RiChaRd Chun doug Cook BlaCk BelT Poomsae
RiChaRd Chun doug Cook BlaCk BelT Poomsae
Martial Arts B2641 Chun and Cook According to the World Taekwondo Federation, there are over 90,000,000 taekwondo practitioners worldwide. Every level 1 black belt student is required to learn Poomsae Koryo. Yet few are familiar with the ancestral form known as the ‘Original Koryo.’ Prearranged forms, known as poomsae in taekwondo, are a primary method of transmitting martial arts skills from teacher to student. As sport preference supplanted fighting preference in taekwondo’s reason for existence, the Original Koryo was modified in kind to today’s well-known Koryo. In summary, students will find in this book: • History and philosophy • Technical elements for learning the basics • Detailed instruction for learning Koryo • Detailed instruction for learning Original Koryo Over two hundred photographs, line of motion charts, stepping patterns, and martial applications are provided throughout this in-depth instructional book. Grandmaster Richard Chun, Master Doug Cook, 6th dan, Ph.D., 9th dan, is one of the highest ranked masters of taekwondo in the world. He is the president of the USTA and has been a senior WTF international referee, among other distinguished posts. Richard Chun resides in Tenafly, New Jersey. is the author of four books. He is certified by the USTA and the Kukkiwon in South Korea. He is a 2006 inductee into the Budo International Martial Arts Hall of Fame. Doug Cook teaches and resides in Warwick, New York. Photos: Tim Comrie YMAA PUBLICATION CENTER ISBN-13: 978-1-59439-264-1 ISBN-10: 1-59439-264-1 YMAA Publication Center 1-800-669-8892 [email protected] | www.ymaa.com 9781594395641 cover layout.indd 1 Tae kwon do Black Belt Poomsae Written specifically for level 1 and level 2 black belt students, this book is a scholarly attempt to capture, transmit, and preserve as an inheritance the historical treasures and technical elements inherent in Original Koryo and Koryo, as well as the applications less obvious or even secretly encoded in these forms. This knowledge will benefit those seeking more than triumph in the ring or aerobic fulfillment from their taekwondo training. Tae kwon do Black Belt Poomsae Original Koryo and Koryo Richard Chun and Doug Cook US $18.95 6/14/13 4:37 PM Martial Arts B2641 Chun and Cook According to the World Taekwondo Federation, there are over 90,000,000 taekwondo practitioners worldwide. Every level 1 black belt student is required to learn Poomsae Koryo. Yet few are familiar with the ancestral form known as the ‘Original Koryo.’ Prearranged forms, known as poomsae in taekwondo, are a primary method of transmitting martial arts skills from teacher to student. As sport preference supplanted fighting preference in taekwondo’s reason for existence, the Original Koryo was modified in kind to today’s well-known Koryo. In summary, students will find in this book: • History and philosophy • Technical elements for learning the basics • Detailed instruction for learning Koryo • Detailed instruction for learning Original Koryo Over two hundred photographs, line of motion charts, stepping patterns, and martial applications are provided throughout this in-depth instructional book. Grandmaster Richard Chun, Master Doug Cook, 6th dan, Ph.D., 9th dan, is one of the highest ranked masters of taekwondo in the world. He is the president of the USTA and has been a senior WTF international referee, among other distinguished posts. Richard Chun resides in Tenafly, New Jersey. is the author of four books. He is certified by the USTA and the Kukkiwon in South Korea. He is a 2006 inductee into the Budo International Martial Arts Hall of Fame. Doug Cook teaches and resides in Warwick, New York. Photos: Tim Comrie YMAA PUBLICATION CENTER ISBN-13: 978-1-59439-264-1 ISBN-10: 1-59439-264-1 YMAA Publication Center 1-800-669-8892 [email protected] | www.ymaa.com 9781594395641 cover layout.indd 1 Tae kwon do Black Belt Poomsae Written specifically for level 1 and level 2 black belt students, this book is a scholarly attempt to capture, transmit, and preserve as an inheritance the historical treasures and technical elements inherent in Original Koryo and Koryo, as well as the applications less obvious or even secretly encoded in these forms. This knowledge will benefit those seeking more than triumph in the ring or aerobic fulfillment from their taekwondo training. Tae kwon do Black Belt Poomsae Original Koryo and Koryo Richard Chun and Doug Cook US $18.95 6/14/13 4:37 PM YMAA Publication Center, Inc. PO Box 480 Wolfeboro, NH 03894 800 669-8892 • www.ymaa.com • [email protected] PaperbackEbook ISBN: 978-1-59439-264-1 ISBN: 978-1-59439-260-3 All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Copyright ©2013 by Richard Chun and Doug Cook Cover design by Axie Breen Editing by Susan Bullowa Photos by the authors unless otherwise noted. Photos in parts II through VI by Tim Comrie. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Publisher’s Cataloging in Publication Chun, Richard. Tae kwon do black belt poomsae : original Koryo and Koryo / Richard Chun and Doug Cook. -- Wolfeboro, NH : YMAA Publication Center, c2013. p. ; cm. ISBN: 978-1-59439-264-1 (pbk) ; 978-1-59439-260-3 (ebook) Includes bibliographical references and index. Summary: Every 1st degree black belt student is required to learn the Koryo kata, but few are familiar with the ancestral formal exercise "Original Koryo". Written specifically for black belt students, this book presents Original Koryo and Koryo, as well as the martial applications encoded in these forms.--Publisher. 1. Tae kwon do. 2. Tae kwon do--Training. 3. Martial arts--Training. 