Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for

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Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for
EXECUTIVE BOARD OF THE OPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIP
Regional Operational Programme of
the Opolskie Voivodeship
for 2007-2013
National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013
Draft document approved of under Resolution of the Executive Board of the Opolskie
Voivodeship
No. 57/2006 of 20 December, 2006 and subsequent amendments
version recommended by the Government on 20 February, 2007
Opole, February, 2007
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Map No. 1 Opolskie Voivodeship
3
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Opolskie Voivodeship in comparison to Poland and the European Union in 2005
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Description
2
Area (thousand km )
Population (thousand people)
Population (%), age:
− pre-working
− working
− retired
Population density per 1 km2 of area (person)
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
Birth rate per 1000 of population
Net migration per 1000 people
Average lifespan of persons at the age of 0 (years)
− men
− women
Working people per sectors (%)
− agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing
− industry and civil engineering
− services
Total employment rate (%)a
Labour force activity rate (%)a
Rate of registered unemployment total (%)
Education (%)c:
− high
− medium
− low
Number of students per 10 thousand of people (person)
Expenditure on research and development in relation to GDP
(%)b
Wired telephone subscribers per 100 people (subscriber)
Households with personal computer with access to the Internet
(%)
Municipal waste per 1 person (kg)
− collected
− stored
Tourist collective accommodation
establishments total
(establishments) per 100 km²
Traffic fatalities per 100 thousand of population
GDP per capita (UE-25 (in SSN) = 100 %)
Percentage in gross value added (w %)b
− agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing
− industry and civil engineering
− services
Opolskie
Voivodeship
9.4
1,047.4
Poland
EU-25
312.7
38,157.1
3,972,9
461,478.7
19.6
64.7
15.7
111
4.9
-0.9
-3.0
20.6
64.0
15.4
122
6.4
-0.1
-0.3
16.4 b
67.1 b
16.5 b
118 b
4.5
0.8
3.6
71.9
79.5
70.8
79.4
75.8
81.9
17.2
30.0
52.8
44.7
53.8
18.7
17.1
27.9
55.0
45.2
54.9
17.6
4.9
27.4
67.7
63.8
69.7 b
8.8
10.0
74.1
15.9
355
12.3
70.7
17.0
512
20.6
48.7
30.7
371 b
0.13
0.43
1.95 b
26.6
30.8
81b
19.3
22.5
48.0
243
227
245
226
526
227
1.3
2.2
10.02 b
14
37.3
14
47.0
11 b
100
5.8
37.1
57.0
5.0
30.2
64.8
1.9
26.2
71.9
a
) as per BAEL (Badania Aktywności Ekonomicznej Ludności – Population Economic Activity Poll)
) Data for 2004
c
) Data for 2002. The classification of education into low, medium and high arises from the ISCED (International Standard Classification of
Education). The division includes people between the ages of 25 and 64 and specifies the education levels which is classified according to
the educational system in a particular EU country
Source:
−
Eurostat,
−
Rocznik Statystyczny Województwa Opolskiego 2006 (Statistical Yearbook of the Opolskie Voivodeship 2006), Statistical
Office, Opole 2006,
−
Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2006 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2006), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa
2006.
b
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Table of contents
1.
Introduction
7
Profile of the Opolskie Voivodeship
10
1.1.
Diagnosis of the current situation of the Opolskie Voivodeship
10
1.2
Analysis and evaluation of state aid and foreign assistance between 1999-2006
45
1.2.1
State aid and earmarked funds
45
1.2.2
Foreign assistance – pre-accession funds
47
1.2.3
Foreign assistance – structural funds
53
1.2.4
Rural Development Programme (RDP)
57
1.2.5
Summary
58
1.3
2.
62
Strategy for implementing the Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie 67
Voivodeship for 2007-2013
2.1 Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy
68
2.2
3.
SWOT Analysis
Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013
69
2.2.1
General objective and specific objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013
69
2.2.2
Justification for selecting objectives and priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2007
72
2.2.3
Consistency between the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 with the 75
European Union policy and programming documents at the national and
regional levels
2.2.4
Implementation of the renewed Lisbon Strategy within ROP OV 2007-2013
78
2.2.5
Indicators for ROP OV 2007-2013
79
2.2.6
Principles to fulfil the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013
85
Priority axes of the Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 87
2007-2013
3.1
Priority axis 1 – Strengthening the Region’s Attractiveness
88
3.2
Priority axis 2 – Information Society
93
3.3
Priority axis 3 – Transport
97
3.4
Priority axis 4 – Environmental Protection
101
3.5
Priority axis 5 – Social Infrastructure and higher education
106
3.6
Priority axis 6 – Redevelopment of Municipal and Degraded Areas
112
3.7
Priority axis 7 – Technical Assistance
116
3.8
4.
Information about complementarity and co-ordination with activities financed from 119
EAFRD and EFF
Financial Plan
120
5.
System for implementing ROP OV 2007-2013 – implementing provisions
127
5.1
Competency of institutions involved in management of ROP OV 2007-2013
127
5.1.1
Co-ordination
127
5.1.2
Management of ROP OV 2007-2013
127
5
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5.2
5.3
6.
Monitoring
131
5.2.1
Regional Monitoring Committee for ROP OV 2007-2013
131
5.2.2
Annual and final reports on ROP OV 2007-2013
132
5.2.3
Evaluation
134
5.2.4
Control system
135
Exchange of electronic data to meet payment,
requirements
monitoring and evaluation 135
5.4
Financial flows
135
5.5
Information and publicity system
136
Ex-ante evaluation of the Programme with the assessment of the expected 138
macroeconomic effect
6.1
Results of ex-ante evaluation of draft ROP OV 2007-2013
138
6.2
7.
Assessment of expected macroeconomic effects of the implementation of ROP OV 142
2007-2013
Assessment of the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment
148
7.1
Legal basis
148
7.2
Preparer of the Forecast about impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment
148
7.3
Forecast about impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment
148
7.4
8.
Social consultations on the Forecast about impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the
environment
7.5
Information about the use of stipulations contained in the Forecast about impact of
ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment, comments passed in the course of
consultations and the opinions of the Governor of the Opolskie Voivodeship and of
the Voivodeship Sanitary Inspector
Information about social consultations held on ROP OV 2007-2013
8.1
Legal basis for consultations
8.2
Objective, organisation and course of social consultations
8.3
Comments passed in the course of social consultations – 3rd stage
8.4
Conclusions
160
160
160
163
165
Glossary
List of abbreviations
List of tables
List of drawings
166
177
179
181
157
157
Appendix No. 1 Information about major projects
183
Appendix No. 2 Context indicators for ROP OV 2007-2013
184
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Introduction
”The action taken by the Community under Article 158 of the Treaty shall be designed to strengthen the
economic and social cohesion of the enlarged European Union in order to promote the harmonious, balanced
and sustainable development of the Community. This action shall be taken with the aid of the Funds, the
European Investment Bank (EIB) and other existing financial instruments. It shall be aimed at reducing the
economic, social and territorial disparities which have arisen particularly in countries and regions whose
development is lagging behind and in connection with economic and social restructuring and the ageing of the
population.
The action taken under the Funds shall incorporate, at national and regional level, the Community's priorities in
favour of sustainable development by strengthening growth, competitiveness, employment and social inclusion
and by protecting and improving the quality of the environment.”1
The reform of the cohesion policy to be followed between 2007-2013 applies mainly
to concentration of actions based on three new objectives, i.e.:
1. Convergence objective, to support growth and job creation in the poorest regions –
this objective covers all the voivodeships in Poland.
2. Regional competitiveness and employment objective, to support structural changes
in regions which do not satisfy eligibility criteria of the objective 1 and changes in the
labour market.
3. European territorial co-operation objective, to support territorial competitiveness
and promote harmonious and sustained development of the Community territory at
three levels: cross-border, transnational and interregional.
New solutions in the years 2007-2013 apply also to correlating the cohesion policy
with the EU strategic priorities formulated in the Lisbon Strategy such as competitive
economy based on knowledge and sustained development. Hence in the current financial
framework, funds within the cohesion policy constitute approximately one third of the budget
of the European Union, and at the same time they are a basic instrument for accomplishing
objectives of the aforementioned Strategy.
In the light of the period of 2004-2006, new provisions apply mainly to streamlining
of the process through limiting it to two stages, introducing mono-funding of operational
programmes2 and providing for greater decentralisation and regionalisation of funds through
the use of simpler, more efficient systems of implementation and management.
A new legal framework for 2007-2013 reflects more strategic approach to the
programming process. Once the Community Strategic Guidelines were adopted, programming
has concentrated more on the EU priorities. Limiting of the process only to two stages means
that a member state (Poland) prepares the National Strategic Reference Framework (1st stage),
and then draws up national and regional operational programmes (2nd stage). The national
strategic reference framework is a new instrument in the programming system for 2007-2013
which defines, among other things, a strategy for preparing operational programmes cofinanced from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the European Social Fund
(ESF) and the Cohesion Fund. Operational programmes are to be documents more strategic in
nature, i.e. the emphasis on the description of strategies and priorities has been increased. A
new approach to more strategic and simpler programming at the same time resulted in the
1
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 of 11 July, 2006 laying down general provisions on the European
Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC)
No. 1260/1999 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p. 25), chapter II, art. 1
2
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p. 25), art. 34
7
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
resignation from preparing the Community Support Framework and Programme
Complements as the situation was in the period of 2004-2006.
The idea of complete decentralisation of programming regional development for 20072013 was confirmed when voivodeship local governments were given competencies for
preparing and implementing regional operational programmes to be supported from the ERDF
according to the principle of mono-funding. Thus Executive Boards of Voivodeships, for the
first time, are to serve as Managing Authorities for the programmes.
The Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013
(ROP OV 2007-2013) should be regarded as one of the instruments for implementing the
Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy which means that it is to contribute to the
achievement of objectives set in it through undertaking actions identified as the most
significant in the years 2007-2013 from the point of view of the region’s development and
which at the same time are eligible for co-financing from the ERDF3.
The eligible area, the system for implementing ROP OV 2007-2013 and the manner of
preparing the Programme comply with legal regulations applicable at the national and the
Community levels, applicable programming documents as well as basic rules regarding
multiannual programming, additionality, partnership, co-financing and evaluation
whose details are given in subsequent chapters of the document.
The following basic legal acts formed a basis for the preparation of ROP OV 20072013:
−
Act on rules of how to operate development policy of 6 December, 20064,
−
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 of 11 July, 2006 laying down general
provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the
Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No. 1260/1999,
−
Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5
July, 2006 on the European Regional Development Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No.
1783/1999.
The general objective of ROP OV 2007-2013 is to enhance competitiveness and
ensure social, economic and spatial cohesion in order to increase attractiveness of the
Opolskie Voivodeship as a place for investing, working and living. To achieve the general
objective seven strategic objectives have been established which will be pursued through
seven corresponding priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2013.
In accordance with the rules concerning programming, objectives defined in ROP OV
2007-2013 are consistent with the objectives indicated in the aforesaid Opolskie Voivodeship
Development Strategy, but also with the development directions set at the national level in the
National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013 in support of growth and jobs (NSRF
2007-2013)5 and at the Community level in the Cohesion Policy in support of growth and
jobs: Community Strategic Guidelines 2007-20136 and guidelines of the renewed Lisbon
Strategy. At the same time ROP OV 2007-2013 is complementary to the national operational
3
Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July, 2006 on the European
Regional Development Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No. 1783/1999 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006,
p. 1)
4
Journal of Laws No. 227, item 1658
5
Document approved of by the Government on 29.11.2006
6
Document approved of by the EU Council on 6.10.2006 (Official Journal 291 of 21.10.2006)
8
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programmes for 2007-2013 implemented within the NSRF 2007-2013 and other initiatives
and programmes to be implemented in the current financial framework.
The authors of ROP OV 2007-2013 made every effort to prepare the Programme in a
clear and comprehensible manner. The information contained in it constitutes an orderly and
logical structure, and applies to the following components:
−
diagnosis of the social and economic situation of the Opolskie Voivodeship in
comparison to other regions of Poland and the European Union along with the analysis of
strengths and weaknesses of the region,
−
development strategy of the region specifying the objective of strategic actions
undertaken within the Programme along with the justification for selecting priority axes,
−
information about priority axes taking into account objectives and fields of
intervention,
−
financial plan divided into years and priority axes indicating sources of financing,
−
system of implementation (i.e. implementing provisions), specifying tasks of
authorities and describing procedures relating to, among other things, management of ROP
OV 2007-2013, monitoring and evaluation, audit and control, publicity and information as
well as financial flows,
−
ex-ante evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013 and assessment of the expected
macroeconomic effect,
−
forecast about impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment.
Moreover, ROP OV 2007-2013 is accompanied by the information concerning
major projects as provided for in art. 37, par. 1, letter h of the Council Regulation (EC) No.
1083/2006 (Appendix No. 1) and a list of context indicators for the Programme (Appendix
No. 2).
All the elements of ROP OV 2007-2013 were prepared according to the rules
established for this type of programming documents. Works on ROP OV 2007-2013 began in
2005 when, under resolution of the Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship, a
Programme Board and a Task Force for preparing the Regional Operational Programme of the
Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013 were appointed. Taking into account the partnership
principle, representatives of different environments such as scientific, social, economic and
other, were involved in the works of the aforementioned groups. As a consequence the
Programme Board determining major directions of works on the Programme was also made
up of, apart from members of the Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship and
representatives of departments of the Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship, experts
from the outside of the Office who deal with regional development in practice and theory.
Within the Task Force, 9 Subgroups were selected to consider basic thematic areas significant
to the development of the Voivodeship which became a basis for specifying areas of priority
axes of ROP OV 2007-2013. Members of the Sub-groups were appointed from among
representatives of all the most important environments associated with creating and operating
the regional policy, including socio-economic partners.
ROP OV 2007-2013, taking into account results of works of the aforesaid groups, was
drawn up at the Department for Co-ordination of Operational Programmes at the Marshal
Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship and according to the common practice it was subject to
large-scale social and economic consultations held at particular stages of preparing ROP OV
2007-2013.
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CHAPTER 1
PROFILE OF THE OPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIP
1.1. Diagnosis of the current situation of the Opolskie Voivodeship
Methodological comments
A diagnosis of the social and economic situation is one of the basic stages in a process
of strategic planning. The document identifies the most important internal and external
conditions of the Opolskie Voivodeship. It originates from the Opolskie Voivodeship
Development Strategy adopted for the years 2000-2015 and the diagnosis itself is a basis for
preparing a SWOT analysis.
Overwhelming majority of the diagnosis is based on the data from 2004 and 2005. To
provide for greater transparency and comparability of the data, they were, if possible,
presented in a greater time span, i.e. in the years 1995-2005. A basic source of information
was data from the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw and the Statistical Office in Opole as
well as information from the EUROSTAT databases for the data on the European Union
which were extended by other available publications and our own calculations. In addition,
the document contains data from the Investor Assistance Centre in Opole, the Club of
Naturalists from Świebodzin, the Opole Inspector of Monuments and the National Heritage
Board of Poland in Warsaw.
The diagnosis includes eighteen thematic areas, i.e. general information about the
Voivodeship, demographic situation, living conditions, population income and safety, labour
market, economic growth and investment attractiveness, industry, civil engineering and
services, development of rural areas, economic entities, including SME sector, business
support organisations, R&D and innovative activities, transport infrastructure, municipal
infrastructure and power industry, environmental protection, education and human resources,
building of information society, health care, culture and heritage, tourism and sport.
Areas for diagnosis were selected on the basis, among other things, of Priorities
defined in Regulation (EC) No. 1080/20067. The areas presented in the diagnosis allow for
creating a real picture of the Opolskie Voivodeship with particular attention to the most
important aspects of its development.
General information about the Voivodeship
The Opolskie Voivodeship is situated in the south-western part of the country. It
neighbours on the following voivodeships: śląskie, łódzkie, wielkopolskie and dolnośląskie.
In the south it borders on Czech Republic.
The region belongs to a group of small European regions and covers the area of 9,412
km2 (3% of Poland’s area) with the population of approximately 1,050 thousand people.
Population density in the Opolskie Voivodeship, although lower than the national average
(122 people per km2), is close to the EU average (UE25 = 117.5) and amounts to 112 people
per km 2.
As regards administrative division the Opolskie Voivodeship is divided into 12 poviats
(poviat – second level of local government administration in Poland), including 1 grodzki
poviat which is Opole (grodzki poviat – township) and 71 gminas (gmina – first level of local
7
Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p. 1).
10
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
government administration in Poland), including 3 municipal gminas, 32 municipal and rural
ones and 36 rural.
All the gminas in the Opolskie Voivodeship have valid studies of land development
conditions and directions. However, only 28.3% of the area of the Opolskie Voivodeship are
covered with valid land development plans8. Coverage by land development plans is highly
diversified – from gminas which do not have such plans at all to gminas which have 100% of
the area covered by plans.
The evenly developed settlement system of the region consists of 35 towns and 1025
solectwos (solectwo – lowest unit of local administration, usually comprising a single village),
including 1191 rural settlement units. The biggest towns are as follows: Opole (population of
128.9 thousand), Kędzierzyn-Koźle (66.1 thousand), Nysa (47.8 thousand) and Brzeg (38.6
thousand).
The Opolskie Voivodeship’s functional and spatial structure is based on three zones:
central – the Opole agglomeration which covers Opole together with the Opolski and
Krapkowicki Poviats, eastern made up of the Kluczborski, Oleski, Strzelecki and
Kędzierzyńsko-Kozielski Poviats as well as the western zone with the Namysłowski, Brzeski,
Nyski, Prudnicki and Głubczycki Poviats. The Opole agglomeration which serves
metropolitan functions includes the following towns: Opole, Krapkowice, Gogolin, Prószków,
Ozimek, Niemodlin and Zdzieszowice as well as highly urbanised rural gminas in the Opolski
and Krapkowicki Poviats (it total 335 thousand people). A significant limitation to
development is the fact that the Opole agglomeration qualities are used only to a small extent,
in particular taking into consideration that in the region there is no metropolis.
Rural settlement is dense in nature. Typical for rural areas in the region are large
villages of the highest in Poland urbanisation rate which are often local development centres.
Population of a rural settlement is on average 418 people (in Poland 277 people). The society
in the settlements is self-organised and local environments, including national minorities, very
active.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is a frontier and culturally diverse region on the former
Polish, German and Czech borderland. The regional community displays a strong sense of
regional identity, has a wealth of experience arising from cultural distinction and openness to
the world. In the Opolskie Voivodeship there are 71% of the total number of people in Poland
who declare German nationality and 14% declaring to be Silesians. The problem is limited
knowledge of the region and its heritage as well as insufficient coverage of multicultural
aspects by educational and cultural institutions.
After 1989 the third sector of the public life, which is the major element of civil
society, began to develop rapidly. Until 1999 only 160 organisations operated, in 1998 about
1,200. The greatest number of non-government organisations were established in 2004, at the
moment it is estimated that in the Opolskie Voivodeship there are about 2,700 nongovernmental organisations. Most of them operate in education, sport, tourism, health,
rehabilitation, welfare, environmental protection, culture, social and economic development.
The region is open to cross-border co-operation within Euroregions “Pradziad”
and “Silesia” as well as to contacts with foreign economic partners (among others, with the
German land Rheinland-Pfalz, French Burgundy, Czech Středočeský kraj, Hungarian Komitat
Fejér, Ukrainian Ivano-Frankivski Region, Austrian Steiermark). Local self-governments in
the Opolskie Voivodeship co-operate with partners all over Europe. Local environments,
8
On the basis of data from the Department of Land Development Planning of the Marshal’s Office of the
Opolskie Voivodeship as at the end of 2005.
11
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
including national minorities, are highly active. Self-governments co-operate with each other
and, among other things, establishing associations of gminas. However, co-operation between
voivodeships is poor as well as the level of integration between environments and subregional
co-operation, including partnerships.
Demographic situation
The comparison of the last two general censuses in respect of the demographic
potential shows that the population of the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2002 considerably
decreased by 15.7 thousand people in comparison with 1988. Since 2002 the population has
been declining systematically (in 2002-2005 further decrease by 13.6 thousand people). The
low and declining demographic potential of the region is recognised as the most important
barrier of development. The situation arises from high migration which results in permanent
stay abroad and negative population growth rate (Tab. No. 1.1).
Tab. No. 1.1. Changes in population and population growth rate and migration balance per 1000
people in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1995-2005.
Year
Population
(31.12)
(thousand)
Population
growth rate
1995
1996
1997
1998
1093.2 1092.5 1091.9
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
1089.6 1088.3 1084.7 1080.5 1061.0 1055.7 1051.5 1047.4
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.2
-0.0
-0.2
-0.8
-1.2
-0.9
-0.9
-2.8
-2.2
-2.0
-1.9
-2.0
-3.4
-3.5
-4.3
-4.0
-3.2
-3.0
(‰)
Net
permanent
migration
(‰)
Source: Rocznik demograficzny, Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2003, Rocznik statystyczny województw,
Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2003, Mały rocznik
statystyczny Polski, Warszawa 2005, Biuletyn Statystyczny
Województwa Opolskiego, Opole 2006.
(-19)
(-68)
(-126)
(1)
(-109)
(-136)
(28)
(-92)
(-120)
Przyrost naturalny
w osobach
np. - 136 osób
w powiecie nyskim
Saldo migracji
w osobach
(-154)
In 2005 the population growth rate in the
Opolskie Voivodeship was -0.9 per mill and,
similarly as in Poland, was negative. Only in three
poviats in the region the population growth rate was
positive and amounted to: in the Brzeg Poviat (0.3
per mill), in the Krapkowice Poviat (0.6 per mill), in
the Namysłów Poviat (0.3 per mill). The highest
negative population growth rate was in the Prudnik
Poviat with -2.4 per mill and the Głubczyce Poviat
with -2.3 per mill (Fig. 1.1).
(-78)
> (-130)
(-130) - (-260)
(-261) - (-390)
< (-390)
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
The Opolskie Voivodeship is characterised by the high negative migration balance,
mainly abroad, resulting from migratory traditions of the region and existing relations
between the society of the region and the destination country, as well
Fig. 1.1. Net permanent migration and
as the possibility of obtaining legal job abroad9. A positive aspect of
population growth rate in the Opolskie
labour migration is adopting European models of working, import of
Voivodeship in poviats in 2004.
new technologies, modern organisation of work as well as of capital
Source: Biuletyn Statystyczny
brought into the region. Leaving Poland in search for work, apart from
Województwa.
positive aspects, is also perceived as a threat to the labour market due
to draining skilled staff as well as to family life where parent’s longterm stay abroad results in irregularities in family functioning, weakened family ties and
greater number of single-parent families. Moreover, depopulation of villages and decrease in
births. In addition, disproportions in socioeconomic development as well as in living
conditions of people become greater.10.
The negative internal and foreign migration balance resulting in permanent stay per
1000 people in 2004 amounted to -3.2 per mill with the national average amounting to -0.2
per mill, which ranks the region first in Poland. In the Opolskie Voivodeship in all the poviats
there is negative migration balance. In 2003 in 25 countries of the European Union average
migration balance per 1000 of population was 4.6 per mill. The lowest was in Latvia (-1.8),
Lithuania (-0.4) and in Poland (-0.4). Positive balance, above 10 per mill, was in: Spain
(17.6), Cyprus (17.2) and Italy (10.4).
Demographic forecasts for the next 30 years anticipate that the negative population
growth rate will maintain in the Opolskie Voivodeship. In case of external migrations from the
Opolskie Voivodeship, it will be the second region after the Śląskie Voivodeship where the
emigration will be the highest. In 2030 population of the Opolskie Voivodeship will be 866.5
thousand, and 50.2% of it will live in rural areas. Population of the voivodeship will be lower
by 194.5 thousand people in comparison with 2002 (Tab. nr 1.2).
Tab. No. 1.2. Forecast of the principal demographic quantities in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 20022030.
-0.8
Internal
migration
balance
(‰)
-0.7
External
migration
balance
(‰)
-3.9
9.3
-1.3
-0.3
-4.2
1,045.3
7.6
9.5
-1.9
-0.1
-5.0
1,013.5
2015
7.8
10.0
-2.2
0.0
-4.5
980.1
2020
7.1
10.4
-3.3
0.3
-4.1
945.5
2025
5.9
10.4
-4.5
0.4
-3.8
907.9
Year
Birth rate
(thousand)
Death rate
(thousand)
Population
growth rate
(‰)
2002
8.5
9.3
2005
8.0
2010
2030
5.0
10.7
-5.8
0.6
-3.5
Source: Demographic forecast for 2003-2030, Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2004, p. 104
Population
(thousand)
1,061.0
866.5
9
This possibility relates to a part of the region’s population that has German citizenship and EU passports
enabling them to obtain legal job, on the basis of: K. Heffner, R. Rauziński, Region migracyjny (wybrane
aspekty demograficzne, społeczne i gospodarcze na przykładzie Śląska Opolskiego), Opole 2003, p. 17-34.
10
R. Radziński, Diagnoza sytuacji demograficznej, zatrudnienia, rynku pracy i bezrobocia na Śląsku Opolskim
[w:] D. Berlińska (red.): Województwo opolskie 1999. Wstępna diagnoza wybranych dziedzin, Opole 1999.
13
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
In the Opolskie Voivodeship 496.2 thousand people live in villages. In 2010-2030 the
number of people living in towns and villages will be decreasing (Tab. No. 1.3).
Tab. No. 1.3. Population and forecast of population in the Opolskie Voivodeship in towns and rural
areas in 2010-2030 (in thousand).
Description
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
1047.4
1013.5
980.1
945.5
907.9
866.5
population in towns
551.2
528.3
507.2
483.9
458.9
431.8
population in villages
496.2
485.2
473.0
461.6
449.0
434.7
Total population,
including:
Source: Opolszczyzna w liczbach 2006, Statistical Office in Opole, Opole 2006.
The urbanisation rate in the Opolskie Voivodeship is 52.6% in comparison to the
average in Poland of 61.4%. It is forecasted that this rate in 2030 will be lower and will
amount to 49.8%.
Living conditions, population income and safety
According to census data, there were 369.8 thousand households in the Opolskie
Voivodeship in 2002. They comprised 2.8% of total households in Poland. According to the
demographic forecast, the number of households in 2015 will increase to 397.8 thousand, but
will decline later to reach 373.8 thousand in 2030. The anticipated decrease of the number of
households in the Opolskie Voivodeship will mainly concern towns.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is characterised by higher income of the population than
the national average, but the level of average salaries and pensions is lower11. The average
monthly gross salary amounted to PLN 2,068.3 (total in Poland – PLN 2,273.4) in the
Opolskie Voivodeship in 2004 which ranked the Opolskie Voivodeship the 8th in Poland.
Pensions from the extra-agricultural social security system in 2004 reached PLN 1,069.33 (5th
place among voivodeships, average in Poland: PLN 1,140.94), whereas pensions of individual
farmers amounted to PLN 788.3 (5th place among voivodeships, average in Poland: PLN
747.2).
As regards the average income at disposal of 1 person in a household (assigned for
expenses, and consumer goods and services, and increase in savings), the Opolskie
Voivodeship is ranked 6th in Poland. The income amounts to ca. PLN 744.6 and is higher than
the average income in Poland by ca. PLN 10. Moreover, the average monthly expenses are
also higher, amounting to PLN 727.5 in the Opolskie Voivodeship, with the national average
amounting to PLN 694.7. The difference between the income and expenses in the region, and
the average income and expenses in Poland results from the fact that resources originating
from work abroad are most probably spent in the Opolskie Voivodeship.12
11
Data do not take into account salaries of people migrating abroad (ca. PLN 2.3 billion annually) that
significantly impact the prosperity and consumption level in this part of regional society in the Opolskie
Voivodeship.
12
It is estimated that, after taking these into account, average income would increase evenly by ca. 35%. See R.
Jończy, Migracje zarobkowe ludności autochtonicznej z województwa opolskiego. Studium ekonomicznych
determinant i konsekwencji, Opole University, Opole 2003, p. 188-189.
