Conference Program - International Society for Leadership in

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Conference Program - International Society for Leadership in
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1
This book belongs to International Society for Leadership in Pedagogy and Learning
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days on how you can improve pedagogies learning and assessment in your particular
TESOL context.
It is a decade since we created the first international conference on pedagogies and
learning at the University of Southern Queensalnd, Australia. The lack of retrieval of
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revealed that our aim to explore postmodern pedagogies was timely, challenging and
exciting.
There were over 200 participants in 2003, plus 16 doctoral student presenters and 37
undergraduate students, who acted as chairpersons and provided support for preconference bag packing and registration on the day. Delegates attended from 23
universities ±Alberta, ACU, Bond, Brunei, Charles Sturt, CQU, Denver, Doshish,
Griffith, Hokkaid, Northern Territory, Open University, QUT, Sheffield Hallam, South
Australia, Tabriz, Taiwan, Tasmania, Victoria, Waikato, Western Sydney, and
Wollongong, Dubai Campus and represented 13 countries ± Iran, Brunei, Canada,
Dubai, Indonesia, Japan, NZ, Singapore, Taiwan, UK, US, and Mabuiag Island, Torres
Strait besides all Australian states, territories and education sectors.
We see the wonderful fruits of this early initiative in the biennial conferences that have
ensued, this current inaugural conference on TESOL, the growth of the International
Society for Leadership in Pedagogies and Learning and its expansion into the Middle
East, as well as the recognition of the International Journal of Pedagogies and
Learning. The Society is the face of pedagogies and learning in the world today and
with a mission to promote high quality pedagogies and effective learning, worldwide
and across disciplines, for safe, sustainable living, lifelong learning and individual
and community well-being it attracts a large following and provides professional
development and research facilitation among a range of services.
At this conference we invite you to question and help invisage the way TESOL
pedagogical practices may be conceptualised and articulated for successful 21 st century
learning communities. Please take a moment to decide how you will approach your
participation e.g. as an observer, a lab technician, a scoffolder, a scientist, an artist, an
explorer, a sponge, an adventurer, a collaborator.
2
The F irst International Conference on T ESO L
Improving TESOL - pedagogies learning and assessment
22-23 September 2013 Tehran
C onfe re nce T he mes
TE S OL strategies for 21st century learning
English language proficiency and assessment
S tudent voice and agency in language learning
Language curriculu m and integration
Language policy and planning.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
IPSOHPHQWLQJ WKH2¶1HLOO-Gish International TESOL pedagogical principles
Knowledge, technology and skills in English for TESOL.
Active-interactive collaborative and personalised learning.
Critical thinking and reflective practice.
Confidence building and professional engagement.
Creativity and leadership in TESOL pedagogy and language program management.
(GLWRUV$OL0DOHNLDQG6KLUOH\2¶1HLOO
Copyright 2013 © islPAL Middle East
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any for m or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any infor mation storage
and retrieval syste m, without prior written per mission.
Printe d and bound by is lPA L Inc. M iddle E ast, A ustralia.
Confe re nce Hosts
Middle East Language Development Institute www.me-assessment.org
Thompson Rivers University www.tru.ca
Republic of China Multimedia English Language Instructors Association ±
ROCMELIA http://sz.allbest.org/rocmelia/
Asian-Pacific Association for Multimedia Assisted Language Learning - APACALL
www.apamall.org
3
Contents
Contents...................................................................................................................... 4 General Information. ............................................................................................... 4 Greetings from Thompson Rivers University ....................................................... 5
Keynote speakers and acknowledgement ...................................................... 7 Program overview Day One.................................................................................. 8 Program overview Day Two ................................................................................18 Keynote Abstracts ..................................................................................................26 Conference Abstracts...........................................................................................30 islPAL Inc. Vision and Values............................................................................. 137 4
General Information
Confe re nce ve nue
The conference is being held in the Samarghand conference hall (Block A) and all
presentations are being held in Middle East Language Development Institute (Block
B).
x
x
x
x
Registration in A block
Food and beverage in A block
Keynotes in A block
Concurrent sessions in B block
R egistration des k
The conference registration desk is located on 3 of A block and will be open at the
following times:
x
x
Sunday 22 September, 8:00 ± 9:00
Monday 23 September, 8:00 ± 9:00
Confe re nce voluntee rs
Conference volunteers can be recognised by their orange lanyard. If you have
questions about the conference, they are the people to ask.
M obile phones
As a courtesy to fellow delegates and speakers, please ensure your phone is switched
off or is on silent during all conference sessions.
N ame badges
It is required that all delegates wear their name badge during the conference.
Photocopying
Photocopiers are available in B block.
Smoking policy
Please note that smoking is prohibited:
x
x
x
x
in all building or parts of buildings under islPAL control
in any outdoor area of a food outlet, or any outdoor area where food and drink
is provided
within 10 metres of any entrance to building, air conditioning intakes,
ventilation louvers or opened windows
in any other area where there is signage expressly prohibiting smoking
R estaurant
There is a restaurant in the Samarghand hall easily accessible by conference delegates.
Se nd us your fee dback
The conference committee is keen to know whether it addressed your professional
development needs and whether the conference was enjoyable and worthwhile
experience. Please send us your feedback on this conference to
[email protected]
5
G ree tings from Thompson R ive rs Unive rsity
On behalf of Thompson Rivers University (TRU) let me extend a warm greeting. We
are pleased that you are considering selecting TRU as your international learning
destination. TRU is a publically funded university, offering excellent bachelor and
master degrees that are recognized worldwide. TRU is a young dynamic teaching and
research institution home to over 13,000 students offering outstanding quality
education to both domestic and international students from over 80 countries.
When you arrive at TRU you will be supported by TRU World staff dedicated to
helping international students adjust to learning and life on campus and in our city.
You will have expert assistance from our admission team, guidance from our academic
advising staff, and counselling support from our international student advising staff to
guide you through any academic concerns and/or personal matters.
We encourage you to study hard and participate in the numerous student activities
designed to enrich your life while in our community. It is also our hope that you share
your cultural background with faculty, students, and administrators. We want to learn
about your cultural heritage and life experiences since we live in a global society.
I wish you success at TRU.
Baihua Chadwick, BA, MMI
Interim Associate Vice-President International & CEO TRU World Global Operations
6
G ree tings from ISLPR Language Se rvices
Nelly and I, as the owners and Directors of ISLPR Language Services Pty Ltd, the
major sponsor of this conference, are delighted to welcome you to this conference, the
1st International Conference on TESOL to be held in Tehran in conjunction with the
International Society for Leadership in Pedagogies and Learning Inc.
It is now some eight years since I first visited Iran and met my good friend, Dr Ali
Maleki, and his family. In that time, I have become increasingly impressed by the
dynamism and creative, educational and business imagination that Dr Maleki has
shown and the efforts he has put into developing a first class language teaching
institute, the Middle East English Language Development Institute or MELDI, serving
both the people of Iran and the Middle East more generally. I have also become
aware, both through MELDI and from my day-to-day tutoring and testing activities in
ISLPR Language Services in Brisbane, Australia, where I frequently test students from
Iran, just how important English is in Iran and across the Middle East, especially for
any students, teachers or academics who aspire to develop their excellence in any field
and who, therefore, need to be able to access the world literature whatever their field
might be, be it engineering, medicine, education, or literature.
If we are to help students and other scholars to attain high levels of proficiency in
English, it is essential, not only that the methods we use in teaching be progressive and
draw on the best of current knowledge about how language is best learned and taught
but also that the tests appropriately and relevantly test their practical English
proficiency as they move through their education system or seek to enter into higher
levels of education in this country or abroad. If the tests are not relevant or do not
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learning will inevitably be inappropriate, as we see with the worst of the IELTS
Preparation courses.
Undoubtedly face-to-face interaction also plays a vital role in developing real language
skills and it provides the context in which realistic language performance can be
observed and measured; such essential interaction and the inter-cultural understanding
it helps to generate and that is an important goal of all language teaching can more
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developments in technology that emerge on almost a daily basis, no part of the world
in the 21st century can, nowadays, be considered isolated and it is vital that we
capitalise on that technology to let learners interact with native speakers and to ensure
that our methods, whether of teaching or of testing, take full advantage of that
technology to make teaching and testing more efficient and effective and to bring the
English-speaking world into our classes and our tests.
This conference will provide a brief introduction to many of these important issues and
it is my pleasure, again, to welcome you to the conference.
Dr David E. Ingram,
Director,
ISLPR Language Services Pty Ltd,
Mt Gravatt, Queensland, 4122,
Australia.
7
Keynote speakers and acknowledgments
T
he Conference Executive Organising Committee wish to thank our Keynote
VSHDNHUV3URIHVVRU 6KLUOH\ 2¶1HLOO DQG3URIHVVRU 'DYLG ,QJUDP 3URIHVsor Mike
Chuang and Professor Francois Victor Tochon for their acceptance of our invitation to
contribute to the Conference. It is not often that we have the opportunity to meet and
interact with four people who are so internationally distinguished in their respective
fields of applied linguistics, language testing, language learning and assessment and
multimedia, and languages education policy and planning, and world languages/deep
education.
The Conference Executive Organising Committee acknowledges the support of all
colleagues involved in the conference, the web site, conference program book cover
design and sponsors.
Confe re nce Executive O rganising Committee
'U6KLUOH\ 2¶1HLOO $FDGHPLF &KDLU LVO3$/ ,QF 'U'DYLG ,QJUDP ,6/35 /DQJXDJH
Services; Dr Mike Chuang, Tajen University and ROCMELIA;
Dr Ali Maleki, Executive Chair, islPAL Inc., Middle East, Ms Shabnam Shirzad,
Secretary, islPAL Inc., Middle East
8
Program overview
All keynote speeches as well as Opening and Closing Sessions will be held in
Samarghand Conference Hall (Block A). All presentations will be held in Block
B
(5-10 minute walking distance form Samarghand Conference Hall).
Conference P rogram
SUN D A Y, 22 S E P T E MB E R 2013
Registration: 8:00-9:00
W elcome Note & O pening Address: 9:00-9:30
K E YN O T E AD D R ESS: 9:30-10:30
Speak er
Prof. David Ingr am
ISLPR Language Services, Australia
Title
Value-adding for language programs, teachers and students:
International proficiency scales provide the core to practice
Morning T ea: 10:30-11
P resentations: 11-13 (Bloc k B)
W O R KS H O P: 11-13 (Bloc k A)
Tr ainer
3URI 6KLUOH\2¶1HLOO
University of Southern Queensland,
Australia
Title
Teaching Persuasive Writing
9
P resentation Session 1 (11-11:30)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Sharifi, Mohammad Mahdi
Shakoori, Moosa
Title
A Contrastive Analysis of Rhetorical Figures in Farsi and Kurdish
Advertisements
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Asadi, Vahid
Title
The Iranian EFL teacheUV¶DWWLWXGHWRZDUGVGHYHORSPHQWRIPRGHObased classroom observation
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Esmaeili, Akram
Salahshour, Farzad
Title
Critical Thinking and Use of Analyzing, Reasoning Strategy in
Reading Comprehension
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Tajabadi, Fahimeh
Taghizadeh, Mahboubeh
Title
The Effects of Macro- and Micro-Discourse Markers on the Listening
Comprehension of Expository Texts by L2 Learners
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Morady Moghaddam, Mostafa
Gholami, Valeh
Title
The Micro-Level of Classroom Context: An Interaction between
Authority, Power, and Morality
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Doyle, Maria
Morimai,Tekeinang
Barnaart, Antoine
Title
TESOL Success in the Pacific: Combining curriculum development,
data management, language assessment, teacher training and student
motivation
Room 7
Presenter(s)
Hashemian, Mahmood
Adibpour, Maryam
Title
On the Relationship Between Multiple Intelligences, Field
(In)dependence, and Reading Performance
Room 8
Presenter(s)
Shabani, Mohammad Bagher
Khales Haghighi, Jaber
Title
The Efficacy of Thinking-Aloud-Protocols in the Promotion of
Reading Comprehension: The Case of Iranian Students
10
P resentation Session 2 (11:30-12)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Alavinia, Parviz
Hassanlou, Adel
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Saiedi, Mahnaz
Khosravi, Sakineh
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad
Arizavi, Saleh
Gharbavi, Abdullah
Namdari, Namdar
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Aliakbari, Mohammad
Ghoreyshi, Marziyeh
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Memari, Mehran
Mashhadi, Amir
Jalilifar, Alireza
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Jokar, Mohammad
Soyouf, Ali
Ayneyi, Samar
Room 7
Presenter(s)
Abdollahifam, Samaneh
Behnam, Biook
Room 8
Presenter(s)
Sadraee Manesh, Fatemeh
Azimbeyk, Samaneh
Title
The Feasible Bonds between Personality Traits and Writing Quality:
A Probe through Iranian EFL Academe
Title
,UDQLDQ()/ /HDUQHUV¶ (PRWLRQDO ,QWHOOLJHQFHLQ5HODWLRQWRWKHLU
Motivation at Junior High School
Title
7KH(IIHFW RI9RFDEXODU\ 3UHVHQWDWLRQ)DVKLRQRQWKH/HDUQHUV¶
Vocabulary Retention and Recall: A Reflection on Material Evaluation
Title
On the Relationship between EFL Students' Self-regulation and
Mindfulness strategies
Title
Current trends in research on mobile phones in language learning
Title
:ULWWHQ&RUUHFWLYH )HHGEDFN,UDQLDQ/DQJXDJH7HDFKHUV¶
Perspectives
Title
Imposition of ideology through the habitual uses of discourse of
cinema: A feminist study
Title
Is collaborative learning a useful technique in enhancing the reading
comprehension and critical thinking of Iranian EFL learners?
11
P resentation Session 3 (12-12:30)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Zargaran, Zahra
Memari, Mehran
Title
Academic Discourse and Reading Strategies: A contextual Study to
Strategy Use
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Estaji, Masoumeh
Jannati, Seyran
Title
()/ 7HDFKHUV¶3HUFHSWLRQVRQWKH8VHRI$XWKHQWLF0DWHULDOVLQWKH
Foreign Language Classroom
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Rashidi, Naser
.KHUDGPDQG6D¶GL =DKUD
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Pakzadian, Sarah Sadat
Title
Can I benefit from strategies to improve my visual literacy? A case of
Iranian EFL learners
Title
The Comparison of Rate of Code Switching in Iranian EFL Teachers
Speech
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Salimi, Fariba
Saiedi, Mahnaz
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Mousavi, Azadeh
Beryanian, Saeede
Khodabakhshi, Saloumeh
Daroonshad, Zahra
=DUH¶HH$EEDV
Room 7
Presenter(s)
Bakhsheshi, Reza
Title
Effects of Recasts and Elicitations, in Dyadic Interaction on Iranian
EFL Learners' Delayed Error Corrections
Title
,UDQLDQV()/ VWXGHQWV¶DWWLWXGHWRZDUGVWKHXVHRIFRPSXWHULQ
writing class and the effects of word processor (Microsoft Office
Word) on their writings
Title
A Comparative Evaluation of the EFL Course Books: Interchange &
(QJOLVK)LOH 6HULHVIURP WKH7HDFKHUV¶3HUVSHFWLYHV
Room 8
Presenter(s)
Seifoori, Zohreh
Khabbaz Azar, Fariba
Title
The Analysis of Textual Metafunction (in terms of unmarked and
marked topical themes) of Human Rights Discourse: In the Case of
Amnesty International and British Broadcasting Company
12
P resentation Session 4 (12:30-13)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Soyouf, Ali
*KDQD¶DW $OL
Title
Beyond retention: How to Enhance oral Feedback Retention within
Students
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Nazarbaghi, Sara
Title
Podcast-Assisted Language Learning in Teaching Vocabulary to
Iranian EFL Learners
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Jannejad, Mohsen
Mehrabi, Khodayar
Mousavinia, Seyyed Reza
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Nosrati, Vahede
Estaji, Masoumeh
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Kazemipour, Salva
Abdollahifam, Samaneh
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Rahimi, Mehrak
Abedi, Sajjad
Title
Apology strategies among Iranian EFL learners: the effect of
exposure to satellite television
Title
Socio-DIIHFWLYH VWUDWHJLHVWKDWLQFUHDVHVWXGHQWV¶ZLOOLQJQHVVWR
communicate and their application in communicative sy llabi
Title
Teaching Grammar through Translation: A Case of Iranian EFL
learners
Title
Exploring the Relationship between Academic Self-regulation and
Metacognitive Awareness of Listening Strategies across Gender
Room 7
Presenter(s)
Mousavi, Fatemeh
Gholami, Javad
Title
The Impacts of Watching Animated Flash Stories with English
Subtitle and without subtitle on Incidental Vocabulary
Acquisition of Elementary Iranian EFL Learners
Room 8
Presenter(s)
Nosratinia, Mania
Zaker, Alireza
Title
Adopting a Broader Perspective on Classroom Practice: Inspecting
WKH5HODWLRQVKLSDPRQJ()/ /HDUQHUV¶ &ULWLFDO 7KLQNLQJ&UHDWLYLW\
and Autonomy
13
Lunch time: 13-14:30
K E YN O T E AD D R ESS: 14:30-15:30
Speak er
Prof. Mi k e Chuang
Kun Shan University, Taiwan
Title
TESOL revitalization through online multimedia English
instruction and CLOUD Technology
Afte rnoon T ea: 15:30-16
P resentations: 16-18 (Bloc k B)
W O R KS H O P: 16-18 (Bloc k A)
Tr ainers
3URI 6KLUOH\2¶1HLOO
University of Southern Queensland,
Australia
Prof. Mi k e Chuang
KunShan University, Taiwan
Title
Using CLOUD Technology for TESOL
14
P resentation Session 5 (16-16:30)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Shabani, Mohammad Bagher
Khosravian, Fereshteh
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Alavinia, Parviz
Ardeshiri, Leyla
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad
Arizavi, Saleh
Gharbavi, Abdullah
Namdari, Namdar
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Shooshtari G., Zohreh
Mashhadi, Amir
Memari, Mehran
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Jokar, Mohammad
Soyouf, Ali
Ayneyi, Samar
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Ayneyi, Samar
Title
An Investigation on Containment, Path, and Force Schemas in
Persian: Considering Gender and Age
Title
A Probe into the Overriding Psycho-Affective Factors Underlying
learners' Failure Rate
Title
A gender study to see: How using authentic aural materials effects
male and female listening comprehension
Title
The potential of using podcasts to teach English vocabulary to EFL
students
Title
Iranian English languagHWHDFKHUV¶FRQFHSWLRQVRIUHVHDUFK
Title
Investigating Critical Assessment in English Instructors' Point of
View
Room 7
Presenter(s)
Khonamri, Fatemeh
Tabi, Marjan
Title
A Comparative Study of the Impacts of Dynamic Assessment and
Coded Focused Feedback on the Process Writing and Revision
Ability of Iranian Learners
Room 8
Presenter(s)
Alinejad Fatemeh
Maghsoudi Mojtaba
Title
Common errors of subject-verb agreement in writing of EFL students
15
P resentation Session 6 (16:30-17)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Mobini, Fariba
Title
Self-Assessment of Language Teachers through Metaphorical
Expressions
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Zarei, Abbas Ali
Hasani, Mohammad Taghi
Shahidi Pour, Vahid
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Esmaeili, Akram
Behin, Bahram
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Moghaddam, Sharif
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Morady Moghaddam, Mostafa
Gholami, Valeh
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Tabrizi, Fahimeh
Nabifar, Nesa
Ahangari, Sepideh
Room 7
Presenter(s)
Varnaseri, Masoud
Title
Language Learning Strategies as Predictors of L2 Idioms Learning
Title
The Effects of Semantic Mapping Strategy Instruction on Iranian ESP
Students' Vocabulary Learning
Title
6WXGHQWV¶XVHRIWKHPHDQGUK\PH
Title
An Investigation of the Pathology of Language Teaching in
Iran
Title
A Comparative Study of Ideational Grammatical Metaphor in Health
and Political Texts of English Newspapers
Title
7KH,QWHUSOD\EHWZHHQ()/ /HDUQHUV¶ 6HOI -acceptance and Their
Willingness to Communicate
Room 8
Presenter(s)
Nezamdoost Sani, Simin
Title
Increasing Student-Teacher Interaction through Writing Summary in
EFL Reading Classes
16
P resentation Session 7 (17-17:30)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Zarei, Abbas Ali
Abbasi, Samira
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Kashani, Hajar
bt Mahmud, Rosnaini
bte Noordin, Nooreen
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Hamzelou, Zohreh
Title
L2 Idiom Learning in the Context of Distance Learning: A Focus on
Textual and Pictorial Glossing and Hyperlink
Title
Comparison of effect of Pen-and-Paper and Blogging on the Essay
writing Performance of Iranian Graduate Students
Title
Is Self-efficacy Contagious? The Case of Iranian EFL Teachers and
Learners
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Jokar, Mohammad
Asadi, Vahid
Title
7KH([SORUDWLRQ RI6WXGHQWV¶7KRXJKWVRQ+RZ9RFDEXODU\ 6KRXOG
be Learned
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Yazdanpanah Lari, Vahid
Title
The Effect of using MALL RQWKH,UDQLDQ()/ /HDUQHU¶V *UDPPDU
Development
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Meshkat, Maryam
Hassanzade, Ali
Room 7
Presenter(s)
Emroozi Bajgiran, Hassan
Title
The Effect of Self-Directed Learning on the Components of Reading
Comprehension
Title
An investigation into EFL teachers burn out, self-efficacy and
students learning strategies
Room 8
Presenter(s)
Karimi, Maryam
Dowlatabadi, Hamid Reza
Title
The Interaction between /HDUQHU¶V3HUVRQDOLW\DQG(QJOLVK/HDUQLQJ
17
P resentation Session 8 (17:30-18)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Abdollahifam, Samaneh
Kazemipour, Salva
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Jokar, Mohammad
Soyouf, Ali
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Sharifi, Mohammad Mahdi
Nejadghanbar, Hassan
Room 4
Presenter(s)
---Room 5
Presenter(s)
Ajideh, Parviz
Mohammadnia, Zhila
Mozaffarzadeh, Sorayya
Title
The effect of translation in EFL classrooms as a means for teaching
collocations
Title
3ULQFLSOHV RI&UHDWLYH 3HGDJRJ\,UDQLDQ7HDFKHU7UDLQHUV¶
Perspective
Title
Gender Performance on STAD and IOSTAD Cooperative Learning
Techniques
Title
---Title
A Comparative Study on C-test vs. Cloze Test as Measures of
Reading Comprehension in Iranian EFL Context
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Nematollahi, Shirin
Title
A Learner -IRFXVHG$SSURDFKWR'HYHORSLQJ,UDQLDQ()/ /HDUQHU¶V
Autonomy
Room 7
Presenter(s)
Merghati, Vahid
Title
Vocabulary Learning Strategies used by Iranian High School
Students and its Relation to Their Strategy Awareness
Room 8
Presenter(s)
Chelopazi, Fatemeh
Title
Non-anomalous Sentence Processing and Reading Ability: A case of
Iranian EFL Learners
Confe rence Dinne r: 20:30-22
18
Monday, 23 S E P T E M B E R 2013
P resentations: 8:00-9:30 (Bloc k B)
Morning T ea: 9:30-10
K E YN O T E AD D R ESS: 10-11
Speak er
3URI 6KLUOH\2¶1HLOO
University of Southern Queensland,
Australia
Title
Improving reading and writing: How explicit teaching is
the key
P resentations: 11-12:30 (Bloc k B)
W O R KS H O P: 11-13 (Bloc k A)
Tr ainer
Prof. David Ingr am
ISLPR Language Services, Australia
Title
How to Assess Language Proficiency
19
P resentation Session 1 (8-8:30)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Saeidi, Mahnaz
Toraby, Hamid
Mohammadkhah, Ebrahim
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Movlanzadeh, Fariba
Title
Various Modes of Presenting Vocabularies, Learning and Retention
Title
The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Multiple
Intelligences and their Reading Comprehension Ability
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Zandvani, Sona
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Salimpoor Aghdam, M ohaddeseh
Title
The Social Development Overshadowed by Theory of Mind
Title
The Effect of Computer-assisted Evaluative Feedback on EFL
/HDUQHUV¶6HOI-efficacy and Self-regulative Behaviors
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Sharifi, Mohammad Mahdi
Rezaeian, Maryam
Title
An Exploration of Iranian EFL Teachers' Underlying Ideologies
Reflected through Classroom Use of Discourse Strategies and
Rhetorical Devices: A CDA Approach
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Soyouf, Ali
Jokar, Mohamamd
Room 7
Presenter(s)
Talebi, Seyyed Hassan
Maghsoudi, Mojtaba
Alinezhad Rad, Fatemeh
Room 8
Presenter(s)
Ajideh, Parviz
Mohammadnia, Zhila
Mozaffarzadeh, Sorayya
Title
Toward Critical thinking: How to rekindle the fifth skill
Title
Interdependent hypothesis and Cross -linguistic Transfer of Reading
Strategies
Title
Accountability of C-test as Test of Reading Comprehension:
6WDWLVWLFDO5HVXOWVYV/HDUQHUV¶ 3HUVSHFWLYH
20
P resentation Session 2 (8:30-9)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Abedini Kashquiyeh, Hakimeh
Title
Acquisition of English Onset and Coda Consonant Clusters by
Persian Down Syndrome Learners: An Optimality Account
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Esmaeili, Akram
Salahshour, Farzad
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Morady Moghaddam, Mostafa
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Asadi, Vahid
Title
Academic Writing Experience of Iranian Postgraduate Students
Title
The Nature of Accessibility to Universal Grammar by EFL Learners
Title
Standards for teacher evaluation in post method era; teacher trainer
perspectives
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Maghsoudi, Mojtaba
Samadi, Fatemeh
Talebi, Seyyed Hassan
Azizmohammadi, Fatemeh
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Estaji, Masoumeh
Vafaeimehr, Roya
Title
The difference between ESL and EFL learners in learning grammar
of an additional language
Title
Lexical Syllabus: A Pathway toward ESP Course Design Involving
%RWK7HDFKHUV¶DQG/HDUQHUV¶3HUFHSWLRQV
21
P resentation Session 3 (9-9:30)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Sharifi, Mohammad Mahdi
Title
Classroom 'Underparticipation and/or Underattendance' as an
Offshoot of Students' From-Below Manipulation
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Soyouf, Ali
Jokar, Mohammad
Sedighi, Sara
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Estaji, Masoumeh
Rahimi, Ali
Bahrami, Vahid
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Sharif, Maryam
Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Meraji, Seyedeh Maryam
Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Alemi, Minoo
Khosravizadeh, Parvaneh
Irandoost, Roja
Title
Beyond motivation: How to incubate intrinsic motivation among
Iranian EFL leaners
Title
Intersections of Resilience and Communicative Competence in
TeacKHUV¶3URIHVVLRQDO'HYHORSPHQW $Q(PSLULFDO 6WXG\
Title
:KDW6KRXOG)LQDO *UDGHV5HIOHFW" $6XUYH\LQWR,UDQLDQ7HDFKHUV¶
Attitudes in Academic and Institutional Situations
Title
7KHLPSDFW RIWHDFKHUV¶HPRWLRQDOLQWHOOLJHQFH RQFKRLFHRIRUDO
corrective feedback
Title
A Pragmatic Study of Compliment Production Among Native
Speakers of English
22
P resentation Session 4 (11-11:30)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Mahdavi, Mohsen
Sharifi, Mohammad Mahdi
Title
The Cross-Cultural Analysis of Metadiscourse Markers across
English, Persian, Arabic, and French Research Articles
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Alemi, Minoo
Eslami Rasekh, Zohreh
Rezanejad, Atefeh
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Vahdat, S.