4. Hand-to-hand fighting, Oriental--Training. I. Cook, Doug. II. Title. GV1114.9 .C488 2013 796.815/7--dc23 2013935651 1306 Warning: While self-defense is legal, fighting is illegal. If you don’t know the difference you’ll go to jail because you aren’t defending yourself, you are fighting—or worse. Readers are encouraged to be aware of all appropriate local and national laws relating to self-defense, reasonable force, and the use of weaponry, and to act in accordance with all applicable laws at all times. Understand that while legal definitions and interpretations are generally uniform, there are small—but very important—differences from state to state and even city to city. To stay out of jail, you need to know these differences. Neither the authors nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for the use or misuse of information contained in this book. Nothing in this document constitutes a legal opinion nor should any of its contents be treated as such. While the authors believe that everything herein is accurate, any questions regarding specific self-defense situations, legal liability, and/or interpretation of federal, state, or local laws should always be addressed by an attorney at law. This text relies on public news sources to gather information on various crimes and criminals described herein. While news reports of such incidences are generally accurate, they are on occasion incomplete or incorrect. Consequently, all suspects should be considered innocent until proven guilty in a court of law. When it comes to martial arts, self-defense, and related topics, no text, no matter how well written, can substitute for professional, hands-on instruction. These materials should be used for academic study only. Editorial Notice. In an effort to avoid confusion, the authors have chosen to conform to the Western custom of placing surnames last rather than first, which is routine in Asia. The only exception is General Choi, Hong Hi because he is universally recognized by this configuration. ii Table of Contents Dedication Acknowledgements Introduction vii ix xi I. History and Philosophy The Ritual Practice of Formal Exercises The Influence of Korean History on Original Koryo and Koryo Poomsae Foreign Influences on Taekwondo Formal Exercises The Evolution of the Kwans The Globalization of Taekwondo The Creation of Modern Taekwondo Poomsae Philosophical Considerations of Modern Taekwondo Poomsae Attributes and Technical Performance of Taekwondo Poomsae Instructional Methodology 1 1 9 13 17 28 37 44 47 48 II. Technical Elements of Original Koryo and Koryo 53 Stances53 Blocks59 Kicks65 Strikes67 III. Original Koryo Poomsae Line of Technical Motion Ready Position (Parallel Stance)—Joonbi (Naranhi Seogi) Slightly Extended Left Knife Hand Middle Block – Wen Jogum Neulligi Sonnal Momtong Makki Right Four Knuckle Fist Strike—Orun Pyung Chumok Jireugi Right Side Kick/Side Hammer Fist Strike—Orun Yop Chagi/Yop Me Chumok Jireugi Low X Block—Otgolo Arae Makki Right Hand High Block—Orun Olgool Makki Left Four Knuckle Fist Strike—Wen Pyung Chumok Jireugi Right Single Knife Hand Outside Middle Block/Reverse Punch— Orun Bakkat Hansonnal Momtong Makki/Bandae Jireugi Open Hand Head Grab/Left Knee Kick—Mori Japgo/Moorub Chigi Low X Block—Otgolo Arae Makki Inner Arm Spread Middle Block—Anpalmok Momtong Hechyo Makki Extend Left Hand to Grab Opponent—Wen Son Neulligi Right Round Elbow Strike/Left Single Knife Hand Low Block— Orun Dollyo Palgub Chigi/Wen Hansonnal Arae Makki 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 78 79 80 81 81 82 83 iii iv Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Right Single Knife Hand Outside Middle Block— Orun Bakkat Hansonnal Momtong Makki Right Inside Middle Block—Orun Ahn Momtong Makki Left Inside Middle Block—Wen Ahn Momtong Makki Right Back Fist Strike—Orun Doong Chumok Chigi Left Outside Knife Hand High Block—Wen Bakkat Sonnal Olgool Makki Left Front Kick—Wen Ap Chagi Jumping Front Kick—Twio Ap Chagi Double Middle Punch—Doobal Momtong Jireugi Ready Position (Parallel Stance)—Joonbi (Naranhi Seogi) IV. Koryo Poomsae Line of Technical Motion Ready Position (Parallel Stance)—Joonbi (Naranhi Seogi) Barrel Pushing Ready Stance—Tong Milgi Joonbi Seogi Left Knife Hand Middle Block—Wen Sonnal Momtong Makki Double Side Kick (Right Low Side Kick/Right High Side Kick) Right Outside Knife Hand Strike—Kodeup Yop Chagi (Orun Arae Yop Chagi/Orun Olgool Yop Chagi) Orun Sonnal Bakkat Chigi Reverse Middle Punch—Bandae Jireugi Right Inside Middle Block—Orun Ahn Momtong Makki Right Knife Hand Middle Block—Sonnal Momtong Makki Double Side Kick (Left Low Side Kick/Left High Side Kick) Left Outside Knife Hand Strike—Kodeup Yop Chagi (Wen Arae Yop Chagi/Wen Olgool Yop Chagi) Wen Sonnal Bakkat Chigi Reverse Middle Punch—Bandae Jireugi Left Inside Middle Block—Wen Ahn Momtong Makki Left Single Knife Hand Low Block/Right Tiger Mouth Thrust— Wen Hansonnal Arae Makki/Orun Agwison Kaljaebi Right Front Kick/Right Single Knife Hand Low Block/Left Tiger Mouth Thrust—Orun Ap Chagi/Orun Hansonnal Arae Makki/Wen Agwison Kaljaebi Left Front Kick/Left Single Knife Hand Low Block/Right Tiger Mouth Thrust— Wen Ap Chagi/Wen Hansonnal Arae Makki/Orun Agwison Kaljaebi Right Front Kick/Knee Break—Orun Ap Chagi/Moorub Kkukki Inner Arm Spread Middle Block—Ahn Palmok Momtong Hechyo Makki Left Front Kick/Knee Break—Wen Ap Chagi/Moorub Kkukki Inner Arm Spread Middle Block—Anpalmok Momtong Hechyo Makki Left Outside Single Knife Hand Middle Block—Wen Hansonnal Bakkat Momtong Makki Right Target Punch—Orun Chumok Pyojeok Jireugi Right Forward Cross Stance/Left Side Kick/Left Low Spear Hand Strike (Palm Up)—Orun Koa Seogi/Wen Yop Chagi/Wen Pyeonsonkeut Jecheo Jireugi Right Low Block—Orun Arae Makki 84 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 93 94 94 95 95 96 97 98 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 114 Table of Contents v Left Palm Heel Block/Right Side Elbow Attack—Wen Batangson Nullomakki/ Orun Palgub Yop Chigi Right Single Outside Knife Hand Middle Block—Orun Hansonnal Bakkat Momtong Makki Left Target Punch—Wen Chumok Pyojeok Jireugi Left Forward Cross Stance/Right Side Kick/Right Low Spear Hand Strike (Palm Up)—Wen Koa Seogi/Orun Yop Chagi/Orun Pyeonsonkeut Jecheo Jireugi Left Low Block—Wen Arae Makki Right Palm Heel Block/Left Side Elbow Attack—Orun Batangson Nullomakki/ Wen Palgub Yop Chigi Left Hammer Fist Target Strike—Wen Me Chumok Arae Pyojeok Chigi Left Outside Knife Hand Strike/Left Knife Hand Low Block—Wen Hansonnal Bakkat Chigi/Wen Hansonnal Arae Makki Right Inside Knife Hand Strike/Right Knife Hand Low Block—Orun Hansonnal Bakkat Chigi/Orun Hansonnal Arae Makki Left Inside Knife Hand Strike/Knife Hand Low Block—Wen Hansonnal Bakkat Chigi/Hansonnal Arae Makki Right Tiger Mouth Thrust—Orun Agwison Kaljaebi Barrel Pushing Ready Stance—Tong Milgi Joonbi Seogi Return to Ready Position (Parallel Stance)—Joonbi (Naranhi Seogi) 114 116 117 118 119 120 122 124 126 127 128 129 129 V. Original Koryo Combat Applications COMBAT APPLICATION 1 Right Side Kick/Side Hammer Fist Strike—Orun Yop Chagi/Yop Me Chumok Jireugi Low X Block—Otgolo Arae Makki COMBAT APPLICATION 2 Open Hand Head Grab/Left Knee Kick—Mori Japgo/Moorub Chigi Low X Block—Otgolo Arae Makki COMBAT