather long. After all, the internet makes the communication more
synchronized. For example, the keywords can be entered within seconds and search
results can be taken in the end of keywords(Liu and Shrum, 2002:55).
3b, 4a
1, 3a
8, 10
Figure 4. A Teoretical Framework of Interactivity Effects
Liu and Shrum (2002) have developed a model to understand how interactive affects
function. This model is seen in Figure 4.
According to above models, there is a correlation between (1) active control and (2)
the user cognitive involvement with two-way communication. There is a linear
relationship between (3) active control and learning of the user and (3a) the
relationship between them at least partially mediates the cognitive involvement and
(3b) self-efficacy. When (4) active control increases, the user satisfaction increases
as well and the self-efficacy partially mediates to this linear relationship between
them. There is a correlation between the user satisfaction and (5) two-way
communication and (6) synchronization. When (7) active control increases, more
satisfaction will compose for the people who have high control desire rather than the
people who have low control desire. (8)More two-way communication will compose
for the people have computer-mediated communication apprehension on the low
level rather than the people who have apprehension on the high level. (9) More
active control will compose for the people who have information seek rather than the
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people who have enjoyment-purpose visiting. On the other hand, (10) More two-way
communication will compose for the people who have enjoyment-purpose surfing
rather than the people who have information seek (Liu and Shrum, 2002: 61-63).
The Marketers and advertisers are interested in the most e-business or e-trade
function of the Internet. In addition to this function, the other important functions for
the advertisers are following: giving information, entertainment, socializing, word of
mouth role (WOM). The most important role of the Internet related to advertisement is
information provided in the decision-making process. The Internet provides a big
online library for consumers from all demographic categories as well as going
shopping in the electronic trade sites. Online broadcasting causes the digital
information explosion and many traditional media tools have the web sites which
adapt these kinds of information. These information sources are only not limited with
the web sites, there are also online encyclopedia, digital platforms whose contents
are composed by the users or blogs on micro level(Moriarty, Mitchell and Wells,
2012:395-396). These platforms are an alternative way to catch the users who show
an aversive attitude for the advertisement even if the users are not interested in the
advertisement on the surface. For instance, a blogger who has a lot of followers or a
social media phenomenon can be turned into an advertising channel, becomes a part
of the advertising campaign of the brands for a fee. A user’s writing about the
restaurant s/he eats last week, sharing of her/his journey experiences or finding a
wonderful product which solve the acne problems are a secret advertising appeared
like a natural flow of information.
Entertainment function includes online entertainment experiences which provide
opportunity the users to escape and relaxation such as playing a game, playing a
part of reality games, fashion, music and following the videos. On the other hand, it
provides new advertising styles to the advertisers. The formation like advertainment,
advergame, viral advertisement etc.are advertisement types which become fact into
entertainment function. For example, only a game is not played with advergame
application of a brand, also users become a part of the advertising campaigns. Same
workings are valid for viral videos as well. The users who spend long time with
‘advergame application’ called ‘woman who knows everything’ belonging to Lipton,
share with their friends into their social media accounts, reach the condition of the
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actor of the advertisement’s diffusion process involuntarily. The users who make
hundtred of thousand sharings in the viral videos, are a part of the advertisement.
Socializing role includes that the users contact with each other through virtual
communities created by the Internet and they discuss on new usages, brand
problems and solutions. Most of them are developed by not the companies, but the
followers, they compose of a platform they clearly can express themselves. On the
other hand, the kings of them are supporters of interactivity and networking. Social
Networks are a new category added to web sites. Thus, the users can express
themselves, form an interaction and reach the opportunity to publish their contents in
the Internet(Moriarty, Mitchell and Wells (2012:397). Social networkings are the
biggest power supply of big data, they are important because they are the identity
presentation places of the individuals. One of the individuals’ self expression ways is
the consumption practices which reproduce the symbolic meaning of the brands. For
example, to be checked-in in a cafe presents a clue concerning identity presentation.
Cafe provides a cue about the identity representation of user who checks-in, also the
meaning of cafe is transferred to the person.
The advertisers have opportunity to realize their internet-mediated communication as
two-way communication with the role of word of mouth (WOM).It supports two main
targets of the advertisers through internet usage with this feature: (1) to create the
dialog with the customers and (2) to encourage the dialogism between the customers
and potential customers. First target is about directly on interactive nature of the
Internet; and second one is concerning the buzz marketing(Moriarty, Mitchell and
Wells (2012:398).
Interactive advertising means the advertisement which provides opportunity that the
consumer only interested in the advertisements of the products and services
applicable for her/his qualifications included in an electronic system or applicable for
these kinds of mutual information exchange(Gülsoy, 1999:262). According to
Springer (2007:318), interactive advertising is advertisements which make possible to
discover a lot of things by direct experiences of the customers and make a sensation;
and have more entertainment and more effective content presentation capacity.