14
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Poverty and social exclusion are problems faced by many families despite better
economic level and living conditions. Welfare in the Opolskie Voivodeship is currently aimed
at a numerous (142 thousand people) and diverse group of people that need aid. However, the
Opolskie Voivodeship is one of the regions in Poland where a relatively low ratio of people is
covered by welfare service. In 2004, 526 people per 10 thousand people in the voivodeship
used the benefits, whereas the national average amounted to 631 people.
The voivodeship records insufficient number of welfare establishments, in particular
in rural areas. Moreover, many establishments do not comply with applicable standards and
legal regulations. Numerous tasks to aid families facing problems and people endangered by
poverty and social exclusion are performed by non-governmental organisations and voluntary
services. However, the problem is a low number of such organisations and people involved.
Permanently or temporarily inhabited housing stock in the Opolskie Voivodeship
reached 333.3 thousand in 2004, which comprised 2.6% of the housing stock in Poland. The
number of inhabited flats per 1000 people in 2004 amounted to 317 and it was less than the
national average (332 flats). However, in respect of the average usable flat area per person,
the Opolskie Voivodeship is characterised by the highest ratio in Poland: 24 m2, which
provides the high quality of life of its inhabitants together with other indicators.
Taking into consideration a number of new flats commissioned for use in relation to
the population, the Opolskie Voivodeship is the last in Poland (2.6 compared to 4.3 flats in
Poland in 2003). The results both for the voivodeship and the whole country are bad in
comparison with the European Union where these figures range somewhere between 5-10.
Since 1998 a number of new flats commissioned for use has increased every year. In 2004 in
the Opolskie Voivodeship 1,232 new flats were commissioned for use and it was more than in
2000 by 12%. In Poland the increase was much higher and amounted to 23.2 %.
A serious threat to the existing housing stock is their dramatic decapitalisation. The
problem is mainly faced by towns and villages with post-state-owned farms and post-militaryowned areas, with the challenge of “refurbishment gap”. In the voivodeship there is a large
number of abandoned properties with unsettled ownership, many empty, uninhabited flats and
buildings as well as lots of devastated outbuildings.
Historic town centres require revitalisation. According to the Land Development Plan
of the Opolskie Voivodeship13 in 30 towns historic urban designs survived, including 23 of
them listed in the monument register of the Opolskie Voivodeship, i.e. Baborów, Biała,
Brzeg, Byczyna, Głogówek, Głubczyce, Głuchołazy, Gorzów Śląski, Grodków, KędzierzynKoźle, Kluczbork, Krapkowice, Leśnica, Lewin Brzeski, Namysłów, Niemodlin, Nysa,
Opole, Otmuchów, Paczków, Prudnik, Strzelce Opolskie and Ujazd. Also panel block housing
estates, post-industrial and post-military areas as well as degraded districts and working-class
housing estates require revitalisation.
Living conditions of inhabitants are also significantly affected by safety and operation
of public order institutions. The highest number of crimes is noted in towns with large
population. Number of crimes in the Opolskie Voivodeship, which comprised 2.6% of total
crimes recorded in Poland in 2004 (37.3 thousand), has a declining trend (Fig. 1.2), whereas
the crime detection rate increases (Fig. 1.3). The statistical analyses and public opinion polls
show that the Opolskie Voivodeship is one of the safest regions in Poland. In spite of
improvement in public safety, this field – due to frontier location of the region and dynamics
13
Land Development Plan of the Opolskie Voivodeship approved of with the resolution of the Sejmik of the
Opolskie Voivodeship No. XLIX/357/2002 of 24 September, 2002 on approving the Land Development Plan of
the Opolskie Voivodeship (Dz. Urz. Woj. Opolskiego No. 112, item 1448).
15
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
of social phenomena and in consequence dynamics of crime – requires continuous
monitoring.
Moreover, the attention should be turned to threats from the use of alcohol and drugs
by young people. The poll conducted in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2005 shows that 61.2%
of teenagers at the age of 17/18 got drunk and 28.2% of young people at this age used
marijuana or hashish14 in 2004.
39 083
45000
40000
37 256
30 549
35000
30000
37 989
34 397
25 778
60
27 472
64,4
70
25000
50
20000
40
55,2
54,4
69,1
67,7
69,4
59,2
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
15000
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Fig. 1.2. Total number of crimes in the
Opolskie Voivodeship in 1998 - 2004
Fig. 1.3. Crime detection rate in the Opolskie
Voivodeship in 1998 – 2004.
Source: Roczniki Statystyczne Województw 19992005, Central Statistical Office.
Source: Roczniki Statystyczne Województw 1999-2005,
Central Statistical Office.
Labour market
In 2004, the national economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship employed 290.8 thousand
people (2.3% working population in Poland). Average employment in the enterprise sector,
amounting to 93.0 thousand people in 2005, is characterised by a growing trend (Tab. No.
1.4).
Tab. No. 1.4. Changes of average monthly employment in the sector of enterprises in 2000-2004 in
the Opolskie Voivodeship.
Description
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Average employment in the sector
113.9
107.2
98.5
94.2
91.5
93.0
of enterprises (in thousand)
Dynamics (preceding period =100)
94.2
94.1
91.8
95.7
97.1
10
(%)
Source: Biuletyn statystyczny Województwa Opolskiego from December 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and from
September 2005, Komunikat o sytuacji społeczno-gospodarczej, December 2004
The employment level, expressed in the so-called employment index, is relatively low
in comparison with the national average. According to 2004 BAEL15 data, a value of the
index in the Opolskie Voivodeship was 43% with the national average amounting to 44.3%.
In towns of the Opolskie Voivodeship the index amounted to 44.2%, while in villages 41.3%.
In 2004 in the Opolskie Voivodeship the activity rate was 52.3%, while in towns – 54.1% and
14
J. Sierosławski, P. Jabłoński, UŜywanie alkoholu i narkotyków przez młodzieŜ szkolną. Raport z badań
ankietowych zrealizowanych w województwie opolskim w 2005 r. Europejski Program Badań Ankietowych w
Szkołach ESPAD, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw 2005, p.16, 24.
15
Population Economic Activity Poll.
16
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
in villages – 50.0%. The rate is lower than the national average which amounts to 54.9%. It is
anticipated that the activity rate will fall by 0.8% in the region in the years 2004-2008. As
regards dynamics the Opolskie Voivodeship takes the 15th place in Poland16. Employment
structure in the Opolskie Voivodeship as compared with the national structure and the EU
structure is unfavourable as it is characterised by high percentage of employment in
agriculture and low percentage in services (Fig. 1.4). Many sectors also record insufficient
number of well-qualified personnel, in particular experts. There is also a low employment rate
in relation to the working population.
80
69,7
70
60
the Opolskie Voivodeship
50
Poland
40
EU
52,6
30,1
30
20
10
17,4
28,3
54,3
25,2
17,4
5,1
0
agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishery
and fishing
industry and construction
services
Fig. 1.4. Employees divided into sectors in the Opolskie Voivodeship and in Poland as
compared with the European Union in 2003 (in %)
Source: Produkt Krajowy Brutto. Rachunki Regionalne 2003, Central Statistical Office 2005, Rocznik
Statystyczny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej 2004, Central Statistical Office 2005.
The number of registered unemployed people in the Opolskie Voivodeship at the end
of December 2005 amounted to 69.4 thousand people and was characterised by a declining
trend, although unemployment, particularly in small towns, in the areas of post-state-owned
farms and dominated by small agricultural farms, is recognised as a vital development
problem (Tab. No. 1.5). At the end of 2005 at the labour offices in the Opolskie Voivodeship
there were 31.6 thousand inhabitants of villages registered which constituted 45.5% of all the
unemployed. On average their percentage was 42.6% in Poland.
Tab. No. 1.5. Number of registered unemployed people in the Opolskie Voivodeship and
unemployment rate in 1999-2005 in Poland and in the Opolskie Voivodeship (at the end of
December).
Description
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Number of unemployed people
in the Opolskie Voivodeship
59.5
69.3
78.6
83.4
81.6
74.6
69.4
(thousand)
Unemployment rate in the
13.2
15.3
18.2
19.3
21.4
19.9
18.6
Opolskie Voivodeship (%)
Unemployment rate in Poland
13.1
15.0
17.5
18.0
19.6
19.0
17.6
(%)
Source: Biuletyn statystyczny województwa opolskiego, December 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
Komunikat o sytuacji społeczno-gospodarczej, December 2004.
16
Source: Polska: regionalne prognozy ekonomiczne 2005-2008. Analiza porównawcza polskich województw,
PMR Publications, Kraków 2005, p. 60.
17
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
warmińskomazurskie
pomorskie
zachodniopomorskie
The unemployment rate in the Opolskie
Voivodeship at the end of December 2005
amounted to 18.6% (in Poland: 17.6%),
which ranks the region 8th among other
voivodeships (Fig. 1.5). The unemployment
rate is spatially diverse in the region. At the
end of December 2005 it ranged between
9.0% in Opole and 29.9% in the Nysa Poviat
(Fig. 1.6).
podlaskie
kujawsko
-pomorskie
mazowieckie
wielkopolskie
lubuskie
łódzkie
lubelskie
dolnośląskie
świętokrzyskie
opolskie
śląskie
podkarpackie
małopolskie
od 13,8% do 17,3%
od 17,4% do 20,9%
od 21,0% do 24,5%
od 24,6% do 27,5%
Polska = 17,6%
woj. opolskie = 18,6%
Fig. 1.5. Unemployment rate in Poland according to
voivodeships (at the end of December 2005).
Source: Biuletyn Statystyczny Województwa
Opolskiego, 4th quarter 2005.
On average the unemployment rate in the
EU ranges between 8-9% and is different
in particular states, the lowest: the
Netherlands – 4.0%, Ireland – 4.2%,
Denmark – 4.3%; the highest: Poland 18.6%, Slovakia – 15.7%, Greece – 9.6%,
France – 9.1%.
It is forecast that in the Opolskie
Voivodeship at the end of 2008 the
unemployment rate will be lower than at
the moment and will amount to 14.3%
which will make the region rank 7th in
Poland17.
od 9,0% do 14,2%
od 14,3% do 19,5%
od 19,6% do 24,8%
od 24,9% do 29,9%
Fig. 1.6. Unemployment rate in the Opolskie Voivodeship
according to poviats (at the end of December 2005).
Source: Biuletyn Statystyczny Województwa Opolskiego,
4th quarter 2005.
Economic growth and investment attractiveness
Gross domestic product in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2003 was PLN 18.2 billion
which constituted 2.2% of the state GDP. GDP per capita amounting to PLN 17,173 in 2003
ensured the 11th position of the Opolskie Voivodeship in the domestic ranking (Fig. 1.7).
Lower GDP per capita was in voivodeships in the eastern part of Poland (i.e. warmińskomazurskie, podlaskie, lubelskie, podkarpackie and świętokrzyskie).
The region is challenged by a lower rate of economic growth as compared with other
regions in Poland. A GDP value in 1995–2003 increased almost 2.5 times in Poland (an
increase by 148%), whereas in the Opolskie Voivodeship only by 99%.
GDP per capita in the region decreases as compared to the national average (Fig. 1.8).
17
Source: Polska: regionalne prognozy…, p. 67
18
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
20,0
17,4
17,8
17,1
18,2
98,7
15,5
14,8
16,0
12,0
93,5
100
91,6
88,3
13,0
83,7
84,4
81,2
81,9
80,4
1999
rok
2000
rok
2001
rok
2002
rok
2003
rok
80
10,9
9,1
60
8,0
40
4,0
20
0
0,0
1995
rok
1996
rok
1997
rok
1998
rok
1999
rok
2000
rok
2001
rok
2002
rok
2003
rok
1995
rok
1996
rok
1997
rok
1998
rok
Fig. 1.7. Change in Gross Domestic Product in
the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1995-2003 (in
billion PLN).
Fig. 1.8. GDP per capita in the Opolskie
Voivodeship compared to the national average in
1995-2003 (%) (Poland=100).
Source: Produkt Krajowy Brutto. Rachunki Regionalne
1999-2003, Central Statistical Office 2001-2005.
Source: Produkt Krajowy Brutto. Rachunki
Regionalne 1999-2003, Central Statistical Office
2001-2005.
It is forecast that in the coming years GDP will continue to grow, and the GDP
increase in 2005-2008 (average annual changes) will be one of the highest in Poland and will
amount to 5% in this period. Forecasts predict that in 2008 the region’s share in Poland’s
GDP will be at the same level as at the moment and will amount to 2.2%. According to
forecasts GDP per capita in the Opolskie Voivodeship will also increase and finally it will
reach 81.1% of the national average in 200818.
In comparison with other European regions, the share of the Opolskie Voivodeship as
regards GDP per capita is also unfavourable because in comparison with the average of the
European Union (25 states) it amounts to 37.4%, with average for Poland reaching 45.6%.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is in a group of 10 regions of the EU with the lowest GDP per
capita (Tab. No. 1.6). As regards this indicator the Opolskie Voivodeship was 6th among the
10 poorest regions in the European Union.
Tab. No. 1.6. GDP per capita in EU 25 in 2003.
Regions with the highest GDP per capita
Regions with the lowest GDP per capita
EU(25)
EU(25)
Item
Region
Item
Region
=100%
=100%
1 Inner London (UK)
278
1
Lubelskie (PL)
33
2
Bruxelles-Capitale (BE)
238
2
Podkarpackie (PL)
33
3
Luxembourg
234
3
Podlaskie (PL)
36
4
Hamburg (DE)
184
4
Świętkorzyskie (PL)
37
5
Île de France (FR)
173
5
Warmińsko-Mazurskie (PL)
37
6
171
6
Opolskie (PL)
37
165
7
Észak Magyaroszág (HU)
38
8
Wien (AT)
Berkshire, Buckinghamshire &
Oxfordshire (UK)
Provincia Autonoma Bolzano (IT)
160
8
Východné Slovensko (SK)
39
9
Oberbayern (DE)
158
9
Eszag-Alföld (HU)
39
158
10
Dél-Alföld (HU)
40
7
10 Stockholm (SE)
Source: Eurostat data.
18
Source: Polska: regionalne prognozy ekonomiczne …, p. 18, 20, 24.
19
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Surveys on diversity of investment attractiveness of Poland have placed the Opolskie
Voivodeship in the group of regions characterised by average (mediocre) attractiveness (in the
so-called III class of investment attractiveness, Fig. 1.9)19. At the same time, it is visible that
there is a lack of significant investments in the region.. Both a number of locations of direct
foreign investments and the amount of foreign capital per 10 thousand of people make the
Opolskie Voivodeship rank respectively as 6th and 7th in Poland. In the Opolskie
Voivodeship there are 60 plants owned by foreign investors who in whole Poland invested at
least 1 million USD20. This figure constitutes 2% of total locations of this type in Poland.
Growth dynamics of companies with foreign capital based in the Opolskie Voivodeship has
shown increasing tendency.
An important element in the region development is appropriately prepared land for
investment. First of all the land has to have technical
infrastructure as well as communications with the A4
motorway. The offer of areas for investment is spatially
diversified in the Voivodeship (Fig. 1.10).
Although the Opolskie region is conveniently
located on the border of national and European
communication routes, the problem lies in strong
competition of the neighbouring voivodeships. There are
few offers to attract investors from outside the region as
the land is not sufficiently prepared for investment21.
Fig. 1.9. Synthetic assessment of investment
attractiveness of voivodeships.
Source: As in note 14
Industry, civil engineering and services
Industry, characterised by the developed
sectoral structure, plays a considerable role in
the economy of the region. Diversity of
industrial structure is recognised as beneficial in
the development of the voivodeship. Among the
strengths of the region there are plants from the
food industry and the cement and lime sector as
well as modern and developed furniture and
woodworking industries based on long tradition.
For the development of the region the potential
of such sectors as food, power, construction
materials, chemical, engineering, electrical
engineering and metalworking are of
significance.
namysłowski
kluczborski
oleski
brz eski
Brze ski
Opolski
opolski
Opole
Opole
strzelecki
Nyski
nyski
Krkrapkowicki
apkowick i
prudnicki
Prudnicki
kędzierzyńsko
- kozielski
Głubczycki
Ogółem – liczba wszystkich tere nów
in westycyjn ych
Gotowe – tereny o uregulowanym statusie
prawnym, d obrym uzb rojeniu technicznym
Industrial plants show considerable potential
głubczycki
Fig. 1.10. Areas for investment in poviats of the Opolskie
Voivodeship (at the end of 2005).
Source: On the basis of data from the Investor Assistance
Centre in Opole.
19
K.Gawlikowska – Hueckel, Konkurencyjność i atrakcyjność województwa opolskiego w świetle integracji z
Unią Europejską, [w:] K. Heffner (red.) Uwarunkowania rozwoju regionalnego województwa opolskiego ze
szczególnym uwzględnieniem migracji zagranicznych. Red. K. Heffner, Marshal Office of the Opolskie
Voivodeship, Opole University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Production Engineering, Opole
2002, p. 77.
20
Kapitał zagraniczny w województwie opolskim, Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship, Department of
Regional Development, Section for Polls and Strategic Analyses, Opole 2005
21
Source: W. Skowroński, T. Skowroński, Analiza sektorowa budownictwa i diagnoza sytuacji ze szczególnym
uwzględnieniem sytuacji w województwie opolskim, Study ordered by the Ministry of Economy and Labour in
Warsaw, Opole 2005, p. 91, reproduced material
20
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
proven, among other things, by a number and quality of fixed assets. A gross value of fixed
assets in economic entities above 49 employees per capita in the Opolskie Voivodeship is
47.1 thousand PLN, while the national average is 45.8 thousand PLN. This indicator places
the region 2nd in Poland.
The value of industry production sold per capita in 2004 placed the voivodeship 6th in
Poland (17.2 thousand PLN with the national average amounting to 17.8 thousand PLN).
After periods of intensive increases in industry production sold, the dynamics of this value has
shown considerable fluctuations in recent years. Year 2005 did not change these trends. The
industry production sold was approximately 16 billion PLN, which means that it fell by 2.2%
in comparison with the preceding year.
There is a large development potential of the civil engineering sector in the Opolskie
Voivodeship, in combination with the building materials industry based on natural
resources22. However, despite the large potential, this sector faces serious difficulties,
similarly to civil engineering in the whole country. A value of civil engineering and erection
production per capita in 2004 was lower than the national average (PLN 1,100 and PLN
1,904) and, in this respect, the voivodeship was ranked 15th in Poland. In 2005 civil
engineering production sold amounted to 1,211.4 billion PLN, in comparison with the
corresponding period of the preceding year a 1.2% increase was recorded. It is predicted that
in coming years a value of civil engineering and erection production will rise due to, among
other things, opening of the EU markets. The forecast for 2005-2008 predicts an increase by
7.6% in the production sold in the region23.
The significance of services in the economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship is gradually
increasing; however, the region considerably differs from the national average in respect of
the development level of the sector. The region comes almost as the last in Poland in respect
of percentage of services in developing the regional gross value added (GVA), which
demonstrates an insufficiently developed and weak service sector (Fig. 1.11).
Rolnictwo, łowiectwo i leśnictwo; rybactwo
80
75,5
72,7
70,6
70,3
Przemysł i budownictwo
70,1
66,1
70
Uslugi
67,2
65,4
62,5
59,0
60
50
37,9
40
30
23,5
24,7
22,3
27,1
28,8
30,2
29,7
31,1
32,7
20
10
0,9
2,6
7,1
2,6
1,1
3,7
3,5
3,1
4,7
3,1
opolskie
Polska
Czechy
Finlandia
Węgry
Niemcy
Włochy
Grecja
Francja
W. Brytania
0
Fig. 1.11. Structure of GVA creation in the EU states and in the Opolskie Voivodeship (in %).
Source: Data from the Central Statistical Office.
There are 209 documented mineral raw material deposits in the Opolskie Voivodeship. These include mainly
carbonate raw materials, natural aggregates, sand and ceramic clay; the most important are carbonate deposits
used in cement and lime industry, natural aggregates, sand and ceramic clays used in construction; documented
raw material resources provide for functioning of mining industry for ca. 50 years of marl and lime for lime
industry and ca. 240 years of natural aggregates.
23
Source: Dodatek do raportu – Polska: regionalne prognozy ekonomiczne 2005-2008. Analiza porównawcza
polskich województw, PMR Publications, Kraków 2005
22
21
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
The service sector provides employment for 52.5% of people working in the region,
including 32.4% in market services and 20.1% in non-market services. On average, 54.4 % of
people are employed in the service sector in Poland and, in this respect, the region comes 9th
in Poland. As regards productivity, services in the Opolskie Voivodeship comprise the most
efficient sector of economy, which is demonstrated by the highest GVA as per one working
person. This value amounted to PLN 69.3 thousand in 2003. For comparison, GVA as per one
working person in the industry amounted to PLN 58.0 thousand, in construction PLN 49.9
thousand and in agriculture PLN 12.5 thousand. Economic entities from the service sector24
comprise 86.8 % of all entities registered in the Opolskie Voivodeship. At the end of 2004,
there were about 77 thousand of such entities.
Rural development
Rural areas constitute ca. 92% of the area of the voivodeship. Rural population stands
at almost half a million people, i.e. ca. 47% of all the inhabitants of the region25. As compared
with other regions, villages in the Opolskie Voivodeship are characterised by spatial order,
aesthetics and beauty of rural landscape as well as a relatively high standard of public space,
individual housing and farmyards. As one of few in Poland, the Opole region develops its
image by exhibiting villages, e.g. by the 1997 Programme “Rural Restoration.” The rural
restoration programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship is the largest and the long-lasting
regional project of local society mobilisation in Poland. Moreover, it is the first one that
implemented the methodology of establishing the development strategy at the level of
solectwo. The number of solectwos that applied to the programme in 2004 increased to 348. In
spite of that, the voivodeship records unwillingness to form associations and poor
organisation of agricultural producers and agricultural organisations.
Villages in the Opolskie Voivodeship are also famous for their excellent tangible
assets. Percentage of flats in villages furnished with a water supply system, central heating
and bathrooms considerably exceeds the average national values. On the other hand, the
situation as regards these facilities in villages is worse than in towns of the region (Tab. No.
1.7).
Tab. No. 1.7. Flats with particular facilities in the Opolskie Voivodeship in towns and rural areas in
2004 (w %).
Description
Towns
Rural areas
Water supply
system
99.2
95.6
Toilet
Bathroom
95.1
83.4
93.1
86.0
Gas from
network
77.3
2.5
Central
heating
83.3
72.4
Source: Rocznik Statystyczny Województwa Opolskiego 2006 (Statistical Yearbook of the Opolskie
Voivodeship 2006), Statistical Office in Opole, Opole 2005.
24
Including civil engineering
In Poland analogous proportions are as follows: 90% of area and 38% of population in Poland, on the basis of:
M. Smoleński, ZróŜnicowanie przestrzeni przyrodniczej polskiej wsi, A. Stasiak, R. Horodelski (red.),
Przestrzenne aspekty rozwoju wsi polskiej z uwzględnieniem obszarów depresji społeczno-gospodarczej,
Warszawa 2005, p. 37
25
22
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
However, the problem is poor infrastructure of the sewage system in villages of the
Opolskie Voivodeship. In 2004, there were 789.5 km of the sewage system and 5,118.6 km of
the water supply system. The indicator of water supply and sewage system density in rural
areas continues to rise (Tab. No. 1.8).
Tab. No. 1.8. Indicator of water supply and sewage system density in rural areas in the Opolskie
Voivodeship in 1999-2004.
Description
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Indicator of water supply system density in rural areas
55.4 56.5 56.9 58.0 58.5 59.2
(length of water supply system in km per 100 km2)
Indicator of sewage system density in rural areas (length of
3.0
3.8
5.2
6.2
7.6
9.1
sewage system in km per 100 km2)
Source: Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2000 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2000), Central
Statistical Office, Warszawa 2000, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2001 (Statistical Yearbook of
Voivodeships 2001), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2001, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2002
(Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2002), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2002, Rocznik Statystyczny
Województw 2003 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2003), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2003,
Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2004 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2004), Central Statistical Office,
Warszawa 2004, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2005 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2005), Central
Statistical Office, Warszawa 2005.
There are approximately 26 thousand economic entities registered in rural areas
(almost 1/3 of all the entities registered in the voivodeship). These include mainly small and
medium-sized enterprises; only 3.8% of entities are related to agriculture. The major
development barriers include poorly developed services, craftsmanship and manufacturing in
areas with dominating agricultural functions, barely used and undeveloped tourist potential of
rural areas as well as a lack of well-furnished recreational areas within the vicinity of towns.
In 2004 in rural areas there were 102 healthcare centres and 96 medical practices. The
Health Strategy for the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2006-2013 shows that weaknesses of the
voivodeship include: limited access to specialist outpatients’ clinics in rural areas and a
shortage of specialists outside towns in the region. Moreover, a pre-hospital death rate in
acute brain and cardiovascular events is high.
Medical infrastructure should be described as poorly developed. Specialist outpatients’
clinics are insufficiently equipped with diagnostic devices, access to outpatients’ services is
inequal and computerisation assessed as insufficient.26
The Opolskie Voivodeship has a dense network of educational units in rural areas. In
the school year 2004/2005 in the countryside there were: 299 primary schools where 30,617
pupils attended and 63 junior secondary schools with 12,050 pupils. Moreover, there were 2
vocational schools where 222 pupils attended. At the same time 5 secondary schools provided
438 pupils with education. However, some schools need renovation, extension and
modernisation. Results of final tests and exams show that pupils receiving education in rural
areas gain worse marks than children at their age from municipal areas27. Therefore the efforts
26
Strategia Ochrony Zdrowia dla Województwa Opolskiego na lata 2006-2013 (Health Strategy for the Opolskie
Voivodeship for 2006-2013), Sejmik of the Opolskie Voivodeship , Opole 2005, p. 48, 50, 61.
27
Sprawdzian w szóstej klasie szkoły podstawowej w województwie dolnośląskim i opolskim w 2005 roku (Test
in the sixth form at primary school in Dolnośląskie and Opolskie Voivodeship in 2005), Report, Wrocław 2005,
p. 13.
23
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
should be intensified to improve the quality of education at all types of schools in rural areas.
The analysis of possibilities of running physical education classes indicates that sports and
recreational facilities should be improved, including construction of gyms28.
Favourable natural conditions of the Opolskie Voivodeship allow for intensive
agricultural production29. Agricultural functions are of particular significance to the southern,
western and northern parts of the region30.
The Opolskie Voivodeship records high percentage of modern agricultural farms with
large development potential. The average area of an individual farm exceeding 1 ha of
agricultural arable land was 10.1 ha in mid 2004 (8th in Poland). However, small family farms
of up to 5 ha in area dominate in the region. In June 2004 there were more than 36 thousand
individual farms exceeding 1 ha of arable land.
The southern and central part of the region faces periodical water shortages and
deficits in periods of the highest demand (e.g. plant vegetation) as well as periods of water
surplus (early spring and summer), which result in rivers in spate and floods. One of the
problems is poor condition of soil-improving equipment and primary watercourses as well as
a shortage of available resources of surface water.
46.1% of arable land (ca. 250 thousand ha) in the Opolskie Voivodeship are improved;
however, these include old infrastructure (approximately 30% of the equipment depreciated).
There are 8 small storage reservoirs in the voivodeship (total 5.5 million m3 and 232.3 ha of
area), which are very unevenly arranged and their impact is insignificant.
Economic entities including small and medium-sized enterprises
The number of economic entities registered in the Opolskie Voivodeship at the end of
2005 was approximately 91 thousand and it increased by 2.5% in comparison with the
corresponding period of the preceding year. Despite the systematic increase of the number of
entities, their growth rate has been declining year by year.
Enterprise ratios have been lower than the national average for many years. In 2005
the Opolskie Voivodeship came 11th in Poland with the value of 85.5 when the national
average amounted to 94.8 (Fig. 1.12).
28
Strategia Rozwoju Edukacji w Województwie Opolskim na lata 2003-2006 (Strategy for Education
Development in the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2003-2006), Opole 2002, p. 14.
