Organization of the Unit

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Organization of the Unit
Organization of the Unit
7 Music and new
Presentation
technologies
With this book we are trying to offer you the opportunity of getting to know music
while enjoying it. Each of the units is introduced with a two-page image, a scheme so
that you can see the most important contents as a whole and an introductory text.
recording and playback
systems
media
original music
soundtrack
The first pages present an outline so that you can globally appreciate the most
relevant content, an introductory text and a section with the initial activities. We
also include a chart with the development of the key skills that you will need in
your learning process. They correspond to the following abbreviations:
Linguistic communication competence to keep improving in reading, writing,
speaking and listening actively.
CPAA
Competence in learning to learn, as you must be aware of your own learning process.
CEC
Cultural awareness and expression through the art and culture that the musical pieces
contain.
CSC
Social and civic competences, working together collaboratively with other
classmates.
SIE
Sense of initiative and enterprising spirit, because we want to test your ability to carry
out your own creations.
CD
Digital competence so that you are able to search, obtain, process and communicate
information, and transform it into knowledge, all through TIC.
3
Instrumental music
During the Renaissance, composers got more and more interested in
instrumental music (isolated until then). Instruments and their techniques were improved and, for the first time, some specific compositions for instruments appeared.
The Church continued with his prohibition of the use of instruments,
linked to pagan cults «dangerous» for the congregation. So, instrumental music had to evolve in the secular sphere.
On the one hand, it still served as accompaniment for secular vocal
music. On the other, a true instrumental music appeared, independent from singing and its texts.
3.2. Instruments
The tablature
Instrumental music gave room for
new notation symbols like the tablature, which shows the composer (by means of numbers, letters
or note values) how to make the
required sound.
The concept of orchestra as a stable group did not exist in group music yet. That is why instruments were not specified on the score and
the pieces were performed according to the available means of the
occasion.
Instrument families were divided into two categories depending on
sound power and not on their timbric or performing similarities:
– Haut* music: formed by instruments with great sound power. These
were groups intended for outdoor performances or public events.
The number of wind instruments increased and many of them were
built in families of different sizes in order to cover the complete tessitura of voices.
Haut: loud
Bas: quiet
Most of the instrumental forms of the Renaissance respond to three
basic types of composition:
•
ACTIVITIES
1. Look at the pictures of the main Renaissance instruments and indicate the complete classification of
each one of them.
Spinet
Adapted pieces from vocal works
They keep the typical structure and texture of the original vocal forms,
but adapted for instruments. The ricercare (derived from the motet)
and the canzona (derived from the chanson) belong to this type.
•
Chirimia
Vihuela
Pieces based on improvisation
They can be improvised upon a given melody or «cantus firmus», or
the music can be freely made up. The fantasia and the toccata (pieces in which the composer completely develops his creativity), belong
to this type.
•
Pieces based on variation
The composer starts with a simple theme that is later repeated with
different modifications. Variations can be made by transforming the
original material (changes of melodic-rhythmic designs) or by adding
new things.
This variation form received the name «differences» in Spain. It often
used popular melodies or themes borrowed from other composers.
The most prominent composers of instrumental music were Andrea
Gabrielli (1510-1586) and Giovanni Gabrielli (1557-1612), John Dowland (1563-1626), Luis de Narváez (1499-1555) and Antonio de Cabezón (1510-1566).
44
The first serious attempt to study
instruments was the treatise by
the German composer and theorist Michael Praetorius (1571-1620)
called Syntagma musicum, which
describes the instruments of the
time and how to play them.
– Bas* music: formed by instruments of soft sound intensity. These
were groups intended for indoor performances.
3.1. Instrumental forms
UNIT 2
Serpent
Borrowed melodies
The use of pre-existing melodies,
usually taken from the popular
sphere, was a common recourse
of which almost all composers
took advantage.
Crumhorn
These melodies served as a base
for the composition as «cantus
firmus» upon which polyphony
was built, or as a starting theme
for the elaboration of improvised
variations.
Lute
Flute
Viola da gamba
Organ
Renaissance
radio format
original music
advertising
borrowed music
television
publipop classical
music
video clips
7 Music
and new technologies
BASIC SKILLS
WE ARE GOING TO LEARN TO…
Performance
and creation
– Develop techniques of musical performance (vocal, instrumental and
movement) and expression, individually as well as in groups.
– Take part in the musical activities with the proper disposition in order to
overcome any difficulties and to enrich the group.
– Recognize the basic elements of the language of music and use the proper
technical vocabulary to describe them.
– Improvise and carry out short compositions using the elements of the
language of music that are more common in the style, or the musical forms
that we studied.
– Show interest in the performance and creation activities, and show respect
for their classmate’s contributions.
– Read music in the context of the activities of the class as backup for the
tasks of performance and creation.
CMCT
CPAA
CSC
SIE
Listening
– Appreciate silence as a requirement for taking part in the listening.
– Listen to a wide array of music pieces and appreciate their value as sources
of knowledge as well as cultural and personal enrichment.
– Identify everyday situations in which sound is indiscriminately used,
analyze their causes and provide possible solutions.
– Exercise acoustic immersion as a base for active hearing in order to identify
the main characteristics of the pieces that we listened to.
– Read music in the context of the activities of the class as backup for the
tasks of listening.
CPAA
CSC
SIE
CEC
Musical
and cultural
contexts
– Understand and appreciate the relationships between the language of
music and other languages, as well as the function and meaning of music
in different artistic and audiovisual productions and means of
communication.
– Know the evolution of film music and distinguish the functions it fulfills at
the service of the cinematographic action.
– Characterize the function of music in different media and its applications
in the advertisement industry.
– Value the assimilation and use of the necessary basic musical concepts
when judging or “speaking about music”.
– Build personal opinions and criteria by means of a critical analysis of the
different social uses of music; and apply them to everyday situations while
appreciating the contribution of music to our personal lives as well as to
the community.
CCL
CSC
SIE
CEC
Music and
technology
– Know the main ways of recording and playing sound and how they basically
work.
– Identify the main electronic instruments and use the most basic electronic
music software in order to create and play simple compositions.
– Know and use different audiovisual means and technologies as resources
for the production of music, and appreciate their contribution to different
musical activities and to self-learning music.
– Investigate the different musical resources that computers offer us: specific
apps as well as web pages.
– Take part in the different aspects of the production of music by properly
using materials, methods and technologies.
CCL
CPAA
SIE
CD
Development
Beginnings of
organology
The favorite solo instruments were plucked string instruments (lute
and vihuela) and keyboard instruments (organ and harpsichord), all
of them polyphonic.
Since this moment, music, which used to be improvised or performed
by heart, began to be written down. However, improvisation continued being deeply rooted and would later have its reflection in the
different ornamentation and variation techniques, typical of many
forms of instrumental music.
pop classical
music
musical
radio
CCL
borrowed music
cinema
45
After the presentation, the development of concepts
appears (which constitutes the core of the unit).
The text is structured in paragraphs that incorporate
many diagrams, schemes, illustrations and musical examples that will help you follow the contents in a simpler and
more entertaining way. Short review activities, listening
and musical performances will be useful to evaluate what
you learn at the end of each part.
Some complementary contents and curiosities are included
in the margins.
Challenge
Challenge
Challenge
«The color of sounds»
When you finish the development of the unit, the
Challenge section will offer you different activities so
that you can put into practice basic abilities.
1
Group composition and performance
Using alternative graphic notation and what you just learnt about avant-garde musical movements,
write a composition that the whole class can perform.
The physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton (1642-1727) known for his Theory of universal gravitation,
also investigated the field of optics, being his main contribution the theory of colors. In his treatise on
Optics, published in 1704, Newton associates the chromatic circle of seven colors with the seven musical
notes, establishing the following correspondences:
C
violet
D
red
E
orange
F
yellow
G
green
A
blue
•
You have to place your piece between two axes: a horizontal one that indicates the approximate
pitch of sound, and a vertical one that determines the duration more accurately in order to be
able to coordinate the performance.
B
indigo
High
Medium
nº into
1 enaDo
mayorthe beginning of the Prelude No. 1 in C
a. Transform the music into colors byPreludio
translating
drawing
(J. S.The
Bach)
Major by Johann Sebastian Bach from his work
Well-Tempered Clavier:
Ú 112
Low
1
‰
œ œ‰
œ œ ‰ œœœ œœ‰ œœœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ‰ œœ œœ
œ
œ
& c œ œ. œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ. œ œ œ œ
œ
œ œ
≈J
≈ œ. œ
≈ Jœ œ. œ
≈ Jœ . œ
≈ Jœ . œ
J
˙
˙J
˙
˙
˙
?c ˙
Moderato
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
sec
You will have to indicate the different sounds with varied and clearly different symbols.
•
4 ‰
‰
œ
œ‰
œ
œ ‰ œœ œœ‰ œœ œœ ‰
œ
œœ œœ
œœ œœ
œ
& ≈ œ œ. œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ. œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ. œ œ
≈ Jœ .# œ œ œ ≈ Jœ œ. œ œ
≈ Jœ . œ
J
J
J
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
? ˙
To indicate the pitch, use the three levels of the diagram to place the symbols in ascending or
descending order, or to draw continuous lines that reflect the approximate movement of the
melodic line.
•
For durations, besides placing the symbols on their corresponding time, you can use dots or short
lines for shorter sounds, and rectangles or long lines for longer sounds.
•
The different intensities are always indicated by modifying the size of the symbol: small for soft
sounds and bigger for loud ones.
7 ‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
œœ œœ‰ œœ œœ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
& ≈ œ œ. œ œ
œ
œ
≈ œ œ. œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ. œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ. œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ. œ œ œ œ
≈ Jœ . œ
J
J
J
˙
˙J
˙J
˙
˙
?˙
•
You can work on sounds with voice
– With vowels
a
b. Take into account that, besides translating notes into colors, you have to reflect the different durations
10
of sounds,
too. They always respond to a repeated two-beat scheme, that you will be able to represent
œ
œ
œ
œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ #œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ
&a‰diagram
œ ‰ toœ œthe following
with
example.
œ
œ
œ
œ
œœ
œ
œ
œ # œ œsimilar
œ
œ
j
? ≈˙ œ . œ
≈ œj . œ
˙
j
≈˙ œ . œ
j
˙≈ œ . œ
NOT EB
j
˙≈ b œ . œ
j
˙≈ œ . œ
16
ESO Musica II -ingles- primeras.indd 4
i
a
u
e
You can also use instruments of your class to make:
– Clusters or groups of sounds (close sounds that sound together) on the piano
by pressing several white keys at the same time with your fist or forearm.
OOK
Baroque
&‰
œ
œ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ‰ œœ œœ
œœ œœ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
j
≈ j
≈ j.
≈ j
≈ œj . œ
≈ j
? ≈˙ œ . œ
˙œ œ
˙
˙œ. œ
œ. œ
œ. œ
˙
˙
o
ssssssssssssss rrrrrrrrrrrrrr pppppppppppppp
•
– Short sounds using small percussion instruments: wood block, claves…, or xylophone…
œ
œ
œ
œ
& ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œœ œ œ œ œ ‰ œœ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ
j
j
j
≈ œj . œ
≈ j
≈ œj . œ
˙≈ œ . œ
˙≈ b œ . œ
˙≈ œ . œ
?˙ œ . œ
˙
˙
13
e
– With consonants
– Sustained sounds that fade away with cymbals, triangle, metallophone…
•
•
69
Assign each voice to 3 or 5-classmate groups and make sure that they rehearse well their performance.
