to a PDF of the presentation

Comments

Transcription

to a PDF of the presentation
Thank you for attending!
Website: www.ThoughtfulClassroom.com
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 1.800.962.4432
1
The Third Generation of Accountability: Fulfilling the Promise of the Common Core
Presented by Tr. Harvey F. Silver Ed.,D.
Essential Questions
1.
What is our promise to our students?
1. What is our promise to our students?
2. What does it mean to see the Common Core as a tapestry?
3. What does an effective teaching strategy look like?
4. How do we use these threads to create engaging and effective lesson and units?
3
What’s the big idea?
4
What can we conclude about change?
“The more things change, the more they remain the same.”
“Shift happens.”
5
Either way, change demands…
6
Institutions that don’t recalculate…
“Eastman Kodak Co’s long decline that culminated in a bankruptcy filing this week can be traced back to one source: its failure to reinvent itself in the digital age… Critics fault Kodak for abandoning new projects too quickly; for spreading its digital investments too broadly, and for a complacency in its Rochester base that blinded the company from technological leaps elsewhere.”
—Ernest Scheyder, Reuters
7
The Cyclical Nature of Change
“The more things change, the more they remain the same.”
8
Recognizing the Promise
The promise to educate all our children has been part of the American Dream since the founding of our nation.
9
Recognizing the Promise
“If a nation expects to be ignorant and free… it expects what never was and never will be.”
10
What is America’s Promise?
It is a promise that we, as educators, make to every parent who sends his or her child to school:
The promise to provide the best possible education for each student—and prepare all students for the challenges of the future.
11
Recognizing the Promise The Common Core State Standards represent a new generation’s promise to educate all of its children to be successful citizens in the future.
The Standards aren’t new names for old ways of doing business—they’re about effecting meaningful change in teaching and learning.
12
First Generation of Accountability
The Bell School: All Children Can Learn, But…
13
Second Generation of Accountability
The Trip School: No Child Left Behind
STANDARDIZED
TEST
14
Third Generation of Accountability
The Exercise School:
So Each May Learn
(Developing College and Career Readiness)
15
The Common Core Mission Statement
We will be using our tool, Association Triangle tool to interpret the Common Core State Standard mission statement.
16
The Common Core Mission Statement
1. Read mission statement and select three words that you feel are most important. 2. Then place each word in one of the boxes of the Association Triangle.
3. Write a sentence on the line between each of the words that explains the connection between them.
4. In the middle of the triangle write a one sentence summary that explains the “big idea” of the mission statement.
17
A MATH triangle
Classifying shapes according to their attributes (CC 3.G.1, 4.G.2)
A LITERATURE triangle
Recounting the plot and determining the central message of a fable
(CC RL.3.2)
18
According to its mission statement, the Common Core State Standards Initiative aims to “provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. With American students fully prepared for the future, our communities will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global economy.”
(www.corestandards.org)
19
The Common Core Mission Statement
Association Triangle
Students
The standards clarify what students are expected to learn
The standards clarify what students need to learn to be prepared for college and careers
Standards
The standards are designed to be a preparation for college and careers.
Students need to develop knowledge and skills to be successful in college and careers
College & Careers
20
Making Connections to the Standards
Making connections among ideas and between texts is an important skill that is found throughout the Common Core State Standards. connections, RI.8.3
RI.9‐10.3 Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series RL.4.7
Analyze how a text makes connections among and Make connections between the text of a story or drama distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where comparisons, analogies, or categories).
made, how they are introduced and developed, and the each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the connections that are drawn between them.
text.
21
Types of Connections
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cause and effect
Problem and a solution
Compare and contrast
Similarities and differences
Sequence of events
Analogies
Part‐to‐whole
Events and people
22
The Power of Ambitious Goals
By the end of the decade, we will put a man on the moon.
To help create a society where people are judged by the content of their character, not the color of their skin.
23
The Power of Ambitious Goals
Accountability Gain From 2004‐2006
8.0
7.2
Educational Index
7.0
6.0
5.0
5.3
5.2
4.6
4.7
4.1
4.0
3.0
6.7
3.3
3.5
2.8
2.0
1.0
0.9
0.0
Average, KY school districts using PLC Guides* & Learning Clubs
all KY schools
*Previously referred to as Thoughtful Classroom Portfolios
24
Our Ambitious Goals
• Insist that our classrooms and schools address the key Common Core skills
• Commit ourselves to developing a focused repertoire of instructional tools and strategies
• Design and deliver engaging lessons and units
• Build a collaborative learning environment that supports teachers as they learn new strategies
25
So that our students…
Become powerful thinkers and lifelong learners who are fully prepared for college, careers, and citizenship in the 21st century.
26
The Power of Ambitious Goals
Robert Marzano
Educational researcher, Author of Classroom Instruction That Works
27
Thoughts About the Common Core
“The common core standards finally make real the promise of American public education to expect the best of all our school children.”
—Michael Casserly, Execute Director, Council of the Great City Schools
28
Thoughts About the Common Core
“Common standards ensure that every child across the country is getting the best possible education, no matter where a child lives or what their background is. The common standards will provide an accessible roadmap for schools, teachers, parents and students, with clear and realistic goals.”
—Gov. Roy Romer, Senior Advisor, The College Board
29
Thoughts About the Common Core
“If we these common standards as the foundation for better schools, we can give all kids a robust curriculum taught by well‐
prepared, well‐supported teachers who can help prepare them for success in college, life and careers.”
—Randi Weingarten, President, American Federation of Teachers
30
Essential Questions
1. What is our promise to our students?
2.
What does it mean to see the Common Core as a 2. What does it mean to see the Common Core as a tapestry?
tapestry?
3. What does an effective teaching strategy look like?
4. How do we use these threads to create engaging and effective lesson and units?
31
Some people have viewed the Common Core State Standards as a mountain to climb.
But we view the Common Core State Standards as…
32
See the Common Core as a Tapestry
33
Looking at the Common Core as a Weave
The most typical way to look at the Common Core is to trace the progression of individual standards across grade levels. Here, for example, is the middle school progression for a key writing genre—argument: 34
Understanding the Weave
Anchor Standard for Writing
1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Grade 1
Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
35
Understanding the Weave
Anchor Standard for Writing
1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Grades 6‐7
Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
36
Understanding the Weave
Anchor Standard for Writing
1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
Grades 11‐12
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
a.
Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
c.
Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
37
Understanding the Staircase
How does a district‐wide commitment to the staircase help students get from A to B? First‐grade opinion argument
High‐school argument
38
The task: Read the poem and decide if the poet is satisfied or unsatisfied with his choice.
The Road Not Taken
By Robert Frost
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth; And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way
I doubted if I should ever come back.
Then took the other, as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim
Because it was grassy and wanted wear,
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,
I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I,
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference. 39
Introduction to the PARCC Assessment Test
Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College & Careers
The purpose of the PARCC is to assess whether or not students are making progress toward achieving the benchmarks set forth in the Common Core.
40
The structure of the PARCC assessment test for ELA and Mathematics is as follows:
• Performance based assessment (PBA) after 75% of the school year.
• End of year assessment (EOY) after 95% of the school year.
41
The structure of the PARCC assessment test for ELA and Mathematics is as follows:
• Assessments include three tasks, a narrative task, a literary analysis task, and a research simulation task.
• Each section of the assessment students must complete the following:
– Read one or more texts.
– Answer several short vocabulary and comprehension questions.
– Write an essay (evidence based).
42
A Key Shift:
Standards should be woven together, not taught in isolation.
What’s the evidence?
Examine the sample seventh‐grade assessment released by PARCC.
What evidence can you find that this assessment requires students to apply multiple higher‐order thinking skills? What skills can you find embedded in this task?
43
A Sample PARCC Assessment
Grade 7 Analytical Prose Constructed‐Response Based on the information in the text “Biography of Amelia Earhart,” write an essay that summarizes and explains the challenges Earhart faced throughout her life. Remember to use textual evidence to support your ideas.
Constructed‐Response
ELA | 7th Grade 44
A Sample PARCC Assessment
Below are three claims that one could make based on the article “Earhart’s Final Resting Place Believed Found.”
Earhart and Noonan lived as castaways on Nikumaroro Island.
CLAIMS
Earhart and Noonan’s plane crashed into the Pacific Ocean.
People don’t really know where Earhart and Noonan died.
Part A – Highlight the claim that is supported by the most relevant and sufficient evidence within “Earhart’s Final Resting Place Believed Found.”
Part B – Click on two facts within the article that best provide evidence to support the claim selected in Part A.
Research Simulation Task
ELA | 7th Grade (From: http://www.parcconline.org/samples/english‐language‐artsliteracy/grade‐7‐tecr‐research‐simulation‐task)
45
A Sample PARCC Assessment
You have read three texts describing Amelia Earhart. All three include the claim that Earhart was a brave, courageous person. The three texts are: •
•
•
“Biography of Amelia Earhart”
“Earhart's Final Resting Place Believed Found”
“Amelia Earhart’s Life and Disappearance”
Consider the argument each author uses to demonstrate Earhart’s bravery.
Write an essay that analyzes the strength of the arguments about Earhart’s bravery in at least two of the texts. Remember to use textual evidence to support your ideas.
Constructed‐Response
ELA | 7th Grade 46
See the Common Core as a Tapestry
47
Common Threads in the Common Core
• Evaluating evidence and using it to support positions
• Reading and understanding rigorous texts
• Understanding and contributing to meaningful discussions about content
• Finding important patterns and structures built into content
• Mastering academic vocabulary and integrating it into speaking and writing
• Using writing to advance learning and clarify thinking
• Writing comfortably in the Common Core text types: argument, informative, and narrative
• Conducting comparative analysis
48
Essential Questions
1. What is our promise to our students?
2. What does it mean to see the Common Core as a tapestry?
3. What does an effective teaching strategy look like?
What does an effective teaching strategy look like?
3.
4. How do we use these threads to create engaging and effective lesson and units?
49
What’s the Difference…
Between walking and the tango?
50
What Does an Effective Teaching Strategy Look Like?
Let’s use the Give One, Get One tool to explore this question in greater detail…
51
What Does an Effective Teaching Strategy Look Like?
Give One, Get One
What is it?
A technique that’s used to initiate physical movement, promote divergent thinking, and generate many ideas quickly
52
What Does an Effective Teaching Strategy Look Like?
Give One, Get One
Steps
1. Jot down two responses. (We’re working on the statement in blue below.)
2. Stand up and find a partner. GIVE ONE of your ideas to your partner and GET ONE in return.
If you and your partner have the same ideas, work together to create a new one and add it to your lists.
3. Quickly find a new partner. Give One, Get One. 4. Repeat Step 3 until you have a total of six ideas.
General rules: Work in pairs, not groups—don’t huddle!
Don’t copy each other’s entire lists!
 “An effective strategy is one that ___________.”
Source: From Tools for Promoting Active, In‐Depth Learning, 2nd Edition
53
What Does an Effective Teaching Strategy Look Like?
An effective strategy is one that…
• Provides organization, rules, and procedures that support learning
• Builds positive relationships between teacher and students and among students
• Gets students engaged in the learning process
• Helps students develop the behaviors and “habits of mind” of good thinkers
• Helps students master the content and develop useful skills
• Can be adapted for use across grade levels and content areas
• Is rooted in research about what works and is based on sound learning theory
• Improves teaching, learning, and achievement
• Actually works in real classrooms (practical, not theoretical)
54
What Does an Effective Teaching Strategy Look Like?
Expert teachers use effective tools and strategies
In a minute, we’ll watch a video of a kindergarten teacher using a tool called “Fist List,” which is part of an instructional strategy called Vocabulary’s CODE.
55
The Core Six
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reading for Meaning
Compare & Contrast
Inductive Learning
Circle of Knowledge
Write to Learn
Vocabulary’s CODE
56
Vocabulary’s CODE
Pages 68‐69
Let’s examine some of the many tools that teachers use to implement Vocabulary’s CODE. Examine the tools for implementing Vocabulary’s CODE that appear in your book.
What are some tools that you already use.
57
Tools for Implementing Vocabulary’s CODE
Here’s Fist List
58
Vocabulary’s CODE in a Nutshell
Page 65
Vocabulary’s CODE is a strategic approach to direct vocabulary instruction that helps students master crucial concepts and retain new vocabulary terms. Students work their way from initial exposure to in‐depth under‐standing through a series of progressive learning activities, which help students “crack” Vocabulary’s CODE. 59
Vocabulary’s CODE in a Nutshell
Page 65
Connecting with new words
Organizing new words into meaningful categories
Deep‐processing the most important concepts and terms
Exercising the mind through strategic review and practice
60
Three Reasons for Using Vocabulary’s CODE to Address the Common Core
Pages 65‐66
1. Vocabulary is a foundation for improved literacy
2. Academic vocabulary is at the core of the Core.
3. Vocabulary fuels learning.
61
What Does an Effective Teaching Strategy Look Like?
