hydrometers - Kimble Chase

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hydrometers - Kimble Chase
HYDROMETERS
Kimble® hydrometers are manufactured from glass in accordance with ASTM standards
for use in market segments including petrochemical, environmental, pharmaceutical,
and the food & beverage industry. The devices are floated in a liquid sample, and a
graduated scale is read to measure the relative density or specific gravity of the
solution in units appropriate to the application. In order to produce a more
environmentally friendly instrument, the ballast is made from steel pellets plus a binder,
and is free of heavier, toxic metals. Finally, the certificate of traceability included with
each Kimble hydrometer indicates that they are manufactured with devices calibrated
using NIST traceable standards.
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HYDROMETERS
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Overview
Hydrometers have been used for hundreds of years to measure the
specific gravity or relative density of liquids. They are commonly
used in beer and wine making, for measuring petroleum liquids,
for the measurement of saltwater, and for measuring the density of
sugar solutions. The specific gravity of a liquid is obtained by floating
a hydrometer in the sample of interest and reading the meniscus on
the graduated scale. Since the specific gravity of water equals 1.000,
liquids lighter than water have a specific gravity below 1.000, and
liquids heavier than water have a specific gravity greater than 1.000.
A Kimble hydrometer consists of a long glass tube containing ballast
at the base of the float bulb and a graduated scale in the stem.
Unlike the older style of hydrometer, the ballast is now made from
steel pellets, and it is free of lead and mercury. A serial number is
printed on the scale, a certificate of traceability is included, and the
hydrometer is calibrated to ASTM specifications to ensure accuracy.
The certificate of traceability indicates that the hydrometers are
manufactured using devices calibrated using NIST traceable
standards.
About Specific Gravity
Specific gravity is a dimensionless number and is a measure of
relative density.
RD = ρ substance /ρ reference
RD is relative density, substance is the substance being measured,
and reference is the reference substance. Typically the reference
substance is water, and the calibration temperature for Kimble
hydrometers is 60 °F, as specified in the ASTM standards.
Conditions Affecting Hydrometer Accuracy
Important considerations when assessing the accuracy of the hydrometer readings are:
•
•
•
•
Cleanliness of the instruments
Temperature of the sample
Uniformity of the sample
Proper immersion of the hydrometer in the sample
Before a Kimble hydrometer is used it should be closely inspected for cracks or damage. It should be
thoroughly cleaned with a laboratory detergent according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, rinsed
with water, and dried with a lint-free wipe. The hydrometer cylinder should also be washed and rinsed
prior to use.
The temperature of the sample should be near that of the surrounding atmosphere to prevent changes
during reading of the scale. To standardize the relative density to 60 / 60 °F, a temperature correction
factor may be applied using a temperature correction factor table such as the one found in ASTM D1250
for glass hydrometers.
Toll Free: 800.451.4351 | International: 865.717.2600
HYDROMETERS
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Method of Reading the Meniscus
Where water or other wetting liquid is used, the method of
reading advised by the National Institute of Standards and
Technology and ASTM is illustrated in Figure 1 and
described as follows:
“In all apparatus where the volume is defined by a concave-up
meniscus, the setting or reading is made on the lowest point of
the meniscus. In order that the lowest point may be observed, it
is necessary to place a shade of some dark material immediately
below the meniscus, which renders the profile of the meniscus
dark and clearly visible against a light background. A convenient
device for this purpose is a collar-shaped section of thick black
rubber tubing, cut open at one side and of such size as to clasp
the tube firmly.”--April 2013, NIST, Pg.1, “Good Measurement
Practice”
Figure 1
How to Use a Hydrometer
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3.
4.
5.
6.
Pour the sample into a hydrometer cylinder or appropriate test jar.
Make sure that the sample is well mixed.
The temperature of the sample should be near that of the surrounding atmosphere to prevent
changes during reading of the scale. To standardize the relative density to 60 / 60°F, a
temperature correction factor may be applied using a temperature correction factor table such
as the one found in ASTM D1250 for glass hydrometers.
Holding the stem of the hydrometer, lower it into the sample to a level close to where it natu
rally floats and release it.
Make sure the liquid is at rest and free of bubbles.
Read the scale at the meniscus.
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HYDROMETERS
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Types of Kimble Hydrometers
Specific Gravity – With over half of the Kimble hydrometer products falling into this category, this is the most common
hydrometer classification. Specific gravity hydrometers are available in a variety of graduation ranges and overall lengths.