Conduct your composition and record it in order to be able to make a review of every composition
of the class.
20th century
137
14/07/15 13:21
IMPORTANT
All the activities that appear in this book must be done in a
workbook. Never in the book itself.
Self-assessment and Performance
Self-assessment
1
In the Self-assessment section you will be able to review
the main musical terms and concepts with crossword
puzzles, word search puzzles and other things.
1
1
1
Listening
a. Compare the following examples:
04/145a
•
Francisco Salinas (1513-1590) compiles it as a model of popular song in his treatise De musica libri
septem:
&C
˙ ˙
˙ ˙
Qué me
que - réys
œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙
˙ ˙
el Ca - va - lle - ro,
ca - sa
-
œœ ˙
ma - ri - do
ten - go.
Nicolás Gombert (1495-1556), flamenco composer that worked in the chapel of Charles V, used it as
• 04/145c
the melody for a villancico:
&b C Ó Œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ ˙
œ œ œœœ ˙
04/145b
•
Diego Pisador (1500-1557) used it his Libro de música para vihuela:
j
2
& b 4 œ. œ ˙
˙
˙
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ ˙
œ œ ˙
˙
˙
œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ ˙
a
OK
BO
TE
˙
œ.
˙
œ.
œ
œ.
œ
œ
œ œ
11
12
œ
œ
œ œ œ
œ œ œ
œ œ˙ œ
œ œ˙ œ
œ œ˙ œ
œ
œ œ
œ
˙
œ
˙
œ˙ .
˙
˙.
˙
˙.
˙
˙
Más vale trocar placer por dolores
que estar sin amores.
Donde es gradecido es dulce el morir
vivir en olvido, aquel no es vivir.
Mejor es sufrir pasión y dolores
que estar sin amores.
This Salamancan composer was
also a poet and a playwright, which
allowed him to work as director of
spectacles for the duke of Alba.
Es vida perdida vivir sin amar
y más es que vida saberla emplear.
Más vale penar sufriendo dolores
que estar sin amores.
All his musical production is within
the secular genre and with a strong
popular character, appropriate for
entertainment.
14
œ
jœ
œ œ œ
jœ
œ œ œ
œj œ
œ œ œ
œ œ
La muerte es victoria do vive aflicción
que espera haber gloria quien sufre pasión.
Más vale prisión de tales dolores
que estar sin amores.
His villancico Más vale trocar is preserved in the Cancionero de Palacio,
which compiles a great deal of his
production as well as other composers’ of the period of the Catholic Monarchs.
El que es más penado más goza de amor
que el mucho cuidado le quita el temor.
Así que es mejor amor con dolores
que estar sin amores.
Down
No teme tormento quien ama con fe
si su pensamiento sin causa no fue.
Habiendo porqué más vale dolores
que estar sin amores.
1. Plucked string polyphonic instrument that preceded the guitar.
2. Name that the instrumental forms based on the
variations of a theme received in Spain.
Amor que no pena no pida placer
pues ya le condena su poco querer.
Mejor es perder placer por dolores
que estar sin amores.
3. Instrumental form based on improvisation
whose name refers to the idea of giving free
rein to imagination.
4. Simple polyphonic texture in which voices
move at the same time.
- Explain now the structure of this villancico and indicate the different phrases that form the corus
and the copla.
50
UNIT 2
UNIT 2
Creation and Listening
In the Creation section you will discover the basic elements of music composition and you will experiment with
your performing and expressive abilities.
œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙
da soy,
˙
œ œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
Juan del Encina
(1269-1529)
13
48
15
6/04
7
34
œ
œ
34
3 œ . œ œœ œ œœ
344
J
œ
œ
.
43 œ Jœ œ œ œ
34 .
œ
œ
43 œ œJ œ œ œ
34
œ
œ
3
œ
œ
&b 4
&b
&b
&b
&b
&b
&b
&b
&b
10
NO
10
11
8
3. Dance theatre that has its origins in the
Renaissance, combining music, poetry and
dance on a single stage.
2
6
8
2. Special type of instrumental notation that indicates how to produce the required sound on
the instrument with numbers, letters or note
values.
Listen to the choir Va pensiero from the opera Nabucco by Giuseppe Verdi, based on the Bible story
about the king Nebuchadnezzar, premiered in 1842.
6/04
6/03
Phrase C
6/04
4
6
5
1. First dance of the typical dance pair of the
Renaissance, with a binary and ceremonious
rhythm.
2
6/03Phrase B
6/02
5
7
Across
Creation
6/02
pg.
87
6/03
In the Performance section you will improve your vocal,
instrumental and body expression, with different musical
examples and different levels of difficulty.
«Borrowed popular melodies»
Pay attention to the three musical phrases that form the piece. Indicate first their connection with the
different verses of the text we show you, so that you can perform each phrase at the right time:
6/02
pg.
87
3
2
4
9
We suggest as an example the work called Diferencias Cavallero by Antonio de Cabezón. It is a variation form (differences) for organ, composed upon a popular tune, which had to be widely successful
in the 16th century, because it was compiled by other composers in different works.
9
pg. 87
Phrase A
2
3
9
1
Performance
1. 1Copia
en tu cuaderno
y resuelve
el crucigrama
contestando
a las
definiciones
que
se indican
Perform
the villancico
Más vale
trocar by Juan
del Enzina
using
the track to
help
you. debajo:
Solve the crossword puzzle in your notebook by answering the following definitions:
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901).
Cristóbal Morales (1500-1553) used this very melody as a cantus firmus in his mass Dezilde al Ca• 04/145d
vallero:
3
&b 2 w
˙
˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
De - sil - de_al ca - va - lle - ro que
w
no
˙
se
œ . œj ˙ Ó w
que - xe,.
que
˙ ˙ œ œ ˙
yo
le doy mi fe,
œ œ œœ ˙ œ w.
que no
le de - xe.
04/145e
•
Antonio de Cabezón began with the following tune to make his differences:
& b C Ó œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙. œ w Ó œ œ ˙ ˙
De - zil-de_al ca - va - lle - ro
1
10
que non
se
que
-
xe.
Que
b. Listen to the piece by Antonio de Cabezón and identify
the melody. First, it is clearly presented and then it is
repeated in four different variations.
c. Now write your own version of the melody and then try
to make some variations with it, following the model
you just heard:
- You can make melodic variations by adding brief ornamental notes.
- You can make rhythmic variations by changing note
values, adding dots or extending and shortening their
lengths.
yo le
˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w w
doy mi
fe,
que non
le
Music that made history
de - xe.
Antonio de Cabezón (1510-1566)
Composer and organist, blind from his childhood, he worked at the service of the emperor
Charles V and then of his son Phillip II.
His trips to foreign courts with the king in his
visits, allowed him to meet the best composers
of his time.
Most of his work is written for organ and is based
on Spanish popular songs.
It is one of Verdi’s most famous
passages (and probably of the
whole history of opera). Sung by
Hebrew slaves captive in Babylon,
the choir Va Pensiero caused the
audience’s excitement since the
day it was premiered. It became
the patriotic hymn of the Italian
«Risorgimento», which achieved
the unification of the country in
1861.
Va, pensiero, sull’ale dorate;
va, ti possa sui clivi, sui colli,
ove olezzano tepide e molli
l’aure dolci del suolo natal!
Go, thoughts, on golden wings;
Go, settle upon the slopes and hills,
where warm and soft and fragrant are
the breezes of our sweet native land!
Del Giordano le rive saluta,
de Sionne le torri atterrate...
Oh mia patria sì bella e perduta!
Oh membranza sì cara e fatal!
Greet the banks of the Jordan,
the towers of Zion ...
Oh my country so beautiful and lost!
Or so dear yet unhappy!
Arpa d’or dei fatidici vati,
perchè muta del salice pendi?
Le memorie nel petto raccendi,
ci favella del tempo che fu!
Or harp of the prophetic seers,
why do you hang silent from the willows?
Rekindle the memories within our hearts,
tell us about the time that has gone by
O simile di Sòlima ai fati
traggi un suono di crudo lamento,
o t’ispiri il Signore un concento
che ne infonda al patire virtù
Or similar to the fate of Solomon,
give a sound of lament;
or let the Lord inspire a concert
That may give to endure our suffering.
In the Listening section you will learn to recognize the
main characteristics of the musical examples. You will also
learn to move around the different repertoires.
– Explain this choir’s musical form, texture and vocal style.
Renaissance
51
120
UNIT 5
UNIT 1
My progress
To sum up
The sound of the Renaissance
Unit 1
The music of the Renaissance is much more natural and expressive than the
music from the Middle Ages. It makes use of simple forms and proportions, and
it adds soft consonances of 3rd and 6th.
Each unit is wrapped up with one last page To sum up
the basic contents of the unit. And so you know how to
evaluate what you learnt, at the end of each unit you will
find a self-assessment section that we call My progress.
Religious vocal music reflected the
division of the Church. The chorale was
the hymn of Luther’s Protestant Church;
and the anthem the Anglican religious
form. The Catholic Counter-Reformation
based its music on the expressive clarity
of the text, taking polyphony to its peak
with the motet.
imprOvE a lOt
I understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity but I have
trouble using the proper
technical vocabulary to
describe them.
I have trouble identifying
the main musical genres
and forms of the Middle
Ages with their most
representative examples
and composers.
I recognize some of the
manifestations of
medieval music in Spain
and I sometimes value the
importance of the Spanish
cultural heritage.
I have trouble identifying
the musical examples that
we studied by placing
them in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
I don’t understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity and I can’t use
the proper technical
vocabulary to describe
them.
I can’t identify the main
musical genres and forms
of the Middle Ages with
their most representative
examples and composers.
I can’t recognize the
different manifestations
of medieval music in
Spain and I don’t value
the importance of the
Spanish cultural heritage.
I can’t identify the
musical examples that we
studied by placing them
in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
What I know
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces by
paying attention to the
group and playing
different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance with an open
and respectful attitude
while being aware of my
own possibilities.
I always use on my own
different types of scores
as backup for the musical
activities of the class.
I create simple
compositions so easily by
imitating the style’s
characteristic features and
the musical forms that we
studied.
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces by
paying attention to the
group and I almost always
play different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance with an open
and respectful attitude
while being almost always
aware of my own
possibilities.
I almost always use on my
own different types of
scores as backup for the
musical activities of the
class.
I create simple
compositions quite easily
by imitating the style’s
characteristic features and
the musical forms that we
studied.
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces by
paying attention to the
group and I sometimes
play different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance with an open
and respectful attitude
while being sometimes
aware of my own
possibilities.
I sometimes use on my
own different types of
scores as backup for the
musical activities of the
class.
I create simple
compositions without a
problem by imitating the
style’s characteristic
features and the musical
forms that we studied.
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces by
paying attention to the
group but I don’t play
different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance with an open
and respectful attitude
but I have trouble being
aware of my own
possibilities.
I use, with a little help,
different types of scores
as backup for the musical
activities of the class.
I have some trouble
creating simple
compositions by imitating
the style’s characteristic
features and the musical
forms that we studied.
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces but
I don’t pay attention to
the group and I don’t play
different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance but I don’t
have an open and
respectful attitude and I
am not aware of my own
possibilities.