Fist List
What is it?
A tool that uses a hand‐shaped organizer to help students generate five ideas or facts related to a key term or topic
62
What Does an Effective Teaching Strategy Look Like?
Fist List
• The teacher provides a term, category, or question for students to put in the “palm” of their hand organizers.
• Students then generate five words, phrases, or responses (one for each digit) to fit with whatever is in their palms.
63
What Does an Effective Teaching Strategy Look Like?
As you watch the video, ask yourself how the teacher’s implementation of Fist List addresses the “effective teaching strategy” criteria on our list.
64
Teaching With the Tapestry In Mind
The Core Six is a collection of research‐based strategies that will help teachers develop the common‐thread skills in the Common Core using such rich, research‐based instructional strategies.
65
Power Preview
Power preview the Core Six book. Look through the text and jot down notes for the following questions:
• How is it organized or structured?
• What else did I notice or learn while skimming? What information and ideas seem to be important?
• Does anything look familiar or relate to something I’ve seen, read, learned, or experienced?
• What seems interesting?
• What seems confusing or challenging? Do I know any strategies that can help me address these challenges?
• What predictions can I make and why? (Check and mark the accuracy of your predictions as you read.)
66
The Core Six
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reading for Meaning
Compare & Contrast
Inductive Learning
Circle of Knowledge
Write to Learn
Vocabulary’s CODE
67
Write to Learn in a Nutshell
Page 50
Write to Learn is a set of nested tools for writing and learning in all content areas. Careful use of the tools embedded in this strategy can drastically improve students’ thinking, deepen their comprehension of content, and help teachers conduct the kind of formative assessment needed to improve student writing without getting caught in an endless cycle of paperwork. These tools support three different types of classroom writing, including
• Provisional writing
• Readable writing
• Polished writing
68
Three Reasons for Using Write to Learn to Address the Common Core
Paged 50‐51
1. Writing develops higher‐order thinking.
2. Writing in different text types.
3. Range of writing.
69
The Core Six
Page vii
1. Read the foreword to The Core Six by Heidi Hayes Jacobs.
2. Use the 4‐2‐1 Summarize organizer in your packet to collect the four big ideas.
3. Meet with a partner. Share, compare, and synthesize your big ideas into two big ideas.
4. Meet with a pair. In groups of four, decide on the single most important idea.
5. Use what you’ve learned to write a brief summary.
70
“Rather than providing a primer on the Common Core, the authors show how six essential strategies can provide a central focus for faculties, a common ground for schoolwide efforts to improve performance and increase student engagement.”
—Heidi Hayes Jacobs
Educator, author, Common Core expert
71
4‐2‐1 Summarize
A tool that solidifies and tests students’ grasp of what they’ve learned from readings, lectures, etc., by having them identify, discuss, and summarize the key points with their classmates
Summarizing skills:
 Emphasized in the Common Core
 Positive impact on student achievement
72
4‐2‐1 Summarize
What are the basic steps? Record the 4 most important lines.
Share, compare, agree on 2 inferences.
Share, compare, decide on 1 big idea.
Write a summary paragraph focused on the main idea.
73
On your own
With a partner
In groups of four
74
4‐2‐1 Summarize
Common Core Connections:
 Develops students’ ability to identify & summarize key ideas from a text (CC Reading Anchor Std 2)
 Builds explanatory writing skills (CC Writing Anchor Std 2)
 Teaches students to develop and strengthen their writing via planning (CC Writing Anchor Std 5)
 Engages students in peer‐to‐peer conversations about grade‐appropriate texts & topics (CC Speaking & Listening Anchor Std 1)
75
Looking at the Threads of the Common Core
• Evaluating evidence and using it to support positions
• Reading and understanding rigorous texts
• Understanding and contributing to meaningful discussions about content
• Finding important patterns and structures built into content
• Mastering academic vocabulary and integrating it into speaking and writing
• Using writing to advance learning and clarify thinking
• Writing comfortably in the Common Core text types: argument, informative, and narrative
• Conducting comparative analysis
76
Looking at the Threads of the Common Core
1. Comparative Analysis
Jam
Jelly
77
Comparative Thinking
Search the Common Core and you will find dozens of grade‐specific standards that require students to think comparatively.
78
A Skill in Focus: Comparative Analysis
In a high‐frequency word analysis of the Common Core Standards, it was found that skills related to comparison or compare and contrast sixty‐one times.
appeared sixty‐one times
Bellanca, Fogarty, & Pete
How to Teach Thinking Skills Within the Common Core (p. 12)
79
A Skill in Focus: Comparative Analysis
Dozens of grade‐specific Common Core Standards require students to think comparatively.
K.CC.7Compare
4.NF.2
8.F.2
W.5.9a
RL.K.9
With prompting and support, compare Compare
Draw evidence from literary or properties of two functions each two fractions with different two numbers between 1 and 10 L.5.3b
Use knowledge of language and its and contrast the adventures and experiences of informational texts to support analysis, presented as written numerals.
numerators and different denominators, e.g., by represented in a different way (algebraically, conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or characters in familiar stories.
reflection, and research.
graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal creating common denominators or numerators, listening. a. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature descriptions). or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English 1/2. Recognize that comparisons
(e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more are valid only (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, when the two fractions refer to the same whole. characters, settings, or events in a story or a dramas, or poems.
Record the results of comparisons
drama, drawing on specific details in the text with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by [e.g., how characters interact]”).
using a visual fraction model.
80
Standards Call for Seven Types of Paired Passages (often also requiring certain genres or works)
1.
Comparing literary elements, including theme (e.g., RL.3.9, RL.4.5, RL.6.9, RL.11‐12.9)
2.
Comparing central ideas, topics, including same event and point of view (e.g., RI.3.9, RI.4.6, RI.8.9, RI.9‐10.9, RH.11‐12.6)
3.
Comparing and/or analyzing different versions of the same text (e.g., RL.4.7, RI. 7.7, RI.8.7, RL.11‐12.7)
4.
Analyzing how ideas are transformed from one text to another (RI.6.9, RL.7.9, RST.6‐8.9, RL.9‐10.9, RH.9‐10.9)
5.
Integrating information for a purpose (e.g., RI.4.9, RI.5.9, RH.11‐12.9)
6.