29
Land is low-lying, flat, slightly rolling, the region is one of the warmest in Poland. A vegetation period begins
early, most often at the end of March and lasts 200÷225 days. Annual rainfall ranges between 600÷800 mm, with
160÷180 days with rainfall on average. Soil with grade of 1.06 for arable land and of 1.05 for grassland rates
among good ones.
30
Source: Raport o stanie zagospodarowania przestrzennego województwa opolskiego. Synteza. Zarząd
Województwa Opolskiego, Opole 2006.
24
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
100
90
80
70
73,5
78,6
66,6
82,4
90,7
86,1
75,8
80,1
93,8
82,8
93,7
84,1
94,8
85,5
2004
2005
70,9
59,5
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
województwo opolskie
2003
Polska
Fig. 1.12 Number of economic entities per 1,000 people in the Opolskie Voivodeship and in
Poland in 1998-2004.
Source: Own calculations on the basis of data from the Central Statistical Office.
The greatest number of entities operate in the service sector – 76.3%, in industry and
civil engineering – 19.9%.
The sector of small and medium-sized enterprises comprises 99.9% of all the entities,
including the highest percentage of micro-enterprises. In 1995-2005, the number of the
smallest entities (employing up to 9 people) increased by 46.8 thousand, i.e. by 117.9%. The
number of entities employing from 10 to 49 people increased by 1133 (i.e. by 50.7 %) and the
number of medium entities (50-249 employees) increased by 75 (i.e. by 11.9%). In the
aforementioned period, the number of large entities (employing 250 people and more) fell by
58 entities (by 37.6%). A decrease in the number of large enterprises results, among other
things, from advancement of restructuring and privatisation processes. (Tab. No. 1.9).
Tab. No. 1.9. Economic entities in the Opolskie Voivodeship as per the number of employees in 1995
and 2005.
Number of employees
Year
Total
Up to 9
10-49
50-249
250 and more
1995
42,679
39,661
2,235
632
151
2005
90,597
86,429
3,368
707
93
Source: Data of the Statistical Office in Opole.
Business support organisations
Business support organisations assist development of small and medium-sized
enterprises, e.g. helping establishing economic relationships, providing consulting and
financial services, etc.
The number of these units in the market has grown significantly. In 1995-2003, the
number of business support organisations increased in the Opolskie Voivodeship by 154.6 %,
i.e. by over 8 thousand and, at the end of 2003, over 13.7 thousand business support
organisations were registered in the region, which is shown in Tab. No. 1.10.
Tab. No. 1.10. Number of economic entities according to the division included in business support
sector in 1995-2003.
25
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Year
Total
Financial
brokerage
Including
banks
IT
Other services related to
running economic activity
Commercial
organisations
1995
5,398
634
51
307
4,362
95
1996
7,553
876
49
376
6,200
101
1997
8,416
1,321
52
436
6,549
110
1998
9,449
1,767
51
518
7,051
113
1999
10,673
2,351
43
611
7,595
116
2000
11,733
2,858
36
672
8,080
123
2001
12,788
3,223
39
781
8,659
125
2002
13295
3416
53
847
8901
131
2003
13742
3536
63
900
9165
141
Source: Data of the Statistical Office in Opole.
According to data from the Regional Research Centre in Warsaw, the Opolskie
Voivodeship has the highest percentage of business support organisations in Poland is
comparison to all the registered economic entities. In 2001 this indicator in the Opolskie
Voivodeship was 21.4%, while the national average 17.3%31. However, in the region there are
no specialist institutions, i.e. scientific and technological parks.
The problem of the region is the institutional, organisational and financial weakness of
business support organisations and their low competitiveness in comparison with other
entities of this type in Poland. The role of business support organisations in the Opolskie
Voivodeship should increase year by year.
R&D and innovative activities
Innovative activities being the determinant of competitiveness are decisive for
economic growth. Research and development activities are directly related to innovativeness.
The value of expenditure on innovative activities in industrial enterprises in the
Opolskie Voivodeship amounted to PLN 396.9 million in 2004, which is 2.6% of total
expenditure in Poland. In comparison with the preceding year, the value of expenditure on
innovative activities dropped by almost PLN 10 million, i.e. 2.4%. However, as per capita, it
was lower than the national average (PLN 377.5 in comparison with PLN 405.8 per inhabitant
in 2004). Although the expenditure per capita was so small the voivodeship ranked 5th among
voivodeships.
Stronger competition in the market and technological progress make it necessary to
implement innovations and new technologies. Percentage of industrial plants which in 19982000 implemented technical innovations was in the Opolskie Voivodeship 22.3% and it was
one of the highest in Poland (3rd place). Considering innovative activities in respect of
companies size it should be highlighted that medium-sized and large companies are definitely
more innovative as 38.1% of them implemented technical innovations in 1998-2000, while
among small companies employing from 10 to 49 people only 12.1% implemented
innovations in 1998-2000. The innovativeness rate for medium-sized and large companies
was the highest in Poland, while as regards the analogous rate for small firms the voivodeship
31
W. SuraŜska, Potencjał rozwojowy województwa opolskiego (analiza metodą “benchmarking”), [w:] K.
Heffner (red.) Uwarunkowania rozwoju regionalnego województwa opolskiego ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem
migracji zagranicznych. Red. K. Heffner, Marshall Oddice of the Opolskie Voivodeship, Opole University of
Technology, Faculty of Management and Production Engineering, Opole 2002, p. 56.
26
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
was 8th. The data of the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development show that in the Opolskie
Voivodeship there were 50 companies which in 1991-2001 launched new and modernised
products, i.e. 3.7% of all the enterprises in Poland which launched such products. In this
group there were 15 firms which launched new products on a market scale (3.8% of all the
firms in Poland). The sales of new and modernised products amounted to 317.8 million PLN,
while percentage of such products in total production sold was 11.7% and placed the
voivodeship 7th in Poland. In 2002 the number of enterprises which launched new and
modernised products in the Opolskie Voivodeship increased up to 66, and 2/3 of them were
medium-sized firms employing from 50 to 249 people.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is characterised by a low potential of the sector of high
technologies. In 2000 in the register of economic entities (REGON) there were 79 of entities
from the sector of high technologies registered, which constituted 1.2% of all such entities in
Poland. In 2000 in the Opolskie Voivodeship there were 12 entities from the sector of high
technologies per 1000 of production companies, while the national average was 17 entities
which placed the region 12th among voivodeship32.
The research and development sector includes scientific establishments of PAN (the
Polish Academy of Sciences), research and development units, science support units (science
libraries, archives, science associations), universities that conduct R&D activities and
development units that conduct research and development work apart from other operations.
In 2004, there were only 14 units of this kind in the Opolskie Voivodeship, which comprised
approximately 1.4% of establishments of this kind in Poland. In 2004 the number of units
classified in the R&D sector increased by one in comparison with 2003. This sector faces
problems due to low competitiveness of the regional scientific and research portfolio as well
as no co-operation between these units and economic entities. Only 21% of firms undertake
co-operation with the R&D institutions – thus it is the field “underdeveloped” by the Opole
enterprises. The most common forms of co-operation between these units are trainings,
consultations and advisory.33
Employment in research and development units in 2004 amounted to 1,545 people and
shows a decreasing trend, yet the number of people employed increased in comparison with
2003 (Tab. nr 1.11). In the Opolskie region there are only 1.5 person employed in the R&D
sector per 1,000 inhabitants people, while in the European Union (EU15) it is approximately 6
(e.g. in Finland 13 people).
Tab. No. 1.11. Number of people employed in R&D in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1995-2004.
Years
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
1,545
Number of people 1,353 1,790 1,870 1,794 1,817 1,694 1,650 1,553 1,538
Source: Nauka i technika w 2000 roku, Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2002, p. 91, Nauka i technika w
2001 roku, Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2003, p. 85., Nauka i technika w 2002 roku, Central Statistical
Office, Warszawa 2003, Rocznik Statystyczny Województwa Opolskiego (Statistical Yearbook of the Opolskie
Voivodeship), Statistical Office in Opole, Opole 2005.
The weakness of the R&D sector in the Opolskie Voivodeship is additionally
aggravated by very low expenditure that amounted to PLN 29.4 million in 2004 (0.6% of
32
On the basis of: Profil społeczny i gospodarczy województwa opolskiego, J. Szomburg (kier.), Instytut Badań
nad Gospodarką Rynkową, Gdańsk 2002.
33
On the basis of:: Stan innowacyjności przedsiębiorstw Opolszczyzny, wyniki badań monitoringowych cz. I,
Opole University of Technology, Academic Business Incubator, Opole 2006
27
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
outlay in Poland). The organisational and financial support system is insufficient which does
not motivate companies and scientists to creative and innovative activities. In the Opolskie
Voivodeship only PLN 2.1 million of expenditure on R&D was allocated to one research and
development unit, whereas the national average reached almost PLN 5 million. The ratio of
the expenditure on research and development to the gross domestic product in 2003 amounted
to 0.16% in the Opolskie Voivodeship and was three times lower than the national average.
Therefore, the region ranks 15th among other voivodeships.. (Fig. 1.13).
1,40
1,19
1,05
0,86
0,48
0,56
0,43
0,41
0,40
0,36
0,33
0,35
0,25
0,23
0,20
0,18
0,17
0,16
Opolskie
0,54
Zachodniopomorskie
0,70
0,06
Polska
Świętokrzyskie
Lubuskie
Podlaskie
Warmińskomazurskie
Kujawsko-pomorskie
Śląskie
Podkarpackie
Dolnośląskie
Lubelskie
Pomorskie
Wielkopolskie
Łódzkie
Małopolskie
Mazowieckie
0,00
Fig. 1.13. Ratio of expenditure on research and development (R&D) to gross domestic product as per
voivodeships in 2003 (in %).
Source: Own calculations on the basis of data from the Central Statistical Office.
On average in the European Union the expenditure in 2003 was 1.95%, the greatest
was in Finland 3.51%, Denmark 2.6%, Germany 2.5%.
Moreover, expenditure on research and development in the Opolskie Voivodeship is
very low. In 2004 the amount per capita was PLN 28 with the national average amounting to
PLN 135, which made the region 14th among Polish regions. Low expenditure on research and
development is a considerable barrier for the region development.
Transport infrastructure
The A4 Zgorzelec–Korczowa motorway runs across the voivodeship; it is a part of the
Third Pan-European Transport Corridor which significantly favours development. The
motorway section running across the Opolskie Voivodeship is 88.1 km long, with 6
communication junctions (Fig. 1.14). The motorway ensures efficient transport, and areas in
immediate vicinity of it are very attractive for potential investors. However, the problem is
poor communications of the A4 motorway with the areas for investment. There are 5
generally accessible border checkpoints (including one full freight), 11 checkpoints of low
cross-border traffic and 1 tourist checkpoint through which the Czech Republic can be
reached. There is also one railway checkpoint.
28
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Fig. 1.14. Transport system in the Opolskie Voivodeship.
Source: Department for Spatial Planning of the Marshall Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship.
In 2004 in the Opolskie Voivodeship there were 8,516 kilometres of public hardsurface roads, including 969 km of voivodeship roads, 3,771 km of poviat roads and 2,975 km
of gmina roads. The indicator of public roads density in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2004
was 90.48 km/100km2 with the average in Poland amounting to 80.7 km/100km2 (Tab. No.
1.12).
Tab. No. 1.12. Public hard-surface roads per 100 km2 and percentage of roads with improved surface
in total length of roads in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1999-2005.
Description
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Public hard-surface roads per
89.1
89.9
90.9
87.7
90.4
90.5
88.9
100 km2
Percentage of roads with
improved surface in total length
87.6
87.9
87.6
87.6
88.1
88.2
88.7
of roads (in %)
Source: Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2000 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2000), Central
Statistical Office, Warszawa 2000, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2001 (Statistical Yearbook of
Voivodeships 2001), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2001, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2002
(Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2002), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2002, Rocznik Statystyczny
Województw 2003 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2003), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2003,
Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2004 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2004), Central Statistical Office,
Warszawa 2004, Opolszczyzna w liczbach, Statistical Office in Opole, Opole 2006.
29
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
In respect of road traffic safety, the situation in the Opolskie Voivodeship is similar to
the average situation in Poland; however, the latter considerably differs from the situation in
the “old” EU Member States. There were 1,191 traffic accidents, with 150 fatalities and 1,536
injured in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2004 (Fig. 1.15).
The reasons include, among others, a substandard condition of roads that require
modernisation. A considerable development restriction is also the insufficient number of town
and village transit ring roads.
Number of
accidents
1700
1601
1600
1500
193
250
1632
167
1400
149
163
141
Number of
fatalities
150 150
1440
1367
1300
200
1348
100
50
1200
1191
1100
0
1999 rok 2000 rok 2001 rok 2002 rok 2003 rok 2004 rok
liczba wypadków
liczba ofiar śmiertelnych
Fig. 1.15. Number of accidents and fatalities in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1999 - 2004.
Source: Data of the Central Statistical Office.
Four towns in the region, i.e. Opole, Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Nysa and Brzeg have public
transport with 826 bus routes and 195 buses. The analysis carried out by the Chamber of
Urban Transport in Warsaw shows that the demand for bus transport has stabilised in towns
and conurbations in Poland. In 2004 31 million people used the public transport in the
Opolskie Voivodeship, in 2003 also 31 million people and in 2002 - 32 million.34 One of
disadvantageous phenomena is a gradual decrease in the number of new buses in public
transport. The aforesaid analysis indicates that the average age of town buses used in Poland
becomes greater. Approximately 50% constitute ten-year-old and older buses, and just more
than 8 % are buses less than three years old which meet the highest ecological and technical
standards. A similar situation is in the Opolskie Voivodeship, e.g. in Opole there are 100
buses and the average age is 12.5 years. They offer a low standard of travelling, bad working
conditions for drivers, they do not fulfil ecological requirements, and their frequent
breakdowns make maintenance costs considerably higher.
The Opolskie Voivodeship has a well developed railway system, which, however,
requires modernisation. The total length of standard-gauge railway lines used is 839 km.
As regards passenger railway transport, a number of connections increases in the
Opolskie Voivodeship as opposed to nation-wide trends where many of the links are
suspended. In 2005 a number of connections increased as compared with 2004 by 200
thousand train kilometres. In 2004-2005 three modern rail buses were purchased to enable
operation of the lines Kluczbork–Opole and Kędzierzyn-Koźle–Nysa–Kamieniec Ząbkowicki
34
Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2003 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2003), Central Statistical
Office, Warszawa 2003, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2004 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2004),
Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2004, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2005 (Statistical Yearbook of
Voivodeships 2005), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2005.
30
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
closed in 2000. This investment is the first phase in modernisation of depreciated railway
stock. Other routes to be reopened soon.
There is a large potential of river transport in the voivodeship, in particular related to a
water route on the Odra River and its basin. The total length of water routes is 131.2 km. They
are equipped with the barrage system with small and large locks. Unfortunately, the quality of
hydrotechnical infrastructure does not allow for getting the III navigability class on the Odra
River and the Gliwicki Canal. The main ports are located in Opole and Kędzierzyn-Koźle;
however, they are highly depreciated.
There is no regional passenger airport in the Opolskie Voivodeship and the closest
airports in neighbouring regions are located ca. 100 km away. In the voivodeship there are
two local airports: in Kamień Śląski and Polska Nowa Wieś, but the latter has a grass runway
intended mainly for the Flying Club purposes.
The airport in Kamień Śląski is an only airport in the Opolskie Voivodeship with a
hard-surface runway more than 2,000 m long, which within a short time may start to operate
domestic and international flights. Potential directions for development of the airport in
Kamień Śląski: operation of international flights (low fare airlines), operation of regular
connections with Germany, - charter flights, - Cargo, - General Aviation: - Certified Flying
Training Centre, - authorised maintenance service of aircrafts, - rallies of aircrafts from whole
Europe. The Preliminary Feasibility Study for “Opole” Airport in Kamień Śląski35 shows that
the passenger airport will bring numerous economic and social benefits for the development
of the region. The most significant economic functions include: more jobs for directly and
indirectly employed (through so called multiplier effects), a factor affecting the selection of
location for domestic and foreign investments, integration of the region with central and
highly developed areas in Poland and the European Union. Among social functions of air
transport the most important is greater mobility of the society.
Public services infrastructure and power industry
The length of the water supply system in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2004 was
6,497.6 km. The density ratio of the system in the Opolskie Voivodeship as compared with
the whole country in 2004 was 69 km/100km2, with the national average amounting to 76.5
km, which ranked the voivodeship 8th among 16 voivodeships. In 2004 the water supply
system was used by 986.7 people which constitute 93.8 % of total population of the
voivodeship using the water supply system.
In 1998–2003 in the Opolskie Voivodeship 806 km of the sewage system was
commissioned, but the range of the system is still insufficient. The length of the system in the
Opolskie Voivodeship in 2004 amounted to 1,797.5 km and served only to 52.1% of the
population. The sewage system is available mainly in towns, and a significant development
barrier is a predominance of areas which lack collective sewage systems. The density ratio of
the system in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2004 was 19.1 km/100 km2 with the national
average amounting to 23.6 km per 100 km2, which ranked the voivodeship 10th among other
voivodeships.
Increased availability of technical utilities is an essential prerequisite for improving
the quality of life. Construction, modernisation and repairs of water supply and sewage
35
The Preliminary Feasibility Study for “Opole” Airport in Kamień Śląski was prepared by Crowley
Infrastructure Development Group from Warsaw. The aim of the Study was to assess preliminarily chances of
completing the investment.
31
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
systems should noticeably improve living conditions of people living in the Opolskie
Voivodeship.
The gas network in the Opolskie Voivodeship is poorly developed and requires
investments. At the end of December 2004 its length reached 1,976.6 km. The system was
used by 41.4% of the population. Majority of the gas system, ca. 61.2% of its total length, is
located in towns of the Opolskie Voivodeship where 76.5% of consumers uses it. The length
of the system in rural areas is 767 km; however, gas is used only by 12 thousand (2.4%)
people in villages. The average length of the gas system per 100 km2 was over two times
lower than the national average36 in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2004 and amounted to 12.6
km (13th in Poland; Fig. 1.16).
200
Długość sieci wodociągowej na 100 km kw.
180
160
Długośc sieci kanalizacyjnej na 100 km kw.
140
Długość sieci gazowej na 100 km kw.
120
100
80
60
40
POLSKA
zachodniopomorskie
lubuskie
podlaskie
warmińskomazurskie
małopolskie
świętokrzyskie
pomorskie
podkarpackie
opolskie
śląskie
mazowieckie
lubelskie
dolnośląskie
łódzkie
wielkopolskie
0
kujawsko-pomorskie
20
Fig. 1.16. Density of water supply and sewage systems and gas network in voivodeships in 2004.
Source: Own calculations on the basis of: Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2005 (Statistical Yearbook of
Voivodeships 2005), Central Statistical Office 2005.
The major power supplier in the Opolskie Voivodeship is BOT Power Plant Opole.
This is a system power plant with total installed capacity 1,492 MW and attainable capacity of
1,506 MW, fired by hard coal. In addition, in the region there are power plant “Blachownia”
in Kędzierzyn–Koźle (158 MW), heat and power generating plants, industrial power plants of
local significance (from 4.5 MW to 40 MW) and hydroelectric power plants (from 0.022 MW
to 4.8 MW.
The basic thermal energy sources for people in towns are heat-generating systems.
Moreover, there are still boiler houses (mainly coal-fired) that serve consumers in particular
gminas.
The power potential of renewable energy sources includes almost 40 boiler houses,
using biofuels of total installed capacity 26.2 MW (0.56% of total heat demand in the
voivodeship) and 22 hydroelectric power plants of total capacity 18.82 MW (2.5% of total
electric energy demand in the Opolskie Voivodeship). Despite considerable resources,
renewable energy sources satisfy only a small part of the power demand. Power production
from renewable sources in 2002 reached ca. 58.6 MWh.
The percentage of renewable sources of energy in the global fuel and energy balance is
approximately 18%. Total supplies of renewable energy in Poland in 2002 constituted 5.2% of
total supplies of primary energy (while in EU15 5.9%). A basic source of renewable energy in
Poland, also in the Opolskie Voivodeship, is biomass. The Opolskie Voivodeship in
comparison with Poland has an enormous potential of biomass, the greatest potential of straw
and dynamic development of crops based on energy plants. The major consumer of biomass
36
In 2004 in Poland there were 32.6 km of gas network per 100 km2.
32
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
in the Opolskie Voivodeship is BOT Power Plant Opole. At the moment it burns approx. 75
thousand Mg of biomass, the target is 250 Mg, and therefore it will be necessary to increase
its supply.
Taking into account sustainable development and limited availability of natural
resources, efforts should be made to increase the percentage of energy from renewable
sources in the overall structure of energy produced.
Environmental protection
In 2004 expenditure on investments in environmental protection per capita in the
Opolskie Voivodeship was PLN 184 (2nd in Poland). It was above the national average (PLN
140; Fig. 1.17).
200
189
184
180
177
176
167
166
153
160
138
140
133
140
129
114
120
106
96
100
88
87
72
80
POLSKA
podlaskie
lubuskie
lubelskie
warmińskomazurskie
mazowieckie
świętokrzyskie
wielkopolskie
kujawsko-pomorskie
podkarpackie
łódzkie
zachodniopomorskie
małopolskie
pomorskie
dolnośląskie
opolskie
śląskie
60
Fig. 1.17. Investment outlay on environmental protection per capita in voivodeships in 2004 (in PLN).
Source: Own calculations on the basis of: Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2005 (Statistical Yearbook of
Voivodeships 2005), Central Statistical Office 2005.
The quantity of disposed industrial and municipal waste that required treatment in
2004 amounted to 85 hm3, including 96.8% were treated.
Approximately 55.1% of total population of the region was served by treatment plants
(the national average ratio was 59%), which ranked the region 11th among other voivodeships.
All the poviats in the Opolskie Voivodeship have their municipal treatment plants of total
flow capacity 219 dam3/d. In total there are 64 municipal treatment plants used in the
voivodeship, including 45 biological ones, 18 with increased biogenic removal and 1
mechanical plant. The problem is an insufficient sewage system in the outskirts of towns and
in rural areas.
Apart from municipal treatment plants, there are 47 industrial treatment plants with
flow capacity 726.1 dam3/d, including 21 mechanical ones, 3 chemical plants, 18 biological
and 5 with increased biogenic removal.
Emission of dust pollution to the atmosphere from plants that are particularly
troublesome in the Opolskie Voivodeship decreases every year, which results mainly from
33
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
reduction of high emission. The problem is still posed by the so called low pollution emission.
In 1998 industrial plants emitted 12.4 thousand tonnes of dust pollution and in 2004 8
thousand tonnes (64.5%) less – i.e. 4.4 thousand tonnes.
In 1998–2004 the quantity of gas pollution (without carbon dioxide) also decreased –
by 3.0 thousand tonnes (i.e. by 5.4%). In 2004 the emission reached 52.7 thousand tonnes.
In 2004 in the Opolskie Voivodeship 1,816.6 thousand tonnes of industrial waste was
generated, including ca. 87.5% was subject to recycling and 8.7% was neutralised and stored.
As regards industrial waste produced the Opolskie Voivodeship is 11th in Poland. Also 270.6
thousand tonnes of municipal waste were produced which calculated per capita places the
voivodeship 8th in Poland with 257 kg of waste per person. In Poland the rate is 256 kg. At
the end of 2004, there were 45 active waste dumps in the voivodeship whose total area was
259.4 ha and 2 waste dumps with concluded utilisation of total area 5.5. In addition, 17 waste
dumps have degassing systems. In the voivodeship there is no common and fully operating
system for utilising municipal waste. Moreover, there is no dangerous waste dump.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is abundant in underground water and poor in surface
water. However, pollution of surface water remains and the quality of underground water
deteriorates. Surface water that complies with the requirements of the purity grade I
comprises 3%; water of grade II comprises 34.4%; and water of grade III comprises 31.3%.
Water polluted above standards constitutes 31.3 % of all waters. A serious threat for the
voivodeship is a lack of efficient flood control system and possible losses in case of flood.
The existing flood control system is insufficient, with levees, storage reservoirs, small
retention reservoirs and river polders
requiring most immediate extension and
modernisation.
Lasy Barucickie
In order to improve the flood
control system an investment related to the
flood control reservoir “Racibórz” of key
importance for the Opolskie Voivodeship
is in progress. In addition, it is necessary
to implement the “Programme for the
Odra River 2006” in the Odra basin which
is scheduled for 2006-2016.
Grądy Odrzańskie
Opolska Dolina Odry
(Łęg Stobrawski)
Jezioro Turawskie
Kamień Śląski
Jezioro Otmuchowskie
Forty Nyskie
Góra Świętej Anny
Jezioro Nyskie
Ostoja Sławniowicko-Burgrabicka
Opolska Dolina Odry
(Łęg Zdzieszowicki)
Góry Opawskie (cz. pn.)
The Opolskie Voivodeship is rich in
Góry Opawskie (cz. pd.)
unique natural resources, in particular:
− the Chełm massif which is a
Obszary Specjalnej Ochrony Ptaków
concentration of stenothermic and
Specjalne Obszary Ochrony Siedlisk
calciphil plants unique in Poland;
Druk prosty - nazwy obszarów wyznaczonych / zgłoszonych Komisji Europejskiej;
− the Opawskie Mountains (including
Kursywa - nazwy obszarów wymagających wyznaczenia / zgłoszenia
their south-east fragment near
Fig. 1.18. Target Natura 2000 network in the Opolskie
Voivodeship
Opawica and Pielgrzymowo) which is
Source:
Shadow List
a “natural bridge” between the
Carpathian and Sudeten Mountains;
− the Odra valley with fragments of river valley nature best preserved in the voivodship
(Grądy Odrzańskie);
− unique localities of bats in the Nyskie Forts and Sławniowicko-Burgabickie quarries.
The Opolskie Voivodeship carries out activities called Natura 2000 related to
protection of natural ecosystems, habitats and communities in the areas of natural sanctuaries.
34
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
In the Opolskie region the first in Poland regional concept of Natura 2000 network was
developed; moreover, the Opolskie Voivodeship as the only one has so called “Red Book37 of
Plants in the Opolskie Voivodeship” (in Polish: “Czerwona księga roślin województwa
opolskiego”) – a study devoted to endangered plant species. The regional concept of the
Programme “Natural Sanctuaries Natura 2000” in the Opolskie Voivodeship suggests
establishing of 6 global sanctuaries and within them 15 partial sanctuaries of total area of
approx. 144.7 thousand ha (ca. 15.4 % of the region area). At the end of 2005, there is one
bird sanctuary approved – Grądy Odrzańskie (11.65 thousand ha). Fig. 1.18 presents target
Natura 2000 network in the Opolskie Voivodeship.
Moreover, in the Opolskie Voivodeship the Programme “Reintroduction of
Spermophilus citellus” (species of gopher) is in progress38. It is an only colony of these
animals in Poland. The aim of the Programme is to reconstruct the self-reproducing
population of this species of gopher which in Poland became totally extinct at the turn of the
seventies and eighties of the 20th century.
Education and human resources
The Opolskie Voivodeship is characterised by a dense school system adequate to
social needs. Nursery education in the Opolskie Voivodeship is characterised by a large
number of small units, densely distributed around the voivodeship, although some rural areas
lack such units. In 2004 in the voivodeship there were 481 nursery schools (kindergartens and
nursery units at primary schools), including 321 in rural areas.
Data illustrating the quantity potential of education according to the number of people
and available units are shown in Tab. No. 1.13.
Tab. No. 1.13. Number of schools according to the education level and the number of pupils in the
schools year 2004/2005.
Number of schools
Number of pupils/students
Education for children and youth
Primary
Junior secondary (in Polish:
gimnazjum)
Post-primary, including:
- vocational
- general senior secondary
- vocational senior secondary
Post-gimnazjum, including:
- vocational
- general senior secondary
- senior secondary with defined
specialisation
- technical senior secondary
- art senior secondary
Post-secondary
427
160
68,819
43,746
2
95
27
4,535
49
59
51
53
5
7,723
16, 839
7,681
9,308
575
93
6,474
37
K Spałek, A. Nowak, Czerwona księga roślin województwa opolskiego. Rośliny naczyniowe, wymarłe,
zagroŜone i rzadkie [Red Book of Plants in the Opolskie Voivodeship]. Opolskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauki.