I have trouble using
different types of scores
as backup for the musical
activities of the class.
I can’t create simple
compositions by imitating
the style’s characteristic
features and the musical
forms that we studied.
Technology
and me
I surf the web without a
problem in order to
investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I find a lot of
interesting information.
I completely master TIC
tools in order to carry out
the proposed activities.
I surf the web without a
problem in order to
investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I usually find
interesting information.
I master quite well TIC
tools in order to carry out
the proposed activities.
I surf the web without a
problem in order to
investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I sometimes find
interesting information.
I master TIC tools enough
to carry out the proposed
activities.
I have some trouble
surfing the web in order
to investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I also have some
trouble finding interesting
information.
I poorly master TIC tools
in order to carry out the
proposed activities.
I have a lot of trouble
surfing the web in order
to investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I can’t find
interesting information.
I don’t master TIC tools in
order to carry out the
proposed activities and I
don’t know how to use
them.
Do I know
how to work
in a group?
I play my role and I
provide the group with
ideas without interfering
with the work of others.
I play my role and I provide I play my role and I
the group with ideas but I provide the group with
ideas but I interfere with
tend to interfere with the
the work of others.
work of others.
I play my role but I don’t
provide the group with
ideas and I interfere with
the work of others.
I don’t play my role nor
provide the group with
ideas and I interfere with
the work of others.
4
Secular vocal music developed several
forms of song depending on the
country: in Italy the madrigal, in France
the chanson, and in Spain, simpler and
more popular forms like the villancico,
the romance and the ensalada.
5
Instrumental music became
independent from singing. Specific
instrumental pieces, based on the
adaptation of vocal works and on the
techniques of improvisation and
variation, began to appear.
7
Instrumental families were classified,
according to intensity, in Haut or Bas
music. The most important solo
instruments were the lute, the vihuela,
the organ and the harpsichord.
6
Dance was widely accepted, and it
contributed to the development of
instrumental music.
We distinguish two types of dances:
– social dance, with the dance pair
composed of the pavane and the
galliard.
– dance theatre, which made room for
ballet.
Renaissance
36
UNIT 1
Final project
SECOND TERM
•
55
Fail
i’m lacking thE skills.
i mUst makE a grEatEr EFFOrt!
imprOvE a lOt
I understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity and I sometimes
use the proper technical
vocabulary to describe
them.
I sometimes identify the
main musical genres and
forms of the Middle Ages
with their most
representative examples
and composers.
I recognize the different
manifestations of
medieval music in Spain
and I sometimes value the
importance of the Spanish
cultural heritage.
I sometimes identify the
musical examples that we
studied by placing them
in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
2
Under the influence of Humanism, the
composer looked for the freedom of his
creation. Music acquired a great social
prestige at the service of different
religions and the flashiness of the high
class.
pass
i’m skillEd bUt i havE tO
still imprOvE
I understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity and I almost
always use the proper
technical vocabulary to
describe them.
I almost always identify
the main musical genres
and forms of the Middle
Ages with their most
representative examples
and composers.
I recognize the different
manifestations of
medieval music in Spain
and I almost always value
the importance of the
Spanish cultural heritage.
I almost always identify
the musical examples that
we studied by placing
them in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
1
3
FinE
i’m qUitE skillEd bUt i can i’m skillEd bUt i can still
I understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity and I always use
the proper technical
vocabulary to describe
them.
I always identify the main
musical genres and forms
of the Middle Ages with
their most representative
examples and composers.
I recognize the different
manifestations of
medieval music in Spain
and I always value the
importance of the Spanish
cultural heritage.
I always identify the
musical examples that we
studied by placing them
in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
Secular music becomes as important as religious music, and instrumental music
is born, using group instruments in families of different sizes and tessitura.
The Renaissance was a period that
lasted from the 15th to the 16th
centuries. Unlike the rest of arts, its
music did not return to the classic
models. It evolved taking the previous
Ars Nova as its basis.
i’m vEry skillEd!
OUtstanding
What I learnt
Homophonic texture tends towards a vertical conception of the chords; and
counterpoint texture links different melodies in a continuous and even way.
To sum up and My progress
ExcEllEnt
Step 4
Planning the itinerary
We have to plan the itinerary for our shooting
by paying attention to the duration and to
the different musical sections of the song
that we chose.
— Choose the areas (classes, workshops,
playgrounds, halls, etc.) and the tours
in order to carry out the shooting in a
continuous and dynamic itinerary.
— It would be advisable to prepare in
advance the places that are going to
be shot with small sets or posters that
will back up the image and make it more
attractive.
— Create a small chart that gathers the distribution of times of the song and the shooting places.
— You have to take care of the coordination of the sound with the image by trying to adapt the transitions
of the different musical sections with the different shooting areas.
•
Step 5
This section will allow you to work along with your
classmates in an annual project organized in quarters. In it, you will be able to put into practice all your
knowledge in real situations.
Rehearsals of the groups involved
We have to assign an area or place and a piece of the song for each group that is going to participate.
It is very important to adjust the acting time by rehearsing the choreography and the movements
that correspond to the music and to the part of the text of the song that has been assigned to us to
lip-synch.
Each group has to have a person in charge of defining the action and organizing the rehearsals taking into
account everybody’s contribution. He or she will also act as a link and coordinator with the people in charge
of other groups in order to ensure the unity of the project.
Frame of the lip-dub made by the French School Jules Verne of Tenerife.
168
Frame of the lip-dub made by the University of Vic (UVIC)..
Final project
ESO Musica II -ingles- primeras.indd 5
The book comes with two CDs with all the tracks that we mention along
the units, as well as in the specific section of the final activities. Each track
is indicated in the wording of its activity with a little drawing, which says
the disc and the corresponding track.
1
3
2
6
14/07/15 13:21
Tracks Index
1
2
DISC 1
DISC 2
1. Seikilos Epitaph
0’38
1. Berlioz. Fantastic Symphony (Dreams-Passions)
2. Gregorian burst
1’51
2. Dukas. The Sorcerer’s Apprentice
• Videns dominus flentes
• Puer natus est nobis
• Kyrie fons bonitatis
2’40
10’37
3. Schubert. Heidenröslein
1’49
4. Chopin. Prelude No. 4 in E minor
1’38
5. Bellini. Norma (Casta Diva)
2’58
3. Alfonso X the Wise. Cantiga No. 47. Virgen Santa María
1’42
6. Bizet. Carmen (L’amour est un oisseau rebelle)
2’05
4. Perotin. Sederunt principes
0’54
7. Wagner. The Valkyrie (Ride of the Valkyries)
2’37
5. Raimbaut de Vaqueiras. Kalenda maya
0’58
8. Chueca. La Gran Vía (Tango de la Menegilda)
3’52
6. Carl Orff. Carmina Burana (O fortuna)
2’22
9. Smetana. My Fatherland (The Moldau)
1’41
7. Tomás Luis de Victoria. Ave María
1’55
10. Gershwin. Rhapsody in blue (beginning)
0’50
8. Clément Janequin. Cries of Paris
2’05
11. Mussorgsky. Pictures at an Exhibition
3’09
9. Juan del Enzina. Más vale trocar
1’32
• Promenade
• Gnomos
10. Antonio de Cabezón. Diferencias Cavallero
3’02
11. Josquin des Prez. Mille Regretz
1’49
12. Luis de Narváez. La canción del Emperador
2’34
12. Albéniz. Suite Iberia (El Corpus en Sevilla)
13. John Dowland. Flow, my tears
4’32
13. Johan Strauss II. The Blue Danube
3’34
14. Monteverdi. L‘Orfeo (Tu se’ morta)
2’05
14. Tchaikovsky. Swan Lake
4´24
15. José de Nebra. Viento es la dicha de amor (Seguidillas)
2’40
16. Purcell. Dido and Aeneas (When I am laid in earth)
4’06
17. Bach. St. Matthew Passion (Ich will hier bei dir stehen)
0’54
18. Bach. Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 (1st mov. Allegro)
2’15
19. Haendel. Music for the Royal Fireworks (Bourrée)
1’36
20. Vivaldi. The Four Seasons
8’10
• Spring (1st mov. Allegro)
• Summer (2nd mov. Adagio)
• Autumn (3rd mov. Allegro)
• Winter (1st mov. Allegro non molto)
• The Old Castle
1’30
• 1st Scene
• 2nd Scene
• 3rd Scene
• 4th Scene
• 5th Scene
• 6th Scene
15. Verdi. Nabucco (Va pensiero)
4’06
16. Debussy. Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
1’27
17. Schoenberg. Pierrot Lunaire (No. 8 Nacht)
2’13
18. Stravinsky. The Rite of Spring
2’45
• Introduction
21. Pachelbel. Canon in D Major
2’08
22. Mozart. The Magic Flute (Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja)
2’31
23. Gluck. Orpheus and Eurydice (Che farò senza Euridice?)
3’31
19. Honegger. Pacific 231
3’20
24. Mozart. A Little Night Music (1st mov. Allegro)
4’04
20. Varèse. Ionisation
1’15
25. Fernando Sor. O cara armonia (Theme)
1’14
21. Satie. Gymnopédie No. 1
3’27
26. Boccherini. String quintet op.13, No.5 (Minuet)
3,41
22. Falla. El amor brujo (Danza ritual del fuego)
1’52
27. Mozart. The Magic Flute (Das klinget so herrlich)
0’47
23. Falla. Concerto for Harpsichord and Five Instruments (1st mov. Allegro) 2’12
28. Beethoven. Symphony No.9 (4th mov. O Freunde nicht diese Töne) 7’41
29. Mozart. The Magic Flute (Der Hölle Rache)
3’02
• Dance of the Young Girls
24. Avant-gard movements burst
4’18
• Pierre Henry. Varitions for a Door and a Sigh
• Stockhausen. Song of the Youths
• Luciano Berio. Differences
• John Cage. Sonata V
ESO Musica II -ingles- primeras.indd 14
25. Joaquín Rodrigo. Concierto de Aranjuez (2nd mov. Adagio)
2’41
26. Ennio Morricone. The Mission (River)
1’58
07/07/15 12:56
Antiquity
1
and Middle Ages
Greece
poetry
music
dance
Rome
first Christians
Middle Ages
religious
music
Gregorian
organum
conductus
motet
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 15
secular
music
monodic
troubadours
polyphonic
motet
canon
chanson
ballad
07/07/15 14:07
1 Antiquity and Middle Ages
WE arE gOing tO lEarn tO…
basic skills
Performance
and creation
– Develop techniques of musical performance (vocal, instrumental and
movement) and expression, individually as well as in groups.
– Take part in the musical activities with the proper disposition in order to
overcome any difficulties and to enrich the group.
– Recognize the basic elements of the language of music and use the proper
technical vocabulary to describe them.
– Improvise and carry out short compositions using the elements of the
language of music that are more common in the style, or the music forms
that we studied.
– Read music in the context of the activities of the class as backup for the
tasks of performance and creation.
CMCT
CPAA
CSC
SIE
Listening
– Appreciate silence as a requirement for taking part in the listening.
– Listen to musical pieces from the most important repertoire of the music of
Antiquity and the Middle Ages and appreciate their value as sources of
knowledge as well as cultural and personal enrichment.
– Recognize the musical examples that we studied in class and link them
with the corresponding age, composer and musical form.
– Exercise acoustic immersion as a base for active hearing in order to identify
the main characteristics of the pieces we listened to.