Pasideh, Asieh
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Amirian, Mohammad Reza
Ramezanian, Mohsen
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Khaffafi Azar, Fereshteh
Saeidi, Mahnaz
Room 6
Presenter(s)
Gholami, Valeh
Title
How American EFL/ESL Teachers Assess Iranian EFL Learners'
Pragmatic Productions: The Speech Act of Compliment
Title
The Effect of Extroversion/Introversion and Textual Enhancement
Technique on Grammar Learning of EFL Learners
Title
The effect of portfolio assessment on the language achievement of
EFL learners
Title
Language Learning Strategies, Gender and Proficiency Level
Title
A Discourse Analysis of Computer Games: Investigating
Implicational Results for EFL Context
23
P resentation Session 5 (11:30-12)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Sharifi, Mohammad Mahdi
Kalantarian, Seyyedeh Ronak
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Kazemipour, Salva
Behnam, Biook
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Alinejad Fatemeh
Azizmohammadi Fatemeh
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Abdavi, Nasim
Title
The Impact of Iranian ESP Teachers' Beliefs about their Pedagogical
Knowledge on their Actual Classroom Performance
Title
Contrastive Genre Analysis of Islamic and Christian Liturgical Texts
Title
Approaches and procedures in teaching grammar
Title
7KHHIIHFWRIWHDFKHUV¶,QWHU-Personal relationships on conversational
dominance of silent students
Room 5
Presenter(s)
----
Title
----
Room 6
Presenter(s)
----
Title
----
Room 7
Presenter(s)
----
Title
----
Room 8
Presenter(s)
----
Title
----
24
P resentation Session 6 (12-12:30)
Room1
Presenter(s)
Samadi, Fatemeh
Azizmohammadi, Fatemeh
Room 2
Presenter(s)
Soyouf, Ali
Jokar, Mohammad
Sedighi, Sara
Room 3
Presenter(s)
Sharifi, Mohammad Mahdi
Qasedi, Mina
Title
A descriptive study on seven strategies for improving reading
comprehensive in EFL
Title
9LGHRJDPH 7KH9RJXHIRU([SDQGLQJ 6HFRQGODQJXDJHOHDUQHUV¶
knowledge of Vocabulary
Title
$QLQTXLU\LQWRODQJXDJHWHDFKHUV¶LGHRORJLFDO-laden classroom
discourse unnoticed in language teacher education in Iran
Room 4
Presenter(s)
Toraby, Hamid
Mohammadkhah, Ebrahim
Qaderi, Vafa
Title
Tablet PC and Smart Phone-based language pedagogy
Room 5
Presenter(s)
Khalaji, Karim
Vafaeimehr, Roya
Rajabi Kondlaji, Amin
Title
In-Service Training and Junior High-6FKRRO 7HDFKHUV¶6HOI-Efficacy
Beliefs: Effectiveness and TeDFKHUV¶3HUFHSWLRQV
25
Lunch time: 13-14:30
W O R KS H O P: 14:30-16:30 (Bloc k A)
Tr ainers
3URI 6KLUOH\2¶1HLOO
University of Southern Queensland,
Australia
Title
Creating Multimedia Activities
Afte rnoon T ea: 16:30-17
K E YN O T E AD D R ESS: 17-18
Speak er
Prof. Fr ancois Victor Tochon
University of Wisconsin - Madison
Title
The deep approach to world languages and cultures
Panel Discussion & C losing Address: 18-19
26
Improving Reading and W riting: How E xplicit T eaching is the K ey
'U6KLUOH\ 2¶1HLOO
Co-President International Society for Leadership in Pedagogies and Learning
[email protected]
Abstract
Explicit teaching is currently a strong focus for all. This presentation explores the
concept of explicit teaching and how it is manifested in good pedagogical practice. It
will provide insights into the underpinning theory and will show how teachers scaffold
students' language learning and engagement through explicit teaching. The vital
importance of the quality of teacher and student interactive dialogue for effective
teaching and learning is highlighted as are specific tools for its analysis. The need to
consider the pedagogical metalanguage associated with the planned learning,
specifically in relation to teaching reading and writing, is discussed, and recent
UHVHDUFK DQG LWV LPSOLFDWLRQV IRU WDVN GHVLJQ DQG ERWK WHDFKHUV¶ DQG VWXGHQWV
metacognition is reported.
K e ywords: Explicit teaching, metalanguage, metacognition, reading, writing, TESOL
27
F ocussing on P ractical P roficiency: Value-adding in Policy Design
and C urriculum with the IS LP R ®
D. E. Ingram, AM
Director,
ISLPR Language Services Pty Ltd,
9 Gowrie Street,
Mt Gravatt, Queensland, 4122,
Australia.
Email: [email protected]
or
[email protected]
ABS T R A C T
This paper discusses the notion of practical proficiency and the nature of the
International Second Language Proficiency Ratings (ISLPR® ), which is designed to
measure it. The ISLPR is a long-established proficiency scale, which is applied in a
WHVWLQJ SURFHGXUH HPSKDVLVLQJ UHDOLVWLF XVH RI WKH ODQJXDJH DQG WKH FDQGLGDWH¶V
practical ability. The scale describes the development of proficiency from zero to
native-like. The test is interview-based and adaptive and so can be readily used to
assess general proficiency, academic proficiency and proficiency in specified
vocational or other special purpose contexts. As a scale reflecting the development of
a second or foreign language from zero to native-like, it has a major contribution to
make to the specification of goals in such contexts as language policy and curriculum
development and specification and teacher standards. Since it traces the development
of a second or foreign language in this way, it is also useful in the context of
curriculum development and methodology since it indicates what a learner can do at
any particular level and what types of activities may be most appropriate as the teacher
plans DFWLYLWLHV WRHQFRXUDJH WKHOHDUQHU¶V RQ-going language development .
28
G E TP AW and F unday wi th L ATP AW Cl oud Technol ogy
for Language Teachi ng, Lear ni ng and Assessment
1 Yuangshan
Chuang, 2Hsin-Tsu Chuang, and 3Jie-kuo Chu
Professor, Tajen University, 2Instructor, National Taipei
University of Technology, and 3Director, General Education of Takming
University of Science and Technology
1 Distinguished
Abst r act
Since band width and database have increased tremendously recently, cloud
technology has been gathering momentum for applications of different sectors such as
governmental institutes, universities, and businesses. Offering quality Internet services
has become an essential index in measuring the performance of a university. Since
National Taiwan University entered the Web 100 University Club (Chinatimes, 2007),
web applications have grown more and more important and universities have been
devoting more resources to developing and applying online services in which language
instruction and testing have rendered great results, especially in English. Now National
Taiwan University has ranked the best web university in Asia, online language
instruction and testing are sure to be regarded as even more important than before.
GETPAW was initiated and funded by the Ministry of Education. It applied
LATPAW cloud technology and the Common European Framework, the latter of
which was created and integrated into the education system by the Council of Europe,
to create online English tests. GETPAW has created a reciprocal table with the
&RPPRQ (XURSHDQ )UDPHZRUN DQG KDG LW SXEOLVKHG DW 52&0(/,$¶V ZHE VLWH ZKLFK
is required by the Ministry of Education. The Common European Framework is also
already adopted by international English tests such as TOEFL, TOEIC, and Cambridge
English Tests. Since the I-Shou University, the University of North Carolina, the
University of Southern Queensland and the City University of Hong Kong have been
regarding Internet application very essential for enhancing English instruction and
internationalization, the University of North Carolina was the first university outside
Taiwan that used GETPAW, the I-Shou University started to use GETPAW for their
students and employees in 2008, and both the University of Southern Queensland and
the City University of Hong Kong began to use GETPAW in 2009. I-Shou University
in Kaohsiung, Taiwan has sent more than 32,000 students and employees in the past
five years to take GETPAW tests. On August 27 and 28, there were 1745 incoming
Freshmen of Takming University in Taipei, Taiwan taking GETPAW tests and 725 of
them (41.55%) passed CEF A2 tests. This study adopted the quantitative and
qualitative approaches. The results showed that GETPAW is a good tool for measuring
students' English abilities. The study also found that these universities have the
capability to offer a powerful and reliable platform for GETPAW. Moreover, Funday
online multimedia English instruction materials based on the Common European
Framework have been also successfully adopted by some 36 universities and
companies. The study suggests that GETPAW and Funday with LATPAW cloud
technology, integrating the Internet and the Common European Framework, are a
worthy and applicable approach to English instruction and assessment.
Key Words: GETPAW, Funday, LATPAW, cloud technology, Common European
Framework, English instruction and assessment.
29
The Deep Approach to World Languages and Cultures
Dr. F rancois Victor Tochon
Vice-President, APAMALL
Professor, Curriculu m and Instruction
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Keynote Presentation made at the Middle East Language Develop ment Institute and the International
S ociety for Leadership in Pedagogies and Learning
³,PSURYLQJ7(62/ SHGDJRJLHVOHDUQLQJDQGDVVHVVPHQW´
S epte mber 23-24, 2013
Foreign Language Education is handicapped by paradoxes that prevent it from furthering its mission.
Methods are often taught without epistemology, students tend to communicate without contents.
Teaching of cultures is often sanitized and stereotyped. Teacher ed ucators professionalize student
teachers who rarely understand their own cultural identity, potential foreignness and otherness. The way
to deal with these contradictions is to articulate new priorities and reconceptualize the field as the
inescapable branch of learning for world peace and social justice. Deep content -based learning places
the emphasis on the quality of professional development within the accomplishment of projects.
Motivation research demonstrates that learning autonomy leads to better and deeper learning. The deep
learning process gives rise to a variety of outcomes that cannot always be fully anticipated. Therefore,
deep evaluation is open and focuses on creative work. Deep content -based learning places the emphasis
on the quality of the acquisition process and proficiency development within the accomplishment of
projects. Professor Tochon offers a new perspective on educative practice, which targets
transdisciplinary aims and value creation. He proposes a new perspective on ways of organizing
classroom practice that are genuine to seasoned language teachers.
Presenter : Dr. Fr ançois Victor Tochon is a Professor in the Department of Curriculum & Instruction
at the University of Wisconsin where he headed World Language Education for 6 years. He was born in
Geneva, Switzerland. He has a Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics/Curriculum & Instruction (Université
Laval) and a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology (Ottawa University), and received Honorary Doctorates
from two universities in Argentina and Peru. Prof. Tochon worked on intercultural issues and language
education policies, looking for new ways to organize language teaching and learning. In 2008, Prof.
Tochon was awarded grants from Spencer and Tubitak²National Science and Technology Foundation
of Turkey²to study ways to internationalize Foreign Language Education through electronic portfolios.
In 2009- KH UHFHLYHG DQ DZDUG WR FUHDWH UHVHDUFK DQG HYDOXDWH D ³'HHS $SSURDFK WR 7XUNLVK
/HDUQLQJDQG7HDFKLQJ´WKDWUHVSHFWVDSOXUDOLVWLFYLHZRI0LGG le-East cultures. With twenty-five books
and hundred forty articles and book chapters to his credit, Prof.Tochon has also been Visiting Professor
in several universities in Argentina, China, France, Spain, Turkey, Vietnam. He is currently published in
English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish, and Vietnamese, and forthcoming translations
are planned for Chinese. Among his books are: "The Foreign Self: Truth Telling as Educational Inquiry"
(Atwood); Tropics of Teaching: Productivity, Warfare, and Priesthood" at University of Toronto Press.
+LVDUWLFOH³7KH.H\7R*OREDO8QGHUVWDQGLQJ´SXEOLVKHGLQWKH5HYLHZRI(GXFDWLRQDO5HVHDUFK
received the 2010 Award of Best Review of Research from the American Educational Research
Association. This documentary review indicates that the growth of English internationally is in decline
and the world is opening to a variety of world languages.
30
The Effects of Semantic Mapping Strategy Instruction on Iranian ESP
Students' Vocabulary Learning
Akram Esmaeili1
MA. in TOEFL. Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University , Iran
Bahram Behin2
Assistant Professor. Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University , Iran
The present study aimed at investigating the effects of semantic mapping strategy instruction on
Iranian ESP students' vocabulary learning. To this aim, 60 students were asked to participate in
the study. In order to ensure group homogeneity in terms of vocabulary knowledge, the
participants were given a vocabulary test. Those who scored +/-1 SD took part in the study. The
participants were divided into two groups: one experimental group and one control group. The
experimental group received instruction on semantic mapping strategy for 5 sessions. But in the
control group students were instructed through conventional vocabulary activities without being
taught how to use semantic mapping strategy. At the end both experimental and control groups
were given a post test on vocabulary. The results of study indicate that there is a difference in
performance of the two groups;; the mean of scores of experimental group is higher than the mean
of score of control group. It is suggested that semantic mapping strategy can be used as one of the
possible ways of improving ESP students' vocabulary learning.
Keywords: semantic mapping strategy;; vocabulary learning;; ESP students
31
Critical Thinking and Use of Analyzing, Reasoning Strategy
in Reading Comprehension
Akram Esmaeili1
MA. in TOEFL. Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University , Iran
Farzad Salahshour 2
Assistant Professor. Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University , Iran
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between EFL learners' critical thinking
ability and their use of analyzing, reasoning strategy in reading comprehension. To this aim, 60
undergraduate students at Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University were asked to take part in the
study. To ensure group homogeneity the participants were given a proficiency test (TOEFL);;
those who scored +/-1 SD qualified the objectives of the study. The participants were given a
critical thinking ability test in order to determine their critical thinking level, and an analyzing
reasoning strategy inventory (derived from SILL by Oxford, 1990) to demonstrate their
preference to use these strategies in reading comprehension. The date obtained were analyzed
through SPSS and the Pearson r formula was applied to the data in order to determine whether
learners who possessed high levels of critical thinking ability used analyzing reasoning strategy
more than those who were perceived to lack critical thinking skills. The findings of the study show
that there is a positive correlation between EFL learners' critical thinking ability and their use of
analyzing reasoning strategy in reading comprehension.
Keywords: critical thinking ability;; analyzing/reasoning strategy;; reading comprehension
32
Academic Writing Experience of Iranian Postgraduate
Students
Akram Esmaeili1
MA. in TOEFL. Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University , Iran
Farzad Salahshour2
Assistant Professor. Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University , Iran
The present study aimed at investigating the kind of writing instruction which Iranian
postgraduate students have received in their writing courses. To achieve this goal, 30 postgraduate
students were asked to participate in the study. The study applied quantitative and qualitative data
collection methods. The participants responded to a questionnaire and took part in an interview.
Analysis of data indicates that participants received a surface level instruction with focus on
grammar, vocabulary, mechanics, and paragraph level form. It is also found that university writing
courses do not teach academic writing skills such as organization of research papers, synthesizing
information from different reading sources, producing coherent texts. Students do not receive
instruction on how to evaluate and synthesize the words and ideas of others in order to develop
their own academic voices. It is suggested that university writing courses should familiarize
students with rhetorical, organizational, and linguistic features of academic writing and focus on
macro level features of academic writing as well as the paragraph-level and sentence-level aspects
of expressing ideas in a foreign language.
Keywords: critical thinking ability;; analyzing/reasoning strategy;; reading comprehension
33
Beyond retention: How to Enhance oral Feedback Retention
within Students
Ali Soyoof1
Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
$OL*KDQD·DW2
Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
Mohammad Jokar 3
Shiraz University
8QGRXEWHGO\ WKH LQYHVWLJDWLRQ IRU HQKDQFLQJ VWXGHQWV· IHHGEDFN UHWHQWLRQ LV RQH RI WKH PRVW
fundamental issues in language teaching. In effect, quite a few colleges in America invest
substantial resources in programs designated to meet this end. Feedback is deemed as an essential
part of effective learning. It helps students understand the subject of study and gives them a clear
guidance on how to improve their learning. Bellonet all (1991) maintained that academic feedback
is much more strongly rHOHYDQW WR VWXGHQWV·DWWDLQPHQWUDWKHU WKDQDQ\ RWKHU VRUW RIEHKDYLRU E\
WHDFKHUV)HHGEDFNFDQLPSURYHVWXGHQWV·FRQILGHQFHVHOI-awareness and enthusiasm for learning.
Students do not begin a college course with the intention of dropping out before the end of a
semester, yet many do. Feedback retention contributes to motivation within learners and
encourages them to continue their studies. This study aims to uncover what strategies can
facilitate feedback retention among Iranian EFL language students. To this end 5 Iranian EFL
language teachers and 5 students were interviewed. After analyzing the data a questionnaire was
constructed, then questionnaire was administered to 110 language teachers and 110 language
learners to find out which strategies can more effectively bring about feedback retention.
Keywords: Oral corrective feedback, Feedback retention, Motivation
34
Videogame: A Vogue for Expanding Second language
OHDUQHUV·.QRZOHGJHRI9RFDEXODU\
Ali Soyoof1
Islamic Azad University, Shiraz,, Iran
Mohammad Jokar 2
Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Sara Sedighi3
Islamic Azad University, Shiraz,, Iran
Vocabulary is deemed as one of the most integral constituents of language. It is common
knowledge that the more vocabulary one knows, the better one can express oneself. Students
mostly express their unwillingness to learn vocabularies because it is deemed as a laborious task.
9LGHRJDPH LV UHJDUGHG DV RQH RI WKH WRROV ZLWK ZKLFK RQH FDQ DXJPHQW RQH·V UHSHUWRLUH RI
vocabulary. Players, through videogames, are introduced to contexts and tasks for the
accomplishment of which learning a bulk of new vocabularies is required. The alluring content of
videogames motivates the players to learn a lot of vocabularies to accomplish each level of a game.
This study aims to eOLFLW WKH OHDUQHUV·SHUFHSWLRQRIZKHWKHUYLGHRJDPHSOD\VDQ\FUXFLDOUROHLQ
H[SDQGLQJ OHDUQHUV· UHSHUWRLUH RI YRFDEXODU\ 7R REWDLQ WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ VHYHQ ,UDQLDQ ()/
learners who had the experience of playing videogames were interviewed. The analysis of the data
LQGLFDWHVWKDWYLGHRJDPHKDVDQLQWHJUDOUROHLQH[WHQGLQJOHDUQHUV·NQRZOHGJHRIYRFDEXODU\
Keywords: Videogame, Vocabulary expansion,
35
Beyond motivation: How to incubate intrinsic motivation
among Iranian EFL learners
Ali Soyoof 1
Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
Mohammad Jokar2
Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Sara Sedighi3
Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
Motivation is deemed as one of the most influential factors that hugely contribute to human learning.
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as two categories of motivation have been extensively researched.
Between these two types of motivation, intrinsically motivated activity is defined as the one for which there
is no external reward except the activity itself (Deci, 1975). A bulk of research has investigated the
HIIHFWLYHQHVV RI HLWKHU RI WKHVH WZR W\SHV RI PRWLYDWLRQ LQ OHDUQHUV· VXFFHVV GXULQJ WKH WKRUQ\ WDVN RI
learning another language. It is claimed that intrinsically motivated behavior would lead to better learning
outcomes. Moreover, Moslow (1970) advocated the superiority of intrinsic motivation over its extrinsic
counterpart. Now that the importance and effectiveness of intrinsic motivation have been extensively
reported in various lines of studies, this study aims to unravel what factors help language practitioners to,
metaphorically speaking, incubate the eggs of intrinsic motivation within learners. To answer the
aforementioned question, ten Iranian EFL language teachers were interviewed. After transcription and
analysis of data, a questionnaire was constructed and then, administered to 115 EFL language teachers. The
internal consistency of the questionnaire was calculated by Cronbach Alpha.