Comparing structure of texts (e.g., RI.5.5, RL.8.5)
7.
Analyzing supplemental elements (e.g., RL.3.7, RI.3.7, RI.4.7, RI.5.7)
81
The Core Six
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reading for Meaning
Compare & Contrast
Inductive Learning
Circle of Knowledge
Write to Learn
Vocabulary’s CODE
82
Compare and Contrast in a Nutshell
Page 16
Compare & Contrast is a critical thinking strategy designed to build students’ memories, eliminate confusion, and bring crucial similarities and differences into sharp focus. 83
Compare and Contrast in a Nutshell
Page 16
The strategy maximizes the effectiveness of the natural human capacity to make comparisons by guiding students through a four‐phase learning process: • Description Phase—students describe each item using criteria • Comparison Phase—students use a Top Hat Organizer to record key similarities and differences
• Conclusion Phase—students discuss their findings and draw conclusions
• Application Phase—students synthesize their learning by completing an application task.
84
How the Four Phases of Compare & Contrast Support Close Reading
Description Phase
Collecting evidence from the text
Comparison Phase
Summarizing the evidence
Conclusion Phase
Analyzing and evaluating the evidence
Application Phase
Transferring and applying the evidence
85
Let’s look at these four phases in greater depth.
The Content:
Two Readings, Two Households
Page 16
86
Description Phase—Collecting Evidence
Read the text collect evidence from that is related to the following criteria:
• Father’s Role
• Daughter’s Role
• Nature of the Home
• Nature of the World
87
Description Phase—Collecting Evidence
17th-Century Father Talks
to His Daughter
Criteria
Father’s Role
Daughter’s Role
Nature of the Home
Nature of the World
“Father is Coming” 19th
Century Song
Description Phase—Collecting Evidence
17th-Century Father Talks to
His Daughter
“I charged her to pray in secret places everyday”
“When I am taken from her…she has a careful and tender father to provide for her.”
Spiritual leader and provider
Criteria
Father’s Role
“Father is Coming” 19th
Century Song
“The clock is on the stroke of six;/The father’s work is done” (everyone is home)
“He is stronger than the storm; does not feel the cold.”
Provider and strength of family
Description Phase—Collecting Evidence
17th-Century Father Talks to
His Daughter
“She must…remember everything I said.”
“I charged her to pray everyday.”
To obey and to pray everyday
Criteria
Daughter’s Role
“Father is Coming” 19th
Century Song
“Sweep up the hearth and mend the fire,
And put the kettle on.”
“Run, little Bess, and open the door,
And do not let him wait.”
Greet her father, take care of the home
Description Phase—Collecting Evidence
17th-Century Father Talks to
His Daughter
Criteria
“Father is Coming” 19th
Century Song
“The cheerful firelight”
“I set before her the sinful and woeful, nature of her existence.”
“Pray everyday…without ceasing that God for sake of Jesus Christ would give her a new heart.”
“…abide by the laws governing her existence.”
Strict and religious
Nature of the Home
“His heart it is so”
“Do not close the shutters” (to let him see the warm glow)
Warm and loving
Description Phase—Collecting Evidence
17th-Century Father Talks to
His Daughter
Criteria
“sinful and woeful condition of her nature”
Nature of the World
“she must look to meet with more humbling afflictions”
Filled with evil
“Father is Coming” 19th
Century Song
“The wild wind night is blowing cold”
“ ’Tis dreary crossing o’er the world.”
“He is stronger than the storm”
Cold, dark, dreary
Comparison Phase—Summarizing the Evidence
17th-Century Family
19th-Century Family
• Focused on God and religion
• Home is very strict and religious
• Father is watchful, always present
• Daughter is naturally sinful, needs to pray and obey her father
• Focused on providing for and protecting family
• Home is very warm and inviting
• Father must travel to work and provide for family
• Daughter has responsibilities around the home
Similarities
•Father is head of the household
•Home is a safe pace
•The outside world is a threatening place
•The daughter is obedient to her father
Conclusion Phase—Analyzing and Evaluating the Evidence
Are the two homes more alike or different? What evidence supports your conclusion?
Let’s conduct a physical barometer to answer the question. If you think that the two homes are more alike stand on the left side of the room. If you think that the two homes are more different stand on the right side of the room. If you are unsure stand in the middle.
94
Conclusion Phase—Analyzing and Evaluating the Evidence
If you think that the two homes are more alike stand on the left side of the room. If you are unsure
stand in the middle.
If you think that the two homes are more different stand on the right side of the room. 95
Conclusion Phase—Analyzing and Evaluating the Evidence
1. Are the two homes more alike or different? What evidence supports your conclusion?
The homes are more different. The 19th century family has a loving relationship. The firelight is “cheerful.” The family is excited that the father is coming home. They are mending the fire and putting the kettle on for father because they want the home to be pleasant. The 17th century home is focused on the “sinful and woeful nature” of humans. The daughter must be obedient, and the father is blunt and strict. He tells the child she “must do.”
96
Application Phase—Transferring Learning/Applying Evidence
Pick two universal traits for ideal fathers, whether they come from the 17th, the 19th, or the 21st century. Then pick two more traits that you believe are unique to modern fathers. Use the four traits you select to develop a want ad for an ideal 21st century father.
97
Application Phase—Transferring Learning/Applying Evidence
What Kinds of Texts Can I Use?
Multiple passages from the same source
Essays
Letters
Articles
Speeches
One text against one non‐textual source (e.g., data base)
• Research studies
• Case studies
• Multimedia resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
99
How do we teach students to tango?
—or—
How do we build students comparative analysis skills?
100
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Description Phase
A 2nd grader analyzes the structure of two fables.
Culminating Assessment
At the end of the lesson, students were asked, “What can a fable teach us about how to handle challenges?”
Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 101
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Description Phase
A 1st grader uses a magnifying glass to identify the critical attributes of coins.
Culminating Assessment
At the end of the lesson, students were asked to identify particular coins placed inside socks. Once student identified the coin by feel, they had to describe it using criteria.
Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 102
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Description Phase
A group of middle school students uses words and images to distinguish reptiles and dinosaurs.
Culminating Assessment
At the end of the lesson, students had to decide how to classify dinosaurs (e.g., reptiles or birds) and explain the basis for their classification.
Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 103
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Comparison Phase
A high school student creates a T‐Shirt Organizer to identify the similarities and differences between anaerobic and aerobic exercise.