– Read music in the context of the activities of the class as backup for the
tasks of listening.
CPAA
CSC
SIE
CEC
Musical
and cultural
contexts
– Recognize the characteristics and functions of the music from Antiquity
and the Middle Ages; and apply the proper terminology to critically
describe and value them.
– Know the origins of western music: the importance of music in Greece, its
social function and technical characteristics.
– Know the main characteristics of medieval music: its chronology and most
important manifestations of religious and secular vocal music.
– Know the main manifestations of medieval music in Spain.
– Connect the technical issues that we learnt with the evolution of the
history of music.
– Build personal opinions and criteria by means of a critical analysis of the
different social uses of music; and apply them to everyday situations while
appreciating the contribution of music to our personal lives as well as to
the community.
– Show interest in discovering types of music with different characteristics,
from different ages and cultures; and in expanding and diversifying their
own musical tastes by adopting an open and respectful attitude.
CCL
CSC
SIE
CEC
Music and
technology
– Use on their own the different sources of information in order to
investigate and carry out class works about artistic, historic and literary
sources linked to Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
– Handle the technological resources necessary to learn music and to carry
out simple musical productions.
– Surf the internet and different audiovisual sources to find examples of
different musical manifestations from Antiquity and the Middle Ages and
then carry out a personal evaluation.
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 16
CCL
CPAA
SIE
CD
06/07/15 09:20
The history of western art music began in the ancient Greek
civilization. They understand music as an art of divine origins and
gave it a great teaching value in the education of young people.
The Middle Ages, which lasted from the Decline of the Roman Empire
in the 5th century until the 15th century, gathered all the knowledge
from Antiquity. During all these ten centuries, music, like the rest
of arts, was in the hands of the Church.
Around monasteries and cathedrals appeared a wide repertoire of
religious music, the first attempts of musical notation, and the
technical breakthroughs that ended up in the birth of polyphony.
Secular music was developed at the same time as religious music
under the protection of great feudal lords.
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 17
06/07/15 09:20
1
Greece
1.1. The divine origin of music
For Greek people, music was an art of divine origin. From this conception derives the term «music» (musiké, art of the Muses) and also from the abundant
legends told by Greek mythology that link music to the gods. Music was thought
to have magical powers that could cure illnesses and modify behaviors. That is
way it was seen as an essential discipline in the education of young people.
a
Orpheus with his lyre
The Myth of Orpheus
Orpheus was a poet and musician, son of the muse Calliope and the god Apollo, from whom he received the lyre,
becoming then an excellent musician, without a rival among mortals. Orpheus’ music was capable of dominating
all creatures, of taming beasts and bewitching trees and rocks.
Orpheus married Eurydice, but not long after their wedding, his young wife was bitten by a viper and died. Full of
pain and unable to live without his loved one, Orpheus decided to descend into the underworld in order to rescue Eurydice. With the help of his singing and his lyre, Orpheus managed to convince Hades, the God of the
dead, to let him and his wife go back, provided that he did not turn his head back to look at her until they had
reached the outer world of the living.
When they were almost done climbing, Orpheus, under the control of anxiety and love, turned back to check if
Eurydice was following him. The unfulfilled promise made Eurydice vanish forever in the world of the dead.
1.2. Characteristics of Greek music
The concept of music encompasses music, poetry and dance.
The term music did not only mean the art of sounds; it was conceived together with poetry and dance.
Musical system based on modal scales
They used the four basic modal scales which are organized in descending
order and receive a different name depending on the first note. The different
distributions of tones and semitones of each scale caused a different sonority associated with the «ethos» or particular feeling.
04/01
Dorian Mode
(E´ - E)
04/02
Phrygian Mode
(D´ - D)
04/03
Lydian Mode
(C´ - C)
04/04
Mixolydian Mode
(B´ - B)
18
UNIT 1
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 18
suitable mode for expressing the sublime
el mismo ejemplo sin líneas y curvas:
w w w w
w w w w
calm mode, appropiate for affections
&
Music in education
Great philosophers like Plato (428347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322
B.C.) studied the influence that
music has on the education and
the character of citizens.
Since different scales can reflect
different feelings, they could also
pass on those emotions.
Convinced of the ability of music
to influence the behavior, they
legislated the scales or modes
that, because of their effects, were
considered good or bad for the
education of young people.
el mismo ejemplo sin líneas y curvas:
suitable mode for complaints, crying and pain
&
w w w w
w w w w
el mismo ejemplo sin líneas y curvas:
suitable mode for passionte expressions
&w w w w w w w
w
el mismo ejemplo sin líneas y curvas:
&w w w w w w
w w
06/07/15 09:20
It makes use of a monodic texture with a heterophonic accompaniment
This music had a monodic texture (with just one melodic line). Instruments played a heterophonic accompaniment by sharing the melody
with the voice and introducing little ornaments.
Alphabetic notation for the pitch of sound, and metrical feet for
the rhythm
They used alphabetic notation (letters) in order to reflect different
pitches of sound. Musical rhythm was bound to the verses of the text,
coming to terms with the combinations of long and short sounds set
by the «metrical feet» of the poem.
Type of verse
Measure
Musical rhythm
Trochee
(long-short)
Iamb:
(short-long)
Dactyl:
(long-short-short)
Anapaest:
(short- short - long)
Spondee:
(long- long)
Tribrach:
(short - short - short)
The most important instruments were the lyre and the aulos.
The lyre (plucked string) was associated with the god Apollo, the most
powerful god of all, warrior, musician and athlete. The aulos (wind
with double reed) was associated with the worship of Dionysus, god
of wine and enjoyment.
They also used small percussion instruments like zills (small cymbals)
pag. 9
and brass instruments like the salpinx (brass trumpet) used as a signal
instrument.
&w
1er Tetracordo
ACTIVITIES
w
w
a
Musical instruments in Ancient Greece.
2º Tetracordo
w
w
w
w
w
1. Listen to the Seikilos Epitaph, one of the few fragments that were preserved of the music from Ancient
Final
Mese
(I)
(I) from being a mournful lament,
Greece. It appeared carved onFinal
a funerary pillar in Seikilos
(V) (Tralles). But far
it is a song that encourages us to enjoy our short lives.
1
1
j
& 68 œ œ
œ.
Ho - son
zes,
j
& œ Jœ Jœ Jœ œ œ
pros o - li - gon e
œ œ œ œ.
Phai
œ
J œ
sti to
-
nu,
j
œ œ
zen,
œ
œ œ œ œ
J J
me - den
ho - los,
j
j
œ Jœ œ Jœ Jœ Jœ
to
te - los
ho chro - nos
j
œ œ
j
œ œ
j
œ œ
œ œ œ
sy - ly - pui
ap - ai - tei
While you live, shine, have no grief at all.
Life exists only for a short while and time demands its toll.
a. What scale or mode is it written in? What ambitus does it have?
b. What musical instruments can you distinguish? What type of accompaniment are they?
Antiquity and Middle Ages
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 19
19
06/07/15 09:20
2
Middle Ages
2.1. Religious vocal music: the Gregorian chant
Religious music in the Middle Ages began to grow long before the emperor
Constantine granted freedom of religious worship for Christians in the year
313. Since then, Christianism began to expand and organize its liturgy, in
which singing was an essential element.
The main driving force of this task of expansion and unification of the liturgy
was Pope Gregory the Great (590-604). Considered by tradition as the creator of the Christian singing (hence the name Gregorian), he actually did not
invent it. He encouraged its organization as a way of strengthening the feeling of Christian unity.
Characteristics of the Gregorian chant
It is a type of music destined for the liturgy (celebration of the Mass and the
hours of Office), which makes use of Latin as its main language. Its function
is to heighten the word of God by strengthening the prayer with singing.
It has a monodic texture and a single melodic line without instrumental accompaniment.
It uses a special notation by means of neumes: symbols that approximately
reflect the pitch and duration of sound.
The musical rhythm is free, determined by the expression and accentuation
of the text to which it serves.
There are three styles of singing depending on the relation between music
and text:
Neumatic notation
Neumes were symbols whose
writing derived from the movement of the hand when conducting the singing.
They began being used in the 8th
century, placed above or below
the text to approximately indicate
the melodic motion and to help
monks remember the singings.
Virga
Punctum
Clivis
Podatus
Torculus
Porrectus
Neumatic notation evolved until
achieving an exact representation of the pitches of sound by
means of the introduction of reference lines and clefs, until the
almost modern square notation.
– Syllabic: one note per syllable.
– Neumatic or ornamented: two or three notes per syllable.
– Melismatic or florid: more than three notes per syllable.
It uses a system of eight modal scales derived from the Greek modes with a
different distribution of tones and semitones. Therefore, it has different sonority and character, which are bound to different uses.
The eight Gregorian modes appear from four main modes, defined by a final
note. Each of these four modes is divided into two versions: an authentic
mode (of higher register) and a plagal mode (of lower register) depending
on the note of the recital.
Mode
20
Final
PROTUS
D
DEUTERUS
E
TRITUS
F
TETRARDUS
G
Recital
Whole name
A
Mode I. Authentic protus
F
Mode II. Plagal protus
C
Mode III. Authentic deuterus
A
Mode IV. Plagal deuterus
C
Mode V. Authentic tritus
A
Mode VI. Plagal tritus
D
Mode VII. Authentic tetrardus
C
Mode VIII. Plagal tetrardus
The character of the
modes
The monk Adam de Fulda wrote
the following verses about the
character of the eight modes:
The first mode lends to any
feeling, the second is suitable
for the sad things, the third is
vehement, the fourth has
tender effects, the fifth is
convenient for those who are
happy, the sixth for those
of proven piety, the seventh
belongs to the youth, the eighth
one to the knowledge.
UNIT 1
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 20
06/07/15 09:20
ACTIVITIES
1. Listen to these three examples of Gregorian chant. Follow the track with the help of the scores.
1
2
Videns dominus flentes
When the Lord saw the
sisters of Lazarus in tears
near the tomb, he wept in
the presence of the Jews
and cried:
«Lazarus, come forth.» And
out he came, hands and feet
bound, the man who had
been dead for four days.
Puer natus est nobis
Unto us a child is born, unto
us a son is given. Dominion
is on his shoulder and his
name shall be called the
Angel of Great Counsel.
(Psalm) Sing unto the Lord
a new song, for he has
accomplished wondrous
deeds.
Kyrie fons bonitatis
Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Lord have mercy.
Trope:
Lord, fountain of goodness
from which good
comes from, have mercy.
version of the same Kyrie with trope:
05/07
j
j
& œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj œ œ œ œ œ
Ky-ri - e fons bo - ni- ta-tis, pa-ter in ge-ni-te a quo bo-na ac-ta pro-ce - dunt e - le
-
i-son.
a. Analyze the music-text relation and indicate what type of singing
this piece belongs to.
b. Compare the neumatic notation of the first two scores with the almost modern square notation, indicating their connections.
c. Pay attention to the last piece. The original Kyrie appears first, and then
another version with trope, that is, with new text added to the melisma.
Which one is easier to sing?
The invention
of the tropes
Tropes were new texts that were
added to melismatic passages in
order to turn the singing into syllabic, and to make its learning easier. Therefore, each note of the
melisma had a corresponding syllable from the made up text.
Antiquity and Middle Ages
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2.2. Secular vocal music: Troubadours
and Minstrels
Goliards
Secular vocal music, represented by troubadours, was developed at the
same time as religious music under the protection of feudal lords.