Precision Specific Gravity Hydrometer
Catalog Number
52110-0708
Graduation
Range
Graduation
Intervals
Body OD
(mm)
Length
(mm)
Sample Volume
(mL)
Recommended
KIMAX® Cylinder
SG 0.700-0.810
0.001 SG
16
310
300
20058-38375
52110-0809
SG 0.800-0.910
0.001 SG
18
300
500
20058-50375
52110-0910
SG 0.900-1.000
0.001 SG
18
310
500
20058-50375
52110-1012
SG 1.000-1.220
0.002 SG
16
300
300
20058-38375
52110-1214
SG 1.200-1.420
0.002 SG
16
300
300
20058-38375
52110-1416
SG 1.400-1.620
0.002 SG
18
300
500
20058-50375
52110-1618
SG 1.600-1.820
0.002 SG
18
300
500
20058-50375
52110-1820
SG 1.800-2.000
0.002 SG
18
300
500
20058-50375
52110-2000
Set of Eight Precision SG Hydrometers, 0.695-2.000
Tall Form High Precision Specific Gravity Hydrometer
Catalog Number
52111-0708
Graduation Range
Graduation
Intervals
Body OD
(mm)
Length
(mm)
Sample
Volume (mL)
Recommended
KIMAX® Cylinder
SG 0.760-0.830
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
52111-0809
SG 0.820-0.890
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
52111-0810
SG 0.880-0.950
0.0005 SG
18
330
600
20058-50375
52111-0910
SG 0.940-1.010
0.0005 SG
18
330
600
20058-50375
52111-1011
SG 1.000-1.070
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
52111-1111
SG 1.060-1.130
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
52111-1112
SG 1.120-1.190
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
52111-1212
SG 1.180-1.250
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
52111-1213
SG 1.240-1.310
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
52111-1314
SG 1.300-1.370
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
52111-1414
SG 1.360-1.430
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
52111-1415
SG 1.420-1.490
0.0005 SG
21
330
600
20058-50375
Short Form High Precision Specific Gravity Hydrometer
Graduation
Range
Graduation
Intervals
Body OD
(mm)
Length
(mm)
Sample
Volume (mL)
52112-0809
SG 0.820-0.890
0.001 SG
18
165
140
52112-0909
SG 0.880-0.950
0.001 SG
18
165
140
52112-0910
SG 0.940-1.010
0.001 SG
18
165
140
52112-1011
SG 1.000-1.070
0.001 SG
21
165
140
52112-1111
SG 1.060-1.130
0.001 SG
21
165
140
52112-1112
SG 1.120-1.190
0.001 SG
18
165
140
52112-1113
SG 1.180-1.250
0.001 SG
18
165
140
52112-1213
SG 1.240-1.310
0.001 SG
18
165
140
Catalog Number
Broad Range Specific Gravity Hydrometer for Liquids Lighter than Water
Catalog Number
52113-0610
Graduation Range
Graduation
Intervals
Body OD (mm)
Length (mm)
Sample Volume
(mL)
Recommended
KIMAX® Cylinder
SG 0.650-1.000
0.001 SG
18
300
300
20058-50375
Toll Free: 800.451.4351 | International: 865.717.2600
HYDROMETERS
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Baume – The Baume scale originally was used in industrial chemistry and pharmacology, but today it is used in brewing,
winemaking, sugar beet processing, ophthalmics, and the starch industry. Although specific gravity is a dimensionless
number, the Baume scale is graduated in degrees Baume. According to Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook (8th Edition), °Be’ = 145 – 145/sp gr (heavier than water), and °Be’ = 140/sp gr - 130 (lighter than water).
Narrow Range Baume Hydrometer
Graduation
Range
Graduation
Intervals
Body OD
(mm)
Length
(mm)
Sample
Volume (mL)
Recommended
KIMAX® Cylinder
0°-12° Baume
0.10° Baume
18
300
500
20058-50375
52120-0921
9°-21° Baume
0.10° Baume
18
300
500
20058-50375
52120-1931
19°-31° Baume
0.10° Baume
18
300
500
20058-50375
52120-3951
39°-51° Baume
0.10° Baume
16
300
300
20058-38375
Catalog Number
52120-0012
Broad Range Baume Hydrometer
Catalog Number
Graduation
Range
Graduation
Intervals
Body OD
(mm)
Length
(mm)
Sample
Volume (mL)
Recommended
KIMAX® Cylinder
52121-0035
0°-35° Baume
0.50° Baume
16
300
300
20058-38375
52121-0050
0°-50° Baume
0.50° Baume
18
300
500
20058-50375
52121-0070
0°-70° Baume
1.0° Baume
305
300
20058-38375
Dual Scale Baume/SG Hydrometer
Graduation
Range
Graduation
Intervals
Body OD
(mm)
Length
(mm)
Sample
Volume (mL)
Recommended
KIMAX® Cylinder
52122-0026
0° - 26° Baume,
SG 1.000-1.220
0.002 SG,
0.2°Baume
16
300
300
20058-38375
52122-2443
24° - 43° Baume,
SG 1.200-1.420
0.002 SG,
0.2°Baume
16
300
300
20058-38375
52122-4255
42° - 55° Baume,
SG 1.400-1.620
0.002 SG,
0.2°Baume
18
300
500
20058-50375
52122-5465
54° - 65° Baume,
SG 1.600-1.820
0.002 SG,
0.2°Baume
18
300
500
20058-50375
52122-0072
0° - 72° Baume,
SG 1.000-2.000
0.01 SG,
1.0°Baume
16
305
300
20058-38375
Catalog Number
[email protected] | kimblechase.com
HYDROMETERS
6
API ASTM – The American Petroleum Institute scale is used to measure the specific gravity of a liquid relative to water.