Culminating Assessment
At the end of the lesson, students had to design a personal exercise regimen that incorporated both aerobic and anaerobic exercises.
Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 104
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Comparison Phase
A middle school student compares the educational philosophies of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois on a Y Organizer.
Culminating Assessment
At the end of the lesson, students had to decide how Booker T. Washington and W.E.B DuBois would weigh in on the current educational debate: What are the most important 21st century skills?
Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 105
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Comparison Phase
A high school student compares two literary movements: Naturalism and Realism.
Culminating Assessment
At the end of the lesson, students were asked to choose from a selection of short stories and explain which story best represented the Naturalist movement and which best represented the Realist movement. Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 106
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Conclusion Phase
A 5th grader draws conclusions about renewable and nonrenewable energy.
Culminating Assessment
At the end of the lesson, students were asked to write an editorial using the principles of argument to convince readers of their positions on whether the government should invest more money in renewable energy sources.
Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 107
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Let’s look at some more culminating assessments (Application Phase)
A 2nd grader creates a Flip Strip to show how frogs and toads differ using appropriate transitional words.
Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 108
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Application Phase (Culminating Assessment)
A 2nd grader writes a simple comparison essay explains how spheres and prisms are both alike and different.
Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 109
Compare & Contrast in the Classroom
Application Phase (Culminating Assessment)
A high school student compares linear and quadratic equations in a using an extended metaphor.
Source: Compare & Contrast: Teaching Comparative Thinking to Strengthen Student Learning (A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide) 110
Application Phase (Culminating Assessment)
A high school student compares linear and quadratic equations in a using an extended metaphor.
111
What Should I Compare?
In the Compare & Contrast PLC Guide, we provide over 100 ideas for Compare & Contrast lessons in
• ELA
• Science
• Social Studies
• Mathematics
• Fine Arts
Pages 26‐27
• CTE
• Miscellaneous
112
Compare & Contrast Raises Student Achievement
Research clearly indicates the impact of each of these on student learning:
Category
Identifying Similarities & Differences Summarizing & Note‐taking Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition
Homework & Practice
Non‐Linguistic Representation
Cooperative Learning
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback
Generating & Testing Hypotheses
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers
Percentile Gain 45
34
29
28
27
27
23
23
22
Source: From Classroom Instruction That Works: Research‐
Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
113
What Kinds of Texts Can I Use?
• Multiple passages from the same source
• Essays
• Letters
• Articles
• Speeches
• One text against one non‐textual source (e.g., a database)
• Research studies
• Case studies
• Multimedia resources
114
Looking at the Threads of the Common Core
• Evaluating evidence and using it to support positions
• Reading and understanding rigorous texts
• Understanding and contributing to meaningful discussions about content
• Finding important patterns and structures built into content
• Mastering academic vocabulary and integrating it into speaking and writing
• Using writing to advance learning and clarify thinking
• Writing comfortably in the Common Core text types: argument, informative, and narrative
• Conducting comparative analysis
115
Looking at the Threads of the Common Core
2. Close, evidence‐based reading
116
Comparative Reading
When applied specifically to reading, Compare & Contrast develops students’ abilities to read two texts against each other, draw out common themes, and identify the most salient differences.
117
Another Core Six Strategy for Close Reading
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reading for Meaning
Compare & Contrast
Inductive Learning
Circle of Knowledge
Write to Learn
Vocabulary’s CODE
118
Reading for Meaning in a Nutshell
Page 7
Reading for Meaning is a research‐based strategy that helps all readers build the skills that proficient readers use to make sense of challenging texts. Regular use of the strategy gives students the opportunity to practice and master the three phases of critical reading that lead to reading success, including
• Previewing and predicting before reading
• Actively searching for relevant information during reading
• Reflecting on learning after reading
119
What Is Reading for Meaning?
“To read is to fly: it is to soar to a point of vantage which gives a view over wide terrains of history, human variety, ideas, shared experience and the fruits of many inquiries.” — A. C. Grayling, Financial Times (in a review of A History of Reading by Alberto Manguel)
“The habit of reading is the only enjoyment in which there is no alloy; it lasts when all other pleasures fade.” — Anthony Trollope
“We read to know we are not alone.” — C. S. Lewis
“If you can read this, thank a teacher.” — Anonymous teacher
120
What Is Reading for Meaning?
Is it reading words and understanding them?
Are
Between
Consists
Continuously
Corresponding Curve
Draws
Variation
Graph
If
Isolated With
Making
Only
Often
One
Points
Relation
Set
Table
Values
Variables
Known
121
What Is Reading for Meaning?
Draw a picture explaining your understanding of the text below.
If the known relation between the variables consists of a table of corresponding values, the graph consists only of the corresponding set of isolated points. If the variables are known to vary continuously, one often draws a curve to show the variation.
—Basic Math, 1945
122
What Is Reading for Meaning?
Is it reading words carefully?
I cdnuolt blveiee that I cluod aulacity uesdnatnrd what I was rdanieg. The phaonmeal pweor of the hmuan mnid. Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch sdtuy at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is that the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can still raed it wouthit a porbelm. This is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? Yaeh and I awlyas thought sipeling was ipmorantt!
123
What Is Reading for Meaning?
Is it answering comprehension questions?
The Marmarining of Corolano
It is essential that you learn about corolano. Corolano is a new and powerful type of drebble‐do. It is marmarined in Treslovia. The Treslovians stagomate huge quantities of fertunto and then quarm it to dirate corolano. Corolano may be one of our most oberized vactruxes in the future because of its ability to turn sharlotees into usable crumbums. Where is corolano marmarined?
Why is it important to know about corolano?
How is corolano dirated?
What is corolano?
124
So What Is Reading for Meaning?
To find out, let’s read a challenging text and see what we can learn about what it means to read for meaning.
In your packet, find the “Anthology of Rigorous Readings.”
Pick the text that seems most appealing or intriguing to you. As you read it, pay attention to what your mind is doing.
125
Reading and Thinking Skills Good Readers Use
Before reading did you…
 Draw forth relevant background knowledge to help you put the reading in context?  Make predictions about what the text would say or include?
 Establish a purpose for reading?
126
Reading and Thinking Skills Good Readers Use
During reading did you…  Apply criteria that helped you separate critical information from less relevant information?  Pay attention to how the ideas were presented and organized?  Make notes to help you highlight and clarify important ideas?  Form images in your head to help you “see” the content?  Note when the text confirmed or refuted your initial ideas or pre‐reading predictions?