There were also secular songs in
Latin called «songs of goliards».
Troubadours appeared in the south of France in the 11th century and
expanded rapidly throughout Europe.
Goliards were students and vagabond friars that performed satirical, political or religious critique,
and carnal love songs.
Troubadours were poet-musicians, generally of noble birth. Minstrels
were traveling musicians who went over castles and villages entertaining
people with songs, representations and acrobatics.
The songs of goliards are gathered in a 13th century song book
called Carmina Burana.
Characteristics of the music of troubadours
These were songs written in the vernacular languages of each area, whose
main subjects were courtly love and the knightly spirit of the heroes
from the crusades.
It is a type of vocal music with a monodic texture but with instrumental
accompaniment. The instruments carry out a heterophonic accompaniment, improvising variants and ornamentations of the melody, and doubling the voices.
It makes use of Gregorian modal scales; but due to its popular character
its rhythm is more marked.
The songs of troubadours were collected in luxuriously decorated song
books. They often included a brief text telling the story of troubadours
and exaggerating their virtues.
In Spain, the music of troubadours was represented by Cantigas de Santa
Maria of Alfonso X the Wise. These were 417 songs written in Galician-Portuguese and dedicated to the Virgin.
ACTIVITIES
1. Listen to the cantiga No. 47 by Alfonso X the Wise called Virgen Santa María.
It is a cantiga of «miragre» which tells how the Virgin saved a friar from the temptations of drinking.
1
& 22
3
œ
& ˙.
jaz,
& ˙.
ter
& ˙.
der,
˙
Vir - gen
,
& œ ˙ œ
praz,
˙
,
,
,
da
˙
˙
gran
sa
œ ˙
la
œ
San
e
-
˙
œ ˙
˙
a - ja - mol
Ma
-
rí
be - do
-
rí
e
œ ˙.
a,
œ ˙.
-
di
-
a,
œ ˙.
,
œ
-
ga - mos
-
,
a
-
œ œ œ œ œ ˙
o
teu
œœœœ
cruz pa - xon
er
et
Fi
ro,
œ ˙.
-
œ ˙ œ ˙.
mor
-
te,
,
llo,
˙
˙
guár - da - nos,
,
œ
se
te
que
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
en
pu - nna
,
œ ˙
œ
,
œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ ˙. œ
Virgen Santa Maria guardanos, se te praz
da gran sabedoria que eno demo jazz
22
-
œ œ œ œ œ ˙
noit
˙
fa
ta
œ œœ œ œ ˙
le
per - que
na
-
˙
,
& œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙
frer
-
œ œ œ œ œ ˙
o
de
œ œœ œ
por - que
a
œ
˙
˙
que
quis
por
de - mo -
nos
me -
œ œœ œ
Deus per -
œ ˙ œ
nos
so -
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙.
que ou - ves - se - mos
paz.
Virgin Saint Mary deliver us, if you please
from the great wisdom of the devil.
UNIT 1
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ACTIVITIES
1. Perform now the cantiga No. 100 called Santa Maria Strela do Dia. It is a cantiga of «loor» or praise,
which presents the Virgin as a star capable of guiding the devoted towards Heaven.
2
&4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
& 24
÷ 24
÷ 24
Sanc-ta-Ma - rí - a, stre - la do
˙
˙
˙
œ œœ
&
& œœ œœ
& Caœ - veœ
Ca - ve
Ca -∑ve
&
& ∑∑
&
÷÷ ˙˙
÷÷÷ ˙ ∑∑
÷
∑
œ œ
&
& œœ œœ
& en - ten
en - ten
en -∑ten
&
& ∑∑
&
÷÷ ˙˙
÷÷÷ ˙ ∑∑
÷
∑
˙
˙
˙
œ œ
œœ .. œœjjj
œ. œ
er
er
er ∑
∑
∑
˙˙
˙ ∑
∑
∑
œœ ..
œ.
- der
- der
- der
∑∑
∑
˙˙
˙∑
∑
∑
œ œ
dí - a,
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
œ œ œœ œ œœ
œœ œœ œ œœ œ œ
œ œ œœ œ œœ œœ
fa-zel os er - ra - dos,
fa-zel os er - ra - dos,
fa-zel
∑∑ os er - ra - ∑∑dos,
∑
∑
˙˙
˙˙
˙ ∑
˙ ∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
JœJ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
que mui cul - pa - dos
J de
de que mui cul - pa - dos
de que ∑mui cul - pa -∑dos
∑
∑
∑
∑
˙˙
˙˙
˙ ∑
˙∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
&
& œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
& daœ ou-sa
œ œ - díœ - œa que
œ
da ou-sa - dí
- a que
da
ou-sa
dí
a
que
˙˙˙
&
& ˙˙˙
˙
˙˙
&˙
÷÷ ˙˙
˙˙
÷÷ œ˙ œ œ œ˙ œ œ
÷ œ œ œ œ œ œ
÷ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œœ œœ
œ faœ lles
lles fa lles
˙˙˙ fa ˙
˙˙˙
œ˙œ œœ œœ
œ œœ
End
FIN
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ
œœ œ œ
mos-tra-nos ví - a pe - ra Deus et nos guí - a.
˙
˙
˙
œ œ œ
œœ œœ
œ
œ per
que
que per
que∑ per
∑
∑
˙˙
˙∑
∑
∑
˙
˙
˙
œ œ
œœ ..
œ.
- der
- der
- der
∑∑
∑
˙˙
˙∑
∑
∑
œ
j
œœjj
œ
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
œ œœ œ œœ
œœ œœ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ
fo-ran per pe - ca - dos,
fo-ran per pe - ca - dos,
fo-ran∑per pe - ca - ∑dos,
∑
∑
∑
∑
˙˙
˙˙
˙ ∑
˙ ∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
Miniature
instruments
œœ œœ œœ .. œœjjj œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ
œ œ
œ œ œ . œ tiœ son
œ per-do
œ œ - naœ - dos
œ
son, mais per
son, mais per
ti son per-do - na - dos
son,∑mais per∑
ti son∑per-do - na -∑dos
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
˙˙
˙˙
˙˙
˙˙
˙∑
˙∑
˙ ∑
˙∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
D.C.
D.C.
D.C.
œœ œœ œœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
œ foœ - liœ - œa mais
œ non
zí
œ que
œ de-ve
œ -- aœa fa-zer
œ œ -- ríríœ -- a.a.œ
zí
fa-zer fo - li
- a mais
que non
de-ve
zí
a
fa-zer
fo
li
a
mais
que
non
de-ve
- rí
˙˙˙
˙˙˙
˙˙˙
˙˙˙
˙˙˙ - a.
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙˙
˙˙
˙˙
˙˙
˙˙˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
œ˙œ œœ œœ œ˙œ œœ œœ œ˙œ œœ œœ œ˙œ œœ œœ œ˙œ œœ œœ
œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ
Santa Maria, star of the day,
show us the way towards God and guide us.
You achieve that those lost
and mistaken because of their sins
understand that they are guilty
but you forgive them
for the boldness that makes
them do bad things which
they should not.
show us the way towards
God and guide us.
The Cantigas de Santa Maria are
preserved in four codexes decorated with luxurious miniatures
in which more than thirty different instruments are drawn. That
is why we can deduce that they
were sung with instrumental accompaniment.
Antiquity and Middle Ages
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2.3. The birth of polyphony
In the late 9th century, polyphony (different melodic lines at the same
time) appeared in western music. This fact marked the posterior development of music, and probably appeared spontaneously with the
desire of decorating and enriching the Gregorian chant.
Primitive polyphony (9th-12th centuries)
•
Polyphony is built by improvising upon the base of Gregorian chant.
The main forms of primitive polyphony are:
Music and architecture
The monodic texture of the Gregorian chant is associated with
Romanic art, an architectural
style with sturdy and dark buildings that invite to isolation and
contemplation.
Organum: it is the oldest and most rudimentary. It appeared in the
late 9th century and consisted of adding a parallel voice of 4th or 5th
below the Gregorian chant.
The original Gregorian melody receives the name vox principalis, and
the one that is added, vox organalis.
? œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
Parallel organum
05/10
Vox Principalis
Vox Organalis
44ªth
A third voice could be added by doubling the organalis an octave higher.
&
05/11
•
œœ
œ
œœ
œ
œœ
œ
œœ
œ
œœ
œ
œœ
œ
œœ
œ
œœ
œ
Vox Organalis
Vox Principalis
Vox Organalis
th octave
8ª
55ª
Polyphony has it equivalent in
the longing for elevation and
light of gothic art, with high
towers and ogive pointed arches.
Melismatic organum: the Gregorian melody is developed in long
values over which the vox organalis sings long melismas.
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
&
5/12
&w
Cunc
w
-
-
-
-
ti
-
w
po
-
-
-
-
Ars antiqua (12th-13th centuries)
The evolution of musical notation made the development of more
complex polyphonic forms easier. Music abandoned the Gregorian
free rhythm and began to measure it due to the need of synchronizing the different voices of the polyphony.
In order to measure the durations of sound, musicians had to resort
to the old Greek rhythm by using their main metrical feet.
The most important musical centre of this period was the so called
«Notre Dame School» in Paris. And its main composers were Leonin
(1150-1180) and Perotin (1183-1238).
New polyphonic forms appeared, like the conductus, composed
upon newly created melodies (not Gregorian) and the motet, with
several voices that move in different rhythms singing different texts.
24
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Ars Nova (14th century)
New Art - Ancient Art
Polyphony started liberating itself from the Gregorian chant in order to
find a type of music closer to humanity, typical of an era that underwent
the birth of urban societies and grew apart from medieval theocentrism.
The term «Ars Nova» owes its name
to the composer Philippe de Vitry
who wrote in 1322 a treatise called
Ars Nova, to differentiate new techniques of composition and notation of his period, from the former
ones from «Ars Antiqua».
Mensural notation appeared, in which particular values were designated for each sound. Secular music became increasingly important,
making room for polyphonic forms of songs like the canon, the ballad
and the chanson.
The most important composers were Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361),
Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377) and Francesco Landini (1335-1397).
ACTIVITIES
05/15
1. Listen to the organum cuadruplum Sederunt principes by Perotin.
U̇.
. œ
.
œ . Jœ œ œ . œ
1
œ . œJ œ œ . Œ . œ J œ œ œJ œ
&
4
J œ
U̇
Œ . œ . œj œ œ . œj œ
œ . œj œ œ . œj œ œ . œj
& .
œ œ.
U̇
j
j
j
œ . Jœ œ œ . œ œ œ . œ œ œ . Œ . œ . œJ œ œ . œ œ
& .
& W
œ. Œ.
&
Se -
& œ. Œ.
& œ. Œ.
& W
( )
œ. Œ.
œ. Œ.
œ . œJ œ
œ . œJ œ
j
œ. œ œ
œ . œJ œ
œ . œJ œ
œ . œj œ
œ. Œ.
œ . Jœ œ
j
œ. œ œ
œ . œj œ
j
œ œj œ b œJ œ œj œ œ œ œj œ Jœ œ . Œ .
œ . œ œ œ . œ ‰ œ . œ œj œ . œ ‰
J
j
. œ œ œ. œ ‰
œ. œ œ œ. œ ‰ œ
J
a. How would you define the sonority that this polyphony produces? What type of rhythm do the higher
Alicia:
en estedoes
ejemplo,the
yo sí pondría
(cadencias)
voices follow?