Almost every work is done through the Internet, and it is seen as first reference guide
about almost every subject and provides opportunity for free time activities, so it is far
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from being just a tool for today’s people. Such context makes the Internet an
important advertising channel because of interactive nature. The behaviour of the
consumers in the Internet has importance for the companies.
Liu and Shrum (2002:63) evaluate that the usage aims of the users related to internet
is a situational factor with a functionalist approach in their studies and define two
main target category: information and enjoyment (pleasure) seeking. When the users
seek information, show an utilitarian approach, so they will search information about
the product they plan to purchase(Hoffman and Novak, transferred from 1996 Liu and
Shrum, 2002:63). The control ability on information searched will become important.
For this type of uses, the cosmetics features of web site will not be attractive so much
and sometimes these kinds of cosmetics features can be more distracter for the
users. For instance, altough google has an extremely busy traffic, it has a pretty
simple user interface because the users use to seek information as specific. Mostly,
to make easily this simple usage and its aim renders the site appealing in terms of
the users. On the other hand, when the users seek the pleasure or make search in
order to spend free time, they are in search of hedonic benefit and experiential
surfing experience (Hoffman and Novak, transferred from 1996 Liu and Shrum,
Korgaonkar and Wolin (1999:56-61) have studied what factors motivate people to
use the internet, and present these motivations under 7 categories in the end of the
acquisition, interactive control, socialization, not working –based confidentiality and
economic motivation. Social escape motivation become characterized with escape
from the reality that web provides to use for enjoyment and entertainment purpose.
Also, it includes some situations such as becoming distant from daily stress and
dealing with feeling of loneliness. There is a linear relationship between social
escape motivation and the time spent in the web in daily routine and using the web to
escape the loneliness. Some subjects like purshasing the product or service from the
web, banking transactions and the problems related to the confidentiality, are working
– based. Knowledge acquisition motivation refers that the Internet users improve
themselves with web (self-education) and their knowledge needs. According to
Schwartz (transferred from 1997, Korgaonkar and Wolin, 1999:56-57), the web is
good in a field that it presents several information and classifies by adding the people
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to the process. There is a linear and significant relationship between information
motivation and the time spent in the Internet and web purchase. The users who seek
information in the Internet, tend to purchase. Interactive control motivation includes
which web site the users visit, when they visit, their networks. Also they can choose
what to say to the others, and personalize their experiences with interactive features
of the web(Korgaonkar and Wolin, 1999:56-61).
Socialization motivation includes a facilitative role of the web for interpersonal
communication and activities. Not transaction-based confidentiality concerns are the
confidentiality’s concern is including the points related to safety and confidentiality felt
for web transactions, generally there are concerns related to confidentiality
independently of the transaction. For example, there is a concern for the users who
are exposed to the advertisements and spam mails with database marketing,
although they do not want. The last motivation is economic and indicates that the
people use the Internet, forex and stock market transactions, decide the investment
with shopping and purchasing motivation except that education and knowledge
seeking. While people are going shopping from online stores, they feel less pressure
from the physical stores. On the other hand, the Internet provides opportunity to
compare knowledge and price and in this manner it give opportunity to make saving.
To shopping from the web can be a powerful motivation. This study concludes that the
individuals who want to practice economy as monetary, tend to shopping from the
web(Korgaonkar ve Wolin, 1999:57-64).
Interactive advertising conceptualization includes some problems. Interaction which is the
main feature of interactive advertising has a meaning that several academic discussions are
made on. Some of the researchers argue that interaction does not always increase the
effectiveness of the advertising, also can disrupt the conviction process of the advertising
targets. Another interactive advertising problem is confidentiality and safety. Searches reveal
that some of the consumers have less confidence for online sellers and this insecurity arises
from access that this information is used by secondary people with personal information and
lack of inspection on the Internet buying and selling(Rodrugez Perlade ve Barwise,
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Interactive Advertising Model (IAM) which has been developed by Rodgers and Thorson in
2000, provides an integrated process model for the Internet advertising. Model is important
because it is developed for directly interactive advertisements and also it compounds both
the structuralist and functionalist school of thought and information processing theory.
Functionalist school of thought’s starting point is Uses and Gratifications Approach.
Information Processing Theory is interested in the psychological reactions of consumers to
interactive advertising and includes attention, memory and attitude concepts. These two
approaches seek the answers for the questions why the Internet is used and how the Internet
is used. Structuralist approach is interested in the physical features of the Internet advertising
and takes into account for the advertisement types, the advertising formats and their
features(Wang ve Rodgers, 2011:216). The components of Interactive Advertising Model
includes parts from three school of thoughts, are seen in figure 5.