127
Reading and Thinking Skills Good Readers Use
After reading did you…
 Reflect on what you read?  Try to assess and shore up gaps in your comprehension? (What do I need to better understand?)  Look for opportunities to discuss your ideas with other readers?
128
Aligning Reading for Meaning Statements to Anchor Standards
Determine what a text says explicitly. (R.CCR.1)
• Everyone is unkind to Little Bear.
• Animals prepare for winter in different ways.
Page 14
129
Aligning Reading for Meaning Statements to Anchor Standards
Make logical inferences from a text. (R.CCR.1)
• We can tell that Pooh and Piglet have been friends for a long time.
• Without taking Franklin’s data, Watson and Crick wouldn’t have succeeded.
Page 14
130
Aligning Reading for Meaning Statements to Anchor Standards
Identify main ideas and themes. (R.CCR.2)
• The moral of the story is that teams can do more than individuals.
• Structure and function are intricately linked. Page 14
131
Aligning Reading for Meaning Statements to Anchor Standards
Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop, connect, and interact. (R.CCR.3)
• Pickles goes from being a bad cat to a good cat.
• After Maxim’s revelation, the new Mrs. de Winter is a changed woman.
• The seeds of social change for women in America were planted during WWII.
Page 14
132
Aligning Reading for Meaning Statements to Anchor Standards
Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop, connect, and interact. (R.CCR.3)
• Pickles goes from being a bad cat to a good cat.
• After Maxim’s revelation, the new Mrs. de Winter is a changed woman.
• The seeds of social change for women in America were planted during WWII.
Page 14
133
Aligning Reading for Meaning Statements to Anchor Standards
Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text; distinguish between what is said and what is meant or true. (R.CCR.6)
• Chekhov wants us to judge Julia harshly.
• The writer’s personal feelings influenced his description of this event.
Page 14
134
Aligning Reading for Meaning Statements to Anchor Standards
Integrate and evaluate content that is presented visually and quantitatively as well as in words. (R.CCR.7)
• Munch’s The Scream shares many stylistic elements with Impressionism.
• According the table in this article, sun worshippers would be happier living in Phoenix than in Seattle.
Page 14
135
Aligning Reading for Meaning Statements to Anchor Standards
Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or compare the authors’ approaches. (R.CCR.9)
• The two fables we read are more similar than different.
• The Cherokee people’s account of their relocation differs from the account in your textbook.
Page 14
136
Reading for Meaning: The Basic Steps
1. Present students with a list of “agree or disagree statements” about an assigned text (e.g., “Frog is a good friend”).
2. Have students preview the statements and then begin reading the text.
3. Ask students to indicate whether they agree or disagree with the statements based on what they read.
4. Have students justify their agree/disagree positions by citing appropriate evidence from the text.
5. Create a synthesis task that requires students to apply what they have learned from analyzing the text.
137
Good Readers, Great Strategy
Before Reading
• Life would be much more difficult without plants.
• Forced relocation is an inhumane policy.
• Francis Bacon would approve of Batman’s notion of private justice.
• A colony is a lot like a child.
• Countee Cullen was deeply hurt by the incident in the poem.
• Emerson’s feelings about personal responsibility are much like my own. • The author’s main point is that film noir is a style, not a technique.
138
Good Readers, Great Strategy
During Reading
High school English, Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (Act III, Scene II) 139
Good Readers, Great Strategy
After Reading
Gregory is a healthy eater.
Gregory is a very good eater.
The primary goal of the speech was to honor the soldiers who had fought and died.
Lincoln’s speech conveyed multiple purposes.
140
Good Readers, Great Strategy
Synthesis Activity
“Although people shouldn’t eat tin cans and cardboard boxes like the goats in Gregory the Terrible Eater, it is a good idea to try new foods like Gregory does.”
• Cut out or draw pictures of different foods to create a balanced meal that you would enjoy.
• Your meal must include a new food that you are willing to try.
• You must explain how your meal is balanced and healthy.
141
Good Readers, Great Strategy
Synthesis Activity
Which graph best depicts Galileo’s discovery about the behavior of pendulums?
Use the text to justify your choice.
142
Reading for Meaning: Beyond Reading
In science…
An elementary
school student
analyzes an
imaginary creature
called a “Woggle”
using Reading for
Meaning
statements.
143
Reading for Meaning: Beyond Reading
In math…
Most 3rd graders get their hair cut four times a year. Human hair grows at a rate of about 0.5 inches a month. If you get 2 inches of hair cut off during a year, about how much longer will your hair be at the end of that year?
Statements
Agree
Disagree
1. The first sentence contains relevant information to solve the problem.
2. Human hair grows at a rate of 1 inch every 2 months.
3. To solve this problem, you need to find out how much hair grows in a year.
4. You need to do only one operation to solve this problem.
144
Reading for Meaning: Beyond Reading
In math…
145
Reading for Meaning: Beyond Reading
In a science lab…
A middle school science teacher helps students collect evidence during a lab.
146
Reading for Meaning: Beyond Reading
With pre‐readers and primary‐grade students…
147
Reading for Meaning: Beyond Reading
When going on a field trip…
The zoo is a great place for animals.
148
Reading for Meaning: Beyond Reading
When going to an assembly…
Mr. Andre’s portrayal of Mark Twain was very accurate.
149
Weaving the Standards Together with Reading for Meaning
• Managing text complexity (Reading Anchor 10)
• Evaluating and using evidence (Reading Anchors 1 and 8, Writing Anchors 1 and 9)
• Developing the core skills of reading
 Determining main ideas (Reading Anchor 2)
 Analyzing characters and ideas (Reading Anchor 3)
 Interpreting meanings (Reading Anchor 4)
 Assessing point of view (Reading Anchor 6)
• Interpreting visual and quantitative information (Reading Anchor 7)
• Reading, interpreting, and solving complex mathematical problems (Mathematical Practices 1, 2, 3, and 7)
150
Essential Questions
1. What is our promise to our students?
2. What does it mean to see the Common Core as a tapestry?
3. What does an effective teaching strategy look like?
4. How do we use these threads to create engaging and How do we use these threads to create engaging 4.
effective lesson and units?
and effective lesson and units?
151
How do we use these threads to create engaging and effective lesson and units?
Blueprint
Learning Window
Standards
Content Standards and Common
Core State Standards
What will students need to KNOW?
What will students
need to UNDERSTAND?
What HABITS OF MIND will I try to foster?
What SKILLS will students
need to develop?