What
lowernúmeros
voicede compás
do? What
consonances are produced in the cadences?
2. Perform this anonymous English canon called Sumer is icumen in and compare its sonority with the previous example, explaining the differences.
➀
➁
Su - mer is
i - cu - men in
➂
Lhu - de- sing
Gro - weth sed
and blo- weth med, and springth the
Sing
-
cuc
cu,
Aw - e
af - ter cal - ve - cu.
Mu - rie sing
wel
aic - cu,
➃
sin - ges
ble - teth af - ter lomb, lhouth
Bul - loc ster - teth bu - cke ver - teth,
cuc - cu.
thu cuc
wo - de - nu.
Cuc
-
cu,
-
cu,
cuc
-
cu,
ne swick thu na - ver cu.
OSTINATO
Sing
cuc
-
cu
nu
sing
cuc
-
cu.
Antiquity and Middle Ages
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3
Dance in Antiquity and the Middle Ages
All ancient civilizations practiced dancing as a way of accompaniment
and celebration of all kinds of social events. However, Greece was the
first civilization that gave dance, included in music, a fundamental
role in the education of citizens.
Dance for warriors
Greek people also used dances
for the training of warriors. The
measure imposed by the music
allowed them to march in perfect
order. The typical discipline of the
performance trained them in the
most suitable role for their task.
The Roman civilization did not give music the same importance. But,
being the heir of Greece, they included singing and dancing in their
theatrical spectacles and in every popular celebration and festivity.
The arrival of Christianism tried to eliminate dancing, associated with
pagan rites (considered dangerous for the devoted). However, profane or even religious celebrations were still accompanied by dances.
Socrates even said that «the best
warrior is the one that can dance».
Since the 12th century we find references to dancing. Some of them
sung and others exclusively instrumental.
In many manuscripts, these dances appear with the generic name
estampie. They use monodic textures and are structured in several
phrases or «puncta» that are repeated: the first time, they are repeated with an open ending and the second time, with a closed ending.
Medieval instruments
There is a great variety of instruments, and there are a lot of names for
them. The instrumental performance is improvised and it has two
functions: to accompany songs, and the performance of dances and
processions.
The most used instruments were string instruments (harp, lyre, psaltery, qanun, lute, viola, hurdy gurdy), wind instruments (horn, trumpet,
dulzaina, chirimia, flutes, bagpipes, organ) and percussion instruments (hand drums, rattle drums, cymbals, triangle, bells, rattles).
ACTIVITIES
1. Listen to the song Kalenda maya by Raimbaut de Vaqueiras. It is a sung dance and, according to what
Kalenda
they say, the troubadour wrote the lyrics of
the song maya
for the melody of an estampie some troubadours
were playing in the north of France.
1
5
& 34
1.Ka - len - da
ma
2.Non es que'm pla
& ..
& ..
˙
œ
3.Del
vo 4.Pla - zer
œ
5.E
6.E
˙.
ja cha -
˙ bœ ˙.
˙ œ ˙ œ
˙ œ
œ
-
ya, Ni fuelhs de fa
ya, Pros dom - na gla
stre
belh,
no - velh,
˙ œ ˙.
ya,
ya,
bœ
˙
œ
em
de
tra
pla
-
˙
cors
que'm
qu'a - mors
˙ œ
ya
ya
˙ œ
˙ œ
-
˙ œ œ
ya Ni chanz d'au - selh,
ya, Tro qu'un y snelh
1ª
œ
˙
re - tra
m'a -
œ
-
ya.
-
˙ œœ ˙ œ ˙
ve - ra
Ni flors de gla
mes - sa - gier a
-
ya
..
˙
œ
-
-
2ª
˙
-
1ª
vas vos, dom - na
l'ge - los, ans
œ œ ˙ œ ˙
œ ˙
-
..
2ª
tra
-
ya.
ya.
..
˙
ya,
˙ œ œ œœ œ œ ˙
que'm n'e - stra
-
ya.
a. Analyze the rhythm and the different musical phrases.
b. Compare the track with the Gregorian chants that you heard and explain the differences.
c. Dare to dance: the estampie was probably a circle dance in which dancers moved in circles with strong
steps while holding hands.
26
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Challenge
«Pythagoras’ monochord»
1
The Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras (6th century B.C.) was the first one to connect
mathematics with music. He discovered the relations between numbers and sounds, and educationally
captured them in the monochord.
The monochord is a rectangular wooden
box with a tight string attached to both
ends. The shifting of the movable bridge
allows to obtain different sounds when
modifying the length of the string in
different proportions.
Monochord (National German Museum in Nüremberg).
The proportion 1:2 divides the string of the monochord in half and allows to obtain the sound of the
octave (an octave higher in relation to the base sound of the string). For example: C and C’.
The proportion 2:3 divides the string into two thirds and allows us to obtain the sound of the fifth (a
fifth higher in relation to the base sound of the string). For example: C and G.
The proportion 3:4 divides the string into three fourths and allows us to obtain the sound of the fourth
(a fourth higher in relation to the base sound of the string). For example: C and F.
Therefore, these three proportions allow to obtain the three basic degrees of the scale: I, IV and V.
Tone (C)
|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1:2
Octave (C’)
|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
3:4
Fourth (F)
|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
2:3
Fifth (G)
|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|------|
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
a. Build a monochord and draw a graduated scale on its board with the different proportions that
correspond to the sounds of the octave, fourth and fifth. Take into account that the ratios between
numbers 12, 9, 8 and 6 are the same as the ones between 1, 3:4, 2:3, and 1:2.
b. Complete the rest of the scale by taking the tone distance produced between the proportions of
fourth and fifth as a reference. Then apply it from the base note C and from G until putting all the
notes.
Antiquity and Middle Ages
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Self-assessment
1
Solve this word search puzzle in your notebook by answering the definitions shown below:
1
2
3
1
2
4
5
3
7
OK
6
6
5
BO
4
9
7
8
10
TE
8
NO
11
9
10
12
11
13
12
14
15
13
14
15
16
Across
1. Polyphonic form of Ars Antiqua composed
upon newly created melodies and not upon
Gregorian chant.
1. Instrumental accompaniment used in Greece
and in the music of troubadours, imitating or
repeating parts of the vocal melody.
2. Simple singing style with one note per syllable
2. Poet and musician of noble origin who sang
in his language about courtly love and the
knightly spirit.
3. Gregorian mode with D as a final note.
4. Polyphonic form of Ars Antiqua in which the
voices move in different rhythms, singing different texts.
5. Christian singing unified under the pontificate
of Gregory the Great.
28
Down
3. Generic name for some medieval dances with
phrases that were repeated with open and
closed endings.
4. Type of florid singing with more than three
notes per syllable.
UNIT 1
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 28
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6. Students and vagabond friars who sang secular
songs in Latin.
5. Greek mode upon the initial note D in descending order.
7. Feet used to measure the durations employed
in Greece and by the musicians of Ars Antiqua.
6. Greek mode upon the initial note E in descending order.
8. First form of primitive polyphony based on the
parallel movement of voices at a fourth or fifth
distance.
7. Name of the songs of troubadours in Spain.
9. Greek mode upon the initial note C in descending order.
9. Different scales depending on the initial note,
used in Greece and in the Middle Ages.
10. Feelings that provoked the different Greek
scales and that were also gathered by the
Gregorian modes.
10. Traveling musician that entertained his audience with secular songs.
11. Polyphonic song of Ars Nova in which the voices perform the same melody but with successive entrances at different times.
8. Primitive texture with just one melodic line,
used in Greece and in the Middle Ages.
11. Texture with several voices at the same time
that appeared in the late 9th century with the
intention of ornamenting the Gregorian chant.
12. Gregorian mode with E as its final note.
12. First notation symbols employed to remember
the Gregorian chant.
13. Greek mode upon the initial note B in descending order.
13. New text that was added to the melismas in
order to turn the chant into syllabic.
14. Style of ornamented singing with two or three
notes per syllable.
14. Gregorian mode with F as its final note.
15. Plucked string instrument from the Ancient
Greece associated with the worship of Apollo.
15. Luxurious manuscript
troubadour’s songs.
that
gathered
16. Double reed wind instrument from the Ancient
Greece associated with the worship of Dionysus.
2
•
Copy in your notebook and complete the following statements:
•
Music was for Greeks an art of... origin.
•
The concept of music in Greece encompasses...
•
Music in Greece had a... texture with... accompaniment.
•
The four main scales or modes of Greek music are...
•
The most important instruments of Ancient Greece were...
•
The driving force of the unification and expansion of the Christian chant was...
•
The Gregorian chant was destined for..., it has a... texture with a text in... and... rhythm.
•
The eight Gregorian modes are...
•
The music of troubadours appeared in...
•
The songs of troubadours are written in... and have a... texture.
•
Polyphony appeared... and developed into three periods.
•
Medieval dances are called... and are structured in...
•
Instruments were used in the Middle Ages to...
The main examples of music of troubadours in Spain are...
Antiquity and Middle Ages
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 29
29
06/07/15 09:20
Performance - Creation
Adam
de la
de Robin
1. 1Cop1.
Performthis
this
song
byHalle_Jeu
thetrouvère
trouvère
igrama contestando a las definiciones que se indican debajo:
Perform
song
Adam
debylathe
Halle_Jeu
deAdam
Robinde la Halle called Robins m’aime.
Adam de la Halle_Jeu de Robin
It is a song Adam
that belongs
to Jeu de Robin
et Marion, a staged pastorela with characters, dialogs and sung
Adam de
de la
la3 Halle_Jeu
Halle_Jeu de
de Robin
Robin
˙
œ ˙ of Anjou
œ œ œaround
œ ˙ the year 1284.
&represented
43 œ œ œ œ œ in
fragments,Carillón
that was
the
Neapolitan
œ ˙
œ ÓÓ courtœ of˙ Charles
˙
œ ˙
œ
œ
œ
œ ˙
Carillón
œœ˙
& 34 Ro-bins
˙
œ
œ œ œ m'ai-me,
œRo-bins
œ
œ
˙
m'a, Ó
Ro-bins
m'a
de
-man - déœ ˙
œ
œ
œ˙ . ˙e
Carillón
œ˙ .œ ˙
& 34 œ˙ . œ
˙
œ
œ
œ
œ
˙˙ .. ˙
˙˙ .. Ó
˙œ˙ .. ˙˙
˙œ˙ .. ˙˙
˙œ˙ ..-man œ - déRo-bins
m'ai-me,
Ro-bins
m'a,
Ro-bins
m'a
de
œ
œ˙œ . ˙˙e
3
Metalófono
Carillón
V
œ
&
4
œ
˙
.
˙
.
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
Ó
œ
Carrillon
Carillón
& 34 Ro-bins
œ - dé˙œ˙ .. œ œ m'ai-me,
˙œ˙ ..œ ˙˙
˙œ˙ .. ˙
˙œ˙ ..
˙œ˙ ..
˙˙ ..