Keywords: Intrinsic motivation, Extrinsic motivation,
36
Toward Critical thinking: How to rekindle the fifth skill
Ali Soyoof1
Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
Mohammad Jokar 2
Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Traditionally, language learning encompasses learning four language skills, namely, listening,
speaking, reading and writing, however, recently critical thinking has been introduced as a
potential language skill that needs to be developed within learners. This demanding task needs to
be carefully carried out by language teachers. Students whose critical thinking is rekindled by their
WHDFKHUV·DUHFDSDEOHRIORRNLQJDWWKLQJVGLIIHUHQWO\7HDFKHUDGYRFDWLQJWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKH
VRFDOOHG¶ILIWKVNLOOV·ZLWKLQOHDUQHUVDOORZWKHPWRH[SUHVVWKHLURSLQLRQVIUHHO\ZLWKLQWKHFRQWH[W
of the classroom. Unfortunately, there are some language teachers who evade the responsibility of
GHYHORSLQJ VWXGHQWV· FULWLFDO WKLQNLQJ LQ OLJKW RI WKHLU LJQRUDQFH DERXW LWV VWUDWHJLHV 7KLV VWXG\
investigates to whether Iranian language teachers advocate developing critical thinking within
learners, and what strategies they use to develop this skill. To this end, 8 Iranian EFL teachers
were interviewed after analyzing the transcript a questionnaire was constructed. Its internal
reliability was calculated by using Cronbach Alpha. Then, it was administered to 107 Iranian EFL
teachers.
Keywords: Critical thinking, Fifth skill, Cronbach Alpha
37
Adopting a Broader Perspective on Classroom Practice:
,QVSHFWLQJWKH5HODWLRQVKLSDPRQJ()//HDUQHUV·&ULWLFDO
Thinking, Creativity, and Autonomy
Mania Nosratinia 1
Islamic Azad University at Central Tehran, Iran
Alireza Zaker 2
Islamic Azad University at Central Tehran, Iran
The mental attributes are enormously influential where we seek to achieve the crème de la crème
out of the classroom practice (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). The thrust of this study was to
LQYHVWLJDWH WKH UHODWLRQVKLS DPRQJ ()/ OHDUQHUV· &UHDWLYLW\ &5 &ULWLFDO 7KLQNLQJ &7 DQG
Autonomy (AU). To this end, a group of 182 male and female EFL learners were randomly
selected and were given three questionnaires: a questionnaire of AU by Spratt, Humphreys, and
&KDQDTXHVWLRQQDLUHRI&5E\2·1HLO$EHGLDQG6SLHOEHUJHUDQGDTXHVWLRQQDLUH
of CT by Honey (2000). The relationship among the variables was invesWLJDWHGXVLQJ3HDUVRQ·V
correlation coefficient. Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the
assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity. The results of this study indicated that
there is a significant and positive relatiRQVKLSEHWZHHQ()/OHDUQHUV·&5DQG$8r = 0.665, p <
0.05), CR and CT (r = 0.825, p < 0.05), and CT and AU (r = 0.736, p < 0.05). Considering AU as
the predicted variable of this study, it was confirmed that CT makes the strongest unique
contribution to explaining AU (Beta = 0.587, t = 6.627, p = 0.0005<0.05). Moreover, CT uniquely
explains 11 percent of the variance in AU.
Keywords: autonomy;; creativity;; critical thinking;; effective learning
38
Current Trends in Research on Mobile Phones in Language
Learning
Alireza Jalilifar 1
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
Amir Mashhadi 2
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
Mehran Memari 3
Farhangian University, Ahvaz, Iran
The present study aims at examining the major mobile wireless technologies, i.e., mobile phones
and the possibilities associated with them, currently in use in the educational domains with an
emphasis on language teaching and learning practices. Accordingly, some of the most typical
studies using different functions of mobile phones such as mail, multimedia capabilities, Wireless
Application Protocol (WAP) and SMS in their m-learning practices are elaborated. Pedagogical
implications and considerations in the integration of mobile technologies in language-related
practices are considered as well. Potential limitations and barriers to m-learning undertakings are
also reported. Finally, in order to further understand where mobile learning as the cutting edge of
education currently stands, a status quo of mobile learning is considered.
Keywords: mobile wireless phone;; mobile learning;; mobile assisted language learning;;vocabulary
learning
39
The Effect of Extroversion/Introversion and Textual Enhancement
Technique on Grammar Learning of EFL Learners
Sedigheh Vahdat 1
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
Asieh Pasideh 2
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
A glance at arguments laid against structural approaches to language teaching;; like GTM and
Audiolingualism, one can infer that teaching grammar explicitly has fallen out of favor because of
its inadequacy in motivating the learners to internalize and apply grammatical rules in their
communication. Therefore, focus on form was suggested by ELT practitioners (Long, 1991) in
order to internalize grammar communicatively. Among the options through which focus on form
can be accomplished is textual enhancement technique. This study aimed at investigating the
effectiveness of textual enhancement technique on internalizing grammar, and the role of
extroversion/introversion in this effectiveness. The participants in this study were 60 female
intermediate EFL learners at Bushehr Zaban Sara Institute. The instruments used in this study
ZHUH72()/DFWXDOWHVW(\VHQN·VSHUVRQDOLW\LQYHQWRU\DQGDJUDPPDWLFDODFKLHYHPHQWWHst, and
the materials were: Top notch 2 and Iran Daily newspaper. The participants were divided into two
classes randomly (class A and class B), both classes underwent formal instruction of grammar.
However, class A internalized grammar through textual enhancement technique by highlighting
the articles in front page of Iran Daily newspaper, and class B internalized grammar through usual
exercises. Finally, the achievement test of grammar was administered to both classes. The data
gathered from the achievement test was analyzed by an independent sample t-test. The results of
the achievement test revealed that participants in class A outperformed those in class B.
Furthermore, the results obtained from class A indicated that although both the introverts and
extroverts benefited from this technique, however, the extroverts benefited more from it. The
results derived from class B showed that usual exercises were more beneficial for the introverts in
internalizing grammar.
Keywords: Textual Enhancement Technique, Focus on Form, Extroverts/Introverts.
40
How American EFL/ESL Teachers Assess Iranian EFL Learners'
Pragmatic Productions: The Speech Act of Compliment
Minoo Alemi 1
Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Zohreh Eslami Rasekh 2
Texas A & M University, US
Atefeh Rezanejad 3
Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Pragmatic assessment and consistency in rating are among the subject matters which are still in
need of more in-depth investigations. The significance of the issue is highlighted when
remembering that inconsistency in ratings would surely damage the test fairness issue in
assessment and lead to much diversity in ratings. Our purpose was observing American EFL/ESL
WHDFKHUV· FULWHULD DQG WKHLU YDULDELOLW\ EDVHG RQ WKH WHDFKHUV· JHQGHU and teaching experience
regarding the speech act of compliment. The instrument utilized in this study was WDCTs
administered to sixty American EFL/ESL teachers. The data was analyzed through descriptive
statistics, t-tests and ANOVA. The results showed that American raters considered nine macro
FULWHULD ZKHQ UDWLQJ ,UDQLDQ ()/ OHDUQHUV· SUDJPDWLF SURGXFWLRQV UHJDUGLQJ WKH VSHHFK DFW RI
compliment. They include: ´6WUDWHJ\ XVH µ ´)HHOLQJ FRQVLGHUDWLRQV µ ´3ROLWHQHVV
µ ´,QWHUORFXWRUV· UHODWLRQVKLSV µ ´/LQJXLVWLF DFFXUDF\ µ ´6LQFHULW\ µ
´$XWKHQWLFLW\µ´)OXHQF\µDQG´&RQWH[WXDOLVVXHV Furthermore, the inter-rater
reliability index was equal to .39 (p < .05) which depicts a significant correlation in the ratings of
the teachers. Moreover, the results of the t-test and one-ZD\$129$LQGLFDWHGWKDWWKHUDWHUV·
JHQGHU DQG WHDFKLQJ H[SHULHQFH GLGQ·W FDXVH DQ\ VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFH LQ WKHLU UDWLQJV )LQDOO\LW
was concluded that based on the observed consistency in the ratings, the criteria could be used as
a scaffold for non-native teachers. The results further have important implications for Iranian
EFL teacher educators who are seeking for valid, reliable, authentic, and novel sources of
information to be included in EFL teacher education courses.
Keywords: Pragmatic assessment;; Rating;; Speech act;; Native American EFL/ESL teachers;;
Compliment
41
A Comparative Study of Ideational Grammatical Metaphor in Health
and Political Texts of English Newspapers
FahimehTabrizi1
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran
Nesa Nabifar 2
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran
Saeideh Ahangari 3
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran
Newspapers, as their name suggests, provide us w ith news. With the spread of education, the
popularity and importance of newspapers have increased by leaps and bounds. Everybody today
wants to read a newspaper. The language of mainstream newspapers is formal and special English
so, there is no surprise that the grammatical metaphor identification procedure can be obviously
applied to newspaper text. Systemic functional grammar constructs a grammar for the purpose of
text analysis to investigate how grammar is used as a means of making meaning. Grammatical
metaphor is one of the language phenomena introduced by Halliday (2004) in the framework of
functional grammar. The present work focuses on the application of Hallidayianmetafunctional
framework in both political and health texts of English newspapers. The analysis of data was
conducted through a description of English newspaper texts, based on ideational grammatical
metaphor. To this end, the researcher conducted some statistics to this strand of meaning,
including frequency and percentage of nominalization type of ideational grammatical metaphor in
both genres. Finally, two genres of English newspapers were compared statistically to show in
what respect they are significantly different or similar. The obtained results indicate that both
genres of each English newspapers bear more similarities than differences in terms of using the
nominalization of ideational grammatical metaphor. In other words, while indicating genre
differences between English newspapers, the study proves their functional similarities in using the
material process types more than other process types to convey meaning.
Keywords: Systemic Functional Linguistics, Ideational Grammatical Metaphor, Nominalization,
Health and Political Texts.
42
The Analysis of Textual Meta function (in terms of unmarked
and marked topical themes) of Human Rights Discourse: In the
case of Amnesty International and British Broadcasting Company
Zohreh Seifoori
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Fariba Khabbaz Azar
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Human rights issues are very important today and reports on such issues are presumed to
exert influence on the public opinion. Such reports form part of news genres which focus on
the rec ent events taking place through the world. The aim of the present study was to
compare human rights reports by International Amnesty (IA) and British Broadcasting
&RPSDQ\ %%& LQ WHUPV RI +DOOLGD\·V 6\VWHPLF )XQFWLRQDO /LQJXLVWLFV6)/ 7R WKLV
end, the researcher randomly selected sixty reports,30 from IA and 30 from BBCX on-­line
reports sites within a time span of a year from January 2012 to December 2012.The reports
were divided into constituent clauses and each of the clauses were line-­numbered in order to
identify clause boundaries. The identified clauses were further analyzed into theme and
rheme. Then, the total number of un marked topical themes, and marked topical themes in
each report were calculated. The research data were changed into interval values and, thus,
the means of the equated values of the frequencies were estimated via two independent
samples t-­test. %DVHGRQWKHUHVXOWVRIWKH/HYHQH·VWHVWIRUHTXDOLW\RIYDULDQFHVLWFDQ
be concluded that there was no significant difference between the two reports in
terms of unmarked topical theme. With regard to marked topical theme, the results
revealed that marked themes are more frequently used themes in AI news reports
than in BBC news reports.
Key words: Systemic Functional Grammar, Text, Textual metafunction, Theme,
Rheme.
43
The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Multiple
Intelligences and their Reading Comprehension Ability
FaribaMovlanzadeh1
Elm-o-Fan University
In the new age, in regard to human success in education in the globalizing world, one can consider
English proficiency and individual differences as two important issues. In EFL settings, reading
skill plays an important role in education. It seems that using Multiple Intelligences Theory in EFL
classes which values individual differences by tapping different intelligences, can be rewarding. As
such, the present study aimed at investigating the strength of the relationship between Iranian
VHQLRU (QJOLVK PDMRUV· 0XOWLSOH ,QWHOOLJHQFHV DQG WKHLU UHDGLQJFRPSUHKHQVLRQDELOLW\LQ(QJOLVK
Therefore, after randomly selecting a sample of 159 Iranian senior English majors, and by using
two instruments including Persian Version of MIDAS Adults (Shearer, 1996) and IELTS
Academic Reading Section (2007), the researcher attempted the survey. On the basis of Pearson
correlation coefficients, the findings of the study revealed that four types of intelligences, namely
Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Linguistic, and Spatial had statistically significant correlation (p <
ZLWK VXEMHFWV· UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ $OVR RQ WKH EDVLV RI PXltiple regression through
stepwise method, the results showed that Intrapersonal Intelligence (R = .21;; p = .007 < .05) is
WKHPRVWVLJQLILFDQWSUHGLFWRURIWKHSDUWLFLSDQWV·UHDGLQJFRPSUHKHQVLRQDELOLW\7KHILQGLQJVDUH
context-based and not universal.
Keywords: Multiple Intelligences Theory, English Reading Comprehension, and MIDAS
44
Is collaborative learning a useful technique in enhancing the
reading comprehension and critical thinking of Iranian EFL
learners?
Fatemeh Sadraeimanesh MA, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Iran Samaneh Azimbeyk MA, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Iran Abstract: Collaborative learning as a way of sharing ideas and learning from one another has been
the target of investigation over the past two decades. In addition, thinking as a remarkable process
in everyday life, helps people solve their problems, make decisions, and achieve the goals that
makes their life purposeful. Given these points above, the present study attempted to discover the
impact of collaborative learning on the reading comprehension and critical thinking of Iranian
EFL learners. To achieve this goal, 30 learners at intermediate level were selected based on
convenient sampling. The administration of the PET enabled the researchers to select 30 students
whose scores on language proficiency fell within one standard deviation above and below the
mean. Subsequently, the two homogeneous groups were randomly assigned to a control and an
experimental group. In the experimental group, collaborative learning was used as a main strategy
of the learning whereas the control group followed the traditional reading procedures. The
VWDWLVWLFDO DQDO\VLV RI WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV· VFRUHV RQ WKH UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ DQG +RQH\·VFULWLFDO
thinking questionnaire (2005) indicated that collaborative learning had a significant impact on the
reading comprehension and critical thinking ability of the learners.
Key Terms: Reading Comprehension, Critical Thinking, Collaborative Learning, Language
proficiency.
45
Effects of Recasts and Elicitations, in Dyadic Interaction on Iranian
EFL Learners' Delayed Error Corrections
Fariba Salimi 1
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran
Mahnaz Saiedi 2
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran
This study examined the role of interactional feedback including recasts and elicitations and the
subsequent effects of these feedback types on the correction of the targeted forms two weeks
after interaction. Thirty intermediate Iranian EFL learners participated in this study. A
standardized test named pet was used in order to make sure that the participants were
homogeneous in terms of their writing and speaking skills. Each learner participated in task-based
interactions with the teacher and received various forms of interactional feedback, including
recasts and elicitations, on erroneous utterances. The interactions were conducted outside the
classroom, and outside of class time, in individual sessions in a small room that was equipped with
an audio-recorder. The task was a picture-sequencing task in which the learner viewed six
randomly ordered drawings, each depicting a particular scene. The learners had to first sort the
pictures into a sequence that they believed represented a coherent event. After completing the
ordering, they were asked to provide a written description of the event that the pictures
represented. When these written descriptions completed, they were collected. Then the learners
described their stories orally to the teacher and received recast or elicitation as two types of
feedback. Each dyadic interaction session took about 30 minutes. Two weeks after the interaction,
the original pre-interaction written description was given back to each learner and the learner was
asked to review it and make any changes or corrections possible based on any possible feedback
received during interaction. The effects of feedback were measured through individualized
learner-specific testing in which learners were assessed on their ability to identify and correct, after
interaction, the erroneous forms for which they had received feedback during interaction. Based
on the results of these analyses, learners were more likely to correct successfully the errors that
had received recasts than those that had received elicitations.
Keywords: Error, feedback, interactional feedback, corrective feedback, elicitations, recasts.
46
Approaches and procedures for teaching grammar
Fatemeh Alinezhad Rad
Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad
University of Arak
[email protected]
Fatemeh Azizmohamadi, Ph.D. in literature
Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad
University of Arak
[email protected]
Teaching grammar has been regarded as crucial to the ability to use language. In the early parts of
the twentieth century, grammar teaching formed an essential part of language instruction, so much
so that other aspects of language learning were either ignored or downplayed. In the early 1970
the grammatical system of the language was considered as a one of communicative competence.
During this period, grammar teaching became less prominent but in recent years grammar
teaching has regained its rightful place in the language curriculum. People now agree that grammar
is too important to be ignored, and that without a good knowledge of grammar, language
development will be constrained. For this reason, this article introduces explicit / implicit
knowledge, deductive/inductive approaches procedure for teaching grammar. This article
developed this procedure, which incorporates deductive and inductive approaches for teaching
grammar.
KEYWORDS: explicit / implicit knowledge, deductive/inductive approaches, English grammar,
teaching procedures.
47
Common E rrors of Subject-Ve rb Agreement
in Writing of E F L Students
Fatemeh Alinezhad Rad
Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad
University of Arak
[email protected]
Mojtaba Maghsoudi, Ph. D. in TEFL
Farhangian university, Arak
[email protected]
This research analysis errors on subject-verb agreement in the writing of EFL students in Arak
Azad University. Thirty junior (English language studies) students from many cities which are
studied in Azad university of Arak participated in the study. The study examined errors in four
types of subject-verb agreements of person and number and errors of tense and omitting some
element of sentence. Two various topics were given to students to write compositions (money and
marriage) and the papers were analyzed to indentify the problems in written grammatically correct
subject-verb agreement by the students. The results of the study show that the majority of the
students commit errors in subject-verb agreement especially in subject-verb agreement of person.
Keywords: error analysis, subject-verb agreement, essay writing, grammar in ESL, second
language learners.
48
The difference between ESL and EFL learners in learning grammar of
an additional language
Mojtaba Maghsoudi 1
Ph.D. in TEFL, Farhangian University, Iran(Shahid Bahonar Branch, Arak)([email protected])
Fatemeh Samadi
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak
Branch(Email:[email protected])
Seyed Hassan Talebi 3
P.H.D. in T E FL ,University of Mazandaran, Iran([email protected])
Fatemeh Azizmohammadi
Ph.D. in English literature, Department of English literature,Islamic Azad university,Arak,Iran. Email:[email protected]
The acquisition of more than two language systems leads to the development of new skills such as
learning how to learn it also facilitates subsequent additional language acquisition as learners use
metalinguistic awareness to explore the cognitive and linguistic mechanisms underlying language.
In the present study by employing the Two-way ANOVA, results indicated that Indian bilingual
students performed significantly better than Iranian bilingual students in General English
Proficiency and Grammatical Judgment Test. It further indicated that the correlation effect
between the countries and gender was significant in General English Proficiency Test, while it was
non-significant in Grammatical Judgment Test.
Keywords: bilingualism;; third language learning;; second language;; foreign language.
49
Language Learning Strategies, Gender and Proficiency Level
Fereshteh Khaffafi Azar
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran
Mahnaz Saeidi
Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran
New trends in SLA attribute a great attention to different variables such as language learning
strategies along which the role of gender and language proficiency are considered important as
well. Accordingly, the present study investigated the role of gender and proficiency level on the
use of learning strategies by English language learners. A sample of 200 Iranian EFL learners who
were all English language learners at different language institutes participated in this study. Three
instruments, the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), KET and TOEFL were used
to collect data. The data analysis, through descriptive statistics showed that female learners used
strategies more frequently than male learners however, the results of independent samples t-test
revealed no significant difference between male and female learners in their overall strategy use.
Further, the study found that beginner and advanced learners tend to use different strategies
though these differences were only significant in the use of individual strategies and subcategories
and not in overall strategy use. The findings of the current study suggest that the better
understanding of language learning strategies for English teachers can help students to be more
successful and autonomous language learners.
Keywords: language learning strategies, proficiency level, EFL context.
50
Comparison of effect of Pen-and-Paper and Blogging on the Essay
writing Performance of Iranian Graduate Students
Hajar Kashani
University Putra Malaysia (UPM)
Rosnaini bt Mahmud
University Putra Malaysia (UPM)
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different tools namely pan-and-paper
as a conventional tool in contrast to blogging which is an online tool on essay writing
performance in terms of content, organization, language use, vocabulary and mechanics. Sixty four
Iranian graduate students of University Putra Malaysia (UPM) participated in this study. A true
experimental design was applied in which they were given a pretest and a posttest (TOEFL essay
topics) prior and after the treatment. The participants wrote six essays during eight weeks of the
treatment. Their pre and posttests were analyzed by two raters based on ESL Composition Profile
(Jacobs, Zinkgraf, Wormuth, Hartifel and Hughey, 1981). The results revealed that both groups
improved in their overall writing performance and in five writing categories namely content,
organization, language use, vocabulary, and mechanics from pretest to posttest;; however, there
ZDVQRVLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQWZRJURXSV·SRVWWHVWPHDQVFRUHVH[FHSWLQFRQWHQWFDWHJRU\
in which the blogging group outperformed the pen-and-paper group. It can be implicated that
HVVD\ ZULWLQJ HQKDQFHV WKH XQLYHUVLW\ VWXGHQWV· ZULWLQJ SHUIRUPDQFH ZLWKERWKFRQYHQWLRQDODQG
technology-based tools.
51
On the Relationship Between Multiple Intelligences, Field
(In)dependence, and Reading Performance
Mahmood Hashemian
Shahrekord University
Maryam Adibpour
Shahrekord University
*HWWLQJ LQVLJKWV LQWR / OHDUQHUV· LQGLYLGXDO GLIIHUHQFHV DQG WKHLU UHODWLRQVKLS ZLWK /
performance makes teacheUV EHWWHU XQGHUVWDQG WKHLU OHDUQHUV· VWUHQJWKVZHDNQHVVHV LQ ODQJXDJH
learning and guide them more efficiently, as well as providing effective teaching to all L2 learners.
This study aimed at investigating the (possible) relationship between Iranian L2 leaUQHUV·PXOWLSOH
intelligences (MI) profile, field (in)dependence (FI/FD), and reading performance. Participants
were 42 TEFL undergraduates. To measure their degree of FI/FD and MI scores, GEFT and
0F.HQ]LH·V 0, ,QYHQWRU\ ZHUH XVHG UHVSHFWLYHO\ $Qd, their reading performance was
assessed through the Task-Based Reading Test (Salmani-Nodoushan, 2003) which measures
performance on 5 reading tasks of true-false, sentence-FRPSOHWLRQRXWOLQLQJHOLFLWDWLRQRIZULWHU·V
view, and scanning. To find the (poVVLEOH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV· LQGLYLGXDO
intelligences, FI/FD, and reading performance, Pearson product-moment correlation was
FRQGXFWHG 5HVXOWV UHYHDOHG ILUVW WKHUH ZDV QR VLJQLILFDQW UHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQWKHSDUWLFLSDQWV·
MI and their overall reading performance. Second, there was a significant positive correlation
between intrapersonal intelligence and performance on the scanning task. Third, there was no
significant relationship between FI/FD and overall reading performance. Finally, a significant
positive correlation was found between FI/FD and performance on the outlining task.
Pedagogical implications for L2 teaching and learning are discussed in the paper.
52
Iranian E F L lea rne rs: the effect of exposure to satellite
television
Mohsen Jannejad
Shahid Chamran university of Ahvaz
Khodayar Mehrabi
Shahid Chamran university of Ahvaz
Seyyed Reza Mousavinia
Shahid Chamran university of Ahvaz
Like other areas of second language learning, input is a necessary condition for developing L2
pragmatic knowledge, and input frequency plays and important role in pragmatics (Kasper &
Roever, 2005). However, in foreign language contexts, opportunities for language learners to face
authentic pragmatic input and chances for interaction outside the classroom are scarce. Different
researchers support the usefulness of audiovisual material as a valuable source that can present
learners with appropriate input. One such source of input in Iranian context is programs received
form satellite televisions. This study explores the effect of exposure to satellite television on the
realization patterns of apology strategies by Iranian EFL learners. The participants were 200
Iranian EFL learners majoring in English language and literature. They were assigned to two
groups based on their exposure to satellite television. The data was collected using a Discourse
Completion Questionnaire. The data was categorized and coded according to the Olshtain and
Cohen (1983) as well as the Blum-Kulka et al. (1989) taxonomies. Results indicated that both
groups used relatively the same set of apology strategies, yet with significantly different
frequencies. In addition, a similar trend of realizing apology strategies was followed across the two
groups.