APPLICATION 3 Extend Left Hand to Grab Elbow—Wen Son Neulligi Right Round Elbow Strike/Left Single Knife Hand Low Block—Orun Dollyo Palgub Chigi/Wen Sonnal Arae Makki COMBAT APPLICATION 4 Right Back Fist Strike—Orun Doong Chumok Chigi Left Outside Knife Hand High Block—Wen Bakkat Sonnal Olgool Makki Left Front Kick—Wen Ap Chagi 133 133 133 134 135 135 136 136 136 VI. Koryo Combat Applications COMBAT APPLICATION 1 Left Knife Hand Middle Block—Wen Sonnal Momtong Makki Double Side Kick (Right Low Side Kick/Right High Side Kick) Right Outside Knife Hand Strike—Kodeup Yop Chagi (Orun Arae Yop Chagi/ Orun Olgool Yop Chagi) Orun Sonnal Bakkat Chigi 141 141 141 137 138 138 139 140 142 vi Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Reverse Middle Punch—Bandae Jireugi Right Inside Middle Block—Orun Ahn Momtong Makki COMBAT APPLICATION 2 Right Front Kick/Knee Break—Orun Ap Chagi/Moorub Kkukki COMBAT APPLICATION 3 Left Outside Single Knife Hand Middle Block—Wen Hansonnal Bakkat Momtong Makki Right Target Hook Punch—Orun Chumok Pyojeok Chigi COMBAT APPLICATION 4 Right Forward Cross Stance/Left Side Kick/Left Low Spear Hand Strike (Palm Up)—Orun Koa Seogi/Wen Yop Chagi/Wen Pyeonsonkeut Jecheo Jireugi Right Low Block—Orun Arae Makki VII. Reflections on the Maturation of Martial Skill 143 144 145 145 146 146 147 148 148 149 153 Appendices 159 A. USTA Poomsae Competition Rules 159 B. Glossary171 C. English/Korean Translations for Taekwondo Terms175 Bibliography and Sources 181 Organization Web Sites and Addresses182 Index 183 About the Authors 189 Grandmaster Richard Chun189 Master Doug Cook 190 Introduction This book centers on the history, philosophy, and technical attributes of taekwondo poomsae: Original Koryo and Koryo. By far the most popular poomsae performed today by the advanced practitioner, the latter of the two, Koryo, represents a gateway to the complexities of 1st dan black belt and is a necessary component for promotion to 2nd dan as advocated by the Kukkiwon and the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF). With this in mind, we feel a detailed exploration of this poomsae is overdue both in a sense of fostering an appreciation for its heritage and in cultivating an understanding of its overall combat effectiveness aside from its competitive value in the ring. Furthermore, initially established, as we shall see, between 1965 and 1967 along with the Palgwe set of poomsae intended as a vehicle for practice by the gup holder, Original Koryo is radically different from the Koryo we know of today. Consequently, practice of this primordial iteration has been uniformly subjugated in favor of its modern mate in part due to internal politics coupled with a desire to create a poomsae with enhanced complexity. Yet, Original Koryo continues to be transmitted from venerated master to worthy disciple in various taekwondo institutes to this day, albeit with highly attenuated frequency. Koryo, in its present state, created in 1972 in conjunction with the Taegeuk series of elementary poomsae, effectively supplanted its earlier sibling and is today actively practiced by more than 90,000,000 World Taekwondo Federation stylists in over 200 nations around the globe. Given Koryo’s popularity and its challenging characteristics, it is routinely rehearsed in preparation for tournament competition at the regional, national, and international level. Moreover, documentation of this poomsae is profuse; written and video illustrations depicting the fundamental elements and unique line of motion are plentiful. So why add to the exhaustive collection of editorial and visual documentation already available to the martial arts community at large on this subject? Succinctly put, poomsae, hyung, and tul clearly represent more than a loose collection of basic movements strung together for aesthetic or health purposes. The tactics, carefully annotated within the time-honored sequences of offensive and defensive strategies that combine to create both poomsae, are more in tune with combat preparedness than they are to sport, as they were originally intended. Relegating the execution of these tactics to a position leading to little more than the presentation of a trophy flies in the face of their authentic martial intent. Subsequently, while true completion of technique is denied by the overarching principle of honor and compassion prescribed by the tenets of traditional, defense-oriented taekwondo, it does not imply that the practitioner need remain ignorant to the practical defensive and offensive applications associated with xi xii Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae the kicks, blocks, and strikes unique to both versions of Koryo as mapped out in a later section of this work.1 Likewise, both Koryo poomsae, by virtue of their imprimatur, bear the stamp of pride imprinted by Korean history. These distinctive poomsae honor the technical, cultural, and philosophical innovations of the Koryo dynasty while celebrating its accomplishments with each consecutive performance. Why not then pay tribute to this golden past by awakening to the historical dimensions of these formal exercises? Moreover, we feel Original Koryo should be recognized as an heirloom form containing many tactical strategies not found in subsequent poomsae. Therefore, it is important to note that the reintroduction of Original Koryo is not intended to subvert the practice and proliferation of Koryo as an entity for global competition in any way. Clearly, the vast majority of us are not soldiers; if we were training in taekwondo merely to inflict injury we would enlist in the military and master the use of firearms. Yet taekwondo, at least in its orthodox form, is also not dance. So why relegate these poomsae simply to the level of physical motion within the spatial plane as is so often done in the modern dojang? This book then is a scholarly attempt to capture, transmit, and preserve as an inheritance not only the historical treasures and apparent technical elements inherent in Original Koryo and Koryo along with their properly calibrated stances, but also applications less obvious or even secretly encoded for the benefit of those seeking more than triumph in the ring or aerobic fulfillment from their taekwondo training. Finally, previous books we have collectively authored have been standardized as reference materials within the global taekwondo community. It is our hope that this work will also be utilized as such. Grandmaster