A sample with an API gravity value greater than 10 is lighter than water, and an API gravity value less than 10 is heavier
than water. Although specific gravity does not have units, the API scale is graduated in degrees, and was designed such
that most values would fall between ten and seventy API gravity degrees. According to Perry’s Chemical Engineers’
Handbook (8th Edition), °API = 141.5/sp gr -131.5.
Plain form API ASTM Hydrometer Catalog Number
Graduation
Range
Graduation
Intervals
Body OD
(mm)
Length
(mm)
Sample
Volume (mL)
Recommended
KIMAX® Cylinder
52130-0111
API -1°- +11° ASTM 1H
0.10° API
25
330
600
20058-63460
52130-0921
API 9°-21° ASTM 2H
0.10° API
25
330
600
20058-63460
52130-1931
API 19°-31° ASTM 3H
0.10° API
25
330
600
20058-63460
52130-2941
API 29°-41° ASTM 4H
0.10° API
25
330
600
20058-63460
52130-3951
API 39°-51° ASTM 5H
0.10° API
25
330
600
20058-63460
52130-4961
API 49°-61° ASTM 6H
0.10° API
25
330
600
20058-63460
52130-5971
API 59°-71° ASTM 7H
0.10° API
25
330
600
20058-63460
52130-6981
API 69°-81° ASTM 8H
0.10° API
25
330
600
20058-63460
52130-7991
API 79°-91° ASTM 9H
0.10° API
25
335
600
20058-63460
52130-8910
API 89°-101° ASTM 10H
0.10° API
21
330
600
20058-63460
Ethanol – The ethanol hydrometer has dual graduations in 0-100 % and 0-200 proof scales.
Ethanol Hydrometer
Catalog Number
52150-0200
Graduation
Range
Graduation
Intervals
Body OD
(mm)
Length
(mm)
Sample
Volume (mL)
Recommended
KIMAX® Cylinder
0-100% Ethanol , 0-200 Proof
1%, 2 Proof
16
300
300
20058-38375
Salt and Brine – The sodium chloride hydrometer is graduated from 0-26.4% sodium chloride, and is used to measure
the percentage of a saturated salt solution. The salimeter is graduated from 0-100% saturated sodium chloride. It is used
in the measurement of meat packing and pickling brines.
Salt and Brine Hydrometers
Graduation
Range
Graduation
Intervals
52140-0100
0-100% Saturated Sodium Chloride
1% of saturation
16
300
300
20058-38375
52140-0264
0-26.4% Sodium Chloride
0.5% by weight
16
300
300
20058-38375
Catalog Number
Body
OD (mm)
Length
(mm)
Sample
Volume (mL)
Recommended
KIMAX® Cylinder
Hydrometer Cylinders - Kimble hydrometer cylinders are available from a 175 mL to a 1200mL capacity and from 200
mm to 460 mm tall. The cylinders are manufactured from 33 expansion, low extractable borosilicate glass conforming to
USP Type I and ASTM E438, Type I, Class A requirements. The plain, ungraduated cylinders have a pourout spout and
a hexagonal base. The internal diameter of the cylinder should be approximately 25 mm larger than the outer diameter of
the hydrometer body. Additionally, the hydrometer should float at least 25 mm above the base of the cylinder.
Hydrometer Cylinders
Capacity
(mL)
Approximate Height
(mm)
Cylinder OD
(mm)
20058-38375
340
375
41
20058-50375
600
375
51
20058-63460
1200
460
64
Catalog Number
Toll Free: 800.451.4351 | International: 865.717.2600
HYDROMETERS
7
Certificate of Conformance
The Certificate of Conformance indicates the ASTM specifications from which the hydrometers were
designed, and states that the reference standards used to calibrate the devices are traceable to NIST.
Catalog Number______________
Serial Number________________
Certificate of Conformance
This hydrometer was manufactured to the highest quality
standard in accordance with ASTM E100, Standard
Specification for ASTM Hydrometers, and tested following
the methodology of ASTM E126, Inspection and Verification
of Hydrometers.
The reference standards used to calibrate this hydrometer
are tracable to NIST, and the calibration was strictly
controlled to the guidelines set forth by ASTM and ISO.
_____________________________________
Certified By Plant Manager
______________________
Certification Date
[email protected] | kimblechase.com
Call Toll-Free: 800.451.4351
International: 865.717.2600
Customer Service hours: 8am - 5pm U.S. EST
www.kimblechase.com
[email protected]
20150407KC-1520
Printed in the USA. All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Kimble Chase Life Science & Research Products LLC
234 Cardiff Valley Road
Rockwood, TN 37854