Internet motions
 Search
 Shop
 Entertain/Surf
 Communicate /
Socialize, etc.
Serious< ----- > Playful
Information Process
Cognitive ‘Tools’
 Attention
 Memory
 Attitude
Ad Types
Consumer Responses
Forget/ Ignore the Ad
Attend to the Ad
From Attitude Toward
the Ad
Ad formats
 IntAttSearch
 Shop
 Entertain/Su
 Communicat
e / Socialize,
Ad Features
the Ad
On Ad
Explore the Website
Click On Ad
Explore the Website
E-mail the Advertiser
Purchase the Product
Figure 5 Interactive Advertising Model (IAM)
The advertisers have the control on which consumersProduct/serv
can see which advertisements,
 PSA The consumers have some
how and when taken into account for traditional media.
 Issue
 Corporate
 Political
 erstitial
 Pop-up
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options like not to paying attention, not to being included or ignoring, but these are
pretty limited. Thus, to understand how the individuals handle the advertisements has
importance within an interactive environment which is rather different from traditional
environment. Firstly, to start the usage process of the Internet have completely the
consumers’ control and the users are on the driver’s seat of online experience. In this
point, developed model has to describe in what aspects the Internet has the
consumers’ or advertisers’ control and how this control affects the consumer reaction.
“The functions’’ component included in model come from functionalist school of
thought and functionalism helps to express the motivational base of the Internet
users’ aims. Internet usage is not activity by starting with a stimuli or advertising
message, it starts a response given for a motive (like shopping needs). Firstly, this
reaction becomes reality and then the users visit the Internet. They tend to satisfy this
reaction by finding an ad (like shopping) and the ad hepls their decision (to purchase
or not to purchase). Internet motivations are a wide variety, but it is discussed in the
model as 4 main categories: research, communication, surf (like entertainment) and
shopping. These are not a classification effort, they are categories which are situated
into the model owing to start with a specific aim of the Internet usage in the mind. To
know which factors motivate the individuals for the Internet usage provides the insight
for the ad types, gaining the attention and taking click. According to model, while the
Internet motivatios meet a need or desire within the virtual environment, it affects the
attention, memory and attitude for the advertising met. In addition, these motivations
are not in the stable structure, so the user who uses the Internet in order to search,
decides to purchase CD or another thing s/he sees in an ad and his/her motivation is
not to search, but shopping. This changing process in the motivation arises from the
complex nature of the interactive environment. To understand this, it is necessary to
examine the ‘’mode’’ which is a secondary component. Mode indicates the level of
target oriented. Target oriented makes online experience more ‘’serious’’ and less
‘playful’. High target oriented define the mode of ‘’being serious’’ and ’being low
target oriented’’ defines ‘’being playful’’. In addition to this, the people who use the
Internet with search motivation tend to click the ad rather than people who surf in the
Internet. The mode of the users has a sturcture which is unstable and changeable.
Another component is information processing and on this basis it is expressed that
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the users look the Internet advertisements before they give response and develop an
attitude(Rodgers and Thorson, 2000:42-47).
The second dimension of the model is structural components under the advertiser’s
control. These are not the components which the consumers never control within the
interactive advertising. Some sites allow to this. The structures compose of the ad
types and the ad features. First of all is ad types and it is handled into 5 main
categories that no matter which tools they are included in: the product/service, PSA,
issue, corporate and political. According to model, the type of the ad represents an
indicator for the possible consumer responses. The ad type determines the type of
cognitive tools. For example, actually the candidate has to gain attention within a
political campaign, but memory is rather weak within an ad related to the issue. In
general manner, the structure of the ad itself affects the perception without
concerning what the message is.
The format of the ad indicates the form of the ads watched. The ads have the same
format in traditional media. For instance, TV commercials are between 30-60
seconds, magazine ads are full page or half-page. These formats are seen in the
Internet although not yet common. Also, In addition to these formats which are not
seen in traditional media, the Internet has a different ad format capacity. Common
internet advertising models are listed below: banner, sponsorship, interstitial, pop-up,
hyperlink and web sites.