Richard Chun Master Doug Cook 1 Steven D. Carpener, “Problems in the Identity and Philosophy of T’aegwondo and Their Historical Causes,” in Korea Journal 35 no. 4 (Winter 1995): 80-94. I. History and Philosophy The Ritual Practice of Formal Exercises Long before the advent of sport sparring and the invention of modern safety gear, in a time when to fight meant to defend one’s life from almost certain death, an ingenious method of transmitting martial arts skills from venerated master to loyal disciple was developed. Legend has it that experienced warriors returning unscathed from combat, a testimony in and of itself to their martial prowess, mimicked techniques used to vanquish multiple opponents on the field of battle for the benefit of those less qualified in the This mural, discovered by archeologists in 1935, appears on the ceiling of Muyong-chong, a royal tomb in southern Manchuria built during the Koguryo dynasty, between AD 3 and AD 427. The painting depicts two men engaged in a type of sparring activity. Courtesy of US Institute of Martial Arts at http:// www.emporium.net/taekwondo/history.html. Courtesy of Richard Chun. 1 2 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae ways of war.2 This ritual, performed with and without weapons, may have been practiced around a campfire, in secret gardens, or in the incense-filled halls of an ancient Buddhist temple. All of which lends credence to the notion that the dynamic process of cataloging sequential packets of defensive and offensive skills through formal exercises has existed for centuries.3 Several examples demonstrating this concept can be traced back to antiquity with roots found in primitive works of art and ancient yogic postures originally intended to promote health and core strength in sedentary clerics. Today, poomsae, hyung, tul, kata, and taolu, all culturally specific terms for choreographed sequences of self-defense techniques aimed at defeating multiple attackers approaching from various directions, represent the cornerstone of any traditional martial art. Generically defined as forms or formal exercises, the core patterns, which support the technical foundation of Korean taekwondo, Japanese karatedo, and the various styles of Chinese gungfu, are distilled from primitive combat elements that eventually coalesced and evolved into the subsequent predetermined routines unique to these classic martial disciplines. An illustration of this linkage, particularly as it relates to traditional taekwondo, can be found in mural paintings that appear on the ceiling of Muyong-chong, a royal tomb built between AD 3 and AD 427 during the Koguryo period (37 BC– AD 668). Discovered by archeologists in 1935, these ancient images depict two warriors engaged in a type of free sparring. While these tactics in and of themselves do not constitute the prescribed combinations of techniques that comprise forms, they do confirm the existence of an organized combat discipline unique to that time and region. Likewise, if one were to visit Sokkuram Grotto located high in the Image of the Buddha. Courtesy of Doug Cook. mountains of Korea surrounding the 2 C. W. Nicol, Moving Zen: Karate as a Way to Gentleness (London: Bodley Head, 1975). 3 Richard Chun, Taekwondo: Spirit and Practice Beyond Self-Defense (Boston: YMAA Publishing, 2003). II. Technical Elements of Original Koryo and Koryo Poomsae represent combinations of various blocks, kicks, stances, and strikes—the basic catalog of traditional taekwondo. These tactics are then linked together in a logical manner to compose strings of offensive and defensive strategies that ultimately combine to create a thematic whole. To illustrate this point, the discrete elements that comprise a particular poomsae can be thought of as the words of a sentence. Likewise, these unique sequences of movements can then be viewed as the sentences that form a paragraph. The paragraphs ultimately represent the various poomsae in their entirety. Each element must be executed fully with precision and purpose. No movement is to be abbreviated prior to its completion. The following elements are represented in Original Koryo and Koryo but by no means reflect a full representation of traditional taekwondo techniques. STANCES Ready Stance—Joonbi Seogi a. b. c. d. e. Feet are placed one foot width apart, toes facing forward. Arms are extended in front of the body in a slightly circular manner. Fists are tight with palms facing abdomen. Gaze is straight forward. Weight distribution is 50% on right foot, 50% on left foot. 53 54 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Attention Stance—Cha Riot Seogi a. b. c. d. Left foot is drawn into right foot, heels touching. Feet are spread 45 degrees apart. Hands are placed at the sides of the body. Gaze is straight forward. Bow of Respect—Kyung Ne a. b. c. d. e. From attention stance, body is inclined forward 45 degrees at the hips. The neck remains in line with the back. Eyes look downward. Hands are placed at the sides of the body. A moment of thought is given to the object of the bow. III. Original Koryo Poomsae Hangul for “Original Koryo.” Courtesy of Richard Chun. Original Koryo represents a technical heirloom as evidenced by the fact that it is rarely practiced, if at all, in contemporary taekwondo. This poomsae is sometimes referred to as Koryo One or Traditional Koryo. Original Koryo consists of many techniques that have been removed from modern training methods largely due to the popularity of sport taekwondo and its restrictive nature in the ring. Moreover, since Original Koryo was initially part of the Yudanja set created along with the Palgwe poomsae between 1965 and 1967, we will assign the same standards regarding chambering that apply to all KTA, Kukkiwon, and WTF formal exercises; that is, blocks originate from the outside of the non-blocking arm while strikes begin from inside the non-striking arm, a general rule that applies to all Taegeuk, Palgwe, and Yundanja poomsae. 