Key Terms: L2 Pragmatic Competence, Discourse Completion Questionnaire, Apology
Strategies, Satellite Television.
53
The Cross-Cultural Analysis of Metadiscourse Markers across English,
Persian, Arabic, and French Research Articles
M ohse n M ahdavi
M.A. in TEFL
Chabahar Maritime University
M ohammad M ahdi Sharifi
Ph.D. student of TEFL
Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran
The present study aimed at establishing points of similarities and differences across English,
Persian, French, and Arabic considered, by most scholars, as the carriers of their respective
cultures in the use of metadiscourse resources in academic research articles. To this end, a corpus
of 80 Results and Discussion research article sections written by native and non-native speakers of
the above-mentioned languages constituted the focal points of the study. Hyland's (2004) model
of metadiscourse resources analysis was the checklist against which the corpus were vigorously
investigated. Barlow's (2003) word concordancing software entitled The Mono Conc. Pro version
2.2 was utilized to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the data in terms of the forms,
frequency, and distributions of metadiscourse markers in the articles randomly extracted from
some high-impact and scholarly journals across the world. The results revealed that there were
some substantial differences in the conventions of academic writing parameterized across the
languages, though the resources served their intra-linguistically similar purposes of interactively
and interactionally signaling discourse. The present study has some significant implications for the
pedagogical contexts of situation and culture.
Keywords: Metadiscourse, Interactive Markers, Interactional Markers, Inter-linguistic Analysis,
Intra-linguistic Analysis.
54
T ES O L Success in the Pacific:
Combining curriculum development, data management, language
assessment, teache r training and student motivation.
Ms Maria Doyle
Phase I Senior ESL Education Manager, Kiribati Institute of Technology/ TVET
Sector Strengthening Project, Kiribati
Mrs Tekeinang Morimai
ESL Language Advisor, Kiribati Institute of Technology, Kiribati
Mr Antoine Barnaart
Team Leader TVET Sector Strengthening Project, Kiribati
Kiribati is a small island nation located in the Central Pacific, made up of 32 atolls with a
combined population of 100,000 people. Currently AusAID supports a number of capacity
building programs;; including TVETSSP which is primarily focused on TVET development to
support labour mobility and economic growth. A key objective of the TVETSSP is to enable KIT,
the primary provider of TVET in Kiribati, to deliver training at Australian AVQF standards in
conjunction with TAFE South Australia, an Australian RTO. To achieve this goal, the staff and
students at KIT need English levels appropriate for this internationally recognised training and
assessment, up to and including Certificate IV. The first three years of the project has seen the
Institute develop EFL curriculum for both the staff and students of the Institute, from Certificate
I through to Certificate IV, implement a data management system for the curriculum, assessment
and resources, develop and implement policies for language assessment, implement a rigorous
teacher training program and develop strategies to build a strong, English speaking community on
campus. The success of this program is demonstrated by the continuous improvement shown by
the results of from regular ISLPR testing conducted by an independent testing authority from
Australia. The integration of curriculum development, data management, language assessment,
teacher training and techniques to enhance student motivation has created an opportunity for long
term, sustainable ESL outcomes, driven by the local counterparts and supported by their donor
partners and long term advisors.
Strands addressed:
1) Teacher training and assessment
2) Data management
3) Motivating EFL students
4) ISLPR and its implications for language education policy, syllabus design and
methodology
5) FacilitatiQJ 7(62/VWXGHQWV¶VSHDNLQJRSSRUWXQLWLHV
55
7KH,QWHUDFWLRQ EHWZHHQ/HDUQHU¶V 3HUVRQDOLW\ DQG(QJOLVK
L ea rning
Maryam Karimi
$ QXPEHU RI VWXGLHV KDYH H[DPLQHG WKH HIIHFWV RI SHUVRQDOLW\ WUDLWV RQ VWXGHQWV· DFDGHPLF
achievement in general, and on their second language learning in particular. But very few of them
have examined the relationship between personality traits of students and their learning style so
the aim of the study this research was to see whether students with different personality traits
(specifically, introvert and extrovert) exhibit different learning styles for English language
achievement at the high school level. The underlying hypothesis of the study was that introvert
learners might perform better in learning English as a foreign language than extrovert learners.
Ninety two female third grade students were selected in Arak high schools and were surveyed
using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). T-test for independent samples revealed no
statistically significant difference between the two groups. It can be concluded that introvert
learners do not perform better than extrovert learners in learning English as a foreign language.
Key words: Introvert;; Extrovert;; Learning English;; Personality.
56
The impact oIWHDFKHUV¶HPRWLRQDO LQWHOOLJHQFH RQFKRLFHRI
oral corrective feedbac k
Se ye de h M aryam M e raji
Department of foreign languages,Shiraz branch,Islamic Azad university,Shiraz,Iran
M ohammad Sadegh B aghe ri
Department of foreign languages,Shiraz branch,Islamic Azad university,Shiraz,Iran
Providing learners with feedback is one of the essential parts of teaching a second/foreign
language. Teachers use both explicit and implicit corrective feedback to help learners progress in
the process of language learning. Teachers, as the most reliable sources of information and
support for learners, and due to many personal and behavioral differences, may tend to use
different types of corrective feedback. This study intends to investigate the relationship between
WHDFKHUV·HPRWLRQDOTXRWLHQW(4DQGWKHGRPLQDQWW\SHRIRUDOFRUUHFWLYHIHHGEDFNH[SOLFLWYV
implicit) they use in their classes. To conduct the study, 18 teachers, teaching English in
intermediate and advanced levels, from three different language institutes in Shiraz are selected.
Petrides & Furnham's (2006) TEIQue-SF is used to measure their emotional intelligence and then
their classes are carefully observed. The type and the frequency of oral corrective feedback used
E\ HDFK WHDFKHU DUH UHFRUGHG DQG ILQDOO\ D FRPSDULVRQ UHJDUGLQJ WHDFKHUV· (4 VFRUH DQGWKHLU
dominant oral feedback is made.
The results of this study may help teachers, language institutes and teacher training centers to
provide a more complete teacher evaluation, classify the teachers regarding their EQ in addition to
their general language proficiency, assign them the appropriate level to teach and also train them
to provide the learners with the appropriate types of implicit or explicit corrective feedback.
Keywords: implicit corrective feedback, explicit corrective feedback, EQ, foreign language
teaching.
57
What Should Final Grades Reflect? A Survey into Iranian TeachHUV·
Attitudes in Academic and Institutional Situations
Maryam Sharif
Department of Foreign Languages, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz,
Iran
Mohammad Sadegh Bagheri
Department of Foreign Languages, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sh iraz,
Iran
Evidently, every endeavor students make within an academic year is summed up in a single final
grade. As grading standards vary widely among different teachers, colleges, and institutions, it
would be beneficial to reach generalizations about grading standards. Therefore, this study seeks
WRVXUYH\WKH()/WHDFKHUV·YLHZSRLQWFRQFHUQLQJZKDWIDFWRUVVKRXOGGHWHUPLQHWKHILQDOJUDGHV
in language classrooms both at the tertiary level and in institutional settings in Iran. To fulfill this
purpose, a grading questionnaire was distributed to a number of EFL instructors at Islamic Azad
University, Shiraz Branch and to a group of teachers at Bahar Language Institute in Shiraz, Iran.
In order to delve deeper into the issue under question, a semi-structured interview was conducted
with a sub-group of respondents following the questionnaire. The results from the questionnaire
and the interview combined indicated that the teachers in both groups do not suffice to test scores
alone, and they unanimously draw on various factors in determining the final grade. The results
from this survey study might be considered as a stride towards reaching consistency in final
evaluation of language learners.
Keywords: final grades, grading practices, grading systems, language assessment.
58
On the Relationship between Self-regulation Strategies and
Mindfulness: A Study of Iranian High School E F L Students
M ohammad A liak bari
Ilam University
M arzie h Ghore ys hi
Ilam University
Recently, educational scholars have increasingly concentrated on the role of self-regulation
strategies on students' academic achievement. Among various individual characteristics which
influence students' self-regulation, it is hypothesized that mindfulness plays a crucial role in
enhancing students' self-regulation strategies by increasing their awareness to the present moment
non-judgmentally. Accordingly, this study sought to explore weather Iranian EFL students'
mindfulness accounts for their self-regulation strategies. Approaching 204 English students, data
ZHUHFROOHFWHGWKURXJKWZRTXHVWLRQQDLUHV)LYH)DFHW0LQGIXOQHVVµDQG0RWLYDWHG6WUDWHJ\IRU
Learning Questionnaire". The results confirmed that EFL students' mindfulness was a significant
predictor of their self-regulDWLRQ)XUWKHUPRUHLWZDVIRXQGWKDWVWXGHQWV·JHQGHUGLGQRWDIIHFW
their self-regulation strategies and mindfulness. It was also concluded that high mindfulness in
EFL students contributes to high self-regulation which in turn affects students' learning and help
them achieve their educational purposes.
Key words: Mindfulness;; Self-regulation Strategy;; Academic achievement;; Awareness.
59
T he E ffect of Compute r-assisted E valuative F eedbac k on E F L
/HDUQHUV¶6HOI-efficacy and Self-regulative Behaviors
M ohadde se h Salimpoor Aghdam
Ur mia University
This paper is motivated by the premise that little is known about the computer-assisted provision
RI GLIIHUHQW FRUUHFWLRQ W\SHV DQG WKHLU LQIOXHQFH XSRQ OHDUQHUV· VHOI-efficacy and self-regulation.
This reVHDUFK LV FDUULHG RXW WR GHWHUPLQHKRZWHDFKHUVFDQIRUPOHDUQHUV·VHOI-efficacy and selfregulative behaviors in vocabulary learning through the corrective feedback they provide with the
help of technology. It also examines how the feedback categories are influenced by the gender and
level of proficiency of learners. A total of 96 intermediate to advanced EFL learners participated
in the study, 48 (males= 20, females= 28) of whom received summative feedback and formative
feedback and the other 48 learners (males= 22, females= 26) were exposed to norm-referenced
and self-referenced feedback types. The participants were asked to respond to a vocabulary test,
the self-efficacy questionnaire and the self-regulated learning inventory on the screen. The results
of statistical analyses showed that participants in the self-referenced and formative feedback
groups experienced an improvement in their self-efficacy and self-regulation compared to the
norm-referenced and summative feedback group learners. The article concludes by discussing a
number of general principles that can guide teachers with respect to the assessment system and
the use of technology.
Key words: corrective feedback, vocabulary learning, self-efficacy, self-regulation.
60
The Role of IraniDQ 6WXGHQWV¶*HQGHULQ8VLQJ(PDLO:ULWLQJ
L inguistic F eatures
M uhamme d Parviz
English language Department, foreign Languages Center, Imam Ali University
B ahman Gorjian
Department of TEFL, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran
This study LQYHVWLJDWHG WKH UROH RI JHQGHU LQ ,UDQLDQ VWXGHQWV· HPDLO ZULWLQJ IHDWXUHV DV DQ
electronic soft ware to enhance mechanics of email writing. The focal question was that whether
gender could play any significant role in the quantity and quality of the stuGHQWV·HPDLOZULWLQJ,W
also places new demands on language that leads to interesting variations in written language use.
The design of study was descriptive regarding the evaluation mode of research procedure. Thus,
one hundred MA students (57% female, 43% male) with the age ranging from 22 to 26
participated in this study. Two researcher-made instruments were utilized to collect the data. The
first one was a-five point Likert self-report questionnaire on the participants' age, gender, and
years of experience using email as well as the amount of weekly email use and type of email use.
7KHQH[WUHVHDUFKLQVWUXPHQWZDVWKHFKHFNOLVWH[WUDFWHGIURP0XODF%UGDFDQG*LEERQV·
linguistic features including interpersonal, textual, and contextual markers. Data were analyzed
through percentage and Chi-square (X2) statistics. Results revealed that there was a significant
difference between Iranian males and females in the use of email linguistic and stylistic features
S0DOHV·PHVVDJHVKDGPRUHWH[WXDl errors. Moreover, it was found that females tended to
use more informal and conversation contextual and interpersonal features than males. Findings of
this study can contribute to English language practitioners in teaching writing to Iranian learners
concerning gender differences via computer-mediated communication (CMC).
Key words: interpersonal, textual, contextual, gender, email, CMC.
61
,UDQLDQV()/VWXGHQWV¶DWWLWXGHWRZDUGVWKHXVHDQGWKHHIIHFWRI
word processor in writing classrooms
Azade h M ousavi, Saee de Be ryanian, Saloume h K hodabakhshi,
Zahra D aroonshad, Abbas Zare -ee
MA student, English Department, University of Kashan, Iran ,
Assistant professor, English Department, University of Kashan, Iran
Computers and computer programs have been used in foreign language classrooms for
instructional purposes to increase academic writing ability. Recently, some studies have
addressed the issue of using computers in classrooms which have focused on one of the
language skills in order to see whether cRPSXWHU SURJUDPV FDQ LPSURYH VWXGHQWV·
performance in different skills and which computer programs are more effective for
improving language skills but the results are inconsistent. This study seeks to investigate
the attitude of students towards the use of word processor (Microsoft Office Word) in
ZULWLQJFODVVHVDQGZKDWDUHWKHHIIHFWVRIXVLQJLWRQVWXGHQWV·ZULWLQJV$TXDQWLWDWLYH
survey involving the use of a researcher made 6 point likert scale questionnaire as the
instrument of data collection was employed. The questionnaire consisted of 2 parts in
which the items elicit the attitude of students towards the word processing experience in
WKH()/ZULWLQJFRXUVHDQGLWVHIIHFWV,WKDVWKH&URQEDFK·VDOSKDUHOLDELOLW\RIR7KH
results of frequency analysis indicated that the overall attitude of students towards the use
of word processor in their writing course was positive. It also indicated that the use of
word processor is effective in almost all areas mentioned in the questionnaire. The
analysis suggests that EFL teachers should use computer programs in novel ways in order
to improve the language skills.
Keywords: attitude, word processor, effect, language skills, writing classroom.
62
The Compa rison of Rate of Code Switching in Iranian E F L
Teache rs Speech
Sarah Sadat Pakzadian
Alzahra University ,Q WKH ELPXOWLOLQJXDOFRPPXQLWLHVLW·VYHU\FRPPRQDPRQJWKHVSHDNHUVWRVKLIWIURP
one language to the other;; this phenomenon has been referred to by different terms like
code-switching or code-mixing. Code-switching does not take place in the same way
across different societies, settings and social classes, to name a few. One of the variables
ZKLFKVLJQLILFDQWO\LQIOXHQFHVSHRSOHV·XVHRIODQJXDJHLVJHQGHU0DOHDQGIHPDOHWDONV
have different patterns and features which may be indicative of underlying sociolinguistic
and psycholinguistic diversity. The present study investigates the rates of using English
words while talking in Persian among 10 Iranian university instructors of EFL with
maVWHU·VGHJUHHV7KHUHVXOWVGHPRQVWUDWHVWKDWPDOHLQIRUPDQWVVZLWFKWR(QJOLVKZKLOH
being interviewed in Persian almost two times as much as female informants and further
analyses of the underlying logic for this phenomenon is conferred.
63
A Compa rative E valuation of the E F L Course Books: Inte rchange &
(QJOLVK)LOH6HULHVIURPWKH7HDFKHUV¶3HUVSHFWLYHV
Reza Bakhsheshi
ELT textbooks play a very important role in language classrooms. In the history of teaching
English language in Iran as a foreign language there have been many textbooks that were used as
the main source of teaching the language. Nowadays with the huge interest in learning English in
Iran and the expansion of publication facilities, there is a good collection of course books
avaiODEOHIRUWHDFKHUVDQGODQJXDJHLQVWLWXWHVWRFKRRVHIURP7H[WERRNVDYDLODEOHLQ,UDQ·VPDUNHW
have a vast variety and case and contrastive evaluation of these textbooks has been done by
Iranian researchers to find the best ones for different contexts.
ThH SXUSRVH RI WKLV VWXG\ LV WR FRQWUDVW WKH WH[WERRNVWLWOHG´,QWHUFKDQJHµE\ C. Richards and
´$PHULFDQ(QJOLVK)LOHµE\2[HQGHQDWVWDUWHUOHYHOWKDWDUHDPRQJEHVWVHOOLQJ()/WH[WERRNVLQ
Iran and to find out their pedagogical value in Iranian EFL contexts.
,Q WKLV UHVHDUFK WHDFKHUV· DWWLWXGHV WRZDUGV WKHVH WZR WH[WERRNV ZDV H[DPLQHG WKURXJK WKH
exploitation of a questionnaire. Fifty experienced teachers who have taught the textbooks under
experimentation were chosen for each book.
This study will provide language teachers and language institution managers and supervisors with
JRRG LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW ´,QWHUFKDQJH ,QWURµ DQG ´$PHULFDQ(QJOLVK)LOHVWDUWHUµDQGZLOOKHOS
them choose the best one according to their educational policies and purposes and provide
suitable supplementary books or pamphlets for these books.
Key words: ELT, Course book evaluation, Interchange series, English file series.
64
,UDQLDQ()//HDUQHUV¶(PRWLRQDO,QWHOOLJHQFHLQ5HODWLRQWRWKHLU
Motivation at Junior High School
M ahnaz Sae idi (Ph.D .)
Department of English Language, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz,
Iran
Sakine h K hos ravi (M . A.)
Department of English Language, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz,
Iran
Sae ide h Ahangari (Ph.D .)
Department of English Language, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz,
Iran
Emotional intelligence, concerned with how an individual recognizes and regulates his or her
emotions, has been in limelight quite recently. The EQ concept argues that Intelligence Quotient
(IQ) is too narrow and that there are wider areas of emotional intelligence that dictate and enable
how successful we are. The present study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on emotional
intelligence, together with foreign language learning motivation. So this study examines the
UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ HPRWLRQDO LQWHOOLJHQFH DQG IRUHLJQ ODQJXDJH OHDUQHUV· PRWLYDWLRQ LQ ,UDQLDQ
EFL context. For this purpose, 115 EFL junior students, all female in a high school in Tabriz
were chosen. They were asked to complete the Schutte Self-report Emotional Intelligence Test
(SSEIT) and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). The statistical
procedures employed in this study were regression and correlational analyses. The findings of the
study revealed significant and positive relationships among the components of emotional
intelligence and motivation in the whole sample. The pedagogical implications for learners,
teachers, educators, and materials developers are presented.
Key words: Emotional Intelligence, Motivation, Iranian EFL Learners.
65
Teaching G ramma r through Translation: A C ase of Iranian
E F L lea rne rs
Salva K aze mipour
Shahid Madani University of Azarbaijan, Tabriz-Iran
Samane A bdollahifam
Shahid Madani University of Azarbaijan, Tabriz-Iran
Due to the drawbacks of the Grammar-Translation Method and the subsequent flood of
criticisms on it, employing translation as a tool in language teaching was abandoned in the
approaches which advocate oral skills and communicative abilities with no explicit attention to
form. Recently some innovations have been reintroduced to encourage re-application of
translation and explicit focus on form to practitioners of English language teaching community.
Few have studied the degree of effectiveness of exploiting activities based on translation for
pedagogical purposes. This study, thus, aims at exploring whether translation as a means could be
of any help to the pedagogical end of teaching grammatical structures. Iranian EFL students of
intermediate proficiency level, homogenized by using a standard placement test, were randomly
divided into experimental and control groups. Both groups were given two authentic everyday
narrative texts parallel in terms of semantics and syntax in Persian and English respectively. The
experimental group translated the text to English, whereas the control group just gave a summary
of the English text. Comparing the results from the performance of the students on the postactivity and post-test showed that the experimental group outperformed significantly in both.
Keywords: translation, grammar, teaching through translation, focus on form, grammatical
structures.
66
Investigating C ritical Assessment LQ(QJOLVK,QVWUXFWRUV¶SRLQWRf view
Sama r Ayneyi
Critical assessment just like critical pedagogy has been neglected for a long time. After decades of defining
different terms in critical pedagogy, it has been a decade or two since it came into vogue and researchers
have put theories into practice to discover the strengths and weaknesses in this regard. This piece of
research tries to find out about the success of critical assessment by conducting an opinion poll of English
instructors of different universities in Iran. The present study utilized an open -ended researcher-made
questionnaire to gather the initial data out of which a Likert-Scale questionnaire was developed. This
instrument was used to gather data from a larger group of instructors from different universities. Factor
analysis was applied and seven factors were recognized. The forty-seven-item questionnaire was validated
ZLWK D KLJK UHOLDELOLW\ RI DIWHU FDOFXODWLQJ &URQEDFK·V $OSKD +LJK GHJUHHV RI FRUUHODWLRQ DPRQJ
factors have shown the internal consistency of the questionnaire. The instru ctors agreed that assessment
and learning are inseparable and entangled and also differences among students are highly important in the
assessing process. They had consensus about the effects of cognitive and affective factors of both students
and instructors on assessment. They mostly believe that knowing testing rubrics is prerequisite to
developing tests for all instructors. Although they were neutral about the social and cultural factors and also
internal and external testing factors that may influence the progress. In order to have critical assessment
which is of course in line with critical pedagogy, we should know to what extent our path is far from its
SULQFLSOHV ,W LV UHFRPPHQGHG WR VWDUW ZLWK LQVWUXFWRUV· YLHZSRLQWV LQ WKLV UHVSHFW EHFDXVH WKH\ KDve key
roles in the teaching-learning-assessing process.
Key words: FULWLFDOSHGDJRJ\FULWLFDODVVHVVPHQW&URQEDFK·V$OSKD/LNHUW-Scale questionnaire.
67
6WXGHQWV¶ 8VHRI7KHPH5KHPH
Sharif M oghaddam
the University of Adelaide
Cohesiveness is one of the major descriptors in assessing argumentative texts in ESP context.
Cohesiveness can be monitored by Theme/Rheme pattern. Theme/Rheme is important, because
it can provide a suitable tool in order to examine cohesiveness at discourse level. Use of
Theme/Rheme has been investigated by various studies. However, use of Theme/Rheme in order
to produce cohesive writing for specific purpose such as International English Language Testing
System (IELTS) is under-researched.
In this ethnographic study the author taught and investigated an IELTS academic preparation
class for five months. This study aimed at providing insights into the usefulness of Theme/Rheme
as a tool a) for students to monitor cohesiveness in their argumentative written texts, and b) for
EFL/ESL teachers and test raters to examine the extent of students' control over cohesiveness at
discourse level. To address this issue this study has analysed a sample of students' texts as
preparation for IELTS academic examination in terms of thematic selection and progression.
Classroom discourse analysis and Systemic Functional Linguistics were used to support the
analysis. The findings demonstrate some of the problematic areas of the candidates in terms of
cohesiveness, for example using Themes without clear reference, when producing writing for the
IELTS.
Keywords: Theme/Rheme;; Systemic Functional Linguistics;; IELTS academic preparation
practices;; Cohesiveness.
68
T he Correlation between ESP T eache rs' Beliefs about their
Pedagogical Knowledge and their Actual C lassroom Pe rformance
M ohammad M ahdi Sharifi *
Ph.D. student of TEFL
Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran
Se yye de h Ronak K alantarian
M.A. in TEFL
Tabriz University
Borg (2006) asserts that the study of teachers' actual classroom practice should be studied in order
to gain a better understanding of teachers and teaching not in terms of merely describing
theoretical terms but what they think, know, and believe. To this end, the present study
investigated the effect of ESP teachers' mental lives (i.e. belief systems) on their actual classroom
practices. Data were collected through three consecutive stages. Firstly, 86 participants were
selected through snowball sampling procedure so as to have a semi-structured interview devised
by Borg (1998).The interview was conducted on the Internet and intended to elicit their beliefs
about their pedagogical knowledge. Secondly, of the interviewees, 6 were selected through
purposive sampling and assigned to some actual classroom practices observed through close
circuit cameras. Finally, a questionnaire generated from the interview was administered to 12
participants through purposeful sampling via the Internet again. The collected data were analyzed
both quantitatively and qualitatively in light of interviews, classroom observations, and the
questionnaires. The results revealed that there existed a significant correlation between the
participants' belief systems and real classroom activities within the confines of the ESP classroom.