Generaly banner ads are graphics having rectangular form and they are placed in
bottom or top of the web sites. Banner ads increase awareness without clicking the
link. If the banners are clicked, the attitudes become more positive and purchase
intent becomes strong. The banners which have wider dimensions, always have
more click rather than smaller dimensions. Interstitials and pop-up ads are generally
interchangeable, but two of them express different formats. Generally, Interstitials are
full page ads and they works between two content pages. Pop-ups are seen on the
content as a different window. Interstitials do not cut into the interactive experiences
of the users like pop-ups because the users tend to work while they are waiting for
downloading of a page. The users have less control on interstitials because there is
any option to close, stop or delete. The ads which come into the users’ workflow, are
less liked and they become annoying. Also, it is expected that pop-up and interstitials
interact with the Internet motivation and modes. The individuals who have target–
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ISBN 978-80-87927-15-1 , IISES
oriented, see pop-ups and interstitials ads as annoying. On the other hand, the
individuals who surf in the internet, can see them as attractive, interesting and
discoverable. Hyperlink refers to hypertext flow. Generally it can be a word, sentence
or graphic. The fields which can be clicked too much, can decrease the
attractiveness and usefulness of a web site and also hyperlink makes the same
Finally, web sites are important because they provides several options rather than
another online ad formats and have a complex nature and also their users give
different responses and motivations. In the scope of the model, the ad features go
into divisions: objective and subjective. While the objective features are formal and
functional and they are under the advertiser’s control; the subjective features are
under the consumer’s control and mostly have some features related to the feelings
aroused. The response measurements used for traditional ads can be applicable for
interactive advertising as well.
However, there are new important measurement
methods such as hit, click, the time spent in the web site, the explore patterns and
online purchase patterns(Rodgers ve Thorson, 2000:47-55).
The changing advertising concept has started to show itself within an interactive
environment. While two-way process is seen in the frame of traditional advertising
approach in the past, a process which the users are included in the content with
interactive advertising applications, arise today. These ad applications which are
designed for the Internet completely different from traditional one, establish a ground
to be developed the new models. In the scope of this study, Interactive Advertising
Model (IAM) are evaluated as important in terms of taking on a new dimension of the
Internet advertising. Model is developed for the directly on interactive ads and
composes the combination of variable school of thoughts. People socialize in the
Internet today and the virtual communities are considered as important in terms of
the advertisers. The individuals share their own experiences with their own
expressions in the Internet, so the media which provide entertainment, arouse
curiosity, provide to get involved into the process with conscious or without
conscious, are evaluated as the starting point of the interactive advertising
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ISBN 978-80-87927-15-1 , IISES
Baik, Seongbok (2010). Rethinking QR code: Anolog Portal To Digital World. Multimedia Tools
Applications, 58, 427-434.
Bezjian-Avery, Alexa; Calder, Bobby and Iacobucci, Dawn (1998) New Media Interactive Advertising
vs. Traditional Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 38(4) 23-32
Elden, Müge (2009) Reklam ve Reklamcılık. İstanbul: Say
Gülsoy, Tanses (1999) Reklam Terimleri ve Kavramları Sözlüğü. İstanbul: Adam
Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E. and Hoekstra, Janny C. (2003) Why Do Consumers Like Websites?
Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing 11(4) 350-361
Korgaonkar, Pradeep K. and Wolin, Lori D. (1999) A Multivariate Analysis of Web Usage. Journal of
Advertising Research, 39(2) 53-68
Liu, Yuping and Shrum, L. J. (2002) What is Interactivity and is It Always Such a Good Thing?
Implications of
Definition, Person, and Situation for the Influence of Interactivity on
Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising. 31(4) 53-64
McMillan, Sally J. (2002) Exploring Models of Interactivity from Multiple Research Traditions:
Users, Documents, and Systems. Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and
Consequences of ICTs (Editörler: Leah A. Lievrouw ve Sonia Livingstone).163-182. Londra:
Moriarty, Sandra; Mitchell, Nancy and Wells, William (2012) Advertising & IMC New Jersey: Pearson
Prentice Hall
Rodgers, Shelly and Thorson, Esther (2000) The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users
Perceive and Process Online Ads. Journal of Interactive Advertising 1(1) 42-61
Rodgers, Shelly; Thorson, Esther and Jin, Yun (2008) An Integrated Approach to Communication
Theory and Research (Editörler: Don W. Stacks ve Michael B. Salwen) Social Science
Theories of Traditional and Internet Advertising. 198-219. New York: Routledge
Rodriquez Perlade, Virginia and Barwise, Patrick (2015) Advertising, Promotion, and New Media.
(Editörler: Marla R. Stafford ve Ronald J. Faber) New York: Routledge
Siemens, Jennifer Christie; Smith, Scott and Fisher, Dan (2015) Investigating the Effects of Active
Control on Brand Recall Within In-Game Advertising. Journal of Interactive Advertising 15(1)
Springer, Paul (2007) Ads to Icons: How Advertising Succeeds in a Multimedia Age. Londra:
Kogan Page
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Wang, Ye and Rodgers, Shelly (2011) Electronic Word of Mouth and Consumer Generated
Content: From Concept to Application. Handbook of Research on Digital Media and
Advertising: User Generated Content Consumption: User Generated Content Consumption
(Editörler: Matthew S. Eastin; Terry Daugherty ve Neal M. Burns) 212-231. New York:
Information Science Reference