73 74 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Line of Technical Motion Li ne of T ec hni c a l Moti on A (Sta r ti ng Poi nt) D C B (Pa r a l l el ) Sta nc e (Naranhi) Sogi G69 Joonbi . Maintain r eady stance, acing B,(Parallel eyes fStance)—Joonbi ocused str aight ahead. ReadyfPosition (Naranhi Seogi) osi ti on: Long Lef t Kni f e Ha nd Mi ddl e B l oc k onnal Momtong Makki G70 . Slide lef t f oot f or war d towar ds B. . Assume Extended Lef t Back Stance. . Simultaneously execute a Long Lef t Knif e Hand Middle Block, f r ont ar m extended. d Posi ti on: Ri ght F our Knuc kl e F i st Str i ke G71 yung Chumok Jiluki a. Maintain ready stance, facing B, eyes focused straight ahead. b. Simultaneously, place both fists in front of the abdomen, palms in. III. Original Koryo Poomsae 75 First Position Slightly Extended Left Knife Hand Middle Block—Jogum Neulligi Wen Sonnal Momtong Makki a. Slide left foot forward toward B. b. Assume left back stance, slightly extended. c. Simultaneously execute a left knife hand middle block, front arm slightly extended. Second Position Right Four Knuckle Fist Strike—Orun Pyung Chumok Jireugi a. Slide right foot back. b. Assume left front stance. c. Simultaneously execute a right four knuckle strike to throat. 76 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Third Position Right Side Kick/Side Hammer Fist Strike—Orun Yop Chagi/Yop Me Chumok Jireugi a. Pivot 90 degrees to the left facing D into left crane stance (still facing B). b. Bring the left fist to the left hip, palm up, and the right fist on the left fist, palm in. c. Simultaneously execute a right side kick/side hammer fist strike combination in the direction of B. Note: The motions of a, b, and c are executed as one continuous motion. IV. Koryo Poomsae Hangul for “Koryo.” Courtesy of Richard Chun. The word “Korea” derives from the ancient Koryo dynasty. Koryo men were strong in their convictions and fought tirelessly in battle. They persistently resisted the aggressions of the Mongolians who were sweeping the world at the time. Their firm resolution and intrepid spirit, born of wisdom rather than brute strength or numbers, earned them the title “men of conviction.” The form Koryo can be a way of cultivating the strength that arises from firm conviction. With every motion, the taekwondoist must demonstrate confidence and a strong will. 93 str ength that ar ises f r om f ir m conviction. With ever y motion, taekwondoist must demonstr ate conf idence and a str ong will. 94 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Line of T ec hnic a l Motion Line of Technical Motion A (Sta r ting Point) R- 1 L- 1 R–2 L- 2 B Ready Position (Parallel Stance)—Joonbi (Naranhi Seogi) the IV. Koryo Poomsae 95 Joonbi Barrel Pushing Ready Stance—Tong Milgi Joonbi Seogi a. Assume ready stance at point A, eyes focused straight ahead toward B. b. Simultaneously raise both open hands to neck and push forward, palms in, with arms and hands tensed, as if pushing a heavy barrel. First Position Left Knife Hand Middle Block—Wen Sonnal Momtong Makki a. Slide your left foot 90 degrees to the left toward L-1. b. Assume left back stance. c. Simultaneously execute a left knife hand middle block. 96 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Second Position Double Side Kick (Right Low Side Kick/Right High Side Kick) Right Outside Knife Hand Strike—Kodeup Yop Chagi (Orun Arae Yop Chagi/Orun Olgool Yop Chagi) Orun Sonnal Bakkat Chigi a. After placing your left fist at waist level, palm up, and your right fist over your left fist, palm in, execute a side kick with your right foot to knee level, toward L-1. b. Keep fist in same position as in low side kick. Then, without placing your foot on the floor, execute a side kick with your right foot to the face of your opponent. N ote: Kicks should be executed slowly and fully extended, a and b are executed as one continuous motion. IV. Koryo Poomsae 97 c. Immediately bring your right foot down one step forward toward L-1 while assuming right front stance. d. Simultaneously execute a right outside knife hand strike to the neck, palm down. Third Position Reverse Middle Punch—Bandae Jireugi a. Maintain the stance while executing a left hand reverse middle punch. V. Original Koryo Combat Applications COMBAT APPLICATION 1 Third Position Right Side Kick/Side Hammer Fist Strike—Orun Yop Chagi/Yop Me Chumok Jireugi a. Execute right side kick to opponent’s chest or face while simultaneously striking with a side hammer fist strike. b. As attacker leans forward, grab after completion of strike, pulling him to ground. 133 134 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Fourth Position Low X Block—Otgolo Arae Makki a. Defend against potential kick or strike with X block once attacker is brought to ground. VI. Koryo Combat Applications COMBAT APPLICATION 1 First Position Left Knife Hand Middle Block—Wen Sonnal Momtong Makki a. Execute a left knife hand middle block in response to attacker’s lunge punch from an open fighting stance. 141 142 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Second Position Double Side Kick (Right Low Side Kick/Right High Side Kick) Right Outside Knife Hand Strike—Kodeup Yop Chagi (Orun Arae Yop Chagi/Orun Olgool Yop Chagi) Orun Sonnal Bakkat Chigi a. Execute a right low side kick to the knee. b. After retracting the kicking leg, quickly execute a right high side kick to the face. VI. Koryo Combat Applications 143 c. As opponent leans forward, from right stance, execute a right outside knife hand strike to the neck. Third Position Reverse Middle Punch—Bandae Jireugi a. Continue with a reverse middle punch to the rib cage. VII. Reflections on the Maturation of Martial Skill By Master Doug Cook (In Tribute to the Evolving Expertise of Grandmaster Richard Chun) It is often said, “Those who cannot do, teach.” While this proverb may ring true in some vocations, it does not necessarily apply to the martial arts where many of the most accomplished teachers are nearly centenarians. Even though proficiency in taekwondo is not automatically pegged to age, stories abound of elderly grandmasters far outdistancing their younger disciples in aptitude based on years of experience and dedication to their art. Yet what is it that induces men and women to forgo the deserved comforts and entitlements sanctioned by age in favor of disciplined training? Often it is an intuitive sense that destiny has consigned them the role of vessel in becoming the repository of an ancient wisdom, rich in philosophy, which must be conveyed with honor in order to preserve its integrity and effectiveness. Few individuals possess the spiritual stamina required to answer this call and even fewer can endure its hardships since one must realize that, as with any sincere pedagogical quest, financial gain is rarely the primary focus. This is not to say that the rewards are few; on the contrary, becoming an untarnished link in the great chain of martial arts