Opole 2003.
38
Reintroduction of Spermophilus citellus in the Opole Region is carried out within the programme "Gopher",
under supervision of the Polskie Towarzystwo Ochrony Przyrody "Salamandra" in co-operation with the Poznań
ZOO and Opole "BIOS" Association. It is funded, among others, by Eko Fundusz and the Voivodeship Fund for
Environmental Protection and Water Management in Opole.
35
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Number of schools
Higher
Junior secondary (in Polish:
gimnazjum)
Post-primary
Post-gimnazjum
Education for children and youth
6
Education for adults
8
66
71
Number of pupils/students
37,946
834
5,244
3,213
Source: Statistical Yearbook of the Opolskie Voivodeship, Statistical Office, Opole 2005.
Development of higher education is a significant advantage of the region. Higher
education in the Opolskie Voivodeship is based mainly on the science and academic centre in
Opole. There are two active universities in the capital of the voivodeship: the Opole
University and the Opole University of Technology; and two schools of higher education: the
Academy of Management and Administration and the State Medical Vocational College.
Moreover, there are two vocational colleges in the voivodeship: the State School of Higher
Vocational Education in Nysa and the private Academy of Humanities and Economics in
Brzeg. In addition, in many towns of the region branches of schools of higher education from
all over the country are opened. Almost 38 thousand students attend the aforementioned
university schools and colleges. These units employ in total 1,518 academic teachers. The
largest educational establishment is the Opole University with over 15 thousand students
(47% of all students in the voivodeship). The Opole University of Technology is attended by
over 11 thousand students (34% of total number of students), whereas the private Academy of
Management and Administration in Opole – over 4 thousand students (ca. 11%). The State
School of Higher Vocational Education in Nysa has over 4.9 thousand students, the private
Academy of Humanities and Economics in Brzeg – over 430 students, and the State Medical
Vocational College in Opole – over 580 students.
Continuing education of adults in the Opolskie Voivodeship is organised within
school and extra-school systems. In the school year 2005/2006 schools for adults provided 8.9
thousand people in total with education. Post-secondary schools were attended by total of 7.2
thousand people, including 715 people at the Teacher Training College of Foreign Languages
in Opole. Continued education also takes place at all universities and colleges as a part of
extramural and evening studies.
A very important role in the educational process of providing the society with
knowledge and vocational skills adequate to the growing labour market demand is played,
among others, by centres for continued education and practical training as well as for inservice and vocational training. These establishments often have no modern infrastructure and
teaching aids, including those enabling participants to use the latest technology applied in
economy. Currently, such establishments operate in Opole, Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Nysa,
Grodków, Głubczyce and Kluczbork. Most of them require, however, improved infrastructure
and modern equipment.
Despite the increasing educational ambitions of inhabitants of the voivodeship, the
region is generally characterised by a low ratio of people with university education.
According to 2002 census data it reaches 8.3%, with the national average amounting to
10.2%. Even taking into account the significant increase in this value since 1988 amounting to
5%, it is still the lowest among other voivodeships (Fig. 1.19).
The increased interest in university studies in the Opolskie Voivodeship brought about
over twofold increase of students (from 13.7 thousand in 1996 to 38 thousand in 2005). The
number of university graduates increased almost five times (7.6 thousand people in
comparison with 1.7 thousand five years ago). Owing to continuing population decline and
36
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
intensified emigration of population as well as taking into account demographic forecasts
until 2030 it is anticipated that the number of students and pupils will drop in the immediate
future.
The level of education differentiates urban and rural population. The ratio of people
with university education in towns of the Opolskie Voivodeship is three times higher than in
villages of the Opolskie Voivodeship (12% in towns and 4% in villages); the ratio of people
with secondary education is also higher (36% in towns and 20.6% in villages).
Although in comparison with the European Union the ratio of people with university
education is not good, it is important that in the Opolskie Voivodeship the ratio of people with
secondary education is higher than the average in Poland and the EU, while the ratio of poorly
educated people – lower (Fig. 1.20)39.
w ojew ództw o opolskie
11,7
Polska
UE–25
12,5
20,6
wysokie
69,3
68,3
średnie
46,7
19,0
19,1
niskie
32,6
0
Fig. 1.19. Percentage of people with
university education in Poland in 2002.
20
40
60
80
Fig. 1.20. Education level of population in 2002
(in %).
Source: Data of the National Census 2002.
Source: As in note 34.
Building of the information society
Information and communication technologies have become a new factor of
competitiveness in the regions. Telephone and IT infrastructure in the Opolskie Voivodeship
is poorly developed. It is demonstrated in the number of standard telephone connections: 26
per 100 inhabitants, while the average in Poland is 35. In 2004 in the Opolskie Voivodeship
the number of subscribers amounted to 269 thousand people and increased as compared with
1999 by 7.4% (Fig. 1.21). Almost 65% of all the subscribers to standard connections were
town inhabitants, while village inhabitants 35.5%
60
65
55
45
37
36
35
33
33
32
32
32
35
31
30
m
az
U
ow
ie
ck
ie
po
dl
za
do ask
ch
l
i
od noś e
lą
ni
s
op
om kie
or
sk
po
i
m e
or
sk
ie
lu
bu
sk
ie
ś
w
l
ą
ar
sk
m
ie
iń
łó
sk
d
ku
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ja
az
w
sk
ur
osk
po
ie
m
or
sk
m
ie
ał
op
ol
w
sk
ie
lko
ie
po
ls
ki
e
lu
be
ls
ki
e
św opo
ls
ię
ki
to
e
kr
zy
po
sk
dk
i
ar e
pa
ck
PO ie
LS
K
A
E
35
29 28 27
26
The diagram prepared on the basis of: A New Partnership for cohesion,
convergence,
competitiveness,
24 23
cooperation. Third
25 report on economic and social cohesion. European Commission. Luxembourg 2004, p. 189,
201. The classification of education into low, medium and high arises from the ISCED (International Standard
Classification 15
of Education). The division covers people between the ages of 25 to 64 and specifies the education
level classified depending on the educational system in a particular EU state.
39
37
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Fig. 1.21. Number of telephone lines per 100 people in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2002 in comparison with
the national average, other voivodeships and the EU.
Source: Own study on the basis of the Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2003 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships
2003), Central Statistical Office 2003 and data of the Central Statistical Office.
A poorly developed telephone network results in e.g. restrictions in the access to the
Internet (most users connect with the global network via modems). Data of the largest
telephone network operator in the Opolskie Voivodeship show that a number of people using
the Internet in 2005 was 34 thousand and increased in comparison with 2004 by 19%. The
Internet users constitute about 13% of all the people who have telephone connections supplied
by this operator.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is poorly covered by a network of fibre-optic cables which
ensures high bandwidth of data transmission. Moreover, there are serious limitations in a
broadband access to the Web, in many areas it is technically difficult and very expensive. The
accessibility of IT services is even worse due to the cost of services which is one of the
highest in the European Union.
In 2004 in the Opolskie Voivodeship 31.6% of all the households were equipped with
personal computers, including 13.1% with an access to the Internet. On average 32.9% of
households in Poland have computers, including 16.9% with an access to the Internet.
Percentage of households with computers, including those with an access to the Internet,
significantly differs from the relevant indicators noted in the EU states. For comparison, in
2003 personal computers were owned by 142 people per 1,000 people which is considerably
different from the EU average (Fig. 1.22).
640
621
594
577
560
485
480
467
400
310
320
134
110
108
Węgry
142
160
Litwa
240
82
EU-25
(2002)
Grecja
Portugalia
Polska
Holandia
Niemcy
Dania
Luksemburg
(2002)
Szwecja
80
Fig. 1.22. Number of personal computers in use per 1000 of population in the EU selected states in
2003.
Source: Own study on the basis of Mały rocznik statystyczny Polski 2006, Central Statistical Office 2006.
38
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Public health care
The health insurance in the National Health Fund covers approximately 953 thousand
people40 in the Opolskie Voivodeship. There are many indications that in following years the
demand for health care services will increase, e.g. due to the increasing life expectancy. Life
expectancy in the Opolskie Voivodeship is 71.9 years for men and 79.7 for women; in both
cases the ratios are above the national average. The percentage of people at pre-working age
in the total number of inhabitants in 2004 reached 20.3% and shows a declining trend, but the
population at retirement age (15.6%) constantly grows.
A mortality rate in the Opolskie Voivodeship is lower than the national average (in
2004 it was 8.7 per 1,000 inhabitants which placed the voivodeship 12th). The major causes of
incidence and mortality in the region include cardiovascular illnesses and cancers. Taking into
account infant mortality regarded as the synthetic measure of the civilisation level, the
Opolskie Voivodeship has the best results in Poland. In 2004 in the Opolskie Voivodeship the
infant mortality rate per 1000 live births was 4.3, average in Poland 6.8. Decreasing
tendencies for infant mortality have been observed for several years. A value of the indicator
in the Opolskie Voivodeship is the same as the average in the “old” states of the European
Union. The level of public healthcare of the population in the Opolskie Voivodeship is
unsatisfactory, in terms of medical personnel and the infrastructure. All the ratios related to
standards in this respect are below the national average. There are 237 people per 1 bed in
general hospitals in the voivodeship, with the national average amounting to 208 people,
ranking the region 15th as compared with other voivodeships.
In 2004 on average there were 17 doctors per 10 thousand of population which made
the region the last but one among voivodeships. The average in Poland is higher and amounts
to more than 20 doctors (in 2002 23.1). In the EU countries this indicator differed in particular
states. In 2002, per 10 thousand of population there were 15.6 in the UK, 24.8 in Portugal and
26.0 in Sweden. In 2004 in the Opolskie Voivodeship on average there were about 39 nurses
per 10 thousand of population which placed the region the last but one among voivodeships.
On average this indicator in Poland was 48.7, while in the EU countries: 31.4 in Portugal; 33
in Ireland; 42 in Spain and 55 in the Netherlands.
On average in 25 states of the European Union there are 639.1 hospital beds per 100
thousand people. In comparison with this value, the Opolskie Voivodeship with the result
445.4 is at a similar level to the one noted in Italy, Denmark and the Netherlands (Fig. 1.23).
1200
1100
1000
900
800
709,9
639,1611,3
700
600
445,4
500
400
300
40
opolskie
Polska
Hiszpania
Portugalia
Dania
Wielka Brytania
Cypr
Włochy
Holandia
Słowenia
Estonia
EU (15 countries)
EU (25 countries)
Luxemburg
Malta
Belgia
Finlandia
Latwia
Słowacja
Francja
Austria
Niemcy
Litwa
Irlandia
Czechy
200
In January 2006
39
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Fig. 1.23. Number of beds per 100 thousand of people in the EU states and in the Opolskie
Voivodeship in 2002.
Source: Eurostat data.
In the Opolskie Voivodeship there are 27 general hospitals, including 7 private, with
4,308 beds. Moreover, 5 psychiatric care units, including 3 psychiatric hospitals, 1 alcoholic
detox centre and 1 rehabilitation centre for addicts. The ratio in general hospitals is 41 beds
per 10 thousand people (15th in Poland). The national average is 48 beds per 10 thousand
inhabitants. There are 17 care and treatment centres operating in the Opolskie Voivodeship,
with 722 places, and 2 hospices with 33 places. There are no nursing and care units.
The outpatient health care in 2004 was provided by 326 health care centres, including
73 public and 253 non-public, and 274 individual and group medical and dental practices. 102
health care centres from among 326 were in rural areas. First aid is provided on the basis of
the Opolskie Centre for Medical Emergency Services and 24 medical rescue teams. The
medical emergency service has 9 resuscitation teams and 12 casualty teams. There are no
emergency air teams on duty. The medical emergency service in the Opolskie Voivodeship is
one of the best organised services in Poland; however, it requires integrated and permanent
modernisation. There are two operating emergency information centres in the region.
In 2004 in the Opolskie Voivodeship there were 255 pharmacies, with 54 of them and
21 dispensaries in the countryside. A number of people per 1 pharmacy regularly decreases
and in 2004 it amounted to 4,124 people in the voivodeship. In rural areas the indicator was
worse and amounted to 9,213 people per 1 pharmacy.
Financial problems faced by public health care, apart from debts of health care centres,
result also in infrastructure depreciation, restricted access to medical technologies and low
salaries for medical personnel. Equal access to professional public health services is of
particular significance, especially that there are differences in this respect in individual parts
of the region. It is also important to promote health among inhabitants of the region.
Culture and cultural heritage
The cultural variety of the region results, among other things, from multiculturalism
due to historical circumstances. Under the influence of many cultures, a specific regional
tradition and culture have developed which distinguishes the Opolskie Voivodeship in Poland.
It is visible mainly in the folklore, customs and language specific to the region. Cultural
heritage of the region is rich and artistic achievements numerous.
The most significant cultural institutions are situated in the capital of the voivodeship
with 2 theatres and a concert hall housing in total 1,727 seats. The ratio of audience in theatres
and music centres was 167 per 1,000 people in 2004, with the national average of 244.
Cultural institutions in the Opolskie Voivodeship have highly depcapitalised material
assets and equipment. Such a situation is in particular true in rural areas and small towns.
There are 14 cinemas in the voivodeship housing 5 thousand seats. There were 49
viewers per 1 screening in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2004, i.e. above the national average
(37 viewers per 1 screening) (Fig. 1.24).
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liczba widzów i słuchaczy w teatrach i instytucjach muzycznych na 1000 ludności
870
121
347
244
183
POLSKA
370
lubuskie
400
lubelskie
102
244
warmińskomazurskie
485
462 268
podlaskie
204
podkarpackie
181
742
665
635
540167 500
291
229
197
315
świętokrzyskie
890
opolskie
małopolskie
pomorskie
mazowieckie
0
255
224
269
938
kujawsko-pomorskie
410
500
949
łódzkie
1000
śląskie
1058
dolnośląskie
1387
wielkopolskie
1500
liczba widzów w kinach na 1000 ludności
zachodniopomorskie
2000 1623
Fig. 1.24. Ratio of audience in cinemas, theatres and music centres per 1,000 of population in
voivodeships in 2004.
Source: Own calculations on the basis of data from the Central Statistical Office.
In the region there are only 13 of 668 museums in Poland (the lowest number among
all the voivodeships). In 2004, they organised 119 exhibitions visited by 200.8 thousand
people, a half of them comprised organised groups of school students. The ratio of visitors in
museums per 1,000 of population in 2004 was 191.1 which was almost two times lower than
the national average (458.6 visitors per 1,000 of population).
The Opolskie Voivodeship has quite low ratios of participation in culture by
inhabitants. The audience in cinemas, theatres and music centres per 1,000 people is smaller
than the national average. In 2005 every second inhabitant of the region went to the cinema
only once and almost every fifth attended a theatrical or musical performance (Tab. No.
1.14).
Tab. No. 1.14. Audience in cinemas per 1,000 of population and audience in theatres and music
centres per 1,000 of people in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1999-2005.
Description
Audience in cinemas per
1,000 of population
Audience in theatres and
music centres per 1,000 of
population
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
473
276
359
316
375
540
430
198
193
205
190
192
167
190
Source: Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2000 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2000), Central Statistical
Office, Warszawa 2000, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2001 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2001),
Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2001, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2002 (Statistical Yearbook of
Voivodeships 2002), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2002, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2003 (Statistical
Yearbook of Voivodeships 2003), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2003, Rocznik Statystyczny Województw
2004 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2004), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2004, Rocznik Statystyczny
Województw 2005 (Statistical Yearbook of Voivodeships 2005), Central Statistical Office, Warszawa 2005,
Opolszczyzna w liczbach, Statistical Office in Opole, Opole 2006.
The important sites/buildings of cultural heritage include historically developed urban
complexes and elements of architecture. In the voivodeship there are more than 5.5 thousand
archaeological sites. In addition, unique in Europe a documentation site of inanimate nature
“Trias” in Krasiejów. Here, the most significant discovery in the history of Polish
palaeontology was made, i.e. the oldest dinosaur in the world, from 230 million years ago,
called the Silesian Saurian from Opole – Silesaurus Opolensis was discovered.
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The region is one of the most abounding in monuments and historic buildings,
unfortunately, many of them are in a bad technical state which reduces their attractiveness and
restricts accessibility (Tab. No. 1.15).
Tab. No. 1.15. Number of monuments in the Opolskie Voivodeship (at the end of 2005).
Percentage of
buildings and sites
from the Opolskie
Voivodeship listed in
the national register
5%
Type of monument
Buildings and sites listed in
the voivodeship monument
record*
Buildings and sites listed
in the monument register
Immovable monuments
30,000
3,038
Movable monuments
13,000
6,676
4%
Archaeological sites
Total
10,000
53,000
1,128
10,842
15%
4%
* Data about buildings /sites listed in the voivodeship monument record are estimated values.
Source: Data of the Opole Inspector of Monuments and the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
A flagship of cultural life and an “identification mark” of the Opolskie Voivodeship is
the Festival of Polish Song which since 1963 has taken place in the Millennium Amphitheatre
in Opole every year. Due to the above, Opole is called a capital city of Polish song. The
amphitheatre with accompanying facilities is deeply decapitalised – it is not up to today’s
standards and needs major renovation.
Tourism and sport
The Opolskie Voivodeship has attractive and diverse local natural and cultural
resources, favourable to developing the economic activity in tourism, recreation and
sightseeing.
Diversified conditions for the development of tourism are related to values of the
natural environment, a variety of landscape forms, a broad range of possible forms of
recreation as well as a large number of historical sites. The most favourite places for spending
leisure time by the water are Turawskie Lakes and reservoirs situated in the south-western
part of the region – Nyskie Lake and Otmuchowskie Lake.
Tourist attractions include urban complexes of Medieval towns (Nysa, Otmuchów,
Paczków), sacred buildings, monuments of material culture (e.g. castles in Moszna, Kamień
Śląski, Głogówek, Rogów Opolski), open-air ethnographic museum Opole-Bierkowice,
museums and art galleries. Moreover, the Opawskie Mountains and the Chełmski Massif with
the St. Anna Mount, a place of worship and pilgrimages. Landscape Park “St. Anna Mount”
has been selected by UNESCO for the World Heritage List. A high quality of landscape and
cultural resources of Opole villages (many villages traditional in nature) are also worth
mentioning. The majority of buildings and sites interesting for tourists are underinvested. A
tourist attraction hardly used in the Opolskie Voivodeship is the Odra River.
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The chances for development of tourism are seen in creating an attractive and
competitive tourist product as well as in sentimental tourism.
The infrastructure related to tourism does not allow for exploiting the regional
potential to a full extent, which is a considerable barrier to development. In 2004 tourists were
offered 33 hotels, motels and pensions, and 94 other group lodging facilities in the Opolskie
Voivodeship. In 1998-2004, 28 lodging facilities stopped to operate, which is mainly
accountable to lower demand from tourists and a shortage of funds for refurbishment.
The network of lodging facilities is very poor. In 2004 in the Opolskie Voivodeship
there was 1.3 lodging facility per 100 km2, the average in Poland 2.2, while in the states of
the European Union it was on average 10.2. The highest value was in Malt, Italy and the UK,
the lowest – in Finland, Latvia and Sweden. (Fig. 1.25).
70 63,1
60
50
38,0 36,8
40
30
24,6
21,7
17,0 16,4 15,5
20
12,6 11,6
10,2 9,7
10
7,0 6,5 5,4
4,2 3,6 3,2 2,5 2,4
1,4 0,9 0,8 0,5 0,4 2,2 1,3
opolskie
Polska
Finlandia
Łotwa
Litwa
Szwecja
Estonia
Portugalia
Dania
Węgry
Słowenia
Słowacja
Francja
Hioszpania
Grecja
Czechy
UE - 25
Belgia
Irlandia
Niemcy
Cypr
Holandia
Luxembourg
Austria
Wileka Brytania
Włochy
Malta
0
Fig. 1.25. Number of tourist group lodging facilities per 100 km2 in the EU states and the Opolskie
Voivodeship in 2004.
Source: Eurostat data.
Travel agencies operating in the Opolskie Voivodeship – whose number has greatly
increased in recent years – offer mainly transport services. There are few tourist information
offices and the newly founded offices at travelling agencies and hotels have insufficient
information.
In the Opolskie Voivodeship sports and recreational facilities are quite evenly spread
over its whole area. However, there are few multi-purpose sports halls with seats for
spectators, indoor pools, ice rinks and tennis courts.
1.2 Analysis and evaluation of state aid and foreign assistance in 19992006
A significant element of support for activities of local governments and of other
entities aimed at economic, social and cultural development of the voivodeship as well as
improving the quality of life of its inhabitants, is the use of state aid, European funding and
earmarked funds. Its beneficiary is, directly or indirectly, every person living in the region.
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Funding programmes presented below do not constitute a complete list of programmes
from which beneficiaries in the Opolskie Voivodeship benefited. Only the largest
programmes whose effects are of greatest importance to the region development in 1999-2006
are presented.
1.2.1 State aid and earmarked funds
Within the framework of the state aid for the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1999-2006 a
number of investments were completed. They have contributed, among other things, to
strengthening attractiveness of the regional economy, made it more competitive, to a greater
extent based on knowledge and entrepreneurship.
Contract for the Opolskie Voivodeship
In the Opolskie Voivodeship the Contract has been executed in three “editions”:
−
Contract for the Opolskie Voivodeship 2001-2003;
−
Contract for the Opolskie Voivodeship 2004;
−
Contract for the Opolskie Voivodeship 2005-2006.
In all the “editions” of the Contract in total 273 projects were accepted and cofunding amounted to PLN 87.4 million.
Within the Contract for the Opolskie Voivodeship for the years 2001-2003 the funds
were allocated mainly to tasks in technical and social infrastructure, to investments and
investment purchases by local government units. The effects of the investment included,
among other things: extension of the radiotherapy unit at the Voivodeship Oncology Centre,
replacement of fittings in cultural institutions (approx. 36 thousand running metres),
construction of approx. 8 km of the sanitary sewage system and 40 km of the water supply
system as well as construction of 6 km of roads.
Within the Contract for the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2004 funding was provided to
road infrastructure, modernisation of cultural buildings of regional importance (e.g. the first
stage of thermal modernisation of the Concert Hall and the Jan Kochanowski Theatre in
Opole). Tasks aimed at preserving unique objects of cultural heritage in the region (museums,
including regional ones, sacred buildings) as well as tasks in health service (38 pieces of
equipment for treatment and rehabilitation) were also accomplished.
Within the Contract for the Opolskie Voivodeship for the years 2005-2006 the
majority of funds have been allocated to upgrading teaching facilities in educational
institutions, modernising the health care system and investments into strengthening local and
regional attractiveness.
Experience gained from implementing the Contract for the Opolskie Voivodeship
shows that there is a considerable investment potential among would-be beneficiaries, mainly
among units of local self-government, but recently to a greater extent also among other
institutions.
Regional Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
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Within the Regional Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management in
1999-200541 the funds in the amount of PLN 395.7 million were granted for 908 projects in:
air protection, water protection, water management and ground surface protection, related to
erection, repairs and modernisation of plants and equipment to improve the environment
(boiler houses, treatment plants, sewage system, waste dumps, etc.).
The effects of projects, among other things, are as follows: construction/modernisation
of 26 sewage treatment plants, reduction in pollution emitted to the air, construction or
extension of waste dumps of area 22.73 ha and capacity 1,974.420 m3, reconstruction of
watercourses and flood walls along 155,170 m.
“100 million” Programme – Development and improvement of technical infrastructure
in rural areas
“100 million (…)” Programme was implemented in 1999-2000. Within the
programme 32 tasks in construction and modernisation of the road system as well as sewage
and water supply systems in gminas of the Opolskie Voivodeship were co-financed in the
amount of PLN 5.1 million. The programme covered 30 gminas in the voivodeship, Poviat
Starosty (poviat starosty – poviat’s administrative authorities) from Opole and Związek Gmin
AQUA Silesia (AQUA Silesia Association of Gminas). As a result of these tasks more than
4.4 km of roads were modernised, almost 33 km of the sewage system and 38 km of the water
supply system constructed. In addition 1,120 house drains and more than 500 service lines
were made.
Fund for Development of Physical Culture – Programme for Development of Sports
Facilities
Finances from the Fund are allocated to tasks included in voivodeship programmes for
development of sports facilities covering several years, approved of by voivodeship sejmiks,
as well as to tasks listed in the programme of investments of particular importance for sport,
prepared by the Polish Confederation of Sport. The Fund may co-finance, among other things,
construction, extension, reconstruction, modernisation and renovation of facilities and
provision of equipment for sports purposes.
In 1999-2006 in the Opolskie Voivodeship within the “Programme for Development
of Sports Facilities in the Opolskie Voivodeship”, 94 tasks were accomplished for the total
amount of PLN 70.9 million. The funds were allocated to construction or modernisation of
gyms, sports halls, pitches and swimming pools. Projects co-financed from the Fund include
mainly the Entertainment and Sports Arena in Kędzierzyn-Koźle which meets requirements
set by the Federation of European Volleyball and the Federation of International Volleyball as
well as the in-door swimming pool in Dobrodzień whose area is 468 m2. This instrument
proved to be extremely important for improving sports facilities in the Opolskie Voivodeship,
especially at the lowest level.
Regional Agricultural Land Protection Fund
41
The Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship has data for 2005.
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The Regional Agricultural Land Protection Fund is a non-budgetary earmarked fund
whose resources, in a form of grants, are allocated by the Voivodeship Self-government for
protection, reclamation and improvement in the quality of agricultural land, i.e. among other
things for:
−
prevention of soil erosion on farming land;
−
construction and modernisation of access roads to agricultural land;
−
preparing documentation on farm land protection;
−
purchase of computer hardware and software necessary for keeping records of
agricultural land protection as well as for opening and updating surveys of land
records.
Within the Regional Agricultural Land Protection Fund in 2000-2006 in total 203
projects were approved for the amount of PLN 34,5 million. Such a great number of projects
are of high importance, in particular for eliminating intraregional differences in the
development, noticeable especially in rural areas. In 2006 by the end of June, 47 projects were
implemented of total value PLN 10.5 mln, including PLN 8.5 mln for construction of 50.7 km
of access roads to agricultural land in 33 gminas. In the Branice Gmina a small storage
reservoir of the area of 86 ha is under construction, and 10 starostys were provided with funds
for purchasing computer hardware and software necessary for keeping records of agricultural
land protection as well as for opening and updating surveys of land records.
1.2.2. Foreign assistance – pre-accession funds
Highly developed countries in order to support transformation processes in political
systems and economy launched financial aid programmes for the states applying for
membership in the European Union whose aim was to assist the countries lagging behind in
social and economic development. The basic objective of pre-accession funds was to prepare
to the EU membership, to get to know mechanisms and instruments in the European regional
policy as well as how to use the Community financial assistance after the accession to the EU.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is using or used the following pre-accession
programmes:
−
PHARE SEC – Social and Economic Cohesion;
−
PHARE CBC – Cross-Border Co-operation;
−
ISPA (from 1 May, 2004 – Cohesion Fund);
−
SAPARD.
PHARE Social and Economic Cohesion (Phare SEC)
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Phare Social and Economic Cohesion (Phare SEC) is aimed at reducing lagging and
disparities in development between regions through promoting economic activity, solving
social problems related to the labour market, restructuring and development of infrastructure.
Phare SEC consists of three major parts (components):
−
Assistance for infrastructure development (INFRA);
−
Assistance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs);
−
Assistance for human resources development (HRD).
The Opolskie Voivodeship participated in the Phare SEC at a regional level already in
2001 when it used two components of financial assistance, i.e. SMEs and HRD. In 2002 the
voivodeship used all the components of Phare SEC.
PHARE SEC 2001
Within the framework of Phare SEC 2001 the Opolskie Voivodeship implemented the
projects in:
−
Assistance for the development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs);
−
Human Resources Development (HRD).
Total value of the projects was PLN 54.3 mln42 and co-financing from Phare - PLN
12.9 mln.