Keywords: Belief System, Pedagogical Knowledge, Classroom Performance, ESP Teachers.
69
G ende r Pe rformance on S T AD and I OS T AD Coope rative Lea rning
T echniques
M ohammad M ahdi Sharifi *
Ph.D. student of TEFL
Young Researchers Club, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Hassan N e jadghanbar
M.A. student of TEFL
Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
Slavin's (1978) Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) and Nejadghanbar and
Mohammadpour's (2012) Interest-Oriented Student Team Achievement Divisions (IOSTAD)
FRRSHUDWLYHWHFKQLTXHVFRQVWLWXWHGWKHGHSDUWXUHSRLQWVGLIIHULQJLQWHUPVRIWKHIDFWRU´LQWHUHVWµ
which was parameterized across gender orientations in the present study. To do so, an Oxford
Placement Test was administered to a research population (N=304) in order to come up with a
homogenized research sample (N=90) of three groups of reading-low, reading-mid, and readinghigh students who were categorized based on percentile ranking. The sample was divided into an
experimental group A (N=30), an experimental group B (N=30), and a control group (N=30).
Each experimental group consisted of 10 subgroups of three members with three differing reading
comprehension levels mentioned above. Experimental groups A and B received 10 successive 90minute sessions on STAD and IOSTAD respectively. The control group, on the other hand,
received the same amount of treatment using Conventional Instruction (CI). In the end, a TOEFL
reading comprehension post-test was administered to the research groups to measure their reading
comprehension performance level after their treatments. The results revealed that the male and
female participants exhibited statistically different performance types in relation to the interactive
techniques of Cooperative Learning (CL).
Key words: Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD), Reading Comprehension Ability,
Cooperative Learning, Interest-Oriented Student Team Achievement Divisions (IOSTAD),
Conventional Instruction (CI).
70
An Inquiry into Language T eache rs' Ideologically Laden C lassroom
Discourse Unnoticed in Language T eache r E ducation in Iran
M ohammad M ahdi Sharifi *
Ph.D. student of TEFL
Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran
M ina Qase di
M.A. student of TEFL
Kashan University
The bulk of the present study on the mainstream literature on Language Teacher
Education (LTE) in Iran indicates a dearth of empirical and conceptual studies on
language teacher's ideologically laden classroom discourse. All the theoretically oriented
papers, reports of empirical research and pedagogical issues prioritized by TELLSI books
of abstracts (N=10) were intensively studied in order to put the Professional
Development (PD) in LTE in the spotlight. Therefore, it is suggested that the Iranian
academic PD literature accounts for the personal, professional ideologies enacted,
reproduced and represented by the classroom teacher discourse bringing about a new
instructional trend which has gone unnoticed by language teacher educators but can be
incorporated into LTE. Teacher discourse projects teacher identity and ideology defined
by Popper (1987) as "an unavoidable moment of all thinking and acting." Similarly, Van
Dijk (2004) argues that ideologies are typically, though not exclusively, expre ssed and
reproduced in discourse and communication. Therefore, teachers who are deemed to be
social actors unavoidably represent their ideologies through enacting discursive strategies
and rhetorical devices in the classroom as a social context of situation and culture in order
to exercise power and manipulate their audience's personal and social cognition. This new
trend has some implications for the gatekeeping mechanism (i.e. employment and
supervising staff, certification and accreditation systems) as well as pre-service and inservice teacher education programme administrators for the purpose of EFL teachers'
assessment and evaluation.
Keywords: Teacher Discourse, Personal and Professional Ideologies, Professional
Development, Language Teacher education.
71
An Exploration of Iranian EFL Teachers' Underlying Ideologies Reflected
through Classroom Use of Discourse Strategies and Rhetorical Devices: A
CDA Approach
M ohammad M ahdi Sharifi *
Ph.D. student of TEFL
Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran
[email protected]
M aryam R e zae ian
B.A. in TEFL
Guilan University
[email protected]
Popper (1987) states, "Ideology is an unavoidable moment of all thinking and acting."
Therefore, teachers deemed to be social actors unavoidably represent their ideologies through
enacting discursive strategies and rhetorical devices in the classroom as a social context of
situation and culture in order to exercise power and hegemony and manipulate their audience's
personal and social cognition (i.e. their students and colleague teachers). To this end, the
present study aimed at identifying the major manipulative and persuasive techniques adopted
by Iranian EFL teachers across different gender orientations, and academic degrees. The data
collected through IETUIS questionnaire which is an investigator-made questionnaire
developed from Van Dijk (2004), Cheng (2006), and Zheng's (2000) categorizations of
discursive strategies (N=24) were analyzed on the basis of a Pearson Chi Square Test, a set of
independent sample T Tests, and one-way ANOVAs. The findings revealed that the strategies
were significantly different in frequency and type. In addition, significant differences were
found for the classroom discursive strategies as far as the teacher variables were concerned.
K e ywords : Discursive Strategies, Rhetorical Devices, Teacher Ideology, Hegemony, Mind
Manipulation.
72
A Contrastive D iscourse Analysis of R he torical Figures in Farsi and K urdish
Adve rtise me nts
M ohammad M ahdi Sharifi *
Ph.D. student of TEFL
Young Researchers Club, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
[email protected]
M oosa Shakouri
M.A. in TEFL
Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran, Iran
[email protected]
Leech (1996) maintains that various figures of rhetoric are utilized in order to make
advertising words vivid, conspicuous, and impressive. To this end, the present study was
conducted to investigate the similarities and differences between two language varieties;
namely, Farsi (i.e. a standard variety) and Kurdish (i.e. a non ± standard variety) from the
perspective of their use of rhetorical devices in TV advertisements. A sample of one-hour
Persian and one-hour Kurdish video ads was randomly selected for the purpose of Contrastive
Discourse Analysis. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of a model presented by
Clark (1998). The findings revealed that the Persian and Kurdish ads employed a rich variety
of devices of rhetoric. Furthermore, the corpora exhibited a multitude of similarities between
the two language varieties though they are spoken in geographically different locations in Iran
and have their own subcultural features. In addition, some suggestions for further research are
made in the hope that significant therefore durable insight into the cross±cultural differences
and similarities between the two language varieties will be gained to shed more light on the
fields of sociolinguistics and sociology of language. The present study has some pedagogical
implications.
K e ywords: Rhetorical Figures, Language Varieties, Sociolinguistics and Sociology of
Language, Advertisements, and Corpus Linguistics.
73
C lassroom 'Unde rpa rt icipat ion and/or Unde rattendance' as
an Offshoot of Students' F rom-B elow Manipulat ion
M ohammad M ahdi Sharifi
Ph.D. student of TEFL
Young Researchers Club, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
[email protected]
The present study investigated Iranian university students' seemingly non-plausible excuses for
their classroom 'underparticipation and/or underattendance' from a critical discourse analytic
perspective. The excuses were orally and tactfully made prior to, during, and after instructional
time periods in an attempt to persuade their university teacher (i.e. researcher) to take their
classroom low level of participation and/or attendance for granted due to a wide array of
reasons. This pedagogical act carried out by the students as social actors of socially lower
power and prestige in comparison with their teacher with a high level of social prestige was
considered as from-below manipulation aimed at controlling the teacher's thinking and acting
patterns within the confines of the classroom. Such manipulation seems to stand in sharp
contrast with from-above manipulation defined by Van Dijk (2006) as, "an illegitimate source
of power abuse by people having a higher hand in unequal power relation." A corpus of 18KRXU FODVVURRP WDONV DV ZHOO DV VWXGHQWV¶ QRWHV PDGH LQ WKHLU H[DP SDSHUV DQGRU SHUVRQDO
email messages constituted the research data which was both qualitatively and quantitatively
analyzed at two levels of micro and macro interpretation or elaboration. The results revealed
that the students cleverly resorted to ideologically manipulative strategies of differing types
frequently employed to justify their classroom underparticipation and/or underattendance. This
study has some practical implications for CDA application in the other realms of education.
K e ywords :
Manipulative
Strategies, Classroom Underparticipation,
Underattendance, From-Below Manipulation, Critical Discourse Analysis.
74
Classroom
T he Use of Cohesive Devices in Na rrative W riting by Iranian E F L
Lea rne rs at Diffe rent P roficiency Levels
Simin Sattarpour
English Department, Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, Tabriz
University, Iran
Email: [email protected]
Cohesion is always considered as an essential element in a piece of writing which can enhance
the quality of writing and make a text more comprehensible to the readers. The correct use of
cohesive devices is one of the problems faced by EFL writers at different proficiency levels
and because of that teachers should place special emphasis on text cohesion in their teaching
and assessments. This study comparatively investigated the differences and similarities in the
use of cohesive devices by high-proficient and low-SURILFLHQW,UDQLDQ()/OHDUQHUV¶QDUUDWLYH
writings EDVHGRQ+DOOLGD\DQG+DVDQ¶V76) framework for analysis. In the present study it
LV DDWHPSHWHG WR VHHN LI WKH SDWWHUQV RI YDULDWLRQ LQ OHDUQHUV¶ HPSOR\PHQW RIFRKHVLYHLWHPV
revealed whether and how EFL learners of higher proficiency develop their written discourse
competence as compared with the lower proficiency ones, and to what degree the use of
cohesive devices indicates their writing quality. It was found that the adoption of cohesive
devices varied at different proficiency levels EFL learners. Mainly, higher proficiency EFL
learQHUV¶ RYHUDOO DELOLW\ WR XVH FRKHVLYH UHIOHFWHG WKH JUDGXDO PDWXUDWLRQ RI WKHLU ZULWWHQ
discourse competence. The quality of writing was also revealed to significantly vary with the
total number of cohesive devices used irrespective of the EFL proficiency levels. These
findings can have some pedagogical implications for ESL/EFL writing teachers.
K e y Words : Cohesion; Cohesive Devices; Narrtive Writing; Writing Quality; EFL Learners.
75
Contrastive Ge nre Analysis of Islamic and Christian Liturgical T e xts
Salva K aze mipour
Shahid Madani University of Azarbaijan, Tabriz-Iran
B iook Be hnam
Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Liturgies construct one of the most important aspects of each religion. Followers of the
religions pray to communicate with their God. The significant role of the liturgies is prevailing
as people mostly read prayers either individually or collectively. Studying the language of
these liturgical texts is the focus of this study. Some liturgical texts with identical themes were
selected to be analyzed in terms of the main moves parallel in all of them. Some attention was
also given to other linguistic and semantic elements in order to give a more comprehensive
explanation of the prayers and their similarities and differences. The results indicated that
despite some differences in terms of the patterns of the moves, similar moves are used and
repeated in both sets of the selected texts. It was also found out that although the texts belong
to two different religions, the conceptual contents mentioned in the texts are almost identical.
K e ywords : Liturgical texts, prayers, moves, Islam and Christianity, religion.
76
Socio-DIIHFWLYH6WUDWHJLHV7KDW,QFUHDVH6WXGHQWV¶ :LOOLQJQHVV WR&RPPXQLFDWH
(W T C) and The ir Application in Communicative Syllabi
Vahe de Nostrati
Alzahra University
M aspume h Estaji
Alzahra University
Theoretical exploration and pedagogical application in ELT have underscored the important
role of language learning strategies. This study attempted to investigate the effect of the socioDIIHFWLYH VWUDWHJLHV LPSOHPHQWHG WKURXJK FRPPXQLFDWLYH V\OODEXV RQ WKHOHDUQHUV¶ZLOOLQJQHVV
to communicate. To this end, a questionnaire was administered to 60 participants from
$OODPHK 7DEDWDED¶L 8QLYHUVLW\ WR GHWHUPLQH the impact of socio-affective strategies on the
VWXGHQWV¶ :7& 0RUHRYHU IRFXVHG JURXS LQWHUYLHZV ZHUH FRQGXFWHG WR EHWWHU LGHQWLI\ WKH
socio-DIIHFWLYH VWUDWHJLHV HPSOR\HG E\ VWXGHQWV IXUWKHU WR H[DPLQH VWXGHQWV¶ EHOLHIV DERXW
these strategies and factors that influence WTC behaviour in class. The results of the study
suggest that implementing socio-affective strategies in communicative syllabus is helpful in
heightening learner awareness of the importance of paying attention to their own feelings and
social relationships as part of their learning process, which can increase their WTC, and
LPSURYH WKH IUHTXHQF\ DQG WKH TXDOLW\ RI VWXGHQWV¶SDUWLFLSDWLRQDQGLQWHUDFWLRQLQFODVV This
study proposes some tasks and activities in which teachers can make use of socio-affective
VWUDWHJLHVWRLQFUHDVHWKHLUOHDUQHUV¶:7&7KHLPSOLFDWLRQRIWKHVWXG\LVWKDWsocio-affective
strategies should be embedded into the language tasks and activities to lead to better
interactional behaviour of the students.
K e ywords : Socio-affective Strategies, Willingness to Communicate, Communicative
Syllabus, Interaction, Task.
77
7KH([SORUDWLRQ RI6WXGHQWV¶ 7KRXJKWV RQ+RZ 9RFDEXODU\ 6KRXOG EH/HDUQHG
M ohammad Jokar
Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Vahid Asadi
Islam ic Azad University, Yasuj branch, Iran
Ali soyoof
Islam ic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
Vocabulary is deemed as one of the most integral language sub-skills. The more vocabulary
RQH NQRZV WKH EHWWHU RQH FDQ H[SUHVV RQH¶V WKRXJKWV DQG HPRWLRQV 6RPH VWXGLHV KDYH
explored WHDFKHUV¶ YLHZV RQ ZKDWLVWKHPRVWHIIHFWLYHDSSURDFKWROHDUQYRFDEXODU\7RWKH
EHVW RI UHVHDUFKHUV¶ NQRZOHGJH IHZ VWXGLHV KDYH DGGUHVVHG OHDUQHUV¶ RZQ YLHZ RQ KRZ WR
accomplish the thorny task of vocabulary learning. This article investigates what student think
of vocabulary learning and how it should be approached. To elicit the information researchers
decided to administer an interview with 7 Iranian EFL learners. By analyzing the interview
transcripts, a questionnaire was constructed, and then it was administered to 110 EFL learners.
The result of this study can help scholars to come to better understanding of the complex
process of learning new vocabularies.
78
7KH,UDQLDQ()/WHDFKHUV¶DWWLWXGHWRZDUGVWKHGHYHORSPHQWRID
classroom obse rvation model
Vahid Asadi
Isla m ic Azad University, Yasuj branch
Traditionally, Teacher trainers and institute managers were adamant about making sure that
teachers are following the procedures dictated by the institute. Any act which was not based
the prescribed procedures, on the part of the teacher, led to criticism and reproach. Although,
there has been a decline in the degree of pedagogical stricture, there still exist some restrictions
for language teachers in some language institute. In traditional class room observation,
Teachers attitudes and preferences were stamped on. However, recently by the advent of postmethod condition teachers empowerment within language classrooms has been advocated by
some scholars (Kumaravadivelu, 2001). This research aims to introduce a new classroom
REVHUYDWLRQPRGHOEDVHGRQWHDFKHUV¶DWWLWXGHV7RJDWKHULQIRUPDWLRQDERXWWHDFKHUV¶DWWLWXGHV
a questionnaire, constructed by Akbari et al (2006), was used. It is in the form of yes/no
question with 26 frequent items. The questionnaire was administered to 80 EFL teachers in
Shiraz and jahrom to check their view about teacher attitudes and how they should be observed
in the classroom. These guidelines will be helpful and beneficial for both teachers and
observers toward teaching more effectively.
79
Standa rds for teache r evaluation in post method e ra; teache r traine r
pe rspectives
Vahid Asadi
Islam ic Azad University, Yasuj branch, Iran
M ohammad Jokar
Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
After the repeatedly articulated dissatisfactions with the inadequacies of the concept of
method, famous scholars, like kumaravadivelu (2001) came up with a three-prametered system
for teacher-education in the post method condition, there are some criteria for teacher
evaluation that need to be addressed in order to distinguish a good teacher from a bad one. To
find out what characteristics would contribute to making a good teacher, we interviewed 5
teacher trainers in Shiraz. In addition researchers asked teacher trainers what characteristics
have been more accentuated in the post method condition for evaluating teachers to see to what
extent they know about the principles of post method era. The findings of this study can be
good for novice teachers to attend to.
80
T he E ffect of using M A L L on Iranian E F L /HDUQHU¶V*UDPPDU
Development
Vahid Yazdanpa na h Lari
Islamic Azad University, Larestan Branch, Iran
[email protected]
Nowadays, technological advancement has changed the traditional teaching method which
leads to applying technological devises in teaching (especially language teaching). One of
these changes is related to Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL). This study
investigated the effect of grammar teaching via messengers. The researcher administered four
English passive voices including present simple, present continuous, present perfect and past
SHUIHFW ZKLFK ,UDQLDQ VWXGHQWV KDYH VRPH GLIILFXOWLHV LQ XVLQJ WKHP ,Q WKLV VWXG\ ³:(
&+$7´PHVVHQJHUZDVDGPLQLVWHUHG7KHSDUWLFLSDQWVZHUHUHTXired to take part in nine thirtyminute-long session holding by cell phone. A sample of forty Iranian students served as
participants in the study. The researcher administered OPT to the learners in IAU to select the
participants with the pre-intermediate language proficiency. The students were randomly
assigned to two groups: a treatment group receiving instruction through WE CHAT and a
control group receiving a placebo. The participants were required to take a pre-test. A
grammar post-test was also administered to judge the effectiveness of the treatment. An
Independent-Sample t-test was run. The result indicated that students using messengers i.e.
WE CHAT performed significantly better in grammar post-test than those in the control group.
K e ywords : Grammar Learning ± MALL ± Messenger ±Passive voice- WE CHAT
81
Academic Discourse and Reading Strategies: A contextual Study
to Strategy Use
Zahra Zargaran (PhD candidate)
[email protected]
Jondi Shapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Mehran Memari
Farhangian Universit,Ahvaz,Iran
Learning Strategies and their application has been living with the ideal curriculum
and language learning/ teaching programs for many years. Amongst all strategies
established in language programs, reading strategies are of utmost attention in EFL
situations.
For this purpose, this article tries to make answers to points under the horizon in the
realm of reading strategies and the discursive manipulation of texts. Therefore, this
study purports to find convincing evidence whether discourse and reading strategies
fight against power in reading comprehension. To this aim, around 40 medical
students studying at Jondi shapour University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran
were selected from an intact group of learners and went under the investigation. To
find out the possible impact of discursive context on use of reading strategies, the
participants read two different academic and general texts with the same level of
difficulty and immediately filled in the reading strategies questionnaire after reading
each text sequentially. A correlational study was tallied on the data collected out of
the questionnaires and conclusively, interesting finding revealed that discourse and
reading strategies are not correlated, in other words, reading strategies used for both
texts were significantly similar. The result represents particularly the dominance of
cognitive processing (reading strategies) over the text (discourse) that is individuals
determine how to manipulate the text as input not the inherent criteria of the text.
Key words: Discourse, Strategic behaviour, Academic text, General text, Pharmacist
students.
82
Is Se lf-e fficacy Contagious? The Case of Iranian E F L Te ache rs and Le arne rs
Zohre Hamze lou
MA Candidate, Kharazm i University of Tehran
([email protected])
Justified through ideological, psychological and economic approaches to language learning
(Crabbe, 1993), learner autonomy has received much attention in ELT domain in the last three
GHFDGHV +DYLQJ WKH TXHVWLRQ RI ³ZKDW TXDOLWLHVVKRXOd a teacher have to be able to promote
OHDUQHU DXWRQRP\"´ LQ PLQG WKLV VWXG\ UHSRUWV RQ DQ DWWHPSW WR VXUYH\ WKH UHODWLRQVKLS
between teacher self-efficacy and learner autonomy across different proficiency levels. To this
end, the teacher self-efficacy questionnaires accompanied by a learner autonomy questionnaire
were administered to 20 teachers and 300 students, respectively after a course of 16 sessions.
In order to narrow the results to the relevant teachers, students were asked to fill out the scales
only according to their gained perceptions during their current classes. The Pearson Product0RPHQW &RUUHODWLRQ LQGLFDWHG WKH H[LVWHQFH RI D VLJQLILFDQW UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WHDFKHUV¶
self-HIILFDF\ DQG VWXGHQWV¶ DXWRQRP\ 7KH UHVXOW GHPRQVWUDWHG WKDW WKH Wwo variables were
positively correlated. The findings of this study can prove useful for teacher training and
WHDFKHUHGXFDWLRQSURJUDPVLQUHYHDOLQJWKDWWHDFKHUV¶VHOI- efficacy is one of the aspects that
needs to be emphasized in our attempts to promote autonomy.
K e ywords : self-efficacy; learner autonomy.
83
The Social D e ve lopme nt Ove rshadowe d by Theory of M ind
Sona Zandvani
Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication,
and a language is any specific example of such a system. When used as a general concept,
"language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex
communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of
utterances that can be produced from those rules. Human language is unique because it has the
properties of productivity, recursively, and displacement, and because it relies entirely on
social convention and learning. Language is thought to have productive systems, acquiring the
ability to form a theory of other minds and a shared intentionality. µ7KHRU\RI0LQG¶LVWKHDUHD
of cognitive development research that investigates the nature and development of our
XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH PHQWDOZRUOG7KLVDELOLW\IDFLOLWDWHVKXPDQ¶VVRFLDOEHKDYLRXUDQG social
XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RQWKHEDVLVRIWKHLQWHUSUHWDWLRQDQGSUHGLFWLRQ RISHRSOH¶VPHQWDOVWDWHV
Wikipedia One of the most important milestones in theory of mind development is gaining the
ability to attribute false belief : that is, to recognize that others can have beliefs about the world
that are diverging. To do this, it is suggested, one must understand how knowledge is formed,
that people's beliefs are based on their knowledge, that mental states can differ from reality,
DQGWKDWSHRSOH¶VEHKDYLRXUFDQEHSUHGLFWHGE\WKHLUPHQWDOVWDWHV
84
The e ffect of Te ache r`s Inte r-Pe rsonal R e lationships on Conve rsational
Dominance of Sile nt Stude nts
N asim Abdavi
The purpose of this project was to examine the importance of supportive student²
WHDFKHUUHODWLRQVKLSVSDUWLFXODUO\GXULQJVWXGHQWV·IRUPDWLYHHGXFDWLRQH[SHULHQFHV
This study was concerned with the description of dominance in conversation. In
particular, it addressed the problem of silent students and the relative importance of
various factors that may contribute to silence of the students. Qualitative methodwas
used in the study and data were obtained by classroom observation and interview. In
order to see whether students had significant changes one session recorded before
study and another session was recorded after interview. Research on conversational
dominance has established a number of potentially quantifiable dimensions of
dominance among which the most significantare those concerned the quantitative
distribution of talkbetween speakers. Silent students` contribution in the class was
specified in terms of number of turns and turn length. The results of T-­test indicated
significant changes in students` contributions in class discussions.
85
The Effects of M acro- and M icro-D iscourse M arke rs on the Liste ning
Compre he nsion of Expository Te xts by L2 Le arne rs
Fahime h Tajabadi
University of Tehran
M ahboube h Taghizade h
University of Tehran
The purpose of this study was two-­fold;; first, it aimed at examining the impact of
three expository text topics on the listening comprehension of L2 learners. Second, it
was an attempt to investigate the impact of macro-­, micro-­, and macro-­micro
discourse markers on the listening comprehension of expository texts by L2 learners.