knowledge, coupled with the unique ability to influence the lives of others in a positive manner through the transmission of a classical martial art, is frequently compensation enough for the enlightened few. Living evidence of these profound principles can plainly be found in the person of Grandmaster Richard Chun, 9th dan international master instructor, who, over the decades has inspired thousands of enthusiastic martial artists worldwide. Having tirelessly contributed to the taekwondo community through personal instruction, visual aids, and the written word, he has encouraged generations of practitioners to pursue the path to excellence. Beginning well over a quarter century ago with the publication of five books focusing on traditional taekwondo, he continues even today with the disbursement of knowledge, uninterrupted. Aside from his accurate depiction of basic technique including the blocks, kicks, stances, and strikes that compose the vast mosaic of Korean martial arts, the works of 153 154 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Grandmaster Chun have faithfully acknowledged the important role poomsae play in the traditional taekwondo curriculum. Providing a vital link to warriors of the past, the individual formal exercises of taekwondo act as a roadmap in cultivating precise self-defense skill. Through his articulate documentation of the forms endorsed by the Kukkiwon, the World Taekwondo Federation, and the Korea Taekwondo Association, Grandmaster Chun has gifted the taekwondo world with a body of knowledge unequaled in its proportions. This current work is no exception. Original Koryo, unimpeachably an heirloom poomsae, remains virtually unknown in many circles, here to be revived. Conversely, Koryo, as mentioned in the text, represents the single most popular poomsae currently performed by the 1st dan black belt, bar none. Within these pages, Grandmaster Chun faithfully shares the individual movements that compose the former, while reenacting his presentation of the latter, first depicted in his landmark work, Advancing in Tae Kwon Do, published in 1983. However, it is through his superior performance of Koryo, now, that the maturation process, owing to a lifelong practice, reveals itself to the learned eye. To the uninitiated, the sequential images may appear identical to those captured decades ago. Yet upon closer examination the wondrous phenomena of ki projection, united with pronounced intent and purpose, quickly becomes apparent. These attributes, earned by tenure, should be construed as the ideal, motivating the novice black belt as he avidly ascends the ranks to greatness. Clearly and simply, technique of this magnitude evolves with age amplified by action and is not merely a function of sincere desire. By way of illustration, compare for a moment the skill portrayed in the following set of photographs; all exhibit, whether from the 1983 vintage or the present collection, extraordinary stances steeped in balance, weight distribution and efficacy, the elasticity that supersedes blocks, and the unmitigated power of strikes. Undoubtedly, all images expose a true mastery of the art. But look in the eyes, principally paying attention to the more recent set of photographs. The perceptible extension of ki, the animating life force harnessed by the martial artist for the purpose of magnifying technique many times over, is largely manifest by the confidence and attitude reflected in the gaze. Miyamoto Musashi, the undefeated Asian swordsman once stated long ago: “In battle, if you make your opponent flinch, you have already won.” Consequently, if the taekwondoist is successful in short circuiting his opponent’s negative energy even before the first strike is thrown, then, through this communicative power, he has already triumphed. Fortunately, the camera was successful in catching this fearsome, ocular talent as Grandmaster Chun executes a head level front kick (Fig. 1b). VII. Reflections on the Maturation of Martial Skill 155 Figure 1a31 Figure 1b32 Equally as fundamental to the meaningful performance of poomsae is martial intent. Since the practitioner is engaged in a battle without bloodshed then purpose becomes paramount. The blocks and strikes called for in Original Koryo and Koryo, intended to deflect the offending hand or penetrate an intended target, must be executed with remarkable precision even without the physical article being present. This is the essence of poomsae training. The depth of this intent in tandem with the relaxation that develops with increased poise, are framed in the maturing, yet ever expanding proficiency of Grandmaster Chun. Nevertheless there remains another ally in the quest for poomsae perfection. The brand of self-assurance needed to send a shock wave of terror through the heart of an attacker lies embedded within the kihap, or spirit yell. Grandmaster Chun is no stranger to this tactic having applied it more than once in threatening situations across the years. However, since the kihap and the dread it elicits, both audibly and spiritually, cannot be captured on the printed page, one must use the imagination to judge its effect when called for in the poomsae. Make note when this occurs in the text (Fig. 2b). Perhaps, then, the reader will experience the resonance implicit in the act. 31 Richard Chun, Advancing in Tae Kwon Do. 2nd ed. (Boston: YMAA Publication Center, 2006), 151. Photo originally taken in 1983. 32 Photograph by Tim Comrie, 2012. Index ahn momtong makki, 61 ahn sonnal jireugi, 70 Chun, Grandmaster Richard tribute by Doug Cook, 153 akumson jireugi, 68 Chun, Sang Sup, 25 anpalmok momtong hechyo makki, 81, 107, 109 ap seogi, 57 combat applications, 130 Koryo, 141 Original Koryo, 133 arae makki, 59 crane stance, 58 Art of War, The, 7 Da Mo, 6 attention stance, 54 dan/kyu ranking, 15 Azato, Yasutsune, 14 Disorder Period, 18 back fist strike, 71 doobal momtong jireugi, 90 back stance, 56 doojumok jireugi, 67 Baduanjin, 6 doong chumok chigi, 68, 69, 71 bakkat palmok hechyo makki, 63 double middle punch, 90 bakkat sonnal chigi, 69 double punch, 67 bandae jireugi, 67, 79, 97, 100, 143 double side kick (left low side kick/left high side ap chagi, 65 barrel pushing ready stance, 95, 129 batangson makki, 63 blocks, 59 kick), 99 double side kick (right low side kick/right high side kick), 96, 142 Bodhidharma, 5 dwi koobi, 56 Book of Changes, The, 44 Eight Pieces of Brocade, 6 bow of respect, 54 Eighteen Hands of Lo Han, 5 capoeira, 50 