˙œ˙ ..-man
˙˙ .. e
Ro-bins
m'a,
Ro-bins
m'a
de
œ
Metalófono V 4
34 Ro-bins
˙œ˙ .. ˙æ
˙œ˙ .. ˙æ
˙œ˙ .. ˙æ
˙œ˙ .. ˙æ
˙œ˙ .. ˙æ
˙œ˙ .. ˙æ
˙œ˙ ..-man
˙œ˙ .. ˙eæ
m'ai-me,
Ro-bins
m'a,
Ro-bins
m'a
de
- déæ
Metalófono ÷V 3
˙
m'ai-me,
Ro-bins
m'a,
Ro-bins
m'a
de
- déSonajas
4334 Ro-bins
˙˙ .. æ
˙˙ .. æ
˙˙ .. æ
˙˙ .. æ
˙˙ .. æ
˙˙ .. æ
˙˙ ..-man
˙˙ .. eæ
Metalófono V
æ
œ˙ . ˙
œ˙ . ˙
œ˙ . ˙
œ˙ . ˙
œ˙ . ˙
œ˙ . ˙
œ˙ . ˙
œ ˙
Metallophone
Metalófono ÷V 3
Sonajas
4
æ
æ
æ
æ
æ
æ
æ
÷ 4 œ ˙œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ œ˙ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ œ˙ œ œ ˙œ . ˙œæ œ œ
Pandero
Sonajas
3
æ
æ
æ
æ
æ
æ
æ
÷ 43 œœ ˙˙œæ œ œ œœ ˙˙œæ œ œ œœ ˙˙œæ œ œ œœ ˙˙œæ œ œ œœ œ˙˙æ œ œ œœ ˙˙œæ œ œ œœ œ˙˙æ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ
Pandero
Sonajas
Jingle Sonajas
tambourine ÷÷ 3
4 œ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ
Pandero
÷÷ 4343 œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
Pandero
Tambourine
Pandero
& œ ˙ 4 œ Ó
œ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ ˙
œ ˙
œ œ œ œœ˙
œ œ- ca˙ - taœ co˙ - teœ - le˙
& Siœ m'a
˙ - ra,œ ÓÓ
œ œ m'a
œRo- bins
œ œ œ œœ˙
d'es -car œ- la - te
œ
œ
& œ˙ . ˙
œ
˙
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
˙
œ˙ . -carœ œ- la˙œ . œ- te˙
˙˙ .. bins
˙˙œ .. - ca˙ - ta˙˙ .. co˙ - te˙˙ ..- le
Si
Rod'es
V
&
˙˙ - ra,˙˙œ˙ ... ÓÓ
œœ œœ m'a
˙œ˙œ .. m'a
˙œ˙œ .. -carœœ œ- la˙œ˙œ .. œœ- te˙
œ˙œ . bins
œœ- ca˙ - taœ˙œ . co˙ - teœ˙œ .- le˙˙
œ
&
˙
.
Si
m'a
- ra,
Rom'a
d'es
œ
V Si˙˙ .. m'a - ra,˙˙ ..
˙˙ .. bins
˙˙ .. - ca˙ - ta˙˙ .. co - te˙˙ ..- le
˙˙ .. -car - la˙˙ .. - te˙
Rom'a
d'es
V
˙æ - ra,˙œ˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙ .. bins
˙æ
œ˙ .. - ca˙æ - ta˙œ˙ .. co˙æ - te˙œ˙ ..- le˙æ
÷ Si˙œ˙ .. m'a
Rom'a
d'es
˙
˙
˙œ˙˙ ... -car˙ææ - la˙œ˙˙ ... - te˙ææ
V
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ ˙
œ ˙
÷V œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
÷ œ œ˙æ œ œ œ ˙œæ œ œ œ œ˙æ œ œ œ ˙œæ œ œ œ ˙œæ œ œ œ ˙œæ œ œ ˙œ . œ˙æ œ œ ˙œ . œ˙æ œ œ
÷÷ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ
÷ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ
÷÷ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ ˙
& œ ˙
œ œ œ œ Ó
œ ˙
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ ˙˙
& bonne
œ œ œ- va!
œ et˙
œ
˙
œ ÓÓ
bel -le,
sous
-Ka - nie
tu - rele
ÁA
- leu- ri
œ etœ œ chainœ
œ
œ
˙
œ
& œ˙ . ˙
œ
œ
œ
œ
˙
œ
œ˙ . Ó
˙˙ ..-le,
˙˙œ .. -Ka˙˙ - nie
˙œ˙ .. etœ œœ chain˙˙œ .. tu œ- rele
˙˙œ .. ÁA
˙˙œ .. riœ œ- va!
bonne et
bel
sous
˙˙ - leuV
&
˙˙
˙
.
˙œ˙œ .. Ó
œ
œ
˙
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
&
œ
œ
œ
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
bel
sous -Ka - nie et
chain- tu
ÁA - leu- ri - va!
œ˙ . et
œ˙ .-le,˙
œ - rele
V bonne
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙˙œ˙ ... ˙æ
bel -le,
sous -Ka
chain- tuæ - rele ÁA
V
œ˙˙ .. etet˙æ
œ˙˙ ..-le,˙æ
œ˙˙ .. -Ka˙æ -- nie
œ˙˙ .. etet˙æ
œ˙˙ .. tu˙ - rele
œ˙˙ .. ÁA
˙æ -- leuœ˙˙ .. riri˙æ -- va!
÷ bonne
bonne
bel
sous
nie
chainleuva!
˙˙ .. æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
œ ˙
÷V
V
÷ œ œ˙æ œ œ œ œ˙æ œ œ œ ˙œæ œ œ œ œ˙æ œ œ œ œ˙æ œ œ œ œ˙æ œ œ œ ˙œæ œ œ ˙œ . ˙œæ œ œ
÷÷ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ
÷ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ
÷÷ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
œ ˙
œ ˙
œ œ œ ˙
œ
& œ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ ˙
œ ÓÓ
˙
˙
œ
œ
œ
˙
œ
œ -œ me,
& Roœ œ m'ai
˙
œ
œ bins
œ
œ
œ
˙
Ro- bins
m'a, Ó
Ro
m'a
de
œ ˙
œ˙ .-bins
œ˙ .-man
& œ˙ . œ œ ˙œ . œ ˙˙
˙
œ- dé˙˙ . - œe
œ
œ
œ
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
˙
œ
Ó
Ro- bins
Ro- bins
m'a,
Ro
m'a ˙
de
V
&
œœ œœ m'ai
˙˙
˙
˙˙œœ .. bins
˙˙œœ .. --œœ me,
˙˙œœ .. bins
˙˙œœ .. Ó
˙œ˙œ ..-bins
˙˙œ ..
˙œ˙œ ..-man
˙˙˙ .. -- œœee
œœ œœ-- dé
˙˙
&
m'ai
me,
Rom'a,
Ro
-bins
m'a
de
-man
dé
V Ro˙Ro.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙˙ .. - e
˙œ˙ .. bins
˙œ˙ .. - me,
˙œ˙ .. bins
˙œ˙ .. ˙æ
˙œ˙ ..-bins
˙œ˙ .. ˙æ
˙œ˙ ..-man
m'ai
Rom'a,
Ro
m'a
de
˙æ
˙æ
˙æ
˙æ
˙æ -- dé
œ˙˙ .. ˙æ- e
÷V Robins
m'ai
- me,
Robins
m'a,
Ro
-bins
m'a
de
-man
dé
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
æ
æ
æ
æ
æ
æ
æ
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
˙
.
œ
˙
œ
˙
œ
˙
œ
˙
œ
˙
œ
˙
œ
˙
œ˙ . ˙æ
÷V
V
÷ ˙œ . œ˙æ œ œ ˙œ . œ˙æ œ œ ˙œ . ˙œæ œ œ ˙œ . ˙œæ œ œ ˙œ . œ˙æ œ œ ˙œ . œ˙æ œ œ ˙œ . ˙œæ œ œ ˙œ . ˙œæ œ œ
÷÷ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ
÷ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ
÷÷ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
& œ ˙
˙.
Robin loves me, Robin has me.
Why shouldn’t I love him?
& Siœ m'a
˙ - ra.˙ .
& œ˙ . ˙
˙
.
˙
.
Robin
asked
for
me,
and
he
will
have
me.
Hurrah!
Si
V
&
œ˙˙œ .. m'a
˙˙ - ra.˙˙ .
&
Si
m'a
ra..
V Si˙˙ .. m'a - ra.˙˙ ..
Robin bought me a satchel
Robin loves me, Robin has me.
˙æ - ra.œ˙˙ .. ˙æ
÷V Siœ˙˙ .. m'a
and a silk purse;
Robin asked for me, and he will have me.
œ˙ . ˙æ
œ˙ . ˙æ
÷V
V
÷ ˙œ . œ˙æ œ œ ˙œ . ˙œæ œ œ
÷÷ œœ œ˙˙ææ œ œ œœ ˙˙œææ œ œ
÷ œ œœœ œ œœœ
- Analyze the
œœ œœ œœ œœstructure,
œœ œœ œœ œœ the modal scale, the ambitus and the rhythm.
÷÷ formal
Adam de la Halle (1245-1287)
Recognized as the greatest of the French trouvères, he worked in
the court of Charles of Anjou, who would later become Charles II of
Naples.
The Jeu de Robin et Marion can be considered one of the precedents
of the ópera comique.
30
UNIT 1
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 30
06/07/15 09:20
Listening
1
1
Listen to the famous piece by Carl Orff that begins his Carmina Burana.
6
The name Carmina Burana refers to the collection of over two hundred profane Latin poems from the
13th century found in the Benedictine monastery of Beuron (Germany). They are secular songs that
represent a great deal of the goliards’ repertoire from the Middle Ages.
Orff composed a cantata for the stage in the year 1936 about 24 of these poems, in a version of impressive sonority written for soloists, choir and orchestra. Its style is simple and with great rhythmic
strength, which accentuates its original popular character.
Read the translation of the text and follow the track with the help of the simplified score we show
you. You can also use it to perform it:
Fortuna imperatrix mundi
Fortuna: Empress of the World
O Fortuna, velut luna
statu variabilis,
semper crescis aut decrescis;
vita detestabilis
nunc obdurat et tunc curat
ludo mentis aciem,
egestatem, potestatem
dissolvit ut glaciem.
Sors immanis et inanis,
rota tu volubilis,
status malus,
vana salus
semper dissolubilis,
obumbrata et velata
mihi quoque niteris,
nunc per ludum
dorsum nudum
fero tui sceleris.
Sors salutis et virtutis
mihi nunc contraria,
est affectus et deffectus
semper in angaria;
hac in hora sine mora
corde pulsum tangite,
quod per sortem sternit fortem,
mecum omnes plangite.
Oh Fortune, like the moon
you are changeable,
ever waxing and waning;
hateful life
first oppresses and then soothes
as fancy takes it;
poverty and power
it melts them like ice.
Fate, monstrous and empty,
you whirling wheel,
you are malevolent,
well-being is vain
and always fades to nothing,
shadowed and veiled
you plague me too;
now through the game
I bring my bare back
to your villainy.
Fate is against me
in health and virtue,
driven on and weighted down,
always enslaved.
So at this hour without delay
pluck the vibrating strings;
since Fate strikes down the strong man,
everyone weep with me!
03_96
˙
& b 34 Œ
Pesante
O
Plato
Cymbal
Bass
drum
Bombo
Ú 60 œ
V b 34 Œ ˙
ƒ
3
˙
œ
&b 4
ƒ
3
b
& 4œ œ œ
34
∑
34 ˙ .
œ œ
Œ ˙
œ œ œ
Œ ˙
œ œ œ
œ œ œ
∑
∑
∑
For - tu - na,
œ ˙
ve
˙
˙.