-
Assistance for the development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Within the framework of the SMEs component of Phare SEC 2001, the Association
“Business Promotion” in Opole, Regional Financing Institution, carried out the project
“Development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Opolskie Voivodeship” of total
value of PLN 48.7 million. 156 contracts were signed, in overwhelming majority (119) from
the Investment Grant Scheme for the amount of co-funding of PLN 8.7 mln.
-
Human Resources Development (HRD)
Within the framework of the HRD component of Phare SEC 2001 the project
“Employment promotion and human resources development” was implemented. The project
beneficiary was the Voivodeship Labour Office in Opole. The total value of the project
amounted to PLN 5.6 million, including the aid from Phare – PLN 4.2 million.
The project was carried out in all the poviats in the Opolskie Voivodeship from
October 2003 to January 2005. The direct objective of the project was to solve problems in
the regional labour market. Within the framework of the programme approximately 400
trainings were organised, including courses and workshops. More than 2,000 people
participated in them, including 318 people who took a job, 20 people who received support
and 12 who signed agreements for opening their own economic activity.
PHARE SEC 2002
42
For Phare SEC, Phare CBC and ISPA/Cohesion Fund the Exchange rate applied was 1 EUR = 4 PLN.
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Within the framework of Phare SEC 2002 the Opolskie Voivodeship implemented the
projects in:
−
−
−
Infrastructure development (INFRA);
Assistance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs);
Human Resources Development (HRD).
The total value of the projects was PLN 72.7 million, including aid from Phare - PLN
47.6 million.
−
Infrastructure development (INFRA)
Within the framework of the INFRA component of Phare SEC 2002 in the Opolskie
Voivodeship 4 infrastructure projects were implemented. The total value of the projects was
PLN 51.7 million and co-financing from Phare – PLN 36,8 million:
−
“Development of investments in Głogówek” – carried out by the Głogówek Gmina. The
project value is PLN 13.5 million and co-financing from Phare – PLN 8.7 million EUR.
The aim of the project was to construct a sewage system in the Town of Głogówek,
Mochów and DzierŜysławice as well as to drain sewage to the municipal sewage
treatment plant. The investment was commissioned in September 2005.
−
“Economic development of Kolonowskie” - carried out by the Kolonowskie Gmina. The
project value was PLN 14.8 million and co-financing from Phare – PLN 11.1 million.
The Project included, among other things: construction of the gmina sewage treatment
plant “Staniszcze” with the necessary infrastructure (road, water supply system,
transformer station, telephone), construction of the sanitary collector from “Staniszcze”
sewage plant to the zone of industry and service development in Kolonowskie with the
distribution network and terminals. The investment was commissioned in September
2005.
−
“Development of tourism in the Opolskie Voivodeship” – carried out by the Popielów
Gmina. The project value was PLN 12.3 million and co-financing from Phare – PLN 8.7
million. The project resulted in construction of the sanitary sewage system in the
Popielów Gmina and environmental protection of the Stobrawski Park Krajobrazowy.
The investment was commissioned in September 2005.
−
“Development of tourism and the SME sector in Ozimek” – carried out by the Ozimek
Gmina. The project value was PLN 11.1 million and co-financing from Phare – PLN 8.3
million. The aim of the project was regulation of the water supply and sewage
management in the Ozimek Gmina through extension and modernisation of the sewage
treatment plant in Antoniów, construction of the sewage system and purchase of
vehicles for multifunctional cleaning of the sewage system. The investment was
commissioned in October 2005.
−
Assistance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
Within the framework of the SME component of Phare SEC 2002 the project
“Entrepreneurship in Poland: Regional Programme for Support of SMEs” has been
implemented, co-ordinated by the Association “Business Promotion” in Opole, Regional
Financing Institution (SPP RIF) and Opolski Regionalny Fundusz Poręczeń Kredytowych Sp.
z.o.o. (ORFPK). The total value of the project was PLN 13.2 million. Within the project 124
contracts were concluded for which co-financing amounted to PLN 4.9 million.
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−
Human Resources Development (HRD)
Within the framework of the HRD component of Phare SEC 2002 the Voivodeship
Labour Office carried out the project “Opole Programme for Staff Training”. The total value
of the project was PLN 7.8 million and co-financing from Phare - PLN 5.9 million. Within the
programme more than 150 trainings were organised with approximately 2,300 participants
from which 282 people took a job. More than 50 new economic entities were established.
PHARE SEC 2003
In 2003 works on how to use funds from Phare SEC 2003 began. The total value of
the projects is PLN 13.3 million, including the aid from Phare – PLN 8.6 million. In the last
edition of Phare SEC the following projects will be funded:
-
Infrastructure development (INFRA)
Within the framework of the INFRA component of Phare SEC 2003 the project
“Development of industry in Bierawa” has been carried out whose the beneficiary is the
Bierawa Gmina. The total value of the project is PLN 12.4 million and co-financing from
Phare – PLN 8.0 million. The aim of the project is to make it possible for entities in Bierawa
to drain sewage. The project will allow for making 45 connections to existing economic
entities situated in the gmina and in its vicinity, i.e.: Zakłady Azotowe, Blachownia, Rafamet,
other chemical plants, and maintaining about 300 workplaces. In addition, the following
facilities will be constructed: a petrol station, a car wash, a car showroom, a hotel and a car
park as well as workshops creating approximately 100 new jobs.
-
Assistance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
Within the framework of the SME component the project: “Regional Programme for
Support of MSEs” has been implemented, co-ordinated by Opolski Fundusz Poręczeń
Kredytowych Sp. z.o.o. (ORFPK). The total value of the project is PLN 0.9 million and cofinancing from Phare – PLN 0.6 million. By July 2006, 7 credit guarantees were granted.
In retrospect and as regards effects produced the aforementioned 3 editions of Phare
SEC can be assessed very positively.
The effect of infrastructure projects will be creation of approx. 650 new jobs and
maintaining more than 1,100 of them in already operating plants in the areas covered by
investments.
The projects from the component of human resources, according to the data made
available by beneficiaries so far, allowed for training and improving vocational qualifications
of over 4,400 people (mainly persons permanently unemployed but working ones as well),
among whom a large group found permanent employment which is the direct effect of the
projects implemented. As a result of the component intended for the SME sector about 250
economic entities received the assistance which significantly enhanced their competitiveness
in the local and regional markets as well as allowed for creating new jobs.
The projects aimed at capitalisation of the Regionalny Fundusz Poręczeń
Kredytowych (Regional Fund of Credit Guarantees) will allow for creating or maintaining
approx. 200 workplaces. Large funds involved, for the first time to such a great extent, for the
direct aid to the SME sector most important for the development of economy allowed for
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improving competitiveness of these enterprises and eliminating some unfavourable aspects of
competition in the Single European Market.
PHARE CBC – Cross-Border Co-operation Programme
In the Opolskie Voivodeship the Cross-Border Programme covers two zones of
poviats: those situated along the Czech border, i.e. nyski, prudnicki, głubczycki poviats and
brzeski, opolski, krapkowicki, kędzierzyńsko-kozielski poviats and the Town of Opole with
the poviat rights.
Within the framework of Phare CBC in the Opolskie Voivodeship funds have been
allocated to two projects related to the development of road infrastructure and to one project
connected with the environmental protection whose total value was PLN 40.5 million,
including the aid from Phare CBC - PLN 26.5 million:
Phare CBC 2000
-
Co-financing for the project “Construction of the ring road for the town of Prudnik on
the national road No. 408 Kłodzko-Gliwice” submitted by the General Directorate for
National Roads and Motorways – Branch in Opole. The total value of the project was
PLN 9.7 million, including co-financing from Phare CBC – PLN 8.0 million. As a result
of the project the ring road with the status of national road cat. G was constructed, the
length of bypass 3.2 km. The investment was commissioned in September 2003.
Phare CBC 2002
-
Co-financing for the project “Extension of the bypass in Lubrza on the national road
No. 40” submitted by the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways –
Branch in Opole. The total value of the Project was PLN 17.4 million, including cofinancing from Phare CBC – PLN 9.7 million. The length of the ring road constructed is
3.4 km. As a result of the project an access to the full freight border crossing PrudnikBartulovice has been facilitated. The investment was commissioned in July 2005.
Phare CBC 2003
-
In the Opole region the project “Forming a basis for the system of biodiversity and
development of Dolina Złotego Potoku” submitted by the Prudnik Gmina. The total
value of the project is PLN 13.4 million, including co-financing from Phare CBC – PLN
8.8 million. The aim of the project was to improve surface water of Dolina Złotego
Potoku through reduction of sewage discharged directly into the cross-border river Złoty
Potok, thanks to extension of infrastructure for sewage disposal in municipal and rural
areas to the municipal sewage treatment plant in Prudnik.
The tasks already accomplished (Phare CBC 2000, 2002) have improved first of all a
transport system in borderland creating conditions for economic growth in these areas.
Moreover, an indirect effect of the aforementioned projects is creation of approx. 70 jobs in
workshops located in zones affected by them.
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ISPA/Cohesion Fund
Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession (ISPA) is a programme created in
order to assist ten candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe in protection of the
natural environment and transport in 2000–2006. A basic aim of the ISPA is to support
candidate countries in social and economic cohesion through co-funding large investment
projects in the environment and transport sectors. On the day Poland joined the European
Union the ISPA ceased to operate and was replaced by the Cohesion Fund.
Within the ISPA/Cohesion Fund in the Opolskie Voivodeship three large investment
projects are in progress. They are related to protection of the natural environment and in total
they amount to PLN 607.1 million, including aid from the ISPA/Cohesion Fund – PLN 405.5
million:
ISPA 2000
-
“Sewage treatment in Brzeg” submitted by the Brzeg Gmina. The total value of the
project is PLN 115.5 million, including co-financing from the programme – PLN 68.6
million. The aim of the project is to protect drinking water for the towns of Brzeg,
Wrocław and Oława, by providing villages with sewage systems in Brzeg, Oława,
Olszanka, Lubsza, Skarbimierz and Lewin Brzeski gminas. The project affects directly
more than 120 thousand inhabitants of the Opolskie and Dolnośląskie Voivodeships.
ISPA 2001
-
“Improvement of water quality in Opole” submitted by the Office of the Town of
Opole. The major objective of the project is to protect resources of the underground
water reservoir GZWP 333 Opole – Zawadzkie which is situated in the Opolskie and
Śląskie Voivodeships. The total value of the project is PLN 249.2 million, including cofinancing from the programme – PLN 162.1 million. Seven gminas participate in the
project: Chrząstowice, Dąbrowa, Komprachcice, Łubniany, Opole, Prószków and
Tarnów Opolski, but the beneficiary is the Opole gmina.
ISPA 2003
-
The approval was granted to the application “Water supply and sewage treatment in
Kędzierzyn-Koźle” submitted by Kędzierzyn-Koźle Gmina. The project will provide a
comprehensive solution to current problems in the systems of water supply and sewage
treatment. The total value of the project is PLN 167.4 million, including co-financing
from the programme – PLN 113.2 million. The material effect of the project will be the
construction of 96 km of sanitary sewage system, 76 km of rain water drainage system
and 17.5 km of water supply system.
In December 2005 the approval was given to the project „Sanitary Sewage Disposal
from the Town of Nysa and villages in the Nysa Gmina” submitted by the Nysa Gmina. The
project aims at construction of sewage systems in 22 solectwos and 4 districts of the town. In
total 171 km of the sanitary sewage system and 38 intermediate pumping stations will be
constructed. The total value of the project is PLN 75.0 million and co-financing from the
cohesion fund amounts to PLN 61.6 million.
Owing to the complexity and procedural problems the implementation of the aforesaid
projects is behind the schedule. However, at the present stage it is possible to anticipate their
effects (not only material ones). The most significant effect will be considerable relief to the
natural environment as the projects are carried out in the biggest population centres in the
Opole region (Opole and Kędzierzyn-Koźle are two largest towns in the region). Protection of
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the underground water reservoir GZWP 333 which covers a significant part of the Opole
region is of vital importance to further development of the region since it constitutes the major
source of drinking water, while protection of waters of the second largest river in Poland – the
Odra River, will improve not only ecological safety but also tourist attractiveness of the
region.
SAPARD
SAPARD Operational Programme has been prepared at the Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development for the benefit of development of agriculture and of rural areas.
SAPARD was launched at the beginning of July 2002 and the deadline for contracting was
September 2004. The programme covered the following measures:
−
Measure 1. Improvement in processing and marketing of agricultural and fish
products;
−
Measure 2. Investments in farms;
−
Measure 3. Development and improvement of rural areas infrastructure;
−
Measure 4. Diversification of economic activity in rural areas.
Within the framework of SAPARD 430 contracts have been signed for which total
value of co-financing was PLN 67.9 million.
As a result of the programme village inhabitants were activated and encouraged to
improve, in spite of current problems, technical resources of their farms what has become a
safeguard of competitiveness in the Single European Market. In addition, these measures
allowed for encouraging and supporting people who want to stay in the countryside, however,
they want to work out of agriculture. Poland has the highest percentage of people employed in
agriculture in the whole European Union. Only if this situation changes, thanks to the funds
allocated to business diversification, the structure of employment will be updated.
Tasks in the field of basic infrastructure in rural areas were effectively performed. As a
result of the programme over 42 km of roads were modernised, over 154 km of the sanitary
sewage system and 112 km of water supply system constructed. The programme covered
about 6,500 households and enterprises.
The experiences gained from SAPARD are now reflected in active participation of
rural inhabitants in tasks co-financed from the Sectoral Operational Programme
“Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and Rural Development for 20042006”.
1.2.3 Foreign assistance – structural funds
Since 1 May, 2004 Poland has become a beneficiary of structural funds. The aid from
structural funds in 2004-2006 can be obtained within the framework of six Operational
Programmes and the Community Initiatives: EQUAL or INTERREG. The objective of
structural funds is to support restructuring and modernisation of the EU countries economy.
This is the way to increase the Community economic and social cohesion. The funds are
directed to the economic sectors and regions which without financial assistance are not
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capable of achieving the average economic level in the EU. The structural policy and funds
are to help governments and regional authorities of less developed regions in solving their
most important economic problems.
Integrated Regional Operational Programme 2004-2006
The Integrated Regional Operational Programme (IROP) aims at creating conditions
for increased competitiveness of regions and at preventing marginalisation of some areas in a
manner supporting economic development of Poland, its economic, social and territorial
cohesion as well as integration with the European Union. The IROP sets out the objectives,
directions and amounts of funds earmarked for pursuing the state regional policy to be used in
2004-2006, with the participation of two structural funds: the European Regional
Development Fund and the European Social Fund. Almost 40% of finance from the Structural
Funds earmarked for Poland for the period of 2004-2006 are allocated to the implementation
of IROP.
Funds allocated to the Opolskie Voivodeship within the IROP 2004-2006 amount to
more than EUR 76.7 million which is 2.78% from all the funds available for the entire state.
On average, it is EUR 73 per 1 head in the region.
By the end of June 2006, within the IROP 2004-2006, in the Opolskie Voivodeship
998 applications for co-financing from the EU funding were filed and 297 have already been
approved for implementation (some IROP measures are still under evaluation) with cofinancing in the amount PLN 307.0 million. By the end of June 2006 260 contracts were
signed for co-financing in the amount of PLN 250.4 million.
In terms of sums, the largest amounts of funds within the framework of the IROP in
the Opolskie Voivodeship have been allocated to projects in road infrastructure. This sum
constitutes approximately 31% of the total sum of co-financing for which the projects have
been approved. Significant amounts have also been allocated to human resources
development, among other things, to trainings and scholarships for pupils and students from
the Opolskie Voivodeship.
It will be possible to assess all the effects of IROP 2004-2006 when it is completed in
2008 and evaluated by the Managing Authority. However, taking into account the fact that
substantial majority of funds has already been contracted, it is possible to state that, apart
from the effect which is involvement of potential beneficiaries in a process of obtaining
external funding (good augury for the future programming period), the programme has
brought about positive economic and social effects.
Sectoral Operational Programmes (SOP)
In 2004-2006 six operational programmes have been implemented:
− Sectoral Operational Programme “Increase in Competitiveness of Enterprises” (SOP
ICE);
− Sectoral Operational Programme “Human Resources Development” (SOP HRD);
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− Sectoral Operational Programme “Transport” (SOP T);
− Sectoral Operational Programme “Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector
and Rural Development” (SOP RURAL);
− Sectoral Operational Programme “Fisheries and Fish Processing”(SOP FISH);
− Operational Programme “Technical Assistance” (OP TA).
The last programme mentioned above, i.e. OP TA is intended only for the Managing
Authority and the Paying Authority as the units co-ordinating tasks carried out by other units
involved in implementing structural funds.
By the end of June 2006 within the framework of the Sectoral Operational
Programmes 1,541 projects were approved for implementation and total co-financing for them
amounted to PLN 330.3 million (Tab. No. 1.16).
Tab. No. 1.16. Projects from the Opolskie Voivodeship approved for implementation within
particular Sectoral Operational Programmes.
[in mln PLN]
Sectoral Operational Programme
Number of projects
granted
SOP “Increase in Competitiveness of Enterprises”*
158
75.6
SOP “Human Resources Development”
70
50.0
SOP “Transport”
1
43.6
1,308
159.3
SOP “Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food
Sector and Rural Development”
SOP “Fisheries and Fish Processing”
Total
4
1,541
Co-financing
1.8
330.3
*co-financing amount: ERDF + state budget
Source: Own study.
The table above shows that the involvement of entities from the Opole region in
accomplishing structural objectives in so many fields is really deep. It is possible to state that
in particular activity of enterprises and rural inhabitants is intense which directly translates
into improved competitiveness of companies from the Opole region as well as into
mobilisation of farmers and diversifying their activities. Such a situation arises probably from
the use of pre-accession programmes mentioned above which strengthened the conviction
carried by many people and institutions that the accomplishment of the structural policy
objectives brings about unquestionable positive effects at every level of social activities.
At the same time it should be mentioned that the Opole region is one of the leaders in
Poland as regards fulfilling tasks from so called “Village Renovation” programme. These
activities require establishing of so called Local Action Groups involved in affairs of
inhabitants of a particular village and related to development.
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Community initiatives
Beneficiaries from the Opolskie Voivodeship have taken advantage of the following
Community Initiatives which are an important element of the development policy coordinated by the European Commission:
INTERREG IIIA Czech Republic - Poland
Community Initiative Interreg IIIA Czech Republic-Poland supports mainly measures
taken to improve conditions and standard of living on the borderline through joint
undertakings performed by communities and institutions from Poland and Czech Republic.
Within the framework of the Interreg IIIA Czech Republic-Poland initiative, by the
end of June 2006 in total 96 projects for co-funding of PLN 19,8 million were accepted,
including 63 projects within 2.2 measure – Support for local initiatives, Micro-Projects, which
is implemented by Euroregions:
−
Small Projects Fund in the Euroregion “Pradziad” – 54 projects were approved for
implementation for the amount of co-financing from the ERDF of PLN 2.1 million;
−
Micro-Projects Fund in the Euroregion “Silesia” – 9 projects were approved for
implementation for the amount of co-financing from the ERDF of PLN 193.3 thousand.
Preliminary ex-ante evaluation of the programme implementation so far is positive.
First, an important element is co-operation necessary for implementing projects within the
Initiative. Opportunities offered by the programme allowed for or even encouraged close cooperation between the Czech and Polish partners. It is a very significant element with a view
to using the funds from the Territorial Co-operation Programme for 2007-2013 which will
require implementing of joint Polish-Czech projects. Apart from infrastructural projects aimed
at joint objectives of co-operation related to road traffic safety as well as access to tourist and
cultural attractions, a number of projects non-investment in nature are implemented which
promote co-operation between local institutions and communities, e.g. co-operation between
universities, co-operation whose aim is to promote tourist attractions on both sides of the
border, joint cultural and economic events.
At the moment, due to the fact that in the majority of infrastructural projects their
material implementation has just begun, it is not possible to estimate material effects of the
tasks.
INTERREG III C
Community Initiative Interreg III C aids interregional co-operation with the European
Union regions in exchanging of experiences, supporting and popularisation of the best
practices. One of the projects carried out in the Opolskie Voivodeship is “PRAXIS. Making
Rural Entrepreneurship work” where the Opolskie Voivodeship Self-Government is a
partner. The aim of the project is to enhance a restructuring process of farms in the European
regions with support for the development of new forms of economic activity in rural areas.
PRAXIS enables partners to find “the best practice” thanks to the exchange of experiences of
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establishing effective partnerships whose objective is to promote and aid rural
entrepreneurship. A leading partner in the project is the Essex County Council from the UK.
There are 15 partners from different European regions taking part in the project. The project
value is PLN 6.8 million, including PLN 379.2 thousand allocated to the Opolskie
Voivodeship.
EQUAL
The EQUAL initiative aims at supporting measures to create more jobs and to ensure
unrestricted access to them. As a result of the assessment of projects within EQUAL 2
projects were approved for implementation in the Opolskie Voivodeship of total value of
PLN 5.0 million:
-
Project called ”Opolski e-rzemieślnik” (”Opole e-craftsman”) for the amount of cofinancing of PLN 4.7 million carried out by the Opole Centre for Local Democracy,
designed to adapt firms and employees to economic changes and the use of IT
technologies.
-
Project “Partnership for professionalisation of the 3rd sector”, whose value of cofinancing is PLN 303.4 thousand, implemented in the Opolskie Voivodeship jointly by
the Opole Centre for Local Democracy and Namysłowskie Stowarzyszenie Inicjatyw
Gospodarczych (Association of Economic Initiatives in Namysłów), and aimed at nongovernmental organisations operating in the Opolskie and Śląskie Voivodeships. The
aim of the project is, among other things, to develop a model of joint activities of
organisations, to prepare to promotion and implementation of initiatives based on cooperation between organisations and partners from two other sectors of economy,
undertaken at the local level.
Taking into consideration negative phenomena in the labour market, the initiatives
designed to support job creation, in particular intended for direct participants of economic
changes, affect highly positively the regional labour market. The fact that the project has
covered a large group of people (over 100) from the whole voivodeship as well as
implementation of innovative solutions (in ICT) indicate that actions undertaken are
consistent and comprehensive, and at the same time they follow the regional development
policy.
1.2.4 Rural Development Programme - (RDP)
The Rural Development Programme (RDP) was financed from the loan from the
World Bank, on the basis of loan agreement between the Republic of Poland and the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development concluded in 2000. The RDP
included three components:
−
COMPONENT A - Micro-credits (establishing micro-enterprises);
−
COMPONENT B – Mobilisation of human resources;
−
Subcomponent B1 – Labour force retraining;
Subcomponent B2 - Education;
COMPONENT C – Rural infrastructure.
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The Opolskie Voivodeship received funds for Component C and Subcomponent B2.
The major aims of the programme include raising the employment outside agriculture in rural
areas and as a consequence limiting the number of unemployed people. The Rural
Development Programme was implemented in 2000-2005, 110 projects were completed for
the total amount of co-financing of PLN 16 million, including PLN 5.5 million from the RDP.
RDP COMPONENT C – Rural infrastructure
Funding was allocated to 15 projects related to road infrastructure (modernisation and
construction of gmina and poviat roads, bridges, streets, bicycle paths) as well as to sewage
and water supply infrastructure of total value of PLN 8.2 million, including PLN 2.5 million
from the RDP.
Tasks from the RDP COMPONENT C were completed in 2004. The programme
resulted in the construction of 21.8 km of the sewage system, 5.1 km of the water supply
system and 5.3 km of roads and two bridges.
RDP SUBCOMPONENT B 2 - Education
Funds allocated to the Opolskie Voivodeship within the framework of this
subcomponent were used, among other things, to refurbishment of village schools, in
particular preschool facilities for six-year-old children, including purchasing the equipment
for them, as well as to consolidation of school networks (redecoration and equipping of
common rooms, etc). In addition the training programme “Building institutional potential of
local and regional administration” designed for self-government workers was carried out. By
the end of March 2005 when implementation of the subcomponent B2 finished, gminas had
accomplished 143 tasks connected with 95 schools in rural areas whose total value was PLN
7.8 million, including more than PLN 3.0 million of co-financing.
The programme resulted in renovation of 76 schools, refurbishment of 16 common
rooms, supply of equipment to 27 preschool units for six-year-old children as well as
provision of furniture, equipment and teaching aids to 24 common rooms.
RDP covered also areas which needed the aid most, i.e. rural areas where, although the
situation had been improving, significant intraregional differences existed.
1.2.5. Summary
The chapter describes particular programmes and the descriptions are accompanied by
brief assessment of their effects. Due to the fact that a number of projects within the
framework of structural and even pre-accession funds are still in progress (subsequent
editions of Phare SEC, PHARE CBC, ISPA), it is not possible to finally sum up their effects.
Although at present stage no detailed data about material effects and direct results of the
projects already completed or the projects still in progress are available, it is possible to try to
summarise in general a process of obtaining external funding (in particular EU structural
funds) by entities from the Opolskie Voivodeship.
However, the effects produced as a result of 4,000 tasks aimed at the aid for SMEs,
human resources and infrastructure at the regional and local levels clearly indicate that the
funds allocated to the development of the region can be evaluated positively not only as
regards the full use of them, although it is an important but secondary issue.
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The most significant effects of the measures taken include the observable influence on
a better quality of life of inhabitants and first of all direct and indirect support for business
activity run in the region. It can be said that an aspect of economic growth was emphasised in
most programmes and social measures (aimed at e.g. health care or cultural and educational
activities) were designed to improve standard of living and growth of the region’s population
necessary for greater mobilisation of the inhabitants in the labour market. Investment
processes were efficiently completed by activities aimed at development of human resources
(among other things, mobilisation programmes for the unemployed and people at risk of
unemployment), building enterprising attitudes (funds to encourage starting business) or
finally direct support for enterprises which, as a result, will become competitive and open to
market changes.
Total co-funding for the Opolskie Voivodeship within programmes implemented in
1999-2006 was PLN 1,830.2 million, which means the assistance in the amount of PLN
1,747 per 1 inhabitant of the region.
Tab. No. 1.17. Summary of programmes implemented in 1999-2006.
[in mln PLN]
NUMBER OF
PROJECTS
STATE AID AND EARMARKED FUNDS
PROGRAMME
Contract for the Opolskie Voivodeship 2001-2003, 2004,
2005-2006
Regional Fund for Environmental Protection and Water
Management 1999-2005
Fund for Development of Physical Culture – Programme
for Development of Sports facilities 1999-2006
100 million Programme – Development and improvement
of technical infrastructure in rural areas 1999-2000
Regional Agricultural Land Protection Fund 2000-2006
TOTAL STATE AID AND APPROPRIATED FUNDS
CO-FINANCING
273
87.4
908
395.7
94
70.9
32
5.1
203
1510
34.5
593.6
PRE-ACCESSION FUNDS
PHARE 2000-2003
ISPA 2000-2005/ Cohesion Fund
SAPARD 2002-2004
TOTAL PRE-ACCESSION FUNDS
13
4
430
447
95.6
405.5
67.9
569.0
297
1,541
307.0
330.3
98
24.8
1,936
662.1
STRUCTURAL FUNDS
Integrated Regional Operational Programme 2004-2006
Sectoral Operational Programmes 2004-2006
Community Initiatives 2004-2006: Interreg III A Czech
Republic-Poland, Equal
TOTAL STRUCTURAL FUNDS
OTHER
Rural Development Programme 2000-2005
TOTAL
110
4,003
5.5
1830.2
on 30 June, 2006.(data about the Regional Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management cover
1999-2005)
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Source: Own study.
The aid from national and foreign programmes43 related, among other things, to the
following fields:
−
roads,
−
water, sewage system, waste,
−
human resources,
−
health, welfare,
−
education,
−
culture, tourism, sport,
−
entrepreneurship, innovations,
−
information society.
43
Breakdown covers the following programmes: ISPA/ Cohesion Fund 2000-2005, PHARE 2000-2003, Fund for
Development of Physical Culture – Programme for Development of Sports Facilities 1999-2006, 100 million Programme
1999-2004, Regional Agricultural Land Protection Fund 2000-2006, Rural Development Programme 2000-2005, Contract for
the Opolskie Voivodeship 2001-2003, 2004, 2005-2006, IROP 2004-2006, Sectoral Operational Programme Increase in
Competitiveness of Enterprises 2004-2006, Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2004-2006,
SOP T 2004-2006.