Preparing Students for New Learning
Deepening Presenting & & Acquiring
Reinforcing New Learning
Learning
Best Bets
Reflecting On & Celebrating Learning
Comparison Close Reading
Argument
Applying Learning
152
The Gettysburg Address:
A Study in the Power of Words
(Common Core Mini-Unit)
153
How do we use these threads to create engaging and effective lesson and units?
Standards
Content Standards and Common
Core State Standards
154
Common Core State Standards
[RH.6‐8.1] Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
[RH.6‐8.2] Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. [RH.6‐8.6] Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose.
Students will also be writing an editorial addressing these Common Core State Standards:
[WHST.6‐8.1] Write arguments focused on discipline‐specific content.
[WHST.6‐8.9] Draw evidence from informational texts to support 155
analysis, reflection, and research.
How do we use these threads to create engaging and effective lesson and units?
Learning Window
Standards
Content Standards and Common
Core State Standards
What will students need to KNOW?
What HABITS OF MIND will I try to foster?
What will students
need to UNDERSTAND?
What SKILLS will students
need to develop?
156
Learning Window
Habits of Mind
Students will develop the habits of…
 Keeping an open mind; considering other people’s points of view.
 Seeking out reasons, explanations, and evidence.
 Thinking and communicating with accuracy and precision.
Understanding
Skills
Students will understand…
Students will be able to…
Lincoln’s speech remains relevant to this day  Reconstruct (sequence) and summarize the Gettysburg Address.
because it helps our nation remain united as a  Visualize ideas.
people.
 Relate personally to the Gettysburg Address.
 Interpret the speaker’s intent and message.
 Use specific evidence to justify their interpretations.
 Develop a valid, supported, and well‐written argument in the form of an editorial. 157
Knowledge
Students will know…
The Gettysburg Address, including its key points, context, and message.
How do we use these threads to create engaging and effective lesson and units?
Blueprint
Learning Window
Standards
Content Standards and Common
Core State Standards
What will students need to KNOW?
What HABITS OF MIND will I try to foster?
What will students
need to UNDERSTAND?
What SKILLS will students
need to develop?
Preparing Students for New Learning
Deepening Presenting & & Acquiring
Reinforcing New Learning
Learning
Reflecting On & Celebrating Learning
Applying Learning
158
Preparing Students for New Learning
(Foyer)
What voices have influenced who you are?
Vocabulary Knowledge Rating
Backwards Learning
Think, Pair, Share  What voices have helped define who you are?
 How has an important voice influenced you?
Presenting and Presenting and Acquiring New Learning
Acquiring New Learning
(Library)
(Library)
What did he say?
What did he say? How did he say it?
How did he say it?
Note Cards
Note Cards
•• Sequence the Gettysburg Address
Sequence the Gettysburg Address
Sticky Notes
Sticky Notes
•• Summarize the Gettysburg Address
Summarize the Gettysburg Address
Create a Metaphor
Create a Metaphor
•• The structure of the speech was
The structure of the speech was like a…
like a…
Applying Learning
Applying Learning
(Kitchen)
(Kitchen)
Why is the speech relevant to today
Why is the speech relevant to today
as it was when it was first delivered?
as it was when it was first delivered?
Online Editorial
Online Editorial
 Agree or disagree: “the work of  Agree or disagree: “the work of maintaining a ‘United’ States remains maintaining a ‘United’ States remains unfinished”
unfinished”
 Discuss importance of Lincoln’s message  Discuss importance of Lincoln’s message then and now
then and now
Presenting and Acquiring New Learning
Reflecting on and Celebrating Learning
Preparing Students for New Learning
Deepening and Reinforcing Learning
Applying Learning
(Workshop)
(Kitchen)
(Library)
(Porch)
(Foyer)
Reflecting on and Celebrating Learning
Deepening and Reflecting on and Celebrating Learning
Deepening and Reinforcing Learning
What is Lincoln trying to tell us in the speech?
What voices have influenced who you are?
What did he say?
Why is the speech relevant to today
What words will remain with How did he say it? (Porch)
Reinforcing Learning
(Porch)
(Workshop)
What words will remain with (Workshop)
What words will remain with What is Lincoln trying
you from the Gettysburg Address?
What is Lincoln trying
Note Cards
Vocabulary Knowledge Rating
Reading for Meaning
as it was when it was first delivered?
you from the Gettysburg Address?
you from the Gettysburg Address?
to tell us in the speech?
Community Circle
to tell us in the speech?
Community Circle
Reading for Meaning
Reading for Meaning
Community Circle
Backwards Learning
Agree or disagree
Online Editorial
•Sequence the Gettysburg Address  Select and share a line from the Gettysburg Select and share a line from the Gettysburg  Agree or disagree
Address that can help guide you
Agree or disagree
Address that can help guide you
 Support position with evidence
Support position with evidence
Think, Pair, Share Support position with evidence
Select and share a line from the Gettysburg Address Agree or disagree: “the work of maintaining a Sticky Notes
that can help guide you
What voices have helped define who you are?
‘United’ States remains unfinished”
 •Summarize the Gettysburg Address
How has an important voice influenced you?
Discuss importance of Lincoln’s message then and now
Create a Metaphor
•The structure of the speech was like a…
159
The Five Episodes of Effective Instruction
Preparing
Students for
New Learning
Deepening
& Reinforcing
Learning
Presenting
& Acquiring
New Learning
Reflecting On
& Celebrating
Learning
Applying
Learning
160
Preparing
Students for
New Learning
Deepening
& Reinforcing
Learning
Presenting &
Acquiring
New Learning
Reflecting On
& Celebrating
Learning
Applying
Learning
161
Mental Companions
What voices have helped you define who you are? Identify one of these voices and explain how it has influenced you.
brother
sister
Religious
figure
162
Famous Speeches
There are many famous
Americans whose
voices have played an
important role in our
American heritage.
Frederick
Douglass
Franklin D.
Roosevelt
John F.
Kennedy
Martin Luther
163
King, Jr.
Famous Speeches
There are many famous Americans whose voices have
played an important role in our American heritage.
If there is no struggle,
there is no progress.
— Frederick Douglass
Ask not what your
country can do for you—
ask what you can do for
your country.
— John F. Kennedy
The only thing we have to
fear is fear itself.
— Franklin D. Roosevelt
I have a dream that my
four little children will
one day live in a nation
where they will not be
judged by the color of
their skin, but by the
content of their
character.
— Martin Luther King, Jr.