The participants of this study were 105 male and female adult L2 learners at upper-­
intermediate level randomly selected from a number of English language institutes in
Iran. The materials consisted of three expository texts and three versions (i.e., micro,
macro, and macro-­maicro) of each text developed by the researchers based on
Chaudron and RicKDUG·V PRGHO RI GLVFRXUVH PDUNHUV 7ZR LQVWUXPHQWV D
listening proficiency test and three sets of listening comprehension test, were used in
this study. The analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant difference in
WKHSDUWLFLSDQWV· performance on the three expository texts. The results also showed
that L2 listeners performed differently on the micro-­, macro-­, and micro-­macro
versions of the texts. In other words, macro-­micro versions received the highest mean
while macro-­versions gained the lowest one. The findings of this study suggested that
the combination versions of micro-­ and macro-­discourse markers contributed more to
the comprehension of L2 listeners than only micro-­ and macro-­ versions separately.
This study suggests L2 instructors to familiarize students with the facilitative role of
discourse markers in the listening comprehension tasks, particularly in the
monological ones.
86
An Investigation on Containme nt, Path, and Force Sche mas in Pe rsian:
Conside ring Ge nde r and Age
M ohammad B aghe r Shabani
Im am Khom eini International University
Fe reshte h K hos ravian
Ilam University
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effect of gender and age on Persian image
schemas: containment, path, and force. To this end, 120 subjects received a questionnaire. It
was consisted of 15 multiple-choice questions on containment, path, and force schemas. The
data was collected and analyzed through chi-square. The results showed that the variable of
gender had effect on application distribution of path schemas used by male and female
students. In addition, the variable of age influenced application distribution of force schemas
used by university and secondary school students.
K e y te rms : Persian image schemas, containment, path, force, gender, and age.
87
T he E fficacy of T hink ing-A loud-Protocols in the Promotion of Re ading Comprehe ns ion:
T he C ase of I ranian Stude nts
M ohammad B aghe r Shabani
Ima m Kho meini International University
Jabe r K hale s H aghighi
Ila m University
7KLV VWXG\ LQYHVWLJDWHV KRZ WKLQNLQJ DORXGSURWRFROPD\DIIHFW,UDQLDQ()/OHDUQHUV¶UHDGLQJ
comprehension. Forty two university students of the same proficiency level, studying in Ilam
Public University, were selected to participate in the study. To ascertain the effectiveness of
WKH DGRSWHG VWUDWHJ\ RQ HQKDQFLQJ VWXGHQWV¶ UHDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ VWXGHQWV ZHUH GLYLGHG
into two homogenous groups. The students in group A received TAP, and students in group B
received traditional instruction. The results of the final achievement test revealed that students
who received TAP, outperformed the other group. Thus, it was concluded that using thinkingaloud protocol significantly influenced the students understanding in the realm of reading
comprehension.
K e y Words : Thinking-Aloud Protocol; Reading Comprehension; University Students; Iranian
Students.
88
Le arnability of cultural mode ls through authe ntic mate rials: Focus on
me taphorical compe te nce and conce ptual flue ncy
M e hran Norafkan
S i mon F raser University (Linguistics Depart ment), British Colo mbia, C anada
This study investigated the effect of exposure to authentic English through the mediation of
computer-DVVLVWHG ODQJXDJH OHDUQLQJ &$// V\VWHPV RQ OHDUQHUV¶ PHWDSKRULFDOFRPSHWHQFH
and conceptual fluency in Iranian second language (L2) classrooms. Studies of classroombased L2 learning using standard course books indicate that students can be successful in their
target language interactions, but their discourse lacks conceptual accuracy. In an effort to
better understand and remedy the problem, 53 Persian learners of English in Iran were divided
into two groups and took part in the following experiment. Textbook-based materials were
used with a control group while authentic (CALL-based) materials and online teachers from
Canada were used with a treatment group. Data were collected based on pre-, post- and
delayed post-tests. The results of the study showed that L2 learners' written discourses had an
improved level of conceptual skill and metaphorical structure after being exposed to the
authentic materials. Participants in the experimental group produced less marked discourse
with a higher metaphorical density, which is a sign of metaphor teachability in the second
language classroom. Also, the study indicated that conceptual fluency and metaphorical
competence are two related phenomena and the development of each influences the other.
89
T he Fe as ible B onds be twe e n Pe rsonality T raits and Writing Q uality: A Probe through
I ranian E F L A cade me
Parviz A lavinia
Ur mia University
A de l H ass anlou
Isla mic Azad University, Ur mia branch
Writing quality is likely to be affected by a great many factors, among which are thought to lie
the psycholinguistic perspectives such as personality traits. In an attempt to further explore the
potential role such unique personality factors can exert on learners' writing performance, the
researchers in the current study administered the online version of Eysenck's personality type
indicator to 52 academic EFL learners studying at state universities in Tabriz and Urmia.
Successive to determining learners' personality traits in terms of extroversion/introversion,
three different writing topics requiring the learners to write in three distinct modes
(argumentative, narrative and descriptive) were assigned to participants throughout the ensuing
sessions. Indeed, the researchers' main postulation in the current research was that the quality
of learners' writing in different modes is liable to be affected by their personality traits in terms
of extroversion/introversion. In tandem with the gained results, it was found that no
statistically significant relationship prevailed between extrovert and introvert learners with
regard to the performance on argumentative, narrative and descriptive writing tasks. Yet, as to
the effect of gender a statistically significant difference was found to be at work. After all, the
findings of the current study might help with further indoctrination of individualization in
pedagogical contexts in compliance with the role of unique learner factors.
90
A Comparative Study on C -te st vs. C loze T est as Measures of Reading Comprehension in
I ranian E F L Conte xt
Parviz A jide h
Tabriz University
Zhila M ohammadnia
Tabriz University
Sorayya M ozaffarzade h
Tabriz University
According to language testing literature, C-test was an evolved form of cloze procedure which
introduced by Klein-Braley in 1982. Cloze procedure was criticized mostly for their deletion
and scoring problemV 7KH SUHVHQW VWXG\ DLPV WR FRPSDUH WKH OHDUQHU¶V VFRUHV RQ PXOWLSOHchoice cloze test with those of C-test as measures of reading comprehension. To this end, three
traditional C-tests and three fixed ratio (n=7) multiple-choice cloze tests were prepared from
reading passages with suitable readability level for each proficiency level. The subjects of the
study were 81 female EFL learners with three different proficiency levels: intermediate (n=27),
high-intermediate (n=26) and advanced (n=28). The subjects¶REWDLQHGVFRUHVZHUHDQDO\]HG
by paired T-test and ANOVA. The results of the study revealed that there is significant
GLIIHUHQFH EHWZHHQ VXEMHFWV¶ SHUIRUPDQFH RQ &-tests and multiple-choice cloze tests. As the
results of this study indicated, learners with different levels of language knowledge performed
different on both of the tests. Therefore, the test constructors should consider the appropriacy
of the tests for the learners' language proficiency level.
K e y words : C-test, multiple-choice cloze, reading comprehension
91
A ccountability of C -te s t as T e s t of Re ading Compre he ns ion: Statis tical Re s ults vs.
/HDUQHUV¶3HUVSHFWLYH
Parviz A jide h
Tabriz University
Zhila M ohammadnia
Tabriz University
Sorayya M ozaffarzade h
Tabriz University
Assessing reading ability in the EFL context in an efficient way has interested language testing
researchers for a long time. To this end, different methods were used to test reading
comprehension and their effectiveness was assessed. In the literature, C-test mostly has been
used as test of general proficiency test. But, this study aimed to use C-test for measuring
reading comprehension. To fulfill this objective, four C-tests were prepared from four reading
comprehension texts with different readability levels each one appropriate for learners with
four different proficiency levels. The subjects of the study were 100 female EFL learners with
four different proficiency levels: pre-intermediate (n=19), intermediate (n=27), highintermediate (n=26) and advanced (n=28). The statistical results of the study revealed that
WKHUH DUH QR VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQVXEMHFWV¶SHUIRUPDQFHRQ&-test with advanced,
high-LQWHUPHGLDWH DQG LQWHUPHGLDWH SURILFLHQF\ OHYHOV 7KRXJK WKH VWXGHQW¶V LPSUHVVLRQV DQG
opinions about tests and their own performance recorded at the end of the tests were different
from the statistical results. This study implies that in preparing tests, we should consider test
takers' impression about the tests which originates their psycholinguistic processing during test
taking. This can be a rich pool of information about test takers' success or failure on a special
test.
K e y words : C-test, reading comprehension, testing reading comprehension
92
The Effect of Vocabulary Prese ntation FashLRQ RQWKH/HDUQHUV¶9RFDEXODU\
R e te ntion and R ecall: A R e flection on M ate rial Evaluation
Se yye d A hmad M ous avi
Ph.D. Candidate, University of Tehran
[email protected]
Sale h A rizavi
M.A. in TEFL Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz,Iran
[email protected]
A bdullah Gharbavi Ph.D. Candidate
Tehran Payame Noor University
[email protected]
Namdar Namdari M.A. in TEFL
Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran
[email protected]
Research on vocabulary to suggest different techniques for more vocabulary retention has always
been the main concern for people involved in this area. Some of the techniques proposed are
complete detachment and in contrast with the preceding ones. However, subtle changes and
manipulations in the existing ideas and techniques can sometimes serve us more than a totally
new idea can. Given this, evaluating the GRE (2007) vocabulary presentation fashion critically,
this study set out to compare the effect of different vocabulary presentation fashions on the
OHDUQHUV¶ YRFDEXODU\ retention and recall. To this end, sixty EFL upper-intermediate learners,
assigned to three groups, were given three different presentation fashions. They were asked to
self-study the GRE 800 words for four months. After analyzing the results of the post and delayed
post-WHVWV RI WKH JURXSV LW ZDV IRXQG WKDW WKH OHDUQHUV UHFHLYLQJ WKH UHVHDUFKHUV¶ VXJJHVWHG
presentation fashion (the Randomly-selected fashion) significantly outperformed the other two
groups. A reaction time test and two questionnaires were also administered as supplementary
measures to gain more insight into the effect of the suggested fashion. At the end, a more critical,
procedural model for material evaluation was proposed to help the evaluators easily evaluate
different instructional materials.
K e y words: presentation fashion, vocabulary retention, material development/evaluation,
commercial textbooks.
93
A gende r study to see: How using authentic aural mate rials effects
male and female listening comprehension.
Se yye d A hmad M ous avi
Ph.D. Candidate, University of Tehran
[email protected]
A bdullah Gharbavi Ph.D. Candidate
Tehran Payame Noor University
[email protected]
Sale h A rizavi
M.A. in TEFL Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran
[email protected]
Namdar Namdari M.A. in TEFL
Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran
[email protected]
The fundamental question put forward in this study was to pinpoint whether there is a
significant difference between male and female listening to the authentic listening materials of
Iranian EFL subjects. In so doing, after random selection, 80 upper-intermediate students (40
males, 40 females) from all among language institutes in Khorramshahr and Abadan cities, in
Khuzestan province, Iran, took part in this study. The participants were participated in two
experimental treatment groups. During a semester, they were instructed in listening to
authentic radio-tapes. The results revealed that not only the both groups had gained a higher
degree of listening comprehension and proficiency after treatment but also no significant
difference between them seen. Given the results of this experiment, the tentative extrapolations
could be that some of the assumptions about the futility of teaching authentic listening
materials should be rigorously re-examined. That is, if selected carefully and properly, the use
of aural authentic listening materials in EFL classroom not only improves the learners listening
comprehension but also shows no significant difference between male and female (genders)
learners listening to them, and they have a positive effect on EFL learners too.
K e y words: gender, listening comprehension, authentic aural materials, authentic radio-tapes.
94
I ranian E F L T e ache rs' F amiliarity, A ttitude s and Willingne ss towards Diffe re nt Inte rnet
Tools and the ir A pplications
Re za K hani
M arzie h Ghore ys hi
The purpose of this study was to explore the Iranian EFL teachers' familiarity, attitudes and
willingness toward applying different internet tools in their classrooms. It also investigated the
platform problems and teachers' main concerns towards integrating these tools. Accordingly,
263 EFL teachers who were randomly selected from different institutes in three Iranian
provinces were asked to answer the researchers-made questionnaire. The results revealed that
EFL teachers 1) are highly familiar with most of the internet tools; 2) have highly positive
attitudes towards using and integrating internet tools in their classrooms; 3) are willing to use
these technologies for developing certain language skills competency; and 4) are highly
concerned about culturally inappropriate materials and students' internet dependability and
autonomous. Furthermore, it was found that these findings were affected by variables such as
teachers' age and educational degree. Finally, it was concluded that in spite of the EFL
teachers' positive attitudes and willingness towards these tools, still they are facing some
challenging concerns about the application of the given tools due to some cultural and platform
problems.
K e ywords: Internet technology, teachers' familiarity, attitude, willingness.
95
Vocabulary Le arning Strategies use d by Iranian High School Stude nts and its
R e lation to The ir Strategy Aware ness
Vahid M e rghati
Depart m ent of English Language, Tabriz Branch, Islam ic Azad University, Tabriz,
Iran
The present study aims to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies used by Iranian
students in high schools and their awareness of the strategies they are using or are able to use.
For this, a total number of 200 high school students from different schools and different
genders in 6 classes of Iranian schools have been selected. A researcher made questionnaire
was administered to the participants in their early times of school. The data were analyzed by
using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) and statistical multiple regression at
significant of p<0.05. The results indicated that memory strategies are determined as the most
frequently used strategies by the respondents followed by compensation, social and other
strategies. The use of bilingual dictionaries and making lists of new words, beside use of
monolingual dictionaries, repeating new words many times and asking classmates for the
meaning, are the most frequently used strategies as reported by the respondents. Also Talking
with native speakers and using English language media may be the least strategies used by
Iranian high school students. The respondents of the present study were found to be medium
strategy users but very close to be low users of it. The obtained data revealed that students are
rarely aware of strategies to be used in vocabulary learning. The findings of this study may
lead to some suggestions to enhance students' vocabulary learning, increase their VLS
awareness, and subsequently improve their English proficiency.
96
,UDQLDQ(QJOLVK/DQJXDJH7HDFKHUV¶&RQFHSWLRQVRI5HVHDUFK
M ohammad Jok ar
A li soyouf
Samar A yinie
As a result of discontentment among scholars over previous deficiencies of the concept
of method, it was incumbent upon scholars to introduce an alternative to the so-called
term method. In a parallel vein, in his recent best endeavor, Kumaravadivelu (2001)
propounded a three-dimensional system,namely post method pedagogy, so as not only
to uncover the inadequacies of Transmission Model of Teacher Education but to
WKRURXJKO\ H[SDQG ODQJXDJH WHDFKHUV¶ UROH ERWK DV D WKHRUHWLFLDQ DQG D SUDFWLWLRQHU ,Q
KLV SULQFLSOH RI SUDFWLFDOLW\ .XPDUDYDGLYHOX HQFRXUDJHG ³WHDFKHUV WR WKHRrize from
WKHLU SUDFWLFH DQG SUDFWLFH ZKDW WKH\ WKHRUL]H´ .XPDUDYDGLYHOX +H SRVLWHG
that language teachers should benefit from their practice of everyday teaching to fill a
gap in diverse areas of second language research. Simply put, teachers endeavors to
bridge any gap in any area of SLA research should be warmly welcomed by
theoreticians. In order for language teachers to enter the sphere of SLA research,
handsome knowledge and understanding of how to do research is required. This study
aims to unravel the conceptions of research held by 120 Iranian language teachers. In
RUGHU WR HOLFLW WHDFKHUV¶ FRQFHSWLRQV RI UHVHDUFK 6LPRQ %RUJ¶V TXHVWLRQQDLUH was administered to 200 language teachers, 120 of them answered it and gave it back.
Questionnaire responses were supplemented by follow-up written and oral interview to
ILQG RXW WHDFKHUV¶ YLHZ RQ ZKDW UHVHDUFK LV DQG KRZ RIWHQ WKH\ UHDG DQG GR LW DQG ZK\
or why not in each case).
97
Writte n Corre ctive Fe e dbac k : I ranian L anguage T HDFKHUV¶3HUVSHFWLYHV
M ohammad Jok ar
A li soyouf
Samar A yine ie
Research addressing the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF) has been revived
VLQFH 7UXVFRW¶V SDSHU LQ ZKLFK KH PDLQWDLQHG WKDW HUURU FRUUHFWLRQ LV QRW RQO\
ineffective but also harmful. A number of counter claims have been advanced against
7UXVFRW¶V YLHZ RIHUURUFRUUHFWLRQ)HUULV6LQFHWKHQEXONVRIVWXGLHVKDYHEHHQ
built around this controversial topic. In the sphere of WCF, at least in Iranian EFL context, an
DUHDWKDWLVDELWXQH[SORUHGLVWKHRQHUHODWHGWRWKHLQYHVWLJDWLRQRIWHDFKHUV¶EHOLHIRQZULWWHQ
corrective feedback. Empirical findings illuminate that whatever teachers do in the classroom
originates from what they believe and their belief exerts profound impact on their instructional
decisions (Farrell&Lin, 2005). This study aims to investigate to what extent current L2 writing
teachers provide WCF and what factors, they think, determine when WCF should be provided.
Ten Iranian EFL language teachers were interviewed. After analyzing the transcripts of the
interview, a questionnaire has been made. To calculate its internal consistency, Cronbach
Alpha was utilized. Then, it was administered to 110 EFL language teachers.
98
A P robe into the O ve rriding Psycho-Affective F actors Unde rlying
lea rne rs' F ailure Rate
Parviz A lavinia
Ur mia University
L e yla A rde s hiri
Isla mic Azad University, Ur mia branch
Learners' exam failure is liable to be ascribed to plentiful individual, environmental, and sociopsychological reasons. In an attempt to pinpoint the potential psychological/affective
stumbling blocks standing on the way of materializing full learning potential in individuals, the
researchers in the current study set about a probe into the alleged role of a number of such
personal traits in learners' success/failure with the overall process of learning. In so doing, a
total of 80 female high school learners were administered three questionnaires (Gardner's
Attitude Motivation Test Battery, Bar-On's Emotional Quotient Inventory and Eysenck's
Personality Test) in an attempt to determine the possible go-togetherness between individuals'
motivational, emotional and communicative (in terms of extroversion/introversion) states, on
the one hand, and their rate of failure, on the other. As the final analysis of data through
correlational analysis helped reveal, learners' mean scores on all three psychological scales
applied in the study were characterized by having negative significant correlations with the
students' rate of failure. Furthermore, Grade differences were not found to bring about any
significant differences regarding the relationship between the psychological traits studied and
learners' failure rate.
99
The Pote ntial of Using Podcasts to Te ach English Vocabulary to E F L Stude nts
Zohre h G. Shoos htari
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz,Iran
A mir M as hhadi
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz,Iran
M e hran M e mari
Farhangian University,Ahvaz,Iran
The present study aimed to examine the comparative efficacy of podcasts for teaching English
vocabulary to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in contrast with two other
instruction modes, i.e., role-playing and self-study simultaneously. To this end, 60
intermediate EFL learners were sorted out into three different groups based on a nonrandom
sampling technique, as the participants of the study, to receive the intended educational
materials containing the same vocabulary items by three different methods, namely the
podcast-based learning approach, the role-playing approach and the self-study approach. To
REWDLQ LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW VWXGHQWV¶ SHUFHSWLRQV RI PRELOH OHDUQLQJ DQG WKH DSSOication of
podcasts in teaching and learning English vocabulary, participants of the podcast-based group
were asked to complete a written survey at the end of the experiment. The overall results of the
study revealed that participants in the podcast-based group had greater vocabulary gains
compared to their counterparts in the role-playing and self-study groups respectively.
Participants in the podcast-based group also liked the flexibility and ubiquity of the podcasts
for learning English vocabulary.
100
A cquis ition of E nglis h O nset and Coda Consonant C lus te rs by Pe rs ian Down Syndrome
L e arne rs : A n O ptimality A ccount
H ak ime h A be dini K as hquiye h
Yazd University
Down syndrome (DS), one of the most prevalent conditions of moderate and severe mental
retardation of genetic origin, has been the object of intensive studies for a number of years.
Research and clinical experience demonstrate that some areas of language are generally more
difficult for people with Down syndrome especially while picking up a second language.
Persian syllable structure is "CV (CC)", composed of one consonant at the initial position and
two optional consonants at the final position; whereas English syllable structure is
"(CCC)V(CCCC)". Therefore, Persian EFL learners need to resolve the conflict between what
they know (L1), and what they are learning (L2). This study accounts for the acquisition of the
consonant clusters of English syllable structures both in onset and coda positions by Persian
EFL learners with Down syndrome. Optimality theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993) employs a
notion of constraint dominance and a mechanism for selecting the optimal output with respect
to a set of ranked constraints. 30 participants of two levels of English proficiency suffering
from Down syndrome were included in this study. The data were collected via two tasks. The
first task was a sound comprehension test and the second was a production test. The former
task requires them to listen to a word and to circle the word that they thought they had heard
from a set of five possibilities. One purpose for this task was to expose the participants to the
target stimuli before they were asked to produce them. The other purpose was to examine how
they heard complex onsets and codas. In task two, participants were asked to pronounce
written words which have two and three consonants at the initial position and two and three
and four consonants at the final position respectively. Collected data were analyzed in the
framework of Optimality Theory and using SPSS software. The analyzed data revealed that all
the learners had difficulties in performing initial consonant clusters in English and those coda
clusters composed of more than two consonants.
101
()/7HDFKHUV¶3HUFHSWLRQVRQWKH8VHRI$XWKe ntic M ate rials in the Fore ign L anguage
C lass room
M asoome h Es taji
$OODPHK7DEDWDED¶L8QLYHUVLW\
Se yran Jannati
$OODPHK7DEDWDED¶L8QLYHUVLW\
7KLVVWXG\DWWHPSWVWRH[DPLQHWKH()/WHDFKHUV¶SHUVSHFWLYHVUHJDUGLQJWKHXVHRIDXWKHQWLF
materials in the classroom. The participants consisted of 36 EFL instructors enjoying various
levels of experience selected by convenience sampling. Data was collected using a
TXHVWLRQQDLUH ZKLFK LQFOXGHV WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV¶ EDFNJURXQG LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG D /LNHUW VFDOH
followed by semi-VWUXFWXUHG LQWHUYLHZV WR JDWKHU ULFKHU GDWD RQWKHSDUWLFLSDQWV¶SHUFHSWLRQV
attitudes, and concerns toward the use of the authentic materials in the classroom. The analysis
of the results indicated that EFL teachers had positive attitudes toward the use of authentic
materials in their classes. In fact, they indicated that an ideal class should use a combination of
both authentic texts and textbooks. However, an independent t-test analysis revealed a
statistically significant difference between teacherV¶DWWLWXGHVLQWHUPVRIH[SHULHQFHZLWKWKH
high-experienced having stronger positive attitudes. Likewise, the interview results
GHPRQVWUDWHGIDFWRUVVXFKDVWKHOHDUQHUV¶OHYHORISURILFLHQF\H[SHULHQFHDELOLW\DQGQHHGV
curriculum objective, class structure, variety of texts and tasks, and lack of training on the use
and assessment of the authentic materials as possible impediments to the use of the authentic
materials. Based on the findings, some implications and suggestions for further research we re
provided.
102
C an I benefit from strategies to improve my visual lite racy? A case of
Iranian E F L lea rne rs
Nase r Ras hidi
S hiraz University
=DKUD .KHUDGPDQG6D¶GL
S hiraz University
The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of teaching strategies for reading
YLVXDODLGVRQDJURXSRI,UDQLDQ()/OHDUQHUV¶YLVXDOOLWHUDF\DQGWRNQRZZKHWKHUWKHLPSDFW
was different for students with high spatial intelligence and those with low spatial intelligence.