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Ryc. 1. 27. Kwota dofinansowania projektów
wdraŜnych w latach 1999-2006 w podziale na
obszary.
Ryc. 1.26. Ilość projektów wdraŜanych w
latach 1999-2006 w podziale
na obszary.
38
130,4
237
131,0
11,5
209,8
96
253
60,6
139
37,0
76,4
524,2
74
208
210
DROGI
WODA, KANALIZACJA, ODPADY
ZASOBY LUDZKIE
ZDROWIE, POMOC SPOŁECZNA
EDUKACJA
KULTURA, TURYSTYKA, SPORT
PRZEDSIĘBIORCZOŚĆ, INNOWACJE
SPOŁECZEŃSTWO INFORMACYJNE
∑= 1,255 projects
Source: Own study.
DROGI
WODA, KANALIZACJA, ODPADY
ZASOBY LUDZKIE
ZDROWIE, POMOC SPOŁECZNA
EDUKACJA
KULTURA, TURYSTYKA, SPORT
PRZEDSIĘBIORCZOŚĆ, INNOWACJE
SPOŁECZEŃSTWO INFORMACYJNE
∑= PLN 1 180,7 mln
Source: Own study.
As regards the number of projects granted, the greatest number was approved in:
entrepreneurship, innovations, roads and education. As regards the sums concerned, the
greatest sums were allocated to: water, sewage systems, waste and roads. The breakdown
above shows that there are considerable and difficult to fully satisfy needs in technical
infrastructure, in particular in sewage disposal and treatment, waste management, construction
of roads. Hence, it is necessary to further co-finance these fields. As regards the number of
projects implemented, it is noticeable that the funds required are the ones directly related to
the development of entrepreneurship which have the greatest effect on the enhancement of
competitiveness of the Opole region economy.
Taking into consideration the scale and range of tasks (in particular investment ones)
performed within the framework of programmes available so far, it is possible to state that
external funds constitute and will constitute a powerful and indispensable – having in mind
the scale of socio-economic problems – stimulus to the social and economic growth of the
Opole region. The interest of the entities from the region was generally greater than the funds
available which is evident from the data about the number and value of projects submitted
within by and large all the programmes. The experience of implementing structural funds for
2000-2006 will allow for establishing efficient – and what is the most important, friendly for
beneficiaries and staff of these institutions – standards, rules and procedures applicable in the
next programming period, i.e. 2007-2013.
Moreover, it should be highlighted that large projects have had a significant impact
and a role of co-operation between different entities in implementation of projects has been
increasing. A fine example of such co-operation in the phase of preparing and completing an
investment is a regional project in the field of information society (e-Office for the Opole
region inhabitant) which is carried out within the framework of the IROP on the basis of the
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partnership between over 50 self-governments from the Opolskie Voivodeship. Other
examples of such co-operation are projects in environmental protection carried out by special
associations of self-governmental units (in particular within ISPA). Experiences so far show
that such projects of at least supralocal importance or integrating many entities should become
a major objective of the European Regional Fund intervention within the ROP OV 20072013. Such trends are noticeable first of all in the measures related to transport, environmental
protection, culture or information society.
It is also worth mentioning that beneficiaries from the Opole region are genuinely
interested in obtaining funds for the development of entrepreneurship and the R&D sector,
both at the national and regional levels. It seems that a more and more innovative approach to
running business activity should be particularly supported as such entities will determine
potential and market competitiveness of our economy.
The priority axes indicated in ROP OV 2007-2013 to a significant extent directly or
indirectly aid the development of enterprise attitudes, in particular with investment subsidies
for enterprises, business support organisations and assistance for research and development.
Large amounts of money should be allocated to development of the information society as
disproportions within the EU in this respect may lead to further marginalisation of „new”
member states. Other fields which should receive special attention in 2007-2013 include the
development of transport and the improvement of the natural environment as these elements
determine a level of the region’s attractiveness, in particular as a place for investing and
working. Moreover, on the basis of present experiences it is noticeable that consistent
activities aimed at reviatlisation of degraded areas need support. In the next programming
period the assistance should be given to these elements of regional infrastructure of health
care and culture which will directly affect a quality of life of the inhabitants and the
possibility of using well-developed and modern education.
1.3
SWOT analysis
The SWOT analysis, in a condensed and clear manner, presents results of the
diagnosis of the socio-economic situation as well as of the analysis and evaluation of the use
of the state aid and foreign assistance in 1999-2006. It constitutes a specific summary of
information and conclusions contained in the chapters above, indicating the most significant
problems and trump cards of the region. This is a breakdown of strengths and weaknesses
which determine development potential of the region as well as opportunities and threats to
further development of the Opolskie Voivodeship.
The SWOT analysis was prepared with the use of the expert method and based on the
similar document drawn up for the purposes of the Opolskie Voivodeship Development
Strategy updated in 2005. In the course of works it was completed with current information
and results of the survey of the region’s experiences in using available aid programmes. The
strategic balance of the region is based on assumptions arising from a critical evaluation of the
initial situation of the region, on the other hand it is a starting point for specifying a mission, a
vision and objectives of the region’s development.
The classification of factors in four problem groups has allowed for identifying key
issues which determine the strategy and directions of the Opole region development in the
future. The problem groups in the strategic balance include:
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I.
Conditions of macroeconomic situation and innovativeness,
II.
Human resources and social issues,
III.
Infrastructure, spatial and environmental aspects,
IV.
Development of rural areas, agriculture.
The factors have been selected so as to outline the situation of the region to a largest
extent as well as to indicate problems and areas which may be supported by the Programme
and to ensure that subsidiary and complementarity principles are applied in particular
objectives and areas. The analysis, however, is more comprehensive and includes also the
issues which will not be directly addressed by the Programme, but it was necessary to indicate
them in order to form a complete picture of the region and the background to the body of the
programme.
Strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities and threats were identified first of
all on the basis of the analysis of phenomena in time (phenomena taking place now, predicted
in future and references to phenomena which may occur) as well as in external and internal
aspects (conditions dependent on the region and those arising from general economic
phenomena). Strengths and weaknesses refer to the internal and current situation of the
region. Opportunities and threats cover internal and external conditions in which the
voivodeship operates and relate to future phenomena.
Development factors in each problem group have been hierarchised so as to make it
clear and easy to understand which issues are of key importance to the implementation of the
Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy and which directions for development are the
most significant.
I. Conditions of macroeconomic situation and innovativeness:
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STRENGTHS
1.
2.
diversified structure of industry;
highly competitive plants from food
industry and cement and lime sector;
modern and developed furniture and
woodworking industries based on long
tradition;
high innovativeness of medium-sized and
large enterprises;
Poland’s highest provision of technical
equipment in the workplace (gross value
of fixed assets per capita);
high level of disposable income and
consumption per person in comparison to
the national average;
advanced restructuring processes of large
enterprises;
increased interest in the use of assistance
funds, including structural funds.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
WEAKNESSES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
OPPORTUNITIES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
transfers of: income, knowledge and
technologies from the job-related
migration;
increase in significance of the SME
sector;
development of information society;
increase in the importance of tourism;
potential of food, construction materials,
chemicals, power, metal products,
engineering and electrical engineering
sectors;
potential development of the Opole
conurbation;
increasing competitiveness of the Polish
economy;
re-emigration.
relatively low pace of economic growth in
comparison with Poland;
very low level of expenditure on research
and development (R&D);
low potential of the high-tech sector;
underdeveloped business support
organisations to aid economic growth;
shortage of significant investments;
low level of entrepreneurship;
underdeveloped sector of services;
the lowest in Poland employment level in
relation to a group of active people;
high unemployment rate;
insufficiently developed metropolitan
functions of the Opole conurbation;
developmental disproportions between
particular parts of the region;
low competitiveness of the scientific and
research offer,
low integration and shortage of forms of
co-operation (partnerships) at the subregional level;
funds used to a small extent by economic
entities.
THREATS
1. competitive position of the neighbouring
voivodeships in attracting investments;
2. little interest in the region among external
investors;
3. underinvested R&D;
4. steady trend for declining employment in
R&D;
5. continuous high unemployment level.
II. Human resources and social issues:
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STRENGTHS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
strong sense of regional identity and
traditions of frugality;
developing higher education;
people’s territorial mobility;
multiculturalism and diversity of
experience;
high level of activity of local cultural
environments;
well-developed international co-operation
of self-governments;
high level of public safety;
experience, skills and qualifications gained
in foreign labour markets.
WEAKNESSES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
continuous considerable exodus of
population to other countries;
shortage of staff and specialists
significant for development of the region
in sectors;
no attractive and competitive tourist
products;
the lowest in Poland scholarisation rate;
disproportions in living conditions in the
population;
unsatisfactory level of social
infrastructure;
insufficient infrastructure for the
development of continuous learning;
bad state of monuments and limited
access to them;
negative effect of labour migration on
family ties and local communities.
OPPORTUNITIES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
growing educational aspirations of the
voivodeship’s inhabitants;
development and increase in significance of
educational, health, cultural, sports and
recreational services;
improving quality of life of population;
development of civil society;
co-operation and contacts with other
countries and the possibility of using
European experiences.
THREATS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
further intensification of job-related
migration and its transformation into
permanent migration;
exodus of highly qualified staff from the
region;
continuing low level of education among
inhabitants;
decreasing population of the region;
intensification of the phenomenon of
social exclusion.
III. Infrastructure, spatial and environmental aspects:
STRENGTHS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
location in the Third Pan-European
Corridor and conditions for establishing
logistic centres;
dense network of road and railway
connections;
inanimate nature site “Trias” in Krasiejów,
unique on a European scale;
rich mineral deposits, underground waters;
settlement system evenly developed in the
region;
network of educational establishments
adequate to the needs.
WEAKNESSES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
insufficient transport system between
developmental areas and the A4
motorway;
insufficient number of ring-roads around
towns and villages on transit roads;
no regional airport;
poorly developed telecommunications
and IT infrastructure which limits the
access to broadband Internet;
insufficient infrastructure for tourist
purposes;
low level of utilisation of renewable
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energy sources;
continuous pollution of surface waters
and deteriorating quality of underground
waters;
8. insufficient flood protection;
9. lack of common and fully operating
system for utilising municipal waste;
10. bothersome low emission;
11. degraded areas which need major
revitalisation activities.
7.
OPPORTUNITIES
1.
2.
3.
4.
THREATS
utilisation of the potential of the A-4
1.
motorway infrastructure;
opening a regional civil airport;
2.
complete implementation of the
“Programme for Odra 2006” and utilisation 3.
of developmental potential of the Odra
River basin;
border with Czech Republic.
4.
5.
location of investments and place of
residence outside the Opole region;
inadequate preparation of land for
investment purposes;
delays in completion of investments
important for the regional development
whose significance is supraregional (e.g.
construction of the water reservoir
“Racibórz”);
further decapitalisation of transport
infrastructure;
growing decapitalisation of flats, in
particular in degraded areas.
IV. Development of rural areas:
STRENGTHS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
high percentage of modern farms with a big
production potential;
high standard of public space and housing
resources;
large resources of biomass;
high degree of social self-organisation at
the local level, numerous leaders and the
operation of the programme, groups and
associations devoted to rural renovation;
experience arising from performing tasks in
so called “Village Renovation”;
biodiversity as well as attractive and locally
diversified natural, cultural and landscape
resources, favourable to business
development of tourism, recreation and
sightseeing.
OPPORTUNITIES
WEAKNESSES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
poorly developed services, crafts and
production in areas of predominantly
agricultural significance;
no land development plans in the majority
of rural gminas;
insufficient access to recreational, leisure
and cultural infrastructure;
unevenly distributed technical
infrastructure;
numerous abandoned houses/farms with
unspecified ownership status as well as
numerous uninhabited homes and
devastated outbuildings.
THREATS
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
increased attractiveness of rural areas for
1.
living, spending leisure time and
recreation;
use of biomass as a potential source of
2.
renewable energy;
increased demand for agricultural and food 3.
products in neighbouring regions;
increased demand for regional products,
craft and food produced using
environment-friendly methods;
popularisation of the LEADER approach as
well as rural renovation programmes and
an increase in the extent to which those
activities are financed with structural funds.
high competitive position of the
neighbouring voivodeships in agricultural
and food processing;
poor progress in development of
agricultural and food processing;
spatial disproportions in development of
entrepreneurship.
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CHAPTER 2
STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTING
OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME OF
VOIVODESHIP FOR 2007-2013
THE
THE
REGIONAL
OPOLSKIE
The chapter presents justification for priority axes selected for implementation within
the framework of the IROP OV RPO WO 2007-2013 and their relations to regional, national
and Community strategic documents indicating directions of policies and activities in 2007201344.
The fulfilment of the objectives of the EU cohesion policy at the Community, national
and regional levels is co-ordinated with regard for the principle which requires making
decisions on the basis on strategic documents prepared at these three levels (Fig. 2.1). At the
Community level general guidelines for implementing the EU cohesion policy in 2007-2013
set out in the Cohesion Policy in support of Growth and Jobs - Community Strategic
Guidelines 2007-201345.
The Community guidelines at the national level are laid down in the National
Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013 (NSRF 2007-2013) which as a strategic document
gives guidelines for the national development strategy and provides a framework for
developing national and regional operational programmes.
Operational programmes prepared on the basis of the NSRF 2007-2013 indicate
priority areas to be supported in 2007-2013 which will allow for accomplishing the objectives
set out in strategic documents applicable to this programming period.
At the regional level the operational programme developed also has to be consistent
with the development policy directions given in the basic document for planning development
of the voivodeship which is the regional development strategy.
To rationalise the management of cohesion policy, interventions within structural
funds aim at taking measures with the use of only single fund allocated to a particular
programme. Hence, the ROP OV for 2007-2013 as regards European funding will be cofunded only from the European Regional Development Fund46.
44
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p. 25), art. 37 and Regulation
(EC) No. 1080/2006 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p.1) , art. 12
45
Official Journal 291 of 21.10.2006
46
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p. 25)
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Fig. 2.1 Relations between documents at the EU, national and regional levels
CSG
NSRF
ROP OV
OVDS
REGION
POLAND
UE
CSG:
NSRF:
ROP OV:
OVDS:
Community Strategic Guidelines 2007-2013
National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013
Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013
Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy
Source: Own study.
2.1 Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy
The Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy adopted with the resolution of the
Sejmik of the Opolskie Voivodeship (Sejmik - voivodeship assembly) No. XXXIX/350/2005
of 11 October, 2005 is a response of the Voivodeship Self-Government to a changing social
and economic situation in Poland and conditions for development of the Opolskie
Voivodeship. It is a basis for implementing the regional policy in the Opolskie Voivodeship
until 2020 and top priorities include enhancing competitiveness of the voivodeship and
making a level of the social and economic growth equal throughout the region. The diagnosis
and strategic balance of the Opolskie Voivodeship provided a basis for specifying a vision, a
mission of the region development and for setting strategic objectives and priorities:
VISION OF THE OPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIP:
A multicultural region, open to the world, friendly to its residents, with a competitive
economy, participating in international co-operation and having a well-educated and
active population.
MISSION OF THE OPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIP:
To take and support measures which will ensure dynamic and sustainable development,
competitiveness, socio-economic and territorial cohesion of the region, while preserving
the identity, specific nature of the cultural heritage and natural assets of Opole Silesia.
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STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES of the “Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy”:
I.
Innovative region with a well-educated and active population
II.
Providing favourable living conditions in the region
III.
Extension and modernisation of the regional infrastructure
IV.
Economic stimulation of the region in accordance with the principle of sustainable
development
V.
Development of metropolitan functions of the Opole conurbation
VI.
Multi-purpose, diversified rural areas attractive for investing and living
VII.
Development of multicultural identity and international and national regional cooperation
PRIORITIES of the “Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy”:
I.
To enhance competitiveness of the Opole Voivodeship
II.
To make a level of the social and economic development equal throughout the region
2.2 Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013
The ROP OV for 2007-2013 specifies directions for development along with a
consistent breakdown of priorities to be accomplished with the use of the ERDF. As one of
the tools for implementing the Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy it includes
objectives set in the Strategy which on the basis of the diagnosis and the analysis of the socioeconomic situation in the voivodeship were found to be the most important for achieving in
2007-2013 and which may be supported from the funds in the fields defined in the Council
Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 and the Regulation (EC) of the European Parliament and of
the Council No. 1080/2006.
2.2.1 General objective and specific objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013
Within the Convergence objective the European Regional Development Fund
concentrates its aid on the support for sustainable, integrated economic growth and
employment at the regional and local levels through mobilisation and strengthening of
endogenic capabilities within the framework of operational programmes whose aim is to
modernise and diversify economic structures as well as to create and protect permanent
workplaces.47
Having in mind the ERDF objective above as well as socio-economic conditions of the
Opolskie Voivodeship, including results of the SWOT analysis, the following general
objective of ROP OV 2007-2013 was formulated:
GENERAL OBJECTIVE OF ROP OV 2007-2013:
47
Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p.1), art. 4
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
To enhance competitiveness and ensure social, economic and spatial cohesion
to strengthen attractiveness of the Opolskie Voivodeship
as a place for investing, working and living.
In order to attain the general objective 7 strategic objectives were defined which are to
stimulate the economic potential, improve attractiveness and competitiveness of the Opolskie
Voivodeship as well as to raise employment:
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF ROP OV 2007-2013
C1. Strengthening the region’s economy through development of entrepreneurship, R&D
sector as well as tourist and recreational infrastructure to the benefit of socio-economic
growth.
C2. Creating technical conditions for common use of ICTs and their popularisation to build
the information society in the Opolskie Voivodeship.
C3. Enhancement of prospects for development of the region and mobility of its population
through development of transport infrastructure.
C4. Improvement of the natural environment and environmental protection as well as
ensuring safe flood prevention.
C5. Strengthening the role of education, increasing significance of culture to enhance
attractiveness of the region and raising a level of health safety to ensure efficiency of the
regional human resources.
C6. Preventing social, economic and spatial marginalisation of selected degraded areas and
intended for revitalisation.
C7. Ensuring effective and efficient systems of management, implementation, monitoring,
evaluation and control of ROP OV RPO WO 2007-2013 and full absorption of structural
funds allocated in 2007-2013.
System measures aimed at achieving the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 are
specified in 7 corresponding priority axes of the Programme (Fig. 2.2).
The accomplishment of the objectives set in ROP OV 2007-2013 is to affect the
development of the entire Opolskie Voivodeship, hence no areas in the region, including rural
ones, will be discriminated. At the same time the scope of support for these areas will be
consistent with the scope of ERDF intervention as well as actions taken for rural areas will be
complementary to undertakings within other initiatives and operational programmes for 20072013.
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Fig. 2.2 Consistency between strategic objectives and priority axes of ROP OV 20072013.
GENERAL OBJECTIVE
To enhance competitiveness and ensure social, economic and spatial cohesion to strengthen attractiveness of the Opolskie
Voivodeship as a place for investing, working and living.
C1.
Strengthening the region’s economy through development of
entrepreneurship, R&D sector as well as tourist and recreational
infrastructure to the benefit of socio-economic growth
PRIORITY AXIS 1
Strengthening economic
attractiveness of the region
C2.
Creating technical conditions for common use of ICTs and their
popularisation to build the information society in the Opolskie
Voivodeship
PRIORITY AXIS 2
Information society
C3.
Enhancement of prospects for development of the region and
mobility of its population through development of transport
infrastructure
PRIORITY AXIS 3
Transport
C4.
Improvement of the natural environment and environmental
protection as well as ensuring safe flood prevention
PRIORITY AXIS 4
Environmental protection
C5.
Strengthening the role of education, increasing significance of
culture to enhance attractiveness of the region and raising a level of
health safety to ensure efficiency of the regional human resources
PRIORITY AXIS 5
Social infrastructure and higher
education
C6.
Preventing social, economic and spatial marginalisation of selected
degraded areas and intended for revitalisation
PRIORITY AXIS 6
Mobilisation of municipal and
degraded areas
C7.
Ensuring effective and efficient systems of management,
implementation, monitoring, evaluation and control of ROP OV
2007-2013 and full absorption of structural funds allocated in 20072013
PRIORITY AXIS 7
Technical assistance
Source: Own study.
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2.2.2 Justification for selecting objectives and priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2013
Identification of strengths and weaknesses as well as of opportunities and threats for
development of the Opolskie Voivodeship specified in the region’s strategic balance was a
major factor determining objectives and priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2013.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is diverse as regards a number of physical and
geographical as well as social and economic features. It has numerous assets which offer good
development prospects. A favourable geographical location (neighbourhood with Czech
Republic, proximity of such centres as Prague, Berlin), a medium-sized municipal
conurbation, a convenient transport system (A4 motorway – which is a part of the PanEuropean transport corridor from France to Ukraine), functional diversity of the region,
potential for development of the Odra basin or developing higher education are only some of
significant factors which have to be utilised in the process of enhancing competitiveness of
the region and increasing the pace of economic growth.
At the moment a serious difficulty in reducing unemployment and stimulating
economic growth in the Opolskie Voivodeship is insufficient support for human resources
development and economic potential of the region. The Opolskie Voivodeship is the smallest
region in Poland in terms of area and one of the smallest in terms of human potential. In
comparison with Poland it stands out with a high, negative migration balance, in most cases
due to job-related migration, mainly to Germany, and a negative birth rate which, according to
demographic forecasts for the nearest 30 years, will maintain. Small and decreasing
demographic potential of the Opolskie Voivodeship is a significant barrier to its development.
In addition, the Opolskie Voivodeship as a region from so called socio-cultural borderline, is
the area with considerable population diversity. Multicultural aspects and diversified human
resources become of particular importance in the situation of stimulating economic relations
with the European Community. Characteristic for the region deep relations of native
inhabitants with German people contribute mainly to maintaining family ties and contacts, to
developing institutional and partner co-operation between gminas, poviats and the
voivodeship. Positive aspects of labour migration include adopting European models and
better organisation of work, import of new technologies. However, continuing well
established strong migration trends, including job-related migration, pose a threat to the
regional labour market due to drainage of qualified staff, depopulation of villages and gminas
as well as irregularities in family functioning, weaker family ties which result in a greater
number of single-parent families and a smaller number of births. An adverse effect of
migration leads also to greater disproportions in socio-economic development and, in broad
sense, in living conditions of people of different origins. The differences which appear in
spatial, social and economic systems are a serious barrier to development of the Opolskie
Voivodeship.
Taking into account the aforementioned regional conditions, the general objective of
ROP OV 2007-2013 is to enhance competitiveness and ensure social, economic and
spatial cohesion to strengthen the attractiveness of the Opolskie Voivodeship as a place
for investing, working and living.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is characterised by relatively slow economic growth and a
small number of significant investments which could be a driving force for economic growth,
therefore it is necessary to strengthen the region’s economy through development of
entrepreneurship, R&D sector as well as tourist and recreational infrastructure. At the
moment weak business support organisations as well as a small number of active and
powerful institutions to support economic growth, in particular those operating on the basis of
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innovative solutions, constitute a barrier to development of entrepreneurship. Low dynamics
of economic growth in the Opolskie Voivodeship arises from the underdeveloped, weak
service sector, in particular tourism, commerce and modern production which create a high
added value. As a result in the Opolskie Voivodeship there is a shortage of significant
investments. A problem in the Opolskie Voivodeship is also development of innovative
economy. Among conditions of macroeconomic situation and innovativeness the most
significant weaknesses of the Opolskie Voivodeship there are: very low expenditure on
research and development, weak centres of innovation, insufficiently utilised tourist potential
of the region. The unsatisfactory situation of the Opolskie Voivodeship in the aforesaid fields
will be eliminated through Priority Axis 1 Strengthening economic attractiveness of the
region which entirely follows guidelines of the renewed Lisbon Strategy.
A weakness of the Opolskie Voivodeship is insufficient use of ICTs, including poor
telecommunications and IT infrastructure which restricts access to modern information and
communications technologies. In the face of challenges posed by the renewed Lisbon Strategy
and taking into account the EU strategy for sustainable development adopted at the Göteborg
summit by the European Council, a priority for the Opolskie Voivodeship and an opportunity
for its development is to create technical conditions for common use of ICTs and their
popularisation to build the information society in the region. Due to the fact that
investments in ICTs constitute one of the most important factors of growth and productivity
as well as a fundamental element of increasing competitiveness and development of the
region, common use of ICTs will be promoted and at the same time the support will be
provided to measures aimed at ensuring and increasing availability of these technologies.
Actions taken in this field are to contribute to eliminating social differences, narrowing a
digital gap and supporting territorial and social cohesion. Development of the information
society through development of e-services information modules to enhance competitiveness
of the voivodeship and establishing proper infrastructural facilities for ICTs will take place
within Priority Axis 2 Information Society.
The SWOT analysis shows that it is also necessary to make technical infrastructure
more dynamic and to take advantage of a convenient location of the region and its
demographic and social potential to a greater extent. A good competitive position of the
neighbouring voivodeships as regards attractiveness combined with an unsatisfactory interest
in the Opolskie Voivodeship by external investors sets up a serious barrier to development of
the region. Such a situation arises, among other things, from a low quality of transport
infrastructure in the Opolskie Voivodeship where, in spite of a high level of industrialisation,
a well-developed transport network, civilisation gaps are not narrowed to a satisfactory extent
and economic weaknesses are not eliminated. Hence, a special attention will be paid to
improving accessibility of the areas important to development of the Opolskie Voivodeship
(mainly areas for investments, municipal centres) to the A-4 motorway. For these reasons a
strategic objective for the Opolskie Voivodeship is to enhance prospects for development of
the region and mobility of its population through development of transport
infrastructure. This objective will be fulfilled through implementing Priority Axis 3
Transport. The activities carried out within this Priority Axe will be aimed at increasing
transport accessibility of the region, improving safety of road users and extending the system
of public transport.
Improvement of the natural environment and environmental protection as well as
ensuring safe flood prevention are to contribute to enhancement of the Opolskie
Voivodeship competitiveness and synergy between environmental protection and economic
growth in the region. Modern, up to European standards technical infrastructure is one of
vital elements of the region’s competitiveness which determines further possibilities of its
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
socio-economic growth. The utilities available translate directly also into a standard of living
as well as a value of regional economy and investment potential of the Opolskie Voivodeship.
The tasks to be funded within Priority Axis 4 Environmental protection will be aimed at
improving the environment quality through modernisation of water and sewage management,
improving waste management. Air protection will cover actions designed to reduce emission
of gases and dust to the air and air monitoring. In addition, following the Community policy
directions for 2007-2013, the tasks performed within axis 4 are to increase the use of
renewable energy sources as well as stimulate actions aimed at preserving biological diversity
and unique in Poland natural and landscape assets of the Opolskie Voivodeship. Due to the
fact that in the Opolskie Voivodeship there is a real risk of flood, the funds will be also
allocated to development of flood prevention infrastructure, in particular in the Odra River
basin.
Unsatisfactory quality of infrastructure has an adverse effect on creating favourable
conditions for living in the Opolskie Voivodeship as a place friendly to its inhabitants.
Moreover, it does not satisfy basic requirements of the Opolskie Voivodeship population
related to work, health services and educational needs. It is important that living conditions in
the Opolskie Voivodeship, in particular related to educational and cultural needs, encourage
also external investors to locate their businesses in the region. Thus within Priority Axis 5
Social infrastructure and higher education the aim will be to increase attractiveness of
the region for living and development of inhabitants through strengthening the role of
education, increasing significance of culture and raising a level of health safety.