Eight Pieces of Brocade, 6 Chang Han set, 37 embedded strategies, 50 cha riot seogi, 54 empty-hand fighting arts, 8 Ch’oe family, 11 empty-hand self-defense, 13 cha riot seogi, 54 Ever Youthful Institute of Martial Arts, 25 Chang Han set, 37 extend left hand to grab opponent, 82 Chang Moo Kwan (Jung Ang YMCA Kwon Bop formal exercises, 13, 17 Bu), 23 four knuckle fist strike, 71 Choi, Hong Hi, 26, 30 front cross stance, 58 Chosun Dynasty, 12 front kick, 65 Chosun Yun Moo Kwan Kongsoodo Bu, 25 front stance, 55 Choue, Chungwon, 36 Funakoshi, Gichin, 14 chuan fa, 7 Funakoshi, Gigo, 15 183 184 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae hakdari seogi, 58 Kim, Un Yong, 31, 36 hansonnal arae makki, 127 King T’aejo, 9 han sonnal momtong makki, 61 knee break, 106, 108, 145 Heian kata, 15 knee kick, 66 hidden techniques, 50 knife hand low block, 127 high block, 60 knife hand middle block, 62 high forward (walking) stance, 57 Kobayashi Shorin ryu, 14 high knife hand block, 60 kodeup yop chagi (orun arae yop chagi/orun olgool Hong, Il Dong, 26 horse stance, 57 hwarang, 8 yop chagi), 96, 142 kodeup yop chagi (wen arae yop chagi/wen olgool yop chagi), 99 Hwa Sun, 8 Koguryo, 7, 9 hyung, 16, 22, 37 Hwa Sun, 8 Kon, General Wang, 9 I Ching, 44 Korea Kongsoodo Association, 25, 29 inner arm spread middle block, 81, 107, 109 inside knife hand strike, 70 Korean history poomsae Koryo and, 9 inside middle block, 61 Korea Soobahkdo Association, 22 Internal Elixir, 6 Korea Taekwondo Association, 22, 30 International Taekwon-do Federation, 31 Korea Tangsoodo Association, 22 Itosu, Yasutsune “Anko,” 14 Koryo dynasty, 9 Ji Do Kwan, 25 Koryo poomsae, xi, 43 joonbi (naranhi seogi), 74, 91, 94, 129 Koryo sovereignty, 11 joonbi seogi, 53 Kukkiwon, 27, 32 ju choom seogi, 57 jumping front kick, 65, 89 kwans unification of, 27 Kang, Suh Chong, 24 kwon bop, 7, 8 Kano, Jigoro, 15 kyung ne, 54 karate, 16 Lee, Won Kuk, 18 Karate-do Kyohan, 17 left forward cross stance, 118 kata, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 left four knuckle fist strike, 78 Kee, Hwang, 8, 21 left front kick, 88, 104, 108, 140 kenpo, 7 left hammer fist target strike, 122 Keumgang poomsae, 4 left inside knife hand strike, 127 Keumgang Yuksa, 4 left inside middle block, 85, 101 ki, 6, 49 using with poomsae, 9 left knee kick, 80, 135 kicks, 65 left knife hand middle block, 95, 141 kongsoodo, 17 left knife hand low block, 124 Index 185 left low block, 119 orun agwison kaljaebi, 102, 104 left low spear hand strike (palm up), 112, 148 orun ahn momtong makki, 84, 98, 144 left outside knife hand high block, 87, 139 orun ap chagi, 103, 106, 145 left outside knife hand strike, 99, 124 orun arae makki, 114, 149 left outside single knife hand middle block, 110, 146 orun bakkat hansonnal momtong makki, 79, 84 left palm heel block, 114 orun batangson nullomakki, 120 left side elbow attack, 120 orun chumok pyojeok chilki, 147 left side kick, 112, 148 orun chumok pyojeok jireugi, 111 left single knife hand low block, 83, 102, 104, 137 orun dollyo palgub chilki, 83, 137 left target punch, 117 orun doong chumok chigi, 86, 138 left tiger mouth thrust, 103 orun hansonnal arae makki, 103, 126 line of technical motion Koryo, 94 Original Koryo, 74 orun hansonnal bakkat chigi, 126 long knife hand middle block, 62 orun koa seogi, 112, 148 long left knife hand middle block, 75 orun olgool makki, 77 low block, 59 orun palgub yop chigi, 114 low knife hand block, 59 orun pyeonsonkeut jecheo jireugi, 118 low X block, 77, 81, 134, 136 orun pyung chumok jireugi, 75 Mabuni, Kenwa, 15 orun sonnal bakkat chilki, 96, 142 meditative practice, 51 orun yop chagi, 76, 118, 133 Moo Duk Kwan, 8 otgolo arae makki, 77, 81, 134, 136 moorub chagi, 66, 80, 135 otgolo makki, 64 moorub kkukki, 106, 108, 145 outside knife hand strike, 69 mori japgo, 80, 135 Palgwe poomsae, 40 mural paintings, 2 Palgwe set, xi Muye Dobo Tongji, 6, 8, 22 Palgwe Yook Jang, 49 Muye Jebo, 7 Palman Daejanggyeong, 10 Muye Shinbo, 7 palm heel block, 63 nampa, 16 Pinan (Peaceful Mind) kata, 14 Neo-Confucianism, 12 Pinan set, 14 Nicol, C. W., 8 open hand head grab, 80, 135 poomsae attributes and technical performance, 47 eight trigrams, 45 learning, 48 self-defense techniques, 2 technical elements, 53 Original Koryo poomsae, xi poomsae koryo Okinawan/Japanese kata, 13 Okinawan karate, 15 olgool makki, 60 Olympic Games (1988), 36 orun hansonnal bakkat momtong makki, 116 orun kaljaebi, 128 About the Authors Grandmaster Richard Chun Grandmaster Richard Chun, a 9th dan black belt began his formal martial arts education under the direction of Ki Whang Kim and Chong Soo Hong at the famed Moo Duk Kwan or “Institute of Martial Virtue” in Seoul, Korea. By age fourteen, he received his first dan black belt. Following the outbreak of the Korean War, his family moved to Cheju Island where he attended high school. In 1954, at age nineteen, he returned to Seoul. Once there, he enrolled in Yonsei University and graduated in 1957. While at the university, he served as captain of the taekwondo club and participated in several competitions. Entering the United States in 1962 as a student, he lived in Washington, DC and began studying for his Master’s Degree in Business and Marketing at George Washington University. In 1964, with the assistance of past-WTF president Photo courtesy of Henry Smith. Dr. Un Yong Kim, he officially established the Richard Chun Taekwondo Center, a school that has cultivated champions, such as Joe Hayes, and catered to movie stars and sports figures including Ralph Macchio (The Karate Kid), and dancer/actor Gregory Hines. The Richard Chun Taekwondo Center became a mecca for many practitioners both locally and worldwide. During the same time period, with the help and support of General James Van Fleet, he created and organized the first Annual Universal Taekwondo Open Championships. Richard Chun earned his MBA at Long Island University. He eventually went on to obtain a Ph.D., becoming a professor of health and physical education at Hunter College in New York City. In 1973, Grandmaster Chun was appointed head coach of the USA Taekwondo Team, leading them to a second-place victory in the first World Taekwondo Championships held in Seoul, Korea. He has traveled and lectured extensively at martial arts schools around the country as well as appearing on many popular television talk shows. He went on to establish the United States Taekwondo Association in 1980, an organization whose mission it is to