164
Famous Speeches
Today we’re going to look at the words from a great
speech given by Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg to honor
the soldiers who fought and died there in the Civil War.
What do you know about
Lincoln’s speech, about
it’s purpose and impact?
165
Famous Speeches
Essential Question and Culminating Assessment:
Is Lincoln’s speech as relevant today for all Americans as it
was on Thursday, November 19,1863?
Lincoln reminds us in “The Gettysburg Address” that the work of
maintaining a “United” States of America remains unfinished. Do you
agree or disagree with his thesis?
A local university is developing a website to commemorate President
Lincoln and is looking for editorial content related to “The Gettysburg
Address.”
Develop an editorial in which you discuss the importance of Lincoln’s
message at Gettysburg and what it means to Americans today.
166
Backwards Learning
What is my task?
To write an editorial in which I discuss the importance of Lincoln’s
message at Gettysburg and what it means for Americans today
What will I need to know?
• What Lincoln said in his speech
• Why his speech was important
• How it’s relevant to Americans
today
What will I need to be able to do?
I need to be able to write an
editorial using evidence from
the text to support my
position.
For more information on Backwards Learning, see
Tools for Thoughtful Assessment (p. 18).
167
Vocabulary Knowledge Rating
Terms
dedicate
hallow
consecrate
devotion
nobly
resolve
perish
I’ve never seen or heard of this term.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I’ve seen or heard of this term, but I know little/nothing about it.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
I know this term,
but I couldn’t give a complete explanation or example of it.
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
For more information on Vocabulary Knowledge Rating,
see Tools for Thoughtful Assessment (p. 14).
I can explain this term in my own words, give an example, and use it in conversation. 4
4
4
4
4
4
4
168
Preparing
Students for
New Learning
Deepening
& Reinforcing
Learning
Presenting &
Acquiring
New Learning
Reflecting On
& Celebrating
Learning
Applying
Learning
169
How do we use these threads to create engaging and effective lesson and units?
Blueprint
Learning Window
Standards
Content Standards and Common
Core State Standards
What will students need to KNOW?
What will students
need to UNDERSTAND?
What HABITS OF MIND will I try to foster?
What SKILLS will students
need to develop?
Preparing Students for New Learning
Deepening Presenting & & Acquiring
Reinforcing New Learning
Learning
Best Bets
Reflecting On & Celebrating Learning
Comparison Close Reading
Argument
Applying Learning
170
Note Cards (Sequence) What did he say? How did he say it?
As Lincoln was getting off the train, he dropped his speech notes. Examine the note cards below and arrange them in the proper sequence so they make sense. Indicate their order by numbering the note cards 1‐10.
171
Sticky Notes (Summarize)
What did he say? How did he say it?
Now, check your order and compare your work
with Lincoln’s actual speech. Then use “sticky
notes” to briefly summarize each portion of the
Gettysburg Address.
172
Note Cards (Sequence) 3
We are met on a great battle‐field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
1
5
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground.
It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.
8
The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.
—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—
and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
10
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
4
The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor 173
power to add or detract.
6
7
9
2
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.
Create a Metaphor (Simile)
What did he say? How did he say it?
The structure of the speech is like
a_________________________________
because_____________________________.
174
Preparing
Students for
New Learning
Deepening
& Reinforcing
Learning
Presenting &
Acquiring
New Learning
Reflecting On
& Celebrating
Learning
Applying
Learning
175
Reading for Meaning Statements
Steps:
1. Review the Reading for Meaning statements.
2. Formulate initial responses to the statements.
3. Read “The Gettysburg Address.”
4. While reading, look for evidence that supports and/or
refutes each statement.
5. Meet with other classmates to see if you agree or
disagree with the statements.
6. If you can’t arrive at a consensus, discuss how you might
176
modify the statement so you can all agree with it.
Reading for Meaning Statements
Read the statements below and take a critical stance. Use evidence from Lincoln’s speech to defend your position.
Agree or Disagree?
• The primary goal of the speech was to honor the soldiers who had fought and died.
• Lincoln believed that our nation was at a crossroads.
• Lincoln believed that the outcome of the war had implications for the entire world, not just the United States.
• Lincoln would agree that actions speak louder than words. 177
Group Discussion
Meet with a small group of historical scholars
and discuss your evidence. Try to come to a
consensus on whether you agree or disagree
with the statements. If you disagree, rewrite the
statements so that you are all in agreement.
178
The Gettysburg Address
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. EVIDENCE FOR
The primary goal of the speech was to honor the soldiers who had fought and died.
179
The Gettysburg Address
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
EVIDENCE AGAINST
The primary goal of the speech was to honor the soldiers who had fought and died.
180
The Gettysburg Address
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. Lincoln believed that our nation was at a crossroads.
181
The Gettysburg Address
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Lincoln believed that the outcome of the war had implications for the entire world, not just the United States.
182
The Gettysburg Address
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Lincoln believed that the outcome of the war had implications Lincoln would agree that actions speak louder than words.
for the entire world, not just the United States.
183
Preparing
Students for
New Learning
Deepening
& Reinforcing
Learning
Presenting &
Acquiring
New Learning
Reflecting On
& Celebrating
Learning
Applying
Learning
184
Editorial
• Lincoln reminds us in “The Gettysburg Address” that the
work of maintaining a “United” States of America remains
unfinished. Do you agree or disagree with his thesis?
• A local university is developing a website to commemorate
President Lincoln and is looking for editorial content related
to “The Gettysburg Address.”
• Develop an editorial in which you discuss the importance
of Lincoln’s message at Gettysburg and what it means to
Americans today.
185
Preparing
Students for
New Learning
Deepening
& Reinforcing
Learning
Presenting
New Learning
Reflecting On
& Celebrating
Learning
Applying
Learning
186
Community Circle
What words will remain with you from the
Gettysburg Address?
Look back over Lincoln’s speech. Select a single
line or phrase that speaks to you and that can
become part of your inner voice. Be prepared to
share your line or phrase in our “Community
Circle” and to tell why you chose it and how it can
help guide you.
187
Lincoln Reminds Us That… It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to
the unfinished work which they who fought here
have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us
to be here dedicated to the great task remaining
before us…
What is the great task before us today as educators?
188
What Is the Great Task Before Us Today as Educators?
To keep America’s promise to educate all our
children to their fullest potential
How can the Common Core
help us to fullfill our promise?
189
YOU CAN COUNT ON US
190
Reflecting On Our Learning
Education is to democracy as _________ is
to _________.
191

Similar documents