Sixteen sophomore students majoring in English participated in the study. To measure
VWXGHQWV¶DELOLW\RIUHDGLQJYLVXDODLGVWZRSDUDOOHOWHVWVLQFOXGLQJVKRUWDQVZHULWHPVZHUH
used. One of the tests was given before instruction, and the other one was carried out after the
instUXFWLRQ /HDUQHUV¶ PXOWLSOH LQWHOOLJHQFHV ZHUH LQYHVWLJDWHG E\ D LWHP PXOWLSOH
intelligences questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that there was a statistically
VLJQLILFDQW LQFUHDVH LQ VWXGHQWV¶ VFRUHV IURP WLPH WR WLPH WKH LQWHUYHQWLRQ had a positive
LPSDFWRQVWXGHQWV¶VFRUHV0RUHRYHUWKHUHZDVQRWDVLJQLILFDQWGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQVWXGHQWV
with high spatial intelligence and those with low spatial intelligence regarding their use of
strategies to improve their visual literacy.
K e ywords: Strategies; Reading; visual literacy; visual aids; spatial intelligence; Iranian EFL
learners
103
Self-Assessment of L anguage Teache rs through
Metaphorical E xpressions
F ariba M obini
Zanj an University
The central premise of this enquiry is that constructive teacher assessment needs to be
conducted on a self-evaluating scale because of its consistency as well as
introspective defect marking nature. However, impediments hindering practical application
of this method in formal pedagogical settings concern the assumed subjectivity associated
with it. This study highlights the internally motivating effect of unbiased self-assessment
empirically proved to act as a source of endeavor and professional commitment. The actual
technique proposed for this purpose is extracting metaphors on several levels, viz the
completion items, prompt acceptance or rejection, and creative production of metaphorical
expressions. Reliability and validity measures of the technique are analyzed. Subsequently,
diagnostic merits of analytic self-judgment, as well as institutional benefits of the pertinent
outcome are discussed.
104
,UDQLDQV ()/ VWXGHQWV¶DWWLWXGH WRZDUGV WKHXVHRIFRPSXWHU LQ ZULWLQJ FODVVDQG
the e ffects of word processor (M icrosoft Office Word) on the ir writings
A zade h M ous avi
University of Kashan
Sae e de B e ryanian
University of Kashan
Saloume h K hodabak hs hi
University of Kashan
Zahra Daroons had
University of Kashan
A bbas Zare 'e e
University of Kashan
Computers and computer programs have been used in foreign language classrooms for
instructional purposes to increase academic writing ability. Recently, some studies have
addressed the issue of using computers in classrooms which have focused on one of the
ODQJXDJHVNLOOVLQRUGHUWRVHHZKHWKHUFRPSXWHUSURJUDPVFDQLPSURYHVWXGHQWV¶SHUIRUPDQFH
in different skills and which computer programs are more effective for improving language
skills but the results are inconsistent. This study seeks to investigate the attitude of students
towards the use of word processor (Microsoft Office Word) in writing classes and what are the
HIIHFWVRIXVLQJLWRQVWXGHQWV¶ZULWLQJV$TXDQWLWDWLYHVXUYH\LQYROYLQJWKHXVHRIDUHVHDUFKHU
made 6 point likert scale questionnaire as the instrument of data collection was employed. The
questionnaire consisted of 2 parts in which the items elicit the attitude of students towards the
ZRUG SURFHVVLQJ H[SHULHQFH LQ WKH ()/ ZULWLQJFRXUVHDQGLWVHIIHFWV,WKDVWKH&URQEDFK¶V
alpha reliability of o.838. The results of frequency analysis indicated that the overall attitude of
students towards the use of word processor in their writing course was positive. It also
indicated that the use of word processor is effective in almost all areas mentioned in the
questionnaire. The analysis suggests that EFL teacher should use computer programs in novel
ways in order to improve the language skills.
105
3ULQFLSOHV RI&UHDWLYH3HGDJRJ\ ,UDQLDQ 7HDFKHU7UDLQHUV¶ 3HUVSHFWLYH
M ohammad Jok ar
A li soyouf
In teacher-centered classrooms the needs of learners were not of any importance to the
teachers. On the contrary, in student-centered classrooms learners and their needs are the
center of attention. Recently a fresh wave of interest has emerged in different educational
contexts, advocating creativity as the most integral skill that should be nurtured within each
learner. To do so, some scholars have propounded some principles that should be implemented
within the context of classrooms. The applicability of the main principles of creative pedagogy
has been investigated within different fields of studies, namely mathematics, chemistry, music,
etc. To the best of researchers knowledge nobody has embodied these principles within the
context of second language education. This study aims to uncover which principles of creative
pedagogy are more applicable with the context of Iranian second language education. To
obtain the information five Iranian teacher trainers were interviewed.
106
Podcast-Assisted Language Lea rning in T eaching Vocabula ry to
Iranian E F L Lea rne rs
Sara Nazarbaghi
Ur mia Univrsity, Ur mia (Iran)
The present research reports an investigation into whether using podcasts improves learners'
vocabulary compared with the traditional ways of teaching vocabulary. To homogenize the
research sample, vocabulary part of Michigan Test was administered to a population of 120
female and male EFL learners, within the age range of 18-22, studying at Urmia University
Language Centre. Based on the obtained results, 80 learners whose scores were between one
standard deviation below and above the mean were selected and assigned randomly into two
separate groups of experimental and control (N=40,each) . The experimentation lasted for 15
(90-minute) sessions, of which 30 minutes was allocated to vocabulary. New Interchange 2
(Richards, 2005) was used as the textbook for teaching during the course. The experimental
group practiced vocabulary through different ESL podcasts while the control group received
common and traditional vocabulary instruction from their text books. The study used a pre-test
post-test design. The analysis of data using a two way ANOVA indicated statistically
significant differences between the performances of groups at the beginning of the treatment
and at the end of the study. It was concluded that using podcasts as a new teaching aid can
improve EFL learners' vocabulary. Implications on new media are discussed in the paper.
107
Apology strategies among Iranian E F L lea rne rs: the effect of
exposure to satellite television
M ohse n Janne jad
S hahid Cha mran University of Ahvaz
K hodayar M e hrabi
S hahid Cha mran University of Ahvaz
Se yye d Re za M ouus avinia
S hahid Cha mran University of Ahvaz
Like other areas of second language learning, input is a necessary condition for developing L2
pragmatic knowledge, and input frequency plays and important role in pragmatics (Kasper &
Roever, 2005). However, in foreign language contexts, opportunities for language learners to
face authentic pragmatic input and chances for interaction outside the classroom are scarce.
Different researchers support the usefulness of audiovisual material as a valuable source that
can present learners with appropriate input. One such source of input in Iranian context is
programs received form satellite televisions. This study explores the effect of exposure to
satellite television on the realization patterns of apology strategies by Iranian EFL learners.
The participants were 200 Iranian EFL learners majoring in English language and literature.
They were assigned to two groups based on their exposure to satellite television. The data was
collected using a Discourse Completion Questionnaire. The data was categorized and coded
according to the Olshtain and Cohen (1983) as well as the Blum-Kulka et al. (1989)
taxonomies. Results indicated that both groups used relatively the same set of apology
strategies, yet with significantly different frequencies. In addition a similar trend of realizing
apology strategies was followed across the two groups.
108
The e ffect of translation in E F L class rooms as a me ans for te aching collocations
Samane hA bdollahifam
S hahid Madani University of Azarbaij an
Salva K aze mipour
S hahid Madani University of Azarbaij an
As a result of notorious GTM, translation was set aside from EFL classrooms, overlooking any
potential pedagogical contribution it could lead to. However, a few studies have been
interested in L1-L2 translation as a means for learning. Emergent needs in the 90s offered
translation as a purpose of some EFL classes. Later, in the turn of millennium, some scholars
investigated the practicality of L2-L1 translation of literary texts as a tool for testing and
classroom practice. This study attempts to reveal whether L1-L2 translation of everydaylanguage texts could be implemented for enhanced recall and production of collocations and
idiomatic expressions. Teaching collocations is a rather neglected aspect of communicative
competence in scholarly conversations. An adequately homogeneous group of Iranian EFL
learners of intermediate proficiency was randomly divided to two experimental and control
groups. The experimental group was required to translate a Farsi text to English. The control
group on the other hand provided a paraphrase of an English text with the desired collocations
represented in the text of the experimental group. The teaching phase was regulated in English
for both groups with ongoing discussion on each expression. As a post-teaching activity,
learners in both groups were asked to present some examples of their own to consolidate the
learning. A posttest attempted to test the understanding and level and appropriacy in use for
both receptive and productive skills. Results illustrated that performance in receptive skills
GLGQ¶W YDU\ VLJQLILFDQWO\ ZKLOH WKH H[SHULPHQWDO JURXS RXWSHUIRUPHG FRQVLGHUDEO\ LQ
productive skills.
K e y words : translation, collocation, teaching through translation, productive skills, perceptive
skills
109
Imposition of ideology through the habitual uses of discourse of
cinema: A feminist study
Samane hAbdolla hifa m
ShahidMadani University of Azarbaijan
B iook Be hnam
Tabriz Branch, Islam ic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Language plays a substantial role in the socialization process of its speakers. Developing a
gender identity is also bounded to the community of practice where one grows up in. As
Simone de Beauvoir nicely puts, "One is not born a woman; rather, one becomes a woman".
Media plays a substantial role in this socialization process and soap operas having a large
number of audience are apt enough for transition of certain ideologies. This study seeks to
reveal how the Iranian soap operas employ a sexist language against women and are in favor
of men. Six soap operas of different genres were chosen to be critically analyzed in terms of
content, turns, and gestures. The result illustrated that the language of Iranian soap operas
portrait an inferior picture of women and hence impose ideologies in favor of men.
Keywords: ideology, critical discourse analysis, soap operas, media discourse, gender identity
110
E xploring the Relationship between Academic Self-regulation and
M etacognitive Awa reness of Listening Strategies ac ross G ende r
M e hrak Rahimi
Sajjad A be di
7KHDLPRIWKHFXUUHQWVWXG\ZDVWRH[SORUHWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQ()/OHDUQHUV¶DFDGHPLF
self-regulation and metacognitive awareness of listening strategies across gender. Three
hundred and seventy-one male (n=140) and female (n=231) high-school students participated
in the study. They filled in the Academic Self-Regulation Scale (ASRL) with seven factors that
aims to assess self-regulated learning at school. They also completed Metacognitive
Awareness Listening Strategies Questionnaire (MALQ) that evaluates the level of
metacognitive awareness of listening strategies EFL learners use when they listen to English
texts under 5 factors. Students took part in the listening section of Preliminary English Test
(PET) before completing the MALQ. The result of Pearson correlation coefficient indicated a
moderate and positive relationship between the two variables (r=.45, p <0.01, n=371). Further,
correlation between self-regulation and metacognitive awareness of listening strategies across
gender was calculated. It was revealed that the correlation between the two variables is higher
among boys (r=.573, p =0.01) in comparison to girls (r=.392, p <0.01). In order to compare the
difference between correlations of self-regulation and metacognitive awareness of listening
VWUDWHJLHV DFURVV JHQGHU )LVKHU¶V ] ZDV XVHG 7KH UHVXOW VKRZHG D VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFH
between the two correlation coefficients (Zobs =2.20>1.96) implying that male successful
listeners were more aware of their metacognitive listening strategies in comparison to female
successful listeners.
111
Language Lea rning Strategies as P redictors of L2 Idioms Lea rning
A bbas A li Zare i,
M ohammad T aghi H as ani,
Vahid Shahidi Pour
The present study is an attempt to investigate types of language learning strategies as
predictors of L2 idioms learning. The participants were 112 male and female Iranian
undergraduate B.A. and M.A. students majoring in TEFL, English Translation, and English
Literature at the University of Qom; Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch; and Mofid
non-profit University. Data were gathered through the Michigan Test of English Language
Proficiency (MTELP), idiom comprehension and production tests, and the Strategy Inventory
for Language Learning (SILL) and analyzed using multiple regression procedure. The results
showed that cognitive and affective learning strategies were the best predictors of L 2 idiom
comprehension and production. In other words, cognitive and affective learning strategies
could account for approximately 60% and 28%, of the variance in L2 idiom comprehension,
respectively. At the same time, cognitive and affective learning strategies could also account
for about 55% and 24% of the total variance in L2 idiom production, respectively. These
findings may have pedagogical implications for language learners and teachers.
K e y Words : Idioms, idioms comprehension, idioms production, language learning strategies
112
7KH,QWHUSOD\EHWZHHQ()//HDUQHUV¶6HOI-acceptance and T heir
W illingness to Communicate
M asoud Varnase ri
According to Shepard (1979), self-DFFHSWDQFH UHIHUV WR DQ LQGLYLGXDO¶V VDWLVIDFWLRQ RU
happiness with himself. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships among selfacceptance (SE) and Willingness to communicate (WTC).To this end, 90 intermediate English
students from Azad University of Masjed-solyman and Chamran University were asked to
complete two questionnaires: Self- Acceptance (SE) and Willingness to Communication
(WTC). The result of correlational study showed that there was significance relationship
between SE and WTC. To further analyze the data, regression analysis was run which
indicated that SE was predicator of WTC.
Key words: Self -acceptance, Willingness to communicate
113
T he effect of Vocabula ry, syntax, and discourse -oriented activities on
short and long-te rm L2 reading comprehension
A bbas A li Zare i
Assistantprofessor, Imam Khomeini International University,Qazvin
Se pide Shakoori ne ya
M.A,Islamic Azad University,Takestan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of different ways of teaching
reading (vocabulary, syntax, and systemic functional linguistic (SFL) discourse-oriented) on
Iranian EFL learners' short-term and long-term reading comprehension ability. For this
purpose, 90 intermediate level EFL learners were assigned to three groups. One of the groups
received vocabulary-based reading instruction, the other group received syntax-based reading
instruction, and the third group received SFL discourse-base reading instruction. Following the
treatment, immediate and delayed reading comprehension tests were administered. The results
of the two One-Way ANOVA procedures showed that the group which received discoursebased instruction had the best performance on both immediate and delayed post-tests, followed
by the group which received syntax-based instruction. It was concluded that Iranian EFL
learners will have best performance on reading comprehension when they receive instruction
on the discourse features (register, genre, and cohesive ties). It was concluded that reading in a
word-by-word manner prevents global understanding of the text.
K e y words: reading comprehension, discourse-oriented activities, vocabulary, syntax
114
7KH,UDQLDQ()/WHDFKHUV¶DWWLWXGHWRZDUGVGHYHORSPHQWRIPRGHObased classroom obse rvation
Vahid as adi
Traditionally, Teacher trainers and institute managers were adamant about making sure that
teachers are following the procedures dictated by the institute. Any act which was not based on
the part of the teacher led to criticism and reproach. Although, there has been a decline in the
degree of pedagogical stricture, there still exists some restriction for language teachers in some
language institute. In traditional class room observation, Teachers attitudes and preference
were stamped on. However, recently by the advent of post-method condition teachers
empowerment within language classrooms has been advocated by some scholars
(Kumaravadivelu, 2001). This research aims to develop a new classroom observation based on
WHDFKHUV¶DWWLWXGHVDQGFRQVLGHULWDVLPSRUWDQWFULWHULD7RJDWKHULQIRUPDWLRQDERXWWHDFKHUV¶
attitudes a questionnaire constructed by Akbari et al (2006) was used. It is in the form of
yes/no question with 26 frequent items. The questionnaire was administered to 80 EFL
teachers in Shiraz and jahrom to check their view about teacher attitudes and how they should
be observed in the classroom. These signals guidelines will be helpful and beneficial for both
teachers and observers toward teaching more effectively.
115
Standards for te ache r e valuation in post me thod e ra; te ache r traine r pe rspectives
Vahid as adi
After the repeatedly articulated dissatisfactions with the inadequacies of the concept of
method, famous scholars, like kumaravadivelu( 2001) came up with three-prametered systems
for teacher-education in post method condition, there are some criteria for teacher evaluation
that need to be addressed in order to distinguish a good teacher from a bad one. To find out
what characteristics would contribute to making a good teacher, we interviewed 5 teacher
trainers in Shiraz. In addition researchers asked teacher trainers what characteristics have been
more accentuated in post method condition for evaluating teachers to see to what extent they
know about the principles of post method era. The findings of this study can be good for
novice teachers to attend to.
116
A Lea rne r -focused Approach to Developing Iranian E F L
/HDUQHU¶V$XWRQRP\
Shirin Ne matollahi
Arak Isla mic Azad University, S cience and Research Branch.
In this study the effect of strategy-based instruction (SBI) on the promotion of learner
autonomy (LA) has been investigated. LA has been defined as individual effort and action
through which learners initiate language, problem solving, strategic action, and the generation
of linguistic input (Brown, 2007). As, most of language teaching methodologies are still
teacher centered, developing LA seems necessary to help students become self-regulator, selfstarter and self-initiator. The study was conducted with the participation of 30 students in an
experimental group, 50 students in two control groups at the Arak Islamic Azad University,
Science and Research Branch. An eight-week metacognition training package was
incorporated into the academic writing programme of the experimental group. Students in the
experimental group improved their ability to plan, monitor and evaluate a writing task more
than students in the two control groups. Planning became the most often exercised skill,
followed by evaluating and monitoring. Improvements in writing were maintained on a
delayed test. Overall, the study suggests that strategy-based instruction in the form of training
learners in task-specific metacognitive self-regulation impURYHG OHDUQHUV¶ DXWRQRP\ LQ ERWK
learning and their writing ability.
K e ywords : Learner autonomy, self-regulation, strategy-based instruction, strategy training
117
Va rious Modes of P resenting Vocabula ries, Lea rning and Retention
Hamid Toraby
Isla mic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
E brahim M ohamad k hah
Ur mia University
M ahnaz Sae idi
PH D,Isla mic Azad University,Tabriz branch,Iran
The present study was aimed at finding an effective student-­centered technique for teaching/learning new vocabularies. In so doing, 30 advanced students attending Rasa institute, Bouka, West Azerbaijan were selected through an Oxford Placement Test (OPT) and randomized into an experimental group and a control one. Afterwards, both groups were taught D OLVW RI ILYH ZRUGV UHWULHYHG IURP WKH ERRN ³´ WKURXJK WZR GLIIHUHQW PRGHV RI
presentation. For the experimental group, the presentation mode included: presenting words with their pronunciations and parts of speech, followed by a text containing those words, a meaning negotiation section, a guess-­the-­meaning part, and a part for sample sentences which required the students to write their own sentence samples with the given words. For the control group;; however, it included: presenting vocabularies with their pronunciations, L2 definitions, L1 translation, and parts of speech, followed by a related text and sample sentences where the students were required to complete the given sentences using the taught words. Two weeks after instruction, learning and retention of vocabularies in the two groups were tested through a posttest and the collected data was analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. The results of the study showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group regarding vocabulary learning and retention. It was concluded that the meaning of new vocabularies should be presented in relation to other words (contextualizing vocabularies) and an appropriate opportunity should be provided for students to use their new learned vocabularies in order to reach longer retention. 118
T ablet P C and Sma rt Phone-based language pedagogy
H amid Toraby
Isla mic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
E brahim M ohamad k hah
Ur mia University
Vafa Q ade ri
Isla mic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
The explosive growth of educational technology has brought to the forefront new and exciting
language learning opportunities for educators and students. To be on the cutting edge of
language instruction, teachers are now expected to develop new and innovative practices that
utilize technology to assist in the acquisition of second and foreign languages. With the
momentum that the field is experiencing, it is an opportune moment to evaluate how the latest
technologies are being viewed and used. It is found more straightforward in Prensky (2005)
FRPPHQW ZKHQ KH FODLPV WKDW ³:H ZLOO QRW EH RQ WKH ULJKW WUDFN XQWLO HGXFDWRUV VWDUW
considering using the computing and communication device currently in the students' pockets
WRVXSSRUWOHDUQLQJ´7KLVUHVHDUFKSURMHFWKDVH[SORUHG,UDQLDQ()/OHDUQHUV¶DWWLWXGHVWRZDUG
M obile-Assisted Language Learning (hereinafter MALL), more specifically, implementations
of MALL. To that end a MALL Questionnaire was distributed to a group of a twenty EFL
learners. The results indicated that the group receiving instruction through MALL
outperformed the comparison group on the vocabulary test. The results of the MALL
Questionnaire also pointed to the willingness and openness of the participants toward MALL.
However, they indicated a number of barriers that inhibit the effective and widespread use of
MALL. Lack of professional development and a bank MALL activities and software are
among the barriers felt by the participants of the study. These barriers as well as suggestions
for overcoming them are discussed.
119
Non-anomalous Sentence P rocessing and Reading Ability: A case of
Iranian E F L Lea rne rs
F ate me h C he lopazi
This paper presented an experimental study of the relationship between non-anomalous
sentence processing in terms of reaction time and grammatical judgment and reading ability
among Iranian EFL learners. Participants were exposed to sixty non-anomalous sentences with
three word order types on Macromedia Authorware. The experimental findings provided
evidence for small correlation between reading ability and reaction time scores and no
correlation between reading ability and correct grammatical judgment scores.
Keywords: Non-anomalous sentences, Sentence processing, Reading ability
120
A desc riptive Study on Seven Strategies for Improving Reading
Comprehension in E F L lea rne rs
Fatemeh Samadi
Azad University, Research and Science Branch of Arak
F ate me h A zizmohammadi
Isla mic Azad University of Arak
Comprehension strategies are conscious plans ² sets of steps that good readers use to make
sense of text. Comprehension strategy instruction helps students become purposeful, active
readers who are in control of their own reading comprehension. The seven strategies here
appear to have a firm scientific basis for improving text comprehension (C.R. Adler,
2012).This study is intended to investigate whether the degree of seven reading strategies
awareness will have any effect on students' reading comprehension ability. To meet the aim,
first the researchers brought special definition for seven strategies in reading comprehension
which have defined by C.R. Adler and other authors in this field. They consisted of Monitoring
comprehension, Metacognition, Graphic and semantic organizers. Answering questions,
Generating questions, Recognizing story structure, Summarizing. Then they would be
discussed about the role of each strategy in improving reading comprehension in EFL learners.
At the end the researchers discussed about the role of explicit teaching techniques which are
particularly effective for comprehension strategy instruction and they have mentioned different
steps in explicit instruction for teaching reading strategies to students.
K e y words : Reading strategy, Reading comprehension ability, explicit teaching techniques,
EFL learners, English as a foreign language
121
Inc reasing Student-T eache r Inte raction through W riting Summa ry in
E F L Reading C lasses
Simin Ne zamdoos t Sani
Ur mia University of Technology
The purpose of the present study is to explore the amount of student-­teacher
interaction and the effectiveness of summary-­writing as a post-­reading activity on
increasing student-­teacher interaction in general and students' learning,
comprehension and speaking abilities in particular. Using language communicatively
is the utmost goal of EFL classes. It is generally believed that classroom interaction
facilitates students' languge development and comprehension since classes are taken
as social constructs with particular roles assigned to members which necessitates a
reasonable amount of interaction on all sides. To this end, this study was conducted
on 161 engineering students whose age varied between 18 and 20. The pretreatment
and post-­treatment observations revealed that compared to the control group, the 4
experimental groups proved a higher and significant level of interaction after
treatment (sig.=0.34), which indicates the effectiveness of summary-­writing as a post-­
reading activity on the amount of student-­teacher interaction. Accordingly, it seems
that the summary-­writing strategy implemented in this case study can be applied in
other EFL settings to enjoy a more communicative and interactive atmosphere by
removing instructors from the sole center of attention.
122
Inte rdependent hypothesis and C ross-linguistic T ransfe r of Reading
Strategies
Se ye d H ass an T ale bi, Ph.D. in T E F L
Mazandaran University, Iran
M ojtaba M aghsoudi, Ph.D . in T E F L
Farhangian University, Iran
(S hahid Bahonar, Arak )
F ate me h A line zhad Rad, M . A . s tude nt in T E F L
science and research branch,Isla mic azad university, Arak ,Iran.