Problematic areas are a sign of disproportions in development, therefore it is necessary
to identify and limit them to pursue the regional policy. In the Opolskie Voivodeship to
prevent social, economic and spatial marginalisation of selected degraded areas and
intended for revitalisation, the measures will be aimed at ensuring sustainable development
and intraregional cohesion as well as improving the quality of life of the inhabitants, restoring
spatial order and economic revival as well as re-establishing social ties. Areas of intervention
within this objective are defined in Priority Axis 6 Mobilisation of municipal and
degraded areas. Interrelated actions taken in indicated problematic areas aimed at developing
of infrastructural facilities together with actions aimed at socio-economic revival will result in
elimination of negative phenomena in the economic, technical and social spheres which lead
to intraregional disproportions and do not contribute to sustainable development of the whole
region. Revitalisation of municipal areas supported within ROP OV 2007-2013 will be carried
out in three dimensions, related to each other: social, economic and spatial, and shall arise
from Local Revitalisation Programmes prepared by relevant units of local government. In
other degraded areas measures to be taken will be aimed at their development, stimulating
economic growth, enhancing investment attractiveness and improving conditions for raising
employment. The role of the projects carried out within these undertakings will be to
implement processes to make degraded areas able to function efficiently again, by changing
the structure of the areas and giving them new functions, and first of all mobilisation of the
space by introducing a positive value of the quality change.
To ensure effective and efficient management, implementation, monitoring,
evaluation, control and promotion of ROP OV 2007-2013, separate support for entities
involved in these processes is required which will be provided within Priority 7 Technical
Assistance. Having in mind effective implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013, measures to be
taken will ensure the increase and stability of employment as well as raising the quality of
human resources involved in implementation of the Programme. The measures will be carried
out at the staff, organisational and technical levels. The efficient process of management and
control of ROP OV 2007-2013 will also cover publicity and promotional actions related to the
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Programme, including improvement in the flow of information about aid from the Community
in 2007-2013.
2.2.3 Consistency of the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 with the European Union
policy and programme documents at the national and regional levels
In response to the globalisation process and challenges posed by the renewed Lisbon
Strategy, Poland must have a modern development policy which will allow for narrowing the
gap in development separating it from richer states of the European Union.
National Development Strategy 2007-2015 (NDS 2007-2015)48 is a basic strategic
document specifying objectives and priorities for socio-economic development of Poland as
well as conditions to ensure this development. The Strategy sets objectives and identifies
areas found the most important for accomplishing these objectives, in which actions of the
state will concentrate. At the same time it takes into consideration the most significant
tendencies in development of the global economy and objectives defined in the Lisbon
Strategy by the European Union. NDS 2007-2015 gives priority to measures to be taken by
the government in 2007-2015 in order to implement the vision of Poland.
Taking into account the nature of NDS 2007-2015 and the fact that it combines Rother
documents prepared for Poland, the analysis of objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 below was
made in relation to the following documents: National Reform Programme for 2005-2008 to
implement Lisbon Strategy49, NSRF 2007-2013 and the Opolskie Voivodeship Development
Strategy. Moreover, the analysis was given to consistency between the objectives of ROP OV
2007-2013 and the Community Strategic Guidelines.
The analysis shows that the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 are consistent with the
objectives and directions set in superior, strategic documents at the national and Community
levels for programming period 2007-2013.
Correlations between the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 and objectives and
directions for development set in the aforementioned documents are presented in Tab. No.
2.1. Due to the nature and the importance of the analysis of consistency between the
objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 and guidelines of the National Reform Programme in the
context of attaining the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy, the issue is a separate problem and
was presented in chapter 2.2.4
48
49
Document approved by the government on 29.11.2006
Document approved by the government on 27.12.2005
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Tab. No. 2.1. Consistency between the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 with documents at the national and regional levels
ROP OV 2007-2013
OPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIP
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
- specific objectives -
- strategic objectives -
I. Innovative region with well-educated and
active population
II. Providing favourable living conditions in
the region
III. Extension and modernisation of the
region’s infrastructure
IV. Economic stimulation of the region in
accordance with the principle of sustainable
development
I. Innovative region with well-educated and
C2
Creating technical conditions for common use active population
of ITCs and promoting information society
VI. Multifunctional, diverse and attractive
for investing and living rural areas
C1.
Strengthening the region’s economy through
development of entrepreneurship, R&D sector
as well as tourist and recreational infrastructure
for the benefit of socio-economic growth
C3.
Enhancement of prospects for development of
the region and mobility of its population
through
development
of
transport
infrastructure.
C4.
Improvement of the natural environment and
environmetal protection as well as ensuring
safe flood prevention
NATIONAL STRATEGIC
REFERENCE FRAMEWORK
2007-2013
COMMUNITY STRATEGIC
GUIDELINES
– horizontal objectives 4. Increasing competitiveness and 1.2 Improving knowledge and innovation
innovativeness
of
enterprises,
in for growth
particular from the manufacturing sector
of high added value and the service
sector
4. Increasing competitiveness and
innovativeness
of
enterprises,
in
particular from the manufacturing sector
of high added value and the service
sector
6. Making opportunities for development
equal and supporting structural changes
in rural areas
III. Extension and modernisation of the 3. Building and modernisation of
region’s infrastructure
technical and social infrastructure of
IV. Economic stimulation of the region in basic importance for the increase in
accordance with the principle of sustainable competitiveness of Poland and its regions
development
V. Development of metropolitan functions of
the Opole conurbation
VI. Multifunctional, diverse and attractive
for investing and living rural areas
II Providing favourable living conditions in 3. Building and modernisation of
the region
technical and social infrastructure of
III. Extension and modernisation of the basic importance for the increase in
region’s infrastructure
competitiveness of Poland and its regions
IV. Economic stimulation of the region in 6. Making opportunities for development
1.2 Improving knowledge and innovation
for growth
1.1. Making Europe and its regions more
attractive places to invest and work
1.1. Making Europe and its regions more
attractive places to invest and work
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
ROP OV 2007-2013
OPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIP
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
- specific objectives -
- strategic objectives -
C5.
Strengthening the role of education, increasing
significance
of
culture
to
enhance
attractiveness and increasing the level of health
safety to ensure efficiency of regional human
resources
C6.
Preventing social, economic and spatial
marginalisation of selected degraded areas and
intended for revitalisation
C7.
Ensuring effective and efficient systems of
management, implementation, monitoring,
evaluation and control of ROP OV 2007-2013
as well as full absorption of allocated structural
funds in 2007-2013
Source: Own study
accordance with the principle of sustainable
development
VI. Multifunctional, diverse and attractive
for investing and living rural areas
I. Innovative region with well-educated and
active population
II. Providing favourable living conditions in
the region
V. Development of metropolitan functions of
the Opole conurbation
VI. Multifunctional, diverse and attractive
for investing and living rural areas
VII. Development of multicultural identity
as well as international and national
interregional co-operation
II. Providing favourable living conditions in
the region
III. Extension and modernisation of the
region’s infrastructure
IV. Economic stimulation of the region in
accordance with the principle of sustainable
development
VI. Multifunctional, diverse and attractive
for investing and living rural areas
I. Innovative region with well-educated and
active population
NATIONAL STRATEGIC
REFERENCE FRAMEWORK
2007-2013
COMMUNITY STRATEGIC
GUIDELINES
– horizontal objectives equal and supporting structural changes
in rural areas
2. Improving human resources and 1.3 More and better jobs
increasing social cohesion
3. Building and modernisation of
technical and social infrastructure of
basic importance for the increase in
competitiveness of Poland and its regions
6. Making opportunities for development
equal and supporting structural changes
in rural areas
2. Improving human resources and 1.3 More and better jobs
increasing social cohesion
5. Increasing competitiveness of Polish 2.1 Contribution of cities to growth and
regions and preventing their social, jobs
economic and spatial marginalisation
6. Making opportunities for development
equal and supporting structural changes
in rural areas
1. Improving the quality of operating 1.3.4 Administrative capacity
public institutions and extending
mechanisms of partnership
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2.2.4 Implementation of the renewed Lisbon Strategy within ROP OV 2007-2013
The Cohesion Policy in 2007-2013 should contribute to economic growth, increased
competitiveness and employment including the Community priorities concerning durable
growth, determined in the meeting of the European Council in Göteborg in 2001 and in the
renewed Lisbon Strategy. In the less developed regions, among which there is the Opolskie
Voivodeship, a challenge which is to fulfil these objectives is much more serious than in other
areas. In this context, activities aimed, among other things, at establishing and development of
innovative enterprises, enhancing economic competitiveness of the region and making it more
dynamic or forming a basis for building the information society become of particular
importance for creating the development policy of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013.
As it is necessary to co-ordinate the objectives of the cohesion policy with the priorities of the
Lisbon Strategy so called earmarking of funds was introduced according to which a part of
funds from the cohesion policy (for ROP OV 2007-2013 from the ERDF) is dedicated to the
measures50 fulfilling the objectives of the Strategy.
Taking into account the conditions above and the fact that the National Reform
Programme for 2005-2008 to implement the Lisbon Strategy51 is a strategic document which
at the national level is an instrument for attaining the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy and
following the Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Jobs for 2005-200852, an analysis of
consistency between the priority axes defined in ROP OV 2007-2013 and measures
(priorities) specified in this direction document was conducted (Tab. No. 2.2).
Tab. No. 2.2. Analysis of priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2013 in comparison with the
National Reform Programme for 2005-2008 to implement the Lisbon Strategy.
ROP OV 2007-2013
- priority axes Priority Axis 1
Enhancing economic
attractiveness of the region
Priority Axis 2
Information society
Priority Axis 3
Transport
Priority Axis 4
Environmental protection
National Reform Programme for 2005-2008 to
implement the Lisbon Strategy
- priorities Priority 2 Development of entrepreneurship
Priority 3 Strengthening innovativeness of enterprises
Priority 3 Strengthening innovativeness of enterprises
Priority 4 Development and modernisation of
infrastructure as well as ensuring conditions for
competitiveness in network sectors
Priority 4 Development and modernisation of
infrastructure as well as ensuring conditions for
competitiveness in network sectors
Source: Own study.
2.2.5 Indicators for ROP OV 2007-2013
50
The scope of these measures is presented in annex No. 4 to the Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006. The analysis
of the amount of financial assistance within ROP OV 2007-2013 is defined in detail in Chapter 4 ROP OV 20072013.
51
Document approved by the government on 27 December, 2005
52
Official Journal 205 of 6.8.2005
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Indicators were prepared on the basis of the guidelines from the European
Commission and the Co-ordination Authority of Operational Programmes at the Ministry for
Regional Development as well as the Task Force for Indicators at the MRD.
Indicators for ROP OV 2007-2013 were identified at three levels:
− indicators for the general objective (programme),
− indicators for the strategic objectives,
− context indicators.
The aim of the programme indicators, specified at the level of the Programme
general objective (Tab. No. 2.3), is to express - by means of countable values - the degree to
which the Programme as a whole has been implemented. Target values of programme
indicators have been assessed following the HERMIN model and on the basis of the
methodology of the European Commission.53
For ROP OV 2007-2013 at the next level there are indicators for Priority Axes. They
are given in Chapter 3, in relevant Subchapters. The indicators have been taken from the
compulsory list of the European Commission, mentioned in the methodological note for
indicators and evaluation54. The set has been completed with result indicators required by the
Co-ordinating Authority of Operational Programmes (MRD) and, according to the Managing
Authority, necessary for the complete, quantitative presentation of accomplishment of
strategic objectives of the Programme and its priority axes.
Context indicators are data and information coming from the system of official
statistics, obtained mainly on the basis of resources of the Central Statistical Office. The aim
of this set of indicators is a multi-faceted presentation of the background of the socioeconomic situation in the region where the programme is to be implemented. For this group
of indicators a baseline year is 2005, and if impossible, the most recent data. In several cases
data from 2006 were given. For context indicators target values are not assessed since it is
impossible to generate the impact of the programme on these indicators. A list of context
indicators is Annex No. 2 to ROP OV 2007-2013.
Tab. No. 2.3 Indicators for general objective of ROP OV 2007-2013.
Item
Name of indicator
1.
GDP per capita
2.
Unemployment rate
3.
Production in sector of
processing industry
Unit
Value in
Value in Frequency of
baseline year target year measurement
PLN
20,785*
41,581.2
year
%
16.0**
14.2
year
mln PLN
5,236.0*
12,592.0
year
Source of data
baseline value
acc. to Central
Statistical Office
target value acc. to
Hermin model
baseline value
acc. to Central
Statistical Office
target value acc. to
Hermin model
baseline value
acc. to Central
53
Relates to the indicator of the number jobs created as a result of the programme. It will be assessed on the
basis of methodology Guidelines on Measuring Structural Fund Employment Effects and Study on Measuring
Employment Effects
54
Version from 01.08.2006.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Item
Name of indicator
Unit
Value in
Value in Frequency of
baseline year target year measurement
Source of data
Statistical Office
target value acc. to
Hermin model
baseline value
acc. to Central
Statistical Office
target value acc. to
Hermin model
baseline and target
values acc. to Hermin
model
4.
Production in service
sector
mln PLN
9,968.0*
17,932.1
year
5.
Consumption of
households
mln PLN
13,774.1***
29,645.3
year
6.
Investments in fixed assets
mln PLN
3,019.0****
7,855.9
year
baseline and target
values acc. to Hermin
model
items
0*****
To be
monitored****
year
Central Statistical
Office/
Data IZ****
7.
Number of new jobs
created (indicator required
by the EC)
including:
− men
− women
*
**
***
****
*****
for 2004
November 2006
for 2002
for 2003
The indicator will be assessed on the basis of the methodology of the Guidelines on Measuring
Structural Fund Employment Effects and Study on Measuring Employment Effects
Source: Own study.
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2.2.6 Principles for fulfilling the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013
To accomplish the objectives laid down in ROP OV 2007–2013, the operational
programme will be implemented on the basis of the adopted system of the Community and
national legal regulations, including principles of assistance defined in chapter IV of the
Council Regulation (EC) No. 55, i.e.:
complementarity – EU funds shall ensure assistance which complements national actions,
including actions at the regional and local levels, integrating into them the priorities of the
Community.
cohesion – measures co-financed by the ERDF within the framework of ROP OV 2007-2013
shall be consistent with the policies, priorities indicated by the Community and
complementary to other financial instruments of the Community.
earmarking of funds – the assistance co-financed by the ERDF within the framework of
ROP OV 2007-2013 shall target the EU priorities of promoting competitiveness and creating
jobs, including meeting the objectives set out in the Guidelines for Growth and Jobs –
integrated guidelines for 2005-2008.
co-ordination – respect for responsibilities of the Commission and of the member state
related to co-ordination of the assistance from the funds, the EAFRD, the EFF and the
interventions of the EIB and of other existing financial instruments.
compliance – operations financed within the framework of ROP OV 2007-2013 shall comply
with the provisions of the Treaty and of acts adopted under it.
programming – objectives of the structural funds shall be pursued in the framework of a
multiannual programming system organised in several stages comprising the identification of
priorities, the financing and a system of management and control.
partnership – preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of ROP OV 2007–
2013 shall comply with a principle of partner co-operation with appropriate bodies of
government administration and local, municipal and other public authorities as well as
economic, social partners, entities representing the civil society, partners dealing with
problems of the natural environment, non-governmental organisations and entities responsible
for promoting equality between men and women. The partnership shall be based on the
respect for institutional, legal and financial powers of the institutions concerned. At the stage
of preparation of ROP OV 2007-2013 the principle was applied through appointing task
forces for preparation of the Programme, made up of, among others, representatives of
environments indicated directly in the Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 and discussed in
“Introduction” to ROP OV 2007-2013. The application of the principle as regards
consultations about subsequent versions of the document and taking into account comments
from theses processes is presented in chapters No. 7 and 8 of the Programme.
subsidiarity (at a relevant territorial level) – to ensure optimum efficiency of the EU
cohesion policy, the aim shall be to decentralise and deconcentrate performance of tasks
related to programming and management of the ERDF at a regional level. According to this
principle, particular levels of authorities in the fields which fall outside their exclusive
competence shall take actions only if the objectives of a particular measure are not to be
achieved to a sufficient extent by the authorities of lower levels.
proportionality – financial and administrative resources employed by the European
Commission and Poland for implementing structural funds in relation to: the choice of
55
Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
indicators, the evaluation, the general principles of management and control systems, shall be
proportional to the total amount of expenditure allocated to the operational programme.
shared management – the EU budget allocated to the funds shall be implemented within
framework of shared management between the member state and the Commission.
additionality – contributions from the structural funds shall not replace public or equivalent
expenditure by a member state. According to this principle, own funds for particular tasks
related to the regional development shall be supported, to a reasonable extent, by the funds
from the state budget, from the EU structural funds and other financial instruments available
throughout the programming period 2007 – 2013.
equality between men and women and non-discrimination – within the framework of ROP
OV 2007-2013 is shall be ensured that the principle of preventing any discrimination based
on sex, race or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation during the
various stages of implementation of the programme is observed, in particular as regards
accessibility to funds allocated within its framework.
sustainable development – objectives of the funds shall be pursued in the framework of
sustainable development and the Community promotion of the goal of protecting and
improving the environment.
In addition, the implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013 will integrate the following
principles:
concentration – according to this principle, funds allocated to a limited number of objectives
to be achieved in certain areas shall be concentrated. The support areas shall be those of basic
importance for the EU socio-economic cohesion, i.e. which guarantee considerable economic
growth and rise in employment.
evaluation – shall be used in order to improve the quality, efficiency and cohesion of
interventions of the structural funds and to improve the implementation of ROP OV 20072013.
civil society – implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013 shall support creating space for civil
activity, where it is possible for institutions, organisations, social groups and units with a feel
of interrelation to operate and which willingly co-operate with each other to serve joint
interests, improve a quality of life in the region and for the benefit of the society as a whole.
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CHAPTER 3
PRIORITY AXES OF THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL
PROGRAMME OF THE OPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIP
FOR 2007-2013
In order to attain the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 7 priority axes were chosen to
be co-financed from the European Regional Development Fund (Tab. No. 3.1).
A description of priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2013 includes56:
− formulated objectives;
− justification of the priority axes chosen;
− major groups of beneficiaries;
− information about the use of flexibility instrument (cross-financing).
Tab. No. 3.1. List of priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2013.
PRIORITY AXIS NO.
NAME OF THE PRIORITY AXIS
Priority axis 1
Strengthening economic attractiveness of the region
Priority axis 2
Information society
Priority axis 3
Transport
Priority axis 4
Environmental protection
Priority axis 5
Social infrastructure and higher education
Priority axis 6
Mobilisation of municipal and degraded areas
Priority axis 7
Technical assistance
Source: Own study.
56
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006, art. 37, (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p. 25).
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3.1
PRIORITY AXIS 1
STRENGTHENING ECONOMIC ATTRACTIVENESS OF
THE REGION
Within Priority axis 1 Strengthening economic attractiveness of the region undertakings to be
implemented will be in compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of the European
Parliament and the of the Council on the European Regional Development Fund and repealing
Regulation (EC) No. 1783/1999, pursuant to art. 4 items 1, 3 and 6 concerning:
− research and technological development, innovation and entrepreneurship;
− local initiatives on development and support for structures providing local services
in creating jobs;
− tourism.
CATEGORIES OF INTERVENTION57:
02 -
B+TD infrastructure (including equipment, instruments
and fast IT networks connecting research centres) and
specialist centres of technological competencies
05 -
Services in advanced support for enterprises and groups of
enterprises
07 -
Investments in enterprises directly connected with
research and innovations (innovative technologies,
establishing enterprises by universities, existing R+TD
centres and enterprises, etc.)
08 -
Other investments in enterprises
09 -
Other actions aimed at stimulating research, innovation
and entrepreneurship at SMEs
24 -
Bicycle paths
57 -
Other assistance to strengthen tourist services
3.1.1 Objectives of the priority axis
− To create conditions for initiating and development of entrepreneurship in the region,
development of innovation and the knowledge-based economy;
− To develop the regional R&D sector for growth of entrepreneurship;
− To increase the importance of tourism, recreation and sport as factors affecting socioeconomic growth of the region, in particular the labour market.
57
Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1828/2006 of 8 December, 2006 setting out rules for the implementation of
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional
Development Fund , the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and of Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006
of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Regional Development Fund (Official Journal
371 of 27.12.2006, p. 1).
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3.1.2 Justification of the priority axis chosen
The economic competitiveness and attractiveness of the Opolskie Voivodeship will be
increased within the framework of Axis 1 with the measures, among other things, for
strengthening enterprises, in particular micro-, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs),
development of innovative potential of enterprises, support for the R&D sector and
institutions operating to the benefit of entrepreneurship as well as increasing the infrastructure
standard and the quality of services offered in regional tourism. A weighty responsibility for
creating regional economic potential falls, in accordance with the current tendencies, on
MSMEs whose development at the moment is regarded as a basic factor in the economic
growth. It is necessary to guarantee favourable conditions for the development of these firms.
As a result of Axis 1 it is expected that the regional economy will become more
competitive, mainly owing to strengthening its innovativeness, thanks to, among other things,
concentration of investments in innovative undertakings which provide the greatest
opportunity for creating an added value.
To achieve the objectives in Axis 1 different instruments will be applied which
contribute to strengthening the role of enterprises in a process of building the knowledgebased economy through an increase in the production and service competitiveness, including
technologies and organisation. The support for knowledge and innovation within Axis 1 is in
compliance with the measures of the Community Lisbon Programme, in this document
regarded as “a driving force for durable growth”58.
Among the weaknesses of the Opolskie Voivodeship there is a business support
sector which is underdeveloped, with few strong centres to support the economic growth
which are unevenly spread over poviats in the region. Thus it is necessary to develop the
policy of stronger support for enterprising attitudes.
The measures taken to create conditions favourable to the development of
entrepreneurship will be aimed at supporting investment processes directly related to
intensification of operations carried out by business support organisations to the benefit of
initiating and supporting entrepreneurship. Within the framework of Axis 1 the focus of
attention will be on supporting investments of regional institutions and structures which
assist initiating business activity and help enterprises further operate in the market, i.e.
mainly: business incubators, industrial, technological, research and technological parks,
clusters, centres for transfer of technologies and management of innovations, logistic centres
and commodity exchanges. They gather considerable potential of knowledge and experience,
and should be a partner for public authorities in establishing a coherent and efficient
economic policy and competitive enterprises. The assistance will not cover entities which
provide only consultancy and information services to enterprises.
An important element which often creates a barrier to development of enterprises is
limited access to external sources of funds. Many companies, due to small capital resources
or problems with liquidity, do not meet criteria for obtaining bank credits. The existing
Private Equity and Venture Capital funds are reluctant to invest in undertakings at an early
stage of company operation. Thus, to solve this problem, it is necessary to develop loan and
credit guarantee funds, micro-loan funds and other public financial institutions as well as to
channel capital into them.
58
“Common Actions for Growth and Jobs: the Community Lisbon Programme”. Communication from the
Commission to the Council and the European Parliament {SEC(2005)981}, Brussels, on 20.07.2005.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
The R&D sector in the Opole region besets with a number of problems. The
expenditure on the operation and infrastructure of the R&D sector is insufficient and as a
consequence the offer for enterprises is not competitive. Therefore there is a need for
undertakings aimed at strengthening the R&D sector which operates to the benefit of
innovative economy as well as at initiating and developing co-operation between the R&D
and economic entities which would allow for transferring technologies to companies. To
succeed, it is necessary to strengthen significantly the potential of scientific units59 and other
entities running R&D activities, including the ones in enterprises and other institutions
supporting development of innovation at a regional level, with - among other things purchases of machinery, equipment and intangible assets. A necessary condition for these
units to gain assistance will be to prove that they carry out research for development of
enterprises.
In the Opole region the sector of high technologies has small potential. There are
numerous reasons why enterprises absorb innovations and results of researches only to a
small extent, among other things, it is poor institutional back-up. Therefore, to increase
competitiveness, it is so important to streamline the access to innovations and to support
implementation of research results in enterprises. Already existing centres which assist
enterprises in solving problems with modernisation should be supported. If the region’s
economy is based on any and all available innovative solutions, it will guarantee that its
growth will gather pace. The use of innovations and transfer of new technologies, in
particular by clusters/networks of such institutions as: enterprises, universities and R&D
units60, provide an opportunity for narrowing a gap in development between our region’s
economy and the economy of other EU regions61.
Underfunding, out-of-date machinery, difficulties and too high risk involved in a rapid
and capital-intensive investment process in the development of companies are serious
drawbacks in the regional economy. In particular it is true for investments in modern
technologies which allow for a fast progress in the economic development. The analyses of
enterprises from the Opolskie Voivodeship show that implementation and application of
modern technologies and innovations in these enterprises leave much to be desired. The
amounts spent on innovations in industrial enterprises in the region are smaller than the
average in Poland. Thus, building economic potential of the Opolskie Voivodeship will
require heavy expenditure in new and already existing firms on investments related to
implementation of innovative solutions (e.g. purchases of patents, licences, know-how,
machinery, equipment), including environmental and eco-innovative undertakings to make it
possible to implement projects in compliance with the system objectives of the II Polish
Ecological Policy. Support for investments leading to an increase in innovativeness of
enterprises in the Opolskie Voivodeship, which mean substantial changes in products,
production processes or organisational and technical changes, should contribute to improving
competitiveness of enterprises in the region. A priority will be given to undertakings arising
from the Regional Innovation Strategy of the Opolskie Voivodeship62 and directly connected
with sectors of economy which will be found, as a result of research and analyses associated
59
As provided for by the Act of 8.10.2004 on rules for financing science (Journal of Laws No. 238 of 2004, item
2390)
60
As above
61
This direction of assistance is compliance with the objectives of the Seventh Framework Programme of the
European Union.
62
“Regional Innovation Strategy of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2004-2013”, adopted with Resolution No.
XXII/196/2004 of the Sejmik of the Opolskie Voivodeship of 29 June, 2004 on adopting the Regional
Innovation Strategy of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2004-2013.
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with the “Regional Foresight”, as the most innovative and vital for further economic growth
of the Opolskie Voivodeship.
Among weaknesses of the Opole region there is also relatively low economic growth,
disproportions in development between different areas of region, an underdeveloped service
sector, high unemployment (registered and hidden), in particular in some towns and in the
areas where state-owned farms used to be. The enterprises with insufficient staff, capital and
technologies are not competitive in the Single European Market (SEM). Therefore it is
necessary to create conditions for growth, stimulation and improving competitiveness of
enterprises, in particular micro-enterprises which due to their potential may play a major role
in the socio-economic development of the region and elimination of the effects of structural
transformations. The major barrier to development of micro-enterprises is the lack of own
funds for investments. Activities within Axis 1 will be related, among other things, to support
for investments with subsidies for micro-enterprises from the Opolskie Voivodeship
allocated to construction, renovation, extension or reconstruction of micro-enterprises,
investments related to fundamental changes in production or to purchases of equipment
necessary for running a business.
A considerable competitive advantage of the Opolskie Voivodeship is the fact that it
has conditions for development of such fields as tourist, recreational and sports service
since the region is attractive and diversified as regards natural, landscape and cultural assets
as well as it has various cultural and tourist sites63. The present state of infrastructure related
to tourism, recreation and sport, however, does not allow to fully utilise these assets and can
be described as insufficient and unsatisfactory. Similarly, the quality of tourist facilities is
poor, in particular accommodation and catering ones. Measures taken to construct new
tourist, recreational and sports facilities of regional importance, to stop progressing
degradation and deterioration of the existing facilities and to fully utilise them for tourist,
hotel, catering, recreational and sports purposes, will contribute to an increase in economic
activity in the region and its attractiveness for tourists, investors and inhabitants. They are to
strengthen the role of tourism, recreation and sport as factors which positively affect socioeconomic development of the voivodeship, including first of all creation of new, better jobs.
Investment tasks accomplished within the framework of Axis 1 are to contribute also to
making access to regional attractions as well as tourist, recreational and sports facilities
easier. Barriers which at the moment make it impossible for disabled people to use these
assets will be removed.
The standard of infrastructure facilities will be also increased in the institutions which
deal with development of sport in order to ensure the greatest efficiency of their activities.
The infrastructure developed should be made available to inhabitants to the greatest possible
extent. Fitness and physical condition of the Opolskie Voivodeship population are getting
worse and worse due to, among other things, inaccessibility of or difficult access to sports
infrastructure at an appropriate level. Updated sports facilities in the region will allow for
increasing physical activity of different groups of the society. In addition, it is expected that
young people will take an active part in development of sport as well as training conditions
for selected competitors representing the voivodeship in Poland and abroad. Investment tasks
performed within Axis 1 are also to contribute to facilitating access to regional sports
facilities.