-
œ
˙
œ œ œ
Œ
œ œ œ
Œ ˙
lut lu - na
œ ˙
œ œ œ
∑
∑
sta
˙
˙
>
-
œ
œ
Carl Orff (1895-1982)
German composer and educator
from the Neoclassicism of the
20th century, his works reflect
great structural simplicity and a
primitive character in order to
reach the widest possible audience.
The fundamental element of his
compositions and his method of
musical teaching is the rhythm. It
is the factor that generates the
melody and balances feelings
and reason.
poco stringendo
œ œ œ œ œ œ U̇.
U
œ œ œ ˙.
œ œ œ U̇.
tu va - ri - a - bi - lis
œ œ œ
œ œ œ
Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
˙.
˙.
˙.
Œ
∑
∑ Ÿ~~~~~~~~~
∑
ƒ̇ Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~
˙
œ ˙.
Œ Œ œ ˙.
Antiquity and Middle Ages
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 31
31
06/07/15 09:20
03_97
Listening
Ú120-132
&b Œ œ œ
œ œ Œ
sem-per cres-cis
Œ œ œ
œ œ Œ
aut de - cre-scis;
Œ œ œ
vi - ta
œ ˙
de - te
-
˙
sta
-
œ
˙.
bi - lis
Vb Œ œ œ œ œ Œ
π
&b œœœœœœ œœœœœœ
>
>
>
&b œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
>œ
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ
&b Œ œ œ
Œ œ œ
œ œ
nunc ob - du - rat
Vb Œ œ œ
œ œ
Œ
Œ
Œ œ œ
œ œ Œ
œ œ
et tunc cu - rat
Œ œ œ
œ œ
Œ
Œ
Œ œ œ
Œ œ œ
œ ˙
˙
œ ˙
˙
lu - do men-tis
Œ œ œ
a
˙
œ ˙
œ
-
œ
˙.
˙.
ci - em,
œ
˙.
&b œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
&b œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ
&b Œ œ œ
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-
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em.
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.
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et in - a - nis,
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Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ
&b
32
UNIT 1
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 32
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03_98
&b Œ œ œ
sta - tus
œ œ Œ
ma-lus,
&b Œ œ œ
Œ œ œ
Vb Œ œ œ
&b œœœœœœ
&b œ œ œ
>. > >
˙
p
nunc per
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œ
&b œœœ œœ
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> > >
˙.
p
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&b Œ
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Bo.
sa - lus
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&b Œ œ œ
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Ba.
va - na
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&b œœœœœœ œœœœœœ
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>
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ob - um - bra-tam,
Bo.
Ba.
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œ œ Œ
et ve - la - tam
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sem-per dis - so
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>
>
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lu
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˙
mi - hi
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quo-que
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˙.
bi - lis,
œ
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>
>
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ni
-
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te - ris;
œ œ Œ Œ œ œ œ œ Œ Œ œ œ œ ˙
˙
œ ˙.
œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
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˙
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œ œ Œ
lu-dum
Œ œ œ
œ œ Œ
Œ œ œ
fe - ro
tu - i
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dor-sum nu-dum
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sce - le
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œœ œœœ œœœ œ œœ œœœ œœœ œ œœ œœœ œœœ œ œœ œœœ
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&b œœœ œœ œ œœœ
&b œœœœœœ œœœœœœ
˙.
∑
f>
Sors sa - lu - tis
Œ œ œ œ œ Œ
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œ œ œ œ œ œ
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˙.
∑
>
et vir - tu - tis
- tra - ri - a
˙
œ
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˙
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Œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ
˙.
∑
∑
∑
>
mi - hi nunccon
Antiquity and Middle Ages
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 33
33
06/07/15 09:20
Listening
03_99
œ œ
&b Œ
œ œ
Vb Œ
Ba.
Bo.
est af - fec - tus
Œ œ œ
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ho - ra
Hac in
Œ
et de - fec- tus
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œ œ Œ
Œ
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mo - ra
si - ne
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1
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in an
œ œ
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pul-sum
tan
sem-per
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ga
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œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ
˙.
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ƒ
&b œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ
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quodper sor-tem
Œ
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Œ
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ster-nit
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for-tem,
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Ú 160
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te!
34
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Bo.
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>
UNIT 1
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 34
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To sum up
The sound of the Middle Ages
During the whole Middle Ages the sound of vocal music, based on the model of
Gregorian chant with modal melodies, narrow ambitus and arch designs, prevailed.
The sonority of the new forms of polyphony is supported by the fundamental
consonances of 4th, 5th and 8th, which give music a primitive and rough character.
The sound of instruments is high and penetrating, with small groupings of soloists.
1
The Greek civilization regarded music as
an art of divine origin. Their legends
attribute the invention of instruments to
particular gods that gave music
supernatural powers
2
The concept of music in Greece
encompassed the art of sounds, poetry
and dance.
Music had a monodic texture with
heterophonic accompaniment. They used
alphabetic notation for the pitches and
metrical feet to measure durations.
3
Greek scales were modal, and their
different sonority provoked different
«ethos» or behaviors that made music a
fundamental discipline in education.
4
The Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to
the 15th centuries, a period dominated by
the power of the Church and by a profound
theocentrism that made room for the
predominance of religious music.
5
The Gregorian chant was the liturgical
chant of the Christian church. Its text is in
Latin and has a monodic texture. It uses
modal scales and a free rhythm based on the
accentuation and the phrasing of the text.
6
7
Polyphony appeared in the late 9th
century and was developed in three stages:
- Primitive polyphony (9th-12th C.):
improvised polyphony upon the base of
Gregorian chant.
- Ars Antiqua (12th-13th C.): voices are
measured using Greek metrical feet.
- Ars Nova (14th C.): mensural notation and
the secular polyphonic song appeared.
9
Medieval instruments presented a great
variety of forms and names. They were
used to accompany secular songs and to
perform dances and processions.
Secular music was represented by the
songs of troubadours. They used monodic
textures and the scales of the Gregorian
chant. But they were sung in vernacular
languages accompanied by instruments
and had a marked rhythm.
8
Dancing was used in Ancient Greece as
a fundamental part of education.
Christianism forbade dances, but in the
Middle Ages we find examples generically
called estampies.
Antiquity and Middle Ages
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 35
35
06/07/15 09:20
UNIT 1
My progress
Unit 1
36
ExcEllEnt
i’m vEry skillEd!
OUtstanding
FinE
i’m qUitE skillEd bUt i can i’m skillEd bUt i can still
pass
i’m skillEd bUt i havE tO
Fail
i’m lacking thE skills.
still imprOvE
imprOvE a lOt
imprOvE a lOt
i mUst makE a grEatEr EFFOrt!
What I learnt
I understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity and I always use
the proper technical
vocabulary to describe
them.
I always identify the main
musical genres and forms
of the Middle Ages with
their most representative
examples and composers.
I recognize the different
manifestations of
medieval music in Spain
and I always value the
importance of the Spanish
cultural heritage.
I always identify the
musical examples that we
studied by placing them
in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
I understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity and I almost
always use the proper
technical vocabulary to
describe them.
I almost always identify
the main musical genres
and forms of the Middle
Ages with their most
representative examples
and composers.
I recognize the different
manifestations of
medieval music in Spain
and I almost always value
the importance of the
Spanish cultural heritage.
I almost always identify
the musical examples that
we studied by placing
them in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
I understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity and I sometimes
use the proper technical
vocabulary to describe
them.
I sometimes identify the
main musical genres and
forms of the Middle Ages
with their most
representative examples
and composers.
I recognize the different
manifestations of
medieval music in Spain
and I sometimes value the
importance of the Spanish
cultural heritage.
I sometimes identify the
musical examples that we
studied by placing them
in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
I understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity but I have
trouble using the proper
technical vocabulary to
describe them.
I have trouble identifying
the main musical genres
and forms of the Middle
Ages with their most
representative examples
and composers.
I recognize some of the
manifestations of
medieval music in Spain
and I sometimes value the
importance of the Spanish
cultural heritage.
I have trouble identifying
the musical examples that
we studied by placing
them in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
I don’t understand the
characteristics and
functions of music in
Antiquity and I can’t use
the proper technical
vocabulary to describe
them.
I can’t identify the main
musical genres and forms
of the Middle Ages with
their most representative
examples and composers.
I can’t recognize the
different manifestations
of medieval music in
Spain and I don’t value
the importance of the
Spanish cultural heritage.
I can’t identify the
musical examples that we
studied by placing them
in their context and
describing their most
characteristic features.
What I know
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces by
paying attention to the
group and playing
different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance with an open
and respectful attitude
while being aware of my
own possibilities.
I always use on my own
different types of scores
as backup for the musical
activities of the class.
I create simple
compositions so easily by
imitating the style’s
characteristic features and
the musical forms that we
studied.
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces by
paying attention to the
group and I almost always
play different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance with an open
and respectful attitude
while being almost always
aware of my own
possibilities.
I almost always use on my
own different types of
scores as backup for the
musical activities of the
class.
I create simple
compositions quite easily
by imitating the style’s
characteristic features and
the musical forms that we
studied.
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces by
paying attention to the
group and I sometimes
play different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance with an open
and respectful attitude
while being sometimes
aware of my own
possibilities.
I sometimes use on my
own different types of
scores as backup for the
musical activities of the
class.
I create simple
compositions without a
problem by imitating the
style’s characteristic
features and the musical
forms that we studied.
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces by
paying attention to the
group but I don’t play
different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance with an open
and respectful attitude
but I have trouble being
aware of my own
possibilities.
I use, with a little help,
different types of scores
as backup for the musical
activities of the class.
I have some trouble
creating simple
compositions by imitating
the style’s characteristic
features and the musical
forms that we studied.
I take part in the
performance of vocal,
instrumental or
choreographic pieces but
I don’t pay attention to
the group and I don’t play
different roles.
I develop the abilities
related to the
performance but I don’t
have an open and
respectful attitude and I
am not aware of my own
possibilities.
I have trouble using
different types of scores
as backup for the musical
activities of the class.
I can’t create simple
compositions by imitating
the style’s characteristic
features and the musical
forms that we studied.
Technology
and me
I surf the web without a
problem in order to
investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I find a lot of
interesting information.
I completely master TIC
tools in order to carry out
the proposed activities.
I surf the web without a
problem in order to
investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I usually find
interesting information.
I master quite well TIC
tools in order to carry out
the proposed activities.
I surf the web without a
problem in order to
investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I sometimes find
interesting information.
I master TIC tools enough
to carry out the proposed
activities.
I have some trouble
surfing the web in order
to investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I also have some
trouble finding interesting
information.
I poorly master TIC tools
in order to carry out the
proposed activities.
I have a lot of trouble
surfing the web in order
to investigate the historic
periods that we studied
and I can’t find
interesting information.
I don’t master TIC tools in
order to carry out the
proposed activities and I
don’t know how to use
them.
Do I know
how to work
in a group?
I play my role and I
provide the group with
ideas without interfering
with the work of others.
I play my role and I provide
the group with ideas but I
tend to interfere with the
work of others.
I play my role and I
provide the group with
ideas but I interfere with
the work of others.
I play my role but I don’t
provide the group with
ideas and I interfere with
the work of others.
I don’t play my role nor
provide the group with
ideas and I interfere with
the work of others.
UNIT 1
ESO Musica II -ingles- Ud01.indd 36
06/07/15 09:20