Reading research generally Takes a process and/or product view of reading. This paper
attempts to explore the relationship between L1 and L2 in one mind from the perspective of
&XPPLQV¶ &RPPRQ 8QGHUO\LQJ 3URILFLHQF\ K\SRWKHVLV ZKLFK PDLQWDLQV WKH DFTXLVLWLRQ RI
both L1 and L2 can contribute to underlying language proficiency. To the purpose of this
paper, report of two experimental studies on the effects of L1 on L2, and the reverse, taking
both a product and a process view will be provided. The common finding in these two studies
is that the process of reading is common across languages and, therefore transferable from one
language to another. However, the same transferability power conceived for the process of
reading cannot be conceived for the product of reading. This is due to factors such as
directionality of transfer and language proficiency effects. Increase in L1 reading product as a
result of reading strategies instruction in L1 does not guarantee an increase in L2 reading
product. However, if reading strategies are taught in L2, an increase in L2 as well as L1
reading product is most likely to happen. It is recommended that because of the transferability
of the process aspect of reading in different languages in one mind, L1 or L2 teachers take this
aspect of the relationship between languages as seriously as possible so that its effects can be
witnessed both in the language of instruction and the other languages in one mind.
K e y te rms : Reading - Cross linguistics and strategies
123
An Investigation of the Pathology of Language Te aching in Iran
M os tafa M orady M oghaddam
University of Tabriz, Iran
mostafa_ [email protected] m
Vale h Gholami
University of Tabriz, Iran
vale.ghola [email protected] m
One of the characteristics of each educational system which can have a great influence on
OHDUQHUV¶GHYHORSPHQWDOSURFHVVLV teaching methodology . Teaching methodology embraces
ecology and educational environment. The interactional nature of teaching with
miscellaneous factors takes account for the complexity of the concept of teaching. The quality
of learning is related to both teaching methodology and the objectives of the curriculum. In
this study, 175 EFL learners and 35 teachers from the private language institutes were chosen
as the participants of the study. Through interviewing, some questions were asked from the
participants. The purpose of the study revolved around three aspects: pathology, recognizing
criteria, and presenting elite pattern of teaching in language classes. In pathology part, factors
such as quality of teaching , educational sources , WHDFKHUV¶H[SHUWLVH, measure ment, and
managing learners ZHUH DWWHQGHG DQG GLVFXVVHG $FFRUGLQJ WR OHDUQHUV DQG WHDFKHUV¶
viewpoint, managing learners, quality of teaching , educational output, expertise , personality ,
and educational policies were the main recognizing criteria of elite teaching respectively.
Finally, the underlying elements of elite pattern of teaching are discussed in which an
emphasis is put on research-based education, problem-solving ability, advocating competent
learners and many similar factors. The findings of this study can be useful for teachers as well
as the educational programmers to improve the quality of language teaching in Iran.
K e ywords: Pathology of Teaching; Criteria of Influential Teaching; Pattern of Teaching;
Quality of Teaching.
124
T he Nature of Accessibility to Unive rsal G ramma r by E F L Lea rne rs
M os tafa M orady M oghaddam
PhD student, University of Tabriz
mostafa_ [email protected] m
As it is posited by Chomsky, languages are governed by a set of universal grammars which are
accessible before the puberty. In this study, an attempt is made to find out whether there are
any universal principles underlying the language used by EFL learners. In this case, there is
not much information at hand about the universal constraints used by EFL learners. To this
HQG :KLWH¶VPRGHORIXQLYHUVDOJUDPPDU8*DSSOLFDWLRQLVXWLOL]HGWRLQYHVWLJDWHWKH
accessibility to UG in EFL learners. There are three views toward UG accessibility; No
Access, Partial Access, and Full Access. The current literature advocates that there are
common errors shared by many EFL learners which make researchers ponder whether UG
principles are applicable to a language after the puberty. Likewise, there are some constraints
observable in the production of adult EFL learners which may be taken as evidence for the
operation of Universal Grammar. However, it is not obvious how EFL learners have access to
universal categories which is the topic of consideration in this paper.
K e ywords: EFL Learners, Universal Grammar, Accessibility, Competence
125
T he M ic ro-Level of C lassroom Context: An Inte raction between
Authority, Powe r, and Morality
M os tafa M orady M oghaddam
University of Tabriz, Iran
mostafa_ [email protected] m
Vale h Gholami
University of Tabriz, Iran
vale.ghola [email protected] m
This study intended to figure out the interrelationship between authority, power, and morality
with an in-depth focus on the interaction among these three elements in shaping the microlevel of classroom interaction. Teaching is a procedure which is inseparable from moral action.
%X]]HOL DQG -RKQVWRQ DGYRFDWHG WKDW ³WHDFKHUV DUH PRUDO DJHQWV DQG HGXFDWLRQ DV D
whole, and thus classroom interaction in particular, is fundamentally and inevitably moral in
QDWXUH´S7KLVDUWLFOHFRQFOXGHVZLWKHQGRUVLQJWhe idea that teachers use their authority
to regulate power relations and ethical issues. It should be emphasized that there are always
some tension between morality and power which takes into account the idiosyncrasies of EFL
context.
K e ywords: classroom, micro-level, morality, ethical issues, power relations
126
T he effect of controlled, guided, and free writing on the cohesiveness
RI,UDQLDQ()/OHDUQHUV¶DUJXPHQWDWLYHZULWLQJ
Abbas Ali Zare i
Assistantprofessor,Imam Khomeini International University,Qazvin
M aryam Dodange h
M.A,Islamic Azad Universityt,Takestan
The present study aimed at investigating the effect of three writing strategies; controlled,
guided, and free writing, on tKHFRKHVLYHQHVVRI,UDQLDQ()/OHDUQHUV¶DUJXPHQWDWLYHZULWLQJ
The participants were 60 Iranian senior high school students from four high schools in Abhar.
The participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and each group was
assigned to one of the treatment conditions. The first group practiced controlled writing, the
second group practiced guided writing, and the third group practiced free writing for ten
VHVVLRQV7KHGDWDZHUHFROOHFWHGYLDWKHSDUWLFLSDQWV¶SUHDQGSRVWWHVWZULWLQJV, and analysed
using three paired-samples t-test and a One-Way ANOVA procedures. The findings showed
that although the students in all three experimental groups showed significant improvements
from pretest to posttest, the controlled writing group outperformed the other two groups. These
findings can have implications for EFL learners as well as teachers.
K e y words: writing, controlled writing, guided writing, free writing, argumentative writing
127
A Discourse Analysis of Compute r G ames : Investigating
Implicational Results for E F L Context
Vale h Gholami
vale.gola [email protected] m
With the advent of Sociolinguistic approaches to SLA and the introduction of the role
RIDUWLIDFWVLQHQKDQFLQJOHDUQHUV·SHUIRUPDQFHHGXFDWLRQDOWRROVFDPHWRIRUHIront.
With the widespread use of computers in almost every phase of life, individuals, and
particularly younger adults, have come to this realization that life is impossible
without computers. Some parents may complain that their children never open a
book but when it comes to computer games it is difficult to get them off. The
optimistic side of the problem is that it is possible to take advantage of this scenario.
Playing a game can be playing with a language too. In this study we analyzed the
discourse structures (both written and oral) of some computer games in order to find
out what would be the quality of language presented in them. After analyzing the
games, the findings revealed that the discourse of computer games enjoys some
peculiarities and it is rich linguistically and pragmatically in that the games include
(a) creative and appropriate use of language;; (b) figurative sentences;; (c) phonetic
patterns of language;; (d) different accents and registers;; and (e) use of colloquial and
prefabricated sentences which can be of great help for improving communicative
competence. These advantages show that computer games are a rich source of input
for EFL learners. Teachers can also benefit from games as a kind of homework which
is easy to do and at the same time joyful. Finally, the implications of the study in
foreign language classroom context are argued.
Keywords: Computer Games, Assisted Language Learning, Discourse Analysis,
Linguistic Features.
128
T he E ffect of Self-Directed Lea rning on the Components of Reading
Comprehension
M aryam M e s hk at, PhD
S hahid Raj aee Teacher Training University
A li H ass anzade , M A
S hahid Raj aee Teacher Training University
There have been few studies on self-­directed learning (SDL) and its relationship with
language skills in Iran. Related literature in Iran shows a positive association between
SDL and reading comprehension. This research was carried out to find out whether
SDL influences the components of reading comprehension. The participants in this
study were 60 high school students who took the reading comprehension part of PET.
The study was conducted through a quasi-­experimental design. Over 16 weeks, the
experimental group, consisting of 30 students, underwent instruction in SDL. The
data gathered from the pretest was analyzed using an independent samples t-­test. The
results (
) indicated that the two groups were homogeneous in
terms of their reading comprehension ability before the treatment. A one-­way
between-­groups multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the data
gathered from posttest to investigate whether SDL affects the components of reading
comprehension. The results displayed no significant difference between the two
groups on the combined dependent variables
:LON·V Lambda
partial eta squared
The components of reading comprehension appear
not to be significantly affected by SDL. The results suggest that SDL may not be
FRPSDWLEOHZLWK,UDQ·VV\VWHPRIHGXFDWLRQ
Key Words: Self-­directed Learning, Components of Reading Comprehension
129
$QLQYHVWLJDWLRQLQWR()/WHDFKHUV¶EXUQRXWVHOI-efficacy and
VWXGHQWV¶OHDUQLQJVWUDWHJLHV
H ass an E mroozi B ajgiran
(M.A. Holder of TE FL, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran)
Teachers have gained the most significant role in educational systems and become as a kernel
SRLQWLQUHVHDUFKHUV¶LQWHUHVWVUHFHQWO\$FFRUGLQJO\WHDFKHUV¶SV\FKRORJLFDOYDULDEOHVVXFKDV
self-efficacy, burnout, or attitude to name but a few have received great attention. Moreover,
PDQDJLQJGLIIHUHQWVWXGHQWV¶OHDUQLQJVWUDWHJLHVZKLFKGHYHORSVWKHLUOHDUQLQJRXWFRPHVEULQJV
KHDY\ UHVSRQVLELOLW\ RQ WKH WHDFKHUV¶ VKRXOGHUV The present study was done to detect the
UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WHDFKHUV¶ VHOI-efficacy, burnout and two kinds RI OHDUQHUV¶ OHDUQLQJ
strategies named social and affective ones. The participants were thirty EAP teachers and 150
college students of Islamic Azad University, Payam-e-Noor and Khayyam University in
Mashhad, Iran. Three questionnaires (Maslach Burnout Inventory, 1993; Teacher self-efficacy
scale developed by Tschannen-Moran & Wool folk Hoy, 2001; Rebecca Oxford Strategy
Inventory for Language Learning, 1989) have been used to measure the variables under
investigation. The results have revealed that teacheUV¶ EXUQRXW DQG VHOI-efficacy have
VLJQLILFDQW HIIHFWRQVWXGHQWV¶VRFLDODQGDIIHFWLYHOHDUQLQJ VWUDWHJLHV0RUHRYHUWHDFKHUV¶VHOIefficacy and burnout are negatively correlated.
K e ywords : burnout, self-efficacy, social strategies, affective strategies
130
Lexical Syllabus: A Pathway towa rd ESP Course Design
,QYROYLQJ%RWK7HDFKHUV¶DQG/HDUQHUV¶3HUFHSWLRQV
M asoome h Es taji
$OODPHK7DEDWDED¶L8QLYHUVLW\
Roya Vafae ime hr
$OODPHK7DEDWDED¶L8QLYHUVLW\
This study intends to investigate tKH (63 WHDFKHUV¶ DQG VWXGHQWV¶ SHUFHSWLRQV RI OH[LFDO
syllabus considering its goals and content, instructional and learning strategies required,
evaluation and assessment procedures, and the problems encountered during the syllabus
implementation. Through a questionnaire administered to both male and female teachers and
students, the data were collected from 25 teachers selected through convenience sampling and
60 students randomly picked from an institution in Iran. Likewise, to investigate the teacher's
perception of lexical syllabus in ESP, 15 teachers attended semi-structured interviews.
Descriptive and inferential statistics of Chi-square tests and ANOVA were carried out to
investigate whether the differences among groups of teachers and students by background
factors were statistically significant. The analyzed results revealed encouraging signs of
WHDFKHUV¶ DQG OHDUQHUV¶ ZLOOLQJQHVV WRHQJDJHLQOH[LFDORULHQWHGFODVVHVWKRXJK WHDFKHUV¶DQG
VWXGHQWV¶ SHUFHSWLRQV RIFXUULFXOXPJRDOVDQGFRQWHQWGLIIHUHd. Likewise, the results reflected
teething problems to fully consider lexical approaches in the classrooms. The most immediate
implication arising from this research is that sub-technical vocabulary as well as Academic
English should be given more attentiRQ LQ (63 FODVVURRPV WR HQULFK WKH OHDUQHUV¶ OH[LFDO
FRPSHWHQF\ DQG UDLVH WKH WHDFKHUV¶ DZDUHQHVV RI LPSOHPHQWLQJ VXFK V\OODEL IRU WKHLU
classrooms.
Keywords: Lexical syllabus, learner's perception, teacher's perception, vocabulary learning
strategies, English for Specific Purposes
131
In-Se rvice T raining and Junior High-6FKRRO7HDFKHUV¶6HOI-E fficacy
%HOLHIV(IIHFWLYHQHVVDQG7HDFKHUV¶3HUFHSWLRQV
K arim K halaji, M . A ,
S harif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Roya Vafae ime hr, M . A ,
Alla PH7DEDWDED¶L8QLYHUVLW\7HKUDQ,UDQ
A min Rajabi K ondlaji, M . A ,
S harif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
In-service training courses might be beneficial for teachers as a way to improve their present
level of knowledge and teaching skills as well as to promote teachers' effectiveness and selfefficacy. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of in-service teacher
WUDLQLQJFRXUVHRQGHYHORSLQJ,UDQLDQSXEOLF-XQLRU+LJKVFKRRO(QJOLVKWHDFKHUV¶VHOI-efficacy
and also to examine whether gender and university degree are determining factors on the
GHYHORSPHQW RI WHDFKHUV¶ VHOI-efficacy beliefs. To this end 45 male and female Junior high
school English teachers attending in-service training course participated in the study.
Tschannen-0RUDQ DQG :RROIRON+R\¶VVHOI-efficacy scale was given before and after
the course. The results of the survey indicated that although females and teachers with higher
university degree had better improvement of self-efficacy beliefs compared to males and those
ZLWK ORZHU XQLYHUVLW\ GHJUHHV WKHUH ZDV QRW D VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFH LQ WKH WHDFKHUV¶ VHOIefficacy beliefs before and after in-service training course. Furthermore to have a better
XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WHDFKHUV¶ SHUFHSWLRQV WRZDUGV LQ-service training courses, a semi-structured
interview was carried out. The results of the interview were also in line with the findings of the
analysis.
132
L2 Idiom Lea rning in the Context of Distance Lea rning
A F ocus on T extual and Pictorial G loss ing and Hype rlink
A bbas A li Zare i,
Assistant professor, Ima m Kho meini International University, Qazvin
Samira A bbas i
MA, Isla mic Azad University, Tak estan
S a [email protected] mail.co m
This study investigated the effects of textual and pictorial glossing and hyperlink on L2 idiom
comprehension and production in distance learning context. The participants, 60 Intermediate
female EFL students, were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 15. All groups received two
stories a week through Email. Each group received the stories with a different mode of
presentation. Two groups were provided with hyperlinked idioms: pictorial and textual
hyperlink. The other two groups received instruction through glosses, pictorial and textual
glosses. At the end of the experimental period, two posttests were administered: a multiple
choice test for idiom comprehension and a fill-in-the-blanks test to measure productive
knowledge of idioms. The findings showed that the pictorial groups outperformed the textual
groups in both hyperlink and glossing conditions on the comprehension test. However, the
GLIIHUHQWPRGHVRISUHVHQWDWLRQKDGQRVLJQLILFDQW HIIHFWRQWKHOHDUQHUV¶SURGXFWLRQRILGLRPV
K e y words : idiom learning, distance learning, gloss, hyperlink
133
Inte rsections of Resilience and Communicative Competence in
7HDFKHUV¶3URIHVVLRQDO'HYHORSPHQW$Q(PSLULFDO6WXG\
M asoome h Es taji
$OODPHK7DEDWDED¶L8QLYHUVLW\
A li Rahimi
Vahid B ahrami
$OODPHK7DEDWDED¶L8QLYHUVLW\
This study attempted to unravel the relationship and difference between teachers' resilience
and their communicative competence in terms of level of experience, education, and
instruction. Moreover, the predictive ability of teachers' resilience about their communicative
competence is scrutinized. Utilizing a quantitative research design, a total of 80 EFL
instructors selected through convenience sampling responded to a demographic questionnaire,
5-point Likert-VFDOH TXHVWLRQQDLUH RI UHVLOLHQFH IROORZHG E\ D TXHVWLRQQDLUH RQ WHDFKHUV¶
communication competence. Descriptive statistics measures, three Pearson correlations, oneway ANOVA, and multiple regression tests were run to find significance in the relationship
and difference between attribute variables of the study. The results revealed a significant
relationship between teachers' resilience and their communication competence in terms of
level of experience and instruction, although the experienced and high-proficiency instructors
displayed higher correlation coefficient. Likewise, the results of one-way ANOVA indicated a
VWDWLVWLFDOO\ VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFH EHWZHHQ WKH QRYLFH DQGH[SHULHQFHGWHDFKHUV¶UHODWLRQVKLSV
of resilience and communication competence. On the contrary, there was found neither a
relationship nor statistical difference between the teDFKHUV¶ UHVLOLHQF\ DQG FRPPXQLFDWLYH
competence as regards their level of education. More importantly, any combination of the
variables to predict teacher resilience from level of education, experience, and instruction
showed no statistical significance.
134
The e ffect of portfolio assessme nt on the language achie ve me nt of E F L le arne rs
M ohammad Re za A mirian
Hak im S abzevari University
M ohse n Rame zanian
Hak im S abzevari University
This study examines the impact of two methods of assessment namely portfolio and
conventional method. The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of these two methods
in improving Iranian EFL learners' language ability. Two intact classes were selected. Then,
the experimental group was trained in using portfolios over a course of one semester. The
other group was taught using the conventional method and was only tested once at the end of
the course. There were 16 participants in each group who were at about the age of 14 attending
junior high school. For each group 5 lessons of their English book (third grade of junior high
school) were taught and a test was administered to them at the end of the experiment. The
performances of the two groups were compared using an independent samples t-test which
confirmed that there is a significant difference between the two groups and that the
experimental group significantly outperformed the control group. This finding implies that
portfolio assessment is an effective method of assessment for high school students and teachers
are advised to utilize portfolio assessment as an alternative to traditional methods of testing.
Moreover, portfolios can boost learning and may be employed by students as an aid to
language learning as well.
135
A Pragmatic Study of Complime nt Production Among N ative Spe ake rs of English
M inoo A le mi, Ph.D.
S harif University of Technology
Parvane h K hos ravizade h, Ph.D.
S harif University of Technology
Roja I randoos t, M . A s tude nt
S harif University of Technology
There has been abundant research in pragmatics, particularly with a focus on the speech act of
FRPSOLPHQWEXWQRQHRIWKHPKDVGHYHORSHGDQ\PRGHOIRUQDWLYH(QJOLVKVSHDNHUV¶FULWHULDLQ
WKHLU FRPSOLPHQW SURGXFWLRQ 5HJDUGLQJ WKH OLWHUDWXUH¶V FUXFLDO QHHG IRU D PRGHO RI QDWLYH
English VSHDNHUV¶ FRPSOLPHQW SURGXFWLRQ WKLV VWXG\ VRXJKW WR LQYHVWLJDWH WKH FULWHULD DQG
patterns that native English speakers from Australia and USA use when producing
compliments, and whether there is statistically significant difference among the frequencies of
the criteria. A questionnaire including 7 situations which varied in the degree of formality
(formal/informal), social distance (high-to-low/low-to-high/equal) and gender, was sent to the
40 participants, ranging from 22 to 50 years old, via email. Content analysis of their
compliment production revealed 10 criteria: Interjection, Use of titles , Introduction ,
Ack nowledge ment of the object , Appreciation or Ad miration, Explicit co mpliment, Implicit
co mpliment, Noting specific points of the object , Ask ing for more infor mation , and Hu mor .
After calculating the frequency of occurrence and percentage of each criterion, it was found
that Appreciation or Ad miration was the most frequent criterion, followed by Explicit
co mpliment, Ack nowledgement of the object , Use of titles and Introduction respectively. ChiVTXDUHDQDO\VLVDOVRUHYHDOHGWKDWWKHUHZDVDVLJQLILFDQWGLIIHUHQFHLQWKHSDUWLFLSDQWV¶XVHRI
each criterion in different situations. It was concluded that the context of situation, social
distance, cultural norms and gender were of effective factors in the results of this study. EFL
teachers and materials developers can benefit of this study.
Keywords: Compliment pattern, criteria, pragmatic, native speakers of English
136
A Comparative Study of the Impacts of D ynamic Assessme nt and Code d Focuse d
Fee dback on the Process Writing and R e vision Ability of Iranian Le arne rs
Fate me h K honamri
University of Mazandaran
M arjan Tabi
Islamic Azad University of Tonekabon
The present study tried to explore the impact of dynamic assessment (DA) and Coded Focused
)HHGEDFN &)) RQ WKH ,UDQLDQ ()/ VWXGHQWV¶ ZULWLQJ SHUIRUPDQFH 7R WKLV HQG WZR
experimental groups of high intermediate learners were selected to compare the effects of
assisted (DA) versus unassisted feedback (CFF) on their process writing. A mixed method
DQDO\VLV ZDV XVHG WR DQVZHU WKH UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV 6WXGHQWV¶ SHUIRUPDQFH RQ SUH-test and
post-test were analyzed via paired sample t-test and independent t-test. Transcripts of the
teacher-student interaction in the DA group were also used to analyze the data further
qualitatively. Results of the t-tests(p= 0.005 T=-7.415 and p= 0.5 T=-1.0) and the descriptive
study of the transcripts indicated that the DA group outperformed the CFF group both in the
process writing and the revisions of the assigned topics implying that assisted writing
instruction through (DA) helped learners to improve their writing ability.
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islPAL Inc. International Society for Leadership in Pedagogies and Learning
www.pedagogy.org.au
Vision
islPAL is a dynamic community o f p roactive learners who: x care about learners and the quality of learning x care about teachers and the quality of teaching x engage with learners worldwide x model high q uality p edagogies and p ractices for sustainable living, lifelong learning and individual and community well b eing. x research to b uild knowledge and understanding o f p edagogy to improve p ractices and build the capacity o f learners, teachers and e ducational o rganisations. Values
islPAL values learning and the vital role o f p edagogies in influencing: x the development o f human potential and endeavour, x the growth of the individual as a healthy and effective p articipant and contributor to a learning community, x an appreciation o f the contribution d iverse p opulations make to society, x the development o f a socially just and sustainable society. Beliefs
Teachers and Learners: x Everyone is a learner and e veryone is a teacher. x As individuals g row, they accept responsibility for their o wn learning . x Positive attitudes to learning create e mpowered learners, p owerful learning environments and learning communities. x Teachers influence the q uality of student learning. High Quality Pedagogies and Practices: x High quality p edagogies e mpower students to take control o f their own learning. x Choices o f high q uality pedagogies and p ractices impact o n students' ability to: o achieve p ersonal well b eing, understanding and skills to e ffectively shape, participate, and contribute positively to a socially just society. x The choices o f high q uality p edagogies and p ractices impact o n students' awareness o f: o sustainable life p ractices necessary for e ngaging with the world in a sustainable way, and the importance o f lifelong learning and d evelopment. x The choices o f high q uality p edagogies and p ractices impact o n students' g rowth in: o an understanding o f self, family and community, o an understanding o f the role o f language and action in a socially just society, o an understanding o f culture and the value o f diversity in society, and x an understanding o f the need to uptake e thical, moral, legal and socially just p ractices. 138
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