promote the ancient and evolving art of taekwondo, and currently he serves as its president. Dr. Chun played a major role in organizing taekwondo as an event in the Olympics and has served as Senior International Referee at international championships and 189 190 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Olympic competitions. For his many achievements in promoting taekwondo within the borders of the United States, he received the Presidential Award from the president of Korea. In 1999, following a training and cultural tour of Korea, he was named Special Assistant to the president of the World Taekwondo Federation. He has also received many citations over the years from the Moo Duk Kwan and World Taekwondo Federation. Grandmaster Chun shares his knowledge of taekwondo through the written word with five best-selling books to his credit, all of which have been translated into several foreign languages. All are used as reference guides by thousands of practitioners and schools worldwide. Dr. Chun has also produced a number of instructional DVDs on selfdefense, sparring, and forms, available through the United States Taekwondo Association website and YMAA Publication Center of Wolfeboro, NH. Richard Chun has been a member of the Lions Clubs International for more than four decades where he has served as District Governor of New York. He was appointed Ambassador of Goodwill by the Lions Clubs International Association for his humanitarian services worldwide and has been repeatedly honored by the president of Korea for the same. With two children both pursuing successful careers of their own, Dr. Chun his has been happily married for over thirty-five years. Master Doug Cook Master Doug Cook holds a 6th Dan Black Belt in the Korean martial art of taekwondo and is certified as an instructor and in rank by the United States Taekwondo Association and the Kukkiwon. He is a six-time gold medalist having frequently participated in the USTA Invitational Championships, New York State Championships, and the New York State Governor’s Cup Competitions. Master Cook has trained in Korea on multiple occasions and currently administers training and cultural tours to the homeland of taekwondo. He holds a D3 status as a US Referee and has received high honors from Korea in the form of a “Letter of Appreciation” signed by World Taekwondo Federation past president, Dr. Un Yong Kim. In 2003, Master Cook was awarded the Medal of Special Recognition from the Moo Photo courtesy of Henry Smith. Duk Kwan in Seoul, South Korea. In 2004, while attending a training camp in Korea, Master Cook received a Special Citation from the Korean government for forging a stronger relationship between Korea and the United About the Authors 191 States through the martial arts. A six-page interview featuring Master Cook appeared in the May 2005 issue of TaeKwonDo Times focusing on taekwondo philosophy and his views on the role the martial arts will play in the twenty-first century. In June 2006, he was inducted into the Budo International Martial Arts Hall of Fame as “Taekwondo Master of the Year.” In 2007, Master Cook was invited on several occasions to speak as a guest lecturer at the University of Bridgeport in Connecticut. Master Cook was recently listed in Black Belt magazine as one of the Top Twenty masters of the Korean martial arts in America. In 2009, he was invited to speak at the prestigious Korea Society in New York City and will appear in Legacy, an upcoming television documentary centering on taekwondo, scheduled for release in 2013. Master Cook recently appeared on the cover of Totally TaeKwonDo magazine, an issue that also featured an eight-page in-depth interview. He was inducted into the TaeKwonDo Times 2011 Hall of Fame as “Writer of the Year.” At a ceremony honoring Grandmaster Richard Chun in 2011, he was again awarded a Special Recognition Award from the Moo Duk Kwan in Korea. In December of 2011, Master Cook received a Special Citation from the Ambassador of South Korea at the nation’s embassy in Washington, DC, in recognition of his editorial contributions to taekwondo and was recently interviewed by the ABC-affiliate, Univision, regarding the 2012 Olympics. Master Cook is credited with the creation of the Chosun Women’s Self-Defense Course. He has also provided training for the US Army National Guard/42nd Division prior to military operations, and has instructed agents from the Department of Homeland Security, the New York Police Department, and the Bronx County Sheriff’s Department. Master Cook was called upon to demonstrate taekwondo as part of a three-man team at the annual Oriental World of Self-Defense held in New York City’s famed Madison Square Garden. There, he and the team were cheered on by martial arts legends such as Richard Chun, Henry Cho, and Chuck Norris. Because he is a traditionalist, Master Cook places great emphasis on the underlying philosophical principles and self-defense strategies surrounding taekwondo. He demonstrates this belief by infusing meditation, breathing exercises, a strong attention to basics, and the practice of the classical forms, or poomsae, in his instructional methodology. Aside from continuing his martial arts education under the tutelage of worldrenowned, 9th Dan Black Belt Grandmaster Richard Chun, Master Cook owns and operates the Chosun Taekwondo Academy located in Warwick, New York—an institute specializing in traditional martial arts instruction and ki, or internal energy, development. Master Doug Cook currently shares his knowledge of taekwondo through numerous articles he has written for TaeKwonDo Times, Black Belt, Totally TaeKwonDo and the United States Taekwondo Association Journal, as well as various other martial arts publications. For the past twelve years, he has written a monthly column for TaeKwonDo 192 Taekwondo Black Belt Poomsae Times called “Traditions.” Master Cook is the author of three best-selling books focusing on taekwondo titled, Taekwondo: Ancient Wisdom for the Modern Warrior, Traditional Taekwondo—Core Techniques, History, and Philosophy, a finalist in ForeWord magazine’s Book of the Year Award, and Taekwondo—A Path to Excellence, released in 2009, a USA Book Award finalist. All editions are published by YMAA Publication Center and are available online and at booksellers throughout the world. Master Cook can be reached at [email protected] or at www.chosuntkd.com, and is available for seminars, workshops, book signings, and lectures.