The support in tourism, recreation and sport will be directed both to enterprises and
public entities.
63
„Projekt Strategii ZrównowaŜonego Rozwoju Turystyki w Województwie Opolskim na lata 2007-2013”,
Opole, 2005, www.orot.pl.
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To utilise tourist assets of the voivodeship to the full, the region requires greater
promotion to inform about opportunities and forms of recreation, thus establishment of
regional tourist information centres will be supported. The tasks carried out within Axis 1 will
be related to promotion and publicity, to the benefit of socio-economic growth of the region
based on the existing tourist potential.
3.1.3 Assistance within Priority Axis 1 Strengthening economic attractiveness of the
region will be provided mainly to the following groups of beneficiaries:
1.
Entrepreneurs;
2.
Business support institutions;
3.
Units of local self-government, their unions and associations;
4.
Incorporated organisational units (legal persons);
5.
PGL Lasy Państwowe (Polish Forest Management Company) and its organisational
units;
6.
Social and economic partners;
7.
Non-governmental organisations;
8.
Churches and denominations as well as legal persons of churches and denominations;
9.
Universities;
10.
Research/scientific units;
11.
Incorporated units from the sector of public finance (legal persons) not mentioned
above.
3.1.4 Flexibility instrument (cross-financing)
To ensure efficient accomplishment of the objectives from Priority axis 1
Strengthening economic attractiveness of the region a part of measures eligible for assistance
from the European Social Fund (pursuant to art. 34 of Council Regulation (EC) No.
1083/2006 of 11 July, 2006) will be implemented within the framework of Axis 1. It will be
possible to allocate maximum 10% of funds at the level of Axis 1 to expenditure eligible
under the ESF, necessary for completing investment projects and directly associated with
them.
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3.1.5
Target indicators for Priority axis 1
Tab. No. 3.2 Target indicators for Priority axis 1 of ROP OV 2007-2013
Unit
Value in
baseline
year
Value in
target year
Frequency
of
measuring
item
0
24
year
item
0
4
year
item
0
1,650
year
item
0
20
year
item
0
1,700
year
item
0
155
year
item
0
44
year
item
0
1,650
year
item
0
155
year
1.10. Additional investments – created as a result of assistance
EUR
0
EUR 99 mln
year
Number of enterprises supported in a general number of enterprises:
including:
Micro: up to 9 employees,
1.11.
Small: 10–49 employees,
Medium-sized: 50–249 employees,
Large: from 250 employees,
item
0
item
0
Indicator
No.
Name
Priority axis 1: Strengthening economic attractiveness of the region
1.1. Number of R+D projects
Number of projects in co-operation between production and research
1.2.
institutions
Number of projects related to direct investment assistance for
1.3.
enterprises
Products
1.4. Number of projects for direct assistance to enterprises
1.5.
Number of projects promoting business, entrepreneurship and new
technologies
1.6. Number of projects in tourism, recreation and sport
Number of jobs created in R+D – only research jobs (best 5 years from
the start of the project)
Number of jobs created (gross, full-time employment) in enterprises
1.8.
- including SMEs
1.7.
Results
1.9. Number of jobs created in tourism
Potential number of people using tourist, recreational and sports
1.12. facilities supported as a result of the programme
1,300
304
40
6
year
100,000
year
Source: Own study
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3.2
PRIORITY AXIS 2
INFORMATION SOCIETY
Within Priority axis 2 Information society undertakings to be implemented will be in
compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of the European Parliament and the of the
Council on the European Regional Development Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No.
1783/1999, pursuant to art. 4, item 2, concerning information society.
CATEGORIES OF INTERVENTION64:
10 - Telecommunications infrastructure (including broadband
networks)
11 - Information and communications technologies (access,
security, interoperability, preventing threats, research,
innovations, digital content, etc.)
13 - Services and applications for citizens (e-health,
administration, e-learning, e-integration, etc.)
e-
14 - Services and applications for SMEs (e-commerce, education
and training, creating chains, etc.)
3.2.1 Objectives of the priority axis
− To create technical conditions for common use of ICTs;
− To promote the information society through developing information modules,
including e-services, in order to increase competitiveness of the region.
3.2.2 Justification of the priority axis chosen
Within the framework of Priority Axis 2 Information society the actions to be taken
will contribute to the development of the information society infrastructure, popularisation
and increasing of competencies in the use of information and communication technologies,
including development of public services in this field, mainly for inhabitants of our region.
The enormous importance of the dynamic development of the information society for
economic growth of the whole European Community has been reflected in the guidelines of
the renewed Lisbon Strategy and the Community Strategic Guidelines. Information and
communication technologies are factors strongly stimulating growth and jobs what make
services, skills and infrastructure connected with the development of these technologies a
very important element in the modern economy and society. At the same time easy access to
services making use of the latest technologies has become a significant element determining
economic competitiveness and attractiveness of all the regions in the European Union. Hence,
the support for development of the fully integrated information society based on modern
information and communication technologies seems to be an opportunity for development of
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
the Opolskie Voivodeship, and this issue is a crucial element in the strategic planning of the
Opolskie Voivodeship development.
Serious barriers to the development of the digital economy and the common use of
ICTs in the region are, among other things, the underdeveloped telephone system which
limits access to the Internet (the majority of users connect with the Internet via modems), a
low indicator concerning a number of personal computers in households, including those
connected to the Internet. In addition, the accessibility of telephone and information services
is worsened by a high cost of these services which is the highest in the European Union.
Such a situation has a negative effect on the development of ICTs in the Opolskie
Voivodeship.65. At the same time the quality and the level of public services offered66 to a
significant extent hinder the development of the information society at the level set in the
European Union standards and are not favourable to integration and improvement in the
quality of life of the region’s population. Free access to and use of knowledge are basic
criteria allowing for democratic development of the society based on knowledge, applying
necessary technological innovations. Having in mind the above, it is necessary to make
positive and substantial changes in the field of the use of information and communication
technologies in the Opolskie Voivodeship, including actions to eliminate a phenomenon of
digital exclusion. Thus, the aim is to increase the use of ICTs in the region which will allow
for efficient production, diffusion and sharing of knowledge affecting at the same time an
increase in development of innovations and in consequence an increase in productivity rate.
The actions in the field of ICTs to be taken in the voivodeship are to stimulate changes in
models of management and affect additional investments in the quality of human resources.
In order to ensure an integrated and sustainable impact on the development of ICTs in the
region as well as to adjust undertakings planned within Priority axis 2 to processes of
development of the information society in Poland and the Community, when selecting
measures the objectives set in strategic documents were taken into account. The documents
were, among other things: Cohesion Policy for Growth and Jobs: the Community Strategic
Guidelines, Development strategy for IT introduction in Poland to 2013 and perspective
forecast for transformation of the information society to 202067. The identification of needs of
the Opolskie Voivodeship as regards building of the information society integrates also the
existing initiatives of the European Union, in particular the initiative “i2010: European
Information Society for Growth and Jobs”68.
Within the framework of Priority 2 Information society projects to be implemented
will contribute to the development of the information society, including the development of
resources, services and applications, the improvement in the accessibility of the Internet
services. It will be important for the implementation of the Axis to co-finance investments in
ICTs in order to achieve so called network effects as well as to promote investments in this
field in sectors which do not use ICTs at all or use them only to a limited extent. To produce a
significant effect, measures undertaken for the state-of-the-art information technologies
should be integrated and the standard of infrastructure enabling the access to IT and
telecommunications systems raised. At the same time the knowledge of the ICTs use should
be broadened. Due to the fact that the information society means also, apart from the
technical infrastructure already existing or under construction, the possibilities and skills of
using ICTs in everyday life, adjustment measures corresponding to global tendencies for the
65
acc. to “Report on land development of the Opolskie Voivodeship - synthesis”, June 2006
“Level of Information Technologies introduced in Polish offices. General report on quantative research for the
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration, 2 edition”, November 2005
67
Version from 24 June, 2005
68
COM(2005)229
66
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
development of on-line services platforms will be taken as well. Popularisation of the
development and the standard of ICT services is to contribute to establishing a competitive,
efficient electronic economy and at the same time to stimulate an economic sphere of the
voivodeship leading to growth and creation of new and better jobs in the Opolskie
Voivodeship. Investments in the ICT infrastructure carried out within the framework of the
Axis are to take into account a rapid technological growth as well as follow a principle of
technical neutrality and unlimited access.
The development of the telecommunications and IT infrastructure is an extremely
significant element which will determine competitiveness of the Opolskie Voivodeship and
affect its modern image. Tendencies in social and economic processes indicate that the
condition for the economic development is unrestricted access to information. Basic pillars of
building and development of the information society in the Opolskie Voivodeship will be IT
networks and telecommunications systems. The use of the ICT tools in all the areas of life
is possible only if it is technically possible to have a telecommunications and IT connection
between a sender and a receiver. Within the framework of Axis 2 the tasks performed will be
aimed at constructing new and modernising already existing local and wide area networks or
other adequate tools, including wireless connections. Projects related to building technical
bases for the systems using the ICTs in a broad sense, including the systems for secure
collection, storage and processing of data, will to be local or regional in nature. The projects
exceeding the area of the Opolskie Voivodeship will not be eligible for assistance. The tasks
co-financed within the framework of Axis 2 related to increasing access to thematic
information and databases are to provide conditions for entrepreneurship development in
the region as well as be conducive to integration and the improvement in the quality of life of
the Opolskie Voivodeship population. To use infrastructure resources to a maximum, the
Internet portals based on e-services should be developed and at the same time the existing
systems of databases standardised and updated. Development of new forms of services using
modern information technologies should be an interesting alternative to other, often more
expensive, models of service provision.
In addition, the measures designed to provide the population and economic entities of
the Opolskie Voivodeship with better access to the Internet will be undertaken, with a
particular attention to continuous improvement and update of services rendered in this field.
Improvement of qualifications necessary in the knowledge-based economy, IT education
along with easy access to the ICT tools, development of on-line services platforms, available
to every person, will be a measure for development of the region regarded as a modern one.
Such actions are to make information and communication technologies become a source of
new opportunities for the socio-economic growth of the Opolskie Voivodeship and a factor
increasing its competitiveness, thanks to the common use of ICTs by economic entities.
3.2.3 Assistance within Priority Axis 2 Information society will be provided mainly to the
following groups of beneficiaries:
1. Units of local self-government, their unions and associations;
2. Incorporated organisational units (legal persons);
3. Universities;
4. Government administration;
5. Health centres operating in the public health service;
6. Incorporated units from the sector of public finance (legal persons) not mentioned above;
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
7. Churches and denominations as well as legal persons of churches and denominations;
8. Non-governmental organisations;
9. Entrepreneurs69.
3.2.4 Flexibility instrument (cross-financing)
To ensure efficient accomplishment of the objectives from Priority axis 2 Information
society a part of measures eligible for assistance from the European Social Fund (pursuant to
art. 34 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 of 11 July, 2006) will be implemented
within Axis 2. It will be possible to allocate maximum 10% of funds at the level of Axis 2 to
expenditure eligible under the ESF, necessary for completing investment projects and directly
associated with them.
3.2.5 Target indicators for Priority axis 2
Tab. No. 3.3 Target indicators for Priority axis 2 of ROP OV 2007-2013
Indicator
Unit
No.
Name
Value in
baseline
year
Value in
target year
Frequency
of
measuring
Results
Products
Priority axis 2 Information society
Potential number of public services provided on-line as a result of
2.1 the projects implemented
item
0
10
year
2.2 Number of projects in information society
item
0
385000
year
item
0
Target value will
be assessed*
year
2.3
*
Number of people who gained access to broadband Internet as a
result of the programme
Target value will be assessed during the implementation of the programme when evaluating it
Source: Own study
69
Entities (including commercial law companies), providing public services, where a major shareholder is the
Opolskie Voivodeship, a poviat, a gmina, a town, an association of gminas, the State Treasury or entities
selected according to the regulations of the Public Procurement Law performing tasks on the basis a separate,
valid agreement concluded with a unit of local self-government (also in a form of public and private
partnerships)
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3.3. PRIORITY AXIS 3
TRANSPORT
Within Priority axis 3 Transport undertakings to be implemented will be in compliance with
Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of the European Parliament and the of the Council on the
European Regional Development Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No. 1783/1999,
pursuant to art. 4, item 8, concerning transport investments.
CATEGORIES OF INTERVENTION70:
18 - Railway rolling stock
23 - Regional/local roads
25 - Urban transport
29 - Airports
3.3.1 Objectives of the priority axis
− To improve accessibility of areas and sites of key importance to economic growth of the
voivodeship, of national and international transport systems and to improve safety of road
users;
− To increase mobility of the region’s inhabitants through extending the public transport
system.
3.3.2 Justification of the priority axis chosen
The measures taken within the framework of Axis 3 Transport will be aimed at
satisfying the most important needs related to transport infrastructure, in particular at
improving accessibility of areas and sites of key significance to economic growth of the
voivodeship as well as improving mobility of the region’s inhabitants.
According to the Community Strategic Guidelines71 and as experiences of the region
so far show, efficient and safe transport infrastructure is a necessary condition for achieving
economic growth, mainly due to ensuring efficient and quick transfer of people and goods.
Dynamically developing transport may have a negative effect on the natural
environment and human health. Therefore it is very important to make efforts to combine
economic objectives with environmental ones following so called principle of sustainable
development. This aspect was emphasised both in the Community Strategic Guidelines72 and
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Official Journal 291 of 21.10.2006
72
As above
71
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
in national documents such as: Polish Transport Policy for 2006-202573, Transport
Development Strategy for 2007-201374.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is among the regions with a relatively well planned system
of national and voivodeship roads. An undeniable trump card of the voivodeship is a location
of the region in the 3rd Pan-European transport corridor which includes the A4 motorway.
Such a location constitutes a strength of the voivodeship as, among other things, it creates
conditions for establishing logistic centres and economic zones which in future may attract
significant investments. The A4 motorway potential opens up an opportunity for the
development of the Opolskie Voivodeship. Moreover, it is necessary to exploit the potential
arising from the location on the border.
Weaknesses of the region include an insufficient number of roads between areas
intended for development with the A4 motorway as well as an insufficient number of ring
roads around towns and villages on transit roads. A problem of the region is also relatively
poor safety on the roads in the voivodeship.
Due to the above, within the framework of Axis 3 measures to be supported will be
aimed at developing the road infrastructure of regional and local importance, where a
priority will be given to the tasks to contribute to improving an access to the A4 motorway
junctions and roads leading to it, to border crossings, investment sites and municipal centres
taking into account safety issues. The tasks will be associated, among other things, with
construction, reconstruction and repairs of roads, construction of ring roads, flyovers, bridges
together with generally available accompanying infrastructure, e.g. lighting system, car parks,
bicycle paths. It is important to standardise cross sections of roads, to adapt surfaces to loads
of at least 115 kN/axle.
Within the road infrastructure of regional importance the aid will be provided to
tasks aimed at developing voivodeship roads in order to improve accessibility of investment
sites, border crossings as well as of sites and road routes of key importance to economic
growth, including airports and A4 motorway. As road traffic safety in the voivodeship is not
sufficient, the support will be given to investments designed to protect transport routes
against threats and effects of catastrophes, through providing institutions operating in these
fields with transport means and equipment used for road rescue.
A significant limitation for growth is poorly developed road infrastructure of local
importance. Such a situation together with limited funds of local self-governments has a
negative effect on competitiveness of the region for potential investors. As a consequence,
within Axis 3 the aid will be provided to investments whose aim will be to extend and
modernise a network of poviat and gmina roads of economic importance. In addition, the
assistance will be given to undertakings to ensure accessibility of investment sites, among
other things, aimed at providing utilities for these sites making them ready for economic
investments, connecting these sites with national and regional roads, with sites of great
importance to economic growth, with municipal centres.
Within the framework of Axis 3 the assistance will be given to undertakings aimed at
developing of public transport as regards: urban transport, railway transport and
airport infrastructure.
Today, mobility is one of the basic needs of the society, therefore an element of
measures within public transport is to ensure appropriate mobility of population, i.e. a
possibility of free movement to different places where human needs are satisfied. It is
73
74
National Transport Policy for 2006-2025, Ministry of Infrastructure, Warsaw 2005
Transport Development Strategy for 2007-2013, Ministry of Transport, Warsaw 2006 [draft].
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
important to ensure a proper quality of transport, in particular taking into account
environmentally friendly solutions offering comfort of travelling.
Within urban transport the tasks to receive support will be aimed at creating an
attractive offer of public transport as regards motor transport. In the Opolskie Voivodeship a
problem lies in decapitalised city buses which do not offer a proper quality of travelling and
have a negative effect on the environment. Therefore old buses have to be replaced by new
ones up to the highest technical and ecological standards. Moreover, it is necessary to ensure
proper infrastructure to serve passengers by construction, among other things, of integrated
changing hubs between different means of transport, of car parks “Park and Go”. The
investments will contribute to the switch to more environment-friendly means of transport, so
called “ecologically clean vehicles” and to establishing an integrated transport system.
Through the area of the Opolskie Voivodeship one of the most important, main and
first class railway lines in Poland runs. A trump card of the region is a well developed railway
network. A number of passenger lines in the Opolskie Voivodeship has increased in contrast
with tendencies in Poland. Within railway transport the goal to pursue will be to increase
attractiveness and competitiveness of the use of regional railway transport. Therefore, the
main element of measures taken within Axis 3 will be the purchase of rolling stock, of so
called railbuses for purposes of regional railway passenger transport only by public units in
order to improve the environment, increase comfort and safety of travelling, reduce costs of
operation and shorten travelling time.
One of the factors determining competitiveness of economy is access to air transport.
At the moment the demand for these services is rising sharply, in particular at regional
airports. As it is forecast that the demand for air transport services will further grow, it will
become necessary to extend a network of regional airports, especially based on the existing
airport infrastructure, including post-military, sports and service airports75. In national
programmes76 it is also indicated that the demand for air transport services has been
increasing and it is necessary to use the existing airport infrastructure to build regional ports.
In the Opolskie Voivodeship there is no regional airport what was mentioned in the
SWOT analysis as a weakness of the region, however, there are sites which have airport
infrastructure to be a basis for development of this type of transport.
The main emphasis within the framework of Axis 3 will be put on opening an airport
falling into category of regional airport, e.g. on the basis of the existing post-military
airport in Kamień Śląski, to serve passenger and freight flights. Taking into consideration the
existing tendencies, failure to open an airport will result in future in marginalisation of the
Opole region in comparison to other voivodeships, in particular neighbouring ones. he airport
in the region will be a significant social and economic asset which will open the region to
foreign partners and allow the society greater mobility thanks to a modern means of transport.
3.3.3 Assistance within Priority Axis 3 Transport will be provided mainly to the
following groups of beneficiaries:
1.
Units of local self-government, their unions and associations;
2.
Incorporated organisational units (legal persons);
3.
Government administration;
75
On the basis of: Air Transport (Export Evaluation), Dr Hab. E. Marciszewska, Dr D. Kaliński, Warsaw
School of Economics, Warsaw 2004
76
Programme for Development of Network of Airports and of Ground Air Equipment, Ministry of Transport,
Warsaw 2006 [draft].
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
4.
Entrepreneurs;
5.
Non-government organisations.
3.3.4 Flexibility instrument (cross-financing)
Within the framework of Priority axis 3 Transport the principle of cross-financing
shall not apply.
3.3.5 Target indicators for Priority axis 3
Tab. No. 3.4 Target indicators for Priority axis 3 of ROP OV 2007-2013
Indicator
Unit
No.
Name
Value in
baseline
year
Value in
target year
Frequency
of
measuring
Results
Products
Priority axis 3 Transport
*
3.1. Number of projects in transport
item
0
46
year
3.2. Number of projects in public transport
item
0
6
year
3.3. Number of kilometres of new roads
item
0
18
year
3.4. Number of kilometres of reconstructed roads
km
0
109
year
3.5.
Time saving on new and modernised roads in passenger and freight PLN/
transport
EUR
0
Target value
will be
assessed*
year
3.6.
Potential number of people using public transport as a result of the
item
projects
0
3.5 mln
year
0
8250
year
3.7. Increase in number of people using municipal transport
item
Target value will be assessed later, on a basis of methodology of the Institute of Roads and Bridges in Warsaw
Source: Own study
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3.4
PRIORITY AXIS 4
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Within Priority axis 4 Environmental protection undertakings to be implemented will be in
compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of the European Parliament and the of the
Council on the European Regional Development Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No.
1783/1999, pursuant to art. 4, items 4, 5 and 9 concerning:
− the environment;
− preventing hazards;
− investments in energy.
CATEGORIES OF INTERVENTION77:
39 - Renewable energy: wind
40 - Renewable energy: solar
41 - Renewable energy: biomass
42 - Renewable energy: hydroelecrical, geothermal and other
44 - Management of municipal and industrial waste
46 - Sewage treatment
47 - Air quality
48 - Integrated pollution prevention and control
51 -
Promotion of biodiversity and nature protection (including
NATURA 2000)
Preventing
hazards
(including
preparation
and
53 - implementation of plans and instruments for preventing and
managing natural and technological hazards)
3.4.1 Objectives of the priority axis
− To improve a quality of the natural environment through modernisation of water and
sewage management and reducing flood hazard;
− To increase the amount of waste sorted out and recycled;
− To improve the air quality and to increase consumption of renewable energy;
− To maintain biological diversity as well as natural and landscape assets of the Opole
region.
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3.4.2 Justification of the priority axis chosen
Recently in Poland and in the Opole region a positive tendency in the environment
improvement can be observed. It is a result of gradual introduction of, among other things,
more environment-friendly technologies. Still, however, there is no proper environmental
protection infrastructure which makes it impossible to ensure the appropriate quality of life to
the population in the region. It also has an adverse effect on economic growth which takes
into account respect for environmental resources and assets. The extension and development
of the environmental protection infrastructure are not only to raise living standards, build an
integrated monitoring system for the environment and limit the consequences of extraordinary
hazards, but also to maintain and protect areas with interesting natural and landscape assets.
Within Axis 4 Environmental protection projects to be carried out will contribute to
improving a quality of the natural environment through development of infrastructure:
municipal as regards water, sewage and waste management, flood protection, air protection,
renewable energy sources. Moreover, the measures to be taken will be aimed at maintaining
biological diversity, natural and landscape assets in the Opole region as well as those related
to monitoring of the environment. Axis 4 will allow for strengthening synergy between
environmental protection and economic growth which was highlighted in the Community
Strategic Guidelines78 as an important element affecting the improvement in conditions
favourable to the region development.
Attractiveness of the region is to a significant extent determined by access to basic
utilities and public services. Implementation of rational solutions in utilities and public
services is an essential element of the contemporary policy on environmental protection.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is beset with two serious problems, i.e. considerable
pollution of waters and insufficient sewage systems in the region, in particular in rural areas.
Due to the above, within water and sewage management the main emphasis will be placed
on projects related to construction, extension and modernisation of sewage treatment plants
as well as construction and extension of sewage systems, connected to sewage treatment
plants, absolutely in towns, but also in rural areas. Projects related to a water supply system
will be carried out only if they are an element of a sewage treatment project.
In order to extend systems of water quality control and of underground waters
protection against pollution, the assistance will be given to undertakings aimed at extending a
monitoring system by purchasing devices and necessary equipment.
Within water and sewage management the aid will be provided only to individual
projects in conurbation areas from 2 to 15 thousand PE79 included in the National Programme
for Municipal Sewage Treatment80, at the same time fulfilling the obligations arising from the
Framework Water Directive 2000/60/WE81.
Among weaknesses of the region there is the lack of common and fully operating
system of waste utilisation, including, among other things, recycling, composting, recovering
biogas from landfills. Therefore it is necessary to introduce significant changes to waste
78
Official Journal 291 of 21.10.2006
PE = population equivalent
80
National Programme for Municipal Sewage Treatment. The Programme was prepared in order to fulfill
obligations of the Polish Government as regards providing conurbations with mass sewage systems and
municipal sewage plants adopted in the Treaty of Accession between Poland and the European Union.
81
Directive of 23 October, 200? laying framework for the Community action in water policy (Official Journal
327 of 22 December, 2000).
79
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
management in order to improve systems of sorting out, organisation of waste collection and
recycling.
Used up, illegal landfill sites should be liquidated or reclaimed, waste should be
sorted out, selected and recycled as well residue from municipal sewage treatment plants
neutralised and recovered. It is also necessary to take measures aimed at selecting and
utilising hazardous waste.
As in the Opolskie Voivodeship there is no landfill site for products containing
asbestos, such a site should be constructed or already existing sites extended by sections for
products containing asbestos. Within Axis 4 no new landfill sites are to be constructed,
except landfill sites for products containing asbestos, while the emphasis will be laid on
waste recycling. Projects eligible for assistance are only those in compliance with the current
Plan of Waste Management for the Opolskie Management.
Owing to the location of the Opolskie Voivodeship in the Odra River basin, flood
prevention and protection against its effects is a significant problem for the region
development. Although a number of investments have been already completed, still a
weakness of the region is the lack of efficient flood protection as well as a risk of losses in
case of flood. For flood protection of Opole, Nysa, Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Brzeg, Krapkowice
and Lewin Brzeski as well as other areas situated in the Odra River basin and for reducing to
minimum losses caused by floods, of fundamental importance will be investments related to
flood protection structures. The aim should be to increase water retention plus comprehensive
modernisation and extension of the system of polders, dry reservoirs, levees and other water
devices as well as streamlining and improving the existing monitoring system of flood risks.
These measures should create conditions for maintaining and gradual development of river
sailing as well as for using energy potential of waters for renewable energy production.
Comprehensive flood control should include also measures aimed at maintaining and
reconstructing ecosystems of rivers and their valleys as well as maintaining in good technical
and ecological state running waters and water equipment significant for agriculture. Tasks
carried out within the Axis should constitute complement or continuance of the “Programme
for the Odra River 200682” implemented in the Opolskie Voivodeship.
To systematically improve the air cleanliness in the Opolskie Voivodeship, actions
have to be intensified. In particular the area of the whole Opolskie Voivodeship should be
covered with the programme for eliminating low emissions. Within the Axis measures aimed
at air protection will be supported. Funds will be granted, among other things, to projects
related to replacement of heat sources, construction and modernisation of heating networks in
public facilities, leading to reduction in emissions of gases and dusts to the atmosphere. In
addition, measures related to air monitoring of regional importance will be co-financed. A
weakness of the region is low utilisation of renewable energy sources. Therefore, the aim is
to use renewable energy sources (RES) to a greater extent. Axis 4 will include measures
taken in order to construct devices and plants for generation, storage, transfer and production
of renewable energy, among others: solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectrical, geothermal. In
accordance with the Community Strategic Guidelines83 a top priority is to reduce dependence
on traditional energy which is possible by the greater efficiency of energy and renewable
energy consumption. The energy from renewable sources is to have a significant share in the
energy balance of the Opolskie Voivodeship.
82
Government multiannual programme covering modernisation of the Odra Water System (Journal of Laws
2001, No. 98, item 1067 as amended)
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Official Journal 291 of 21.10.2006
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The Opolskie Voivodeship is among more valuable regions in Poland as regards
biodiversity, landscape and natural assets. It is very important to take actions which will
safeguard the most unique natural resources of the voivodeship in an appropriate manner.
The projects implemented within Axis 4 will be aimed at preserving natural habitats
(ecosystems), making ecological corridors more passable and maintaining diversity of
species. Actions designed to protect and recover natural and landscape biodiversity, to
maintain and restore habitats, including water and mud as well as forest ones, to ensure
functionality of ecological corridors as well to reintroduce species and ex situ protection.
These measures are necessary for implementation of the common European ecological
system Natura 2000 and for protection of the voivodeship biodiversity.
3.4.3 Assistance within Priority Axis 4 Environmental protection will be provided mainly
to the following groups of beneficiaries:
1. Units of local self-government, their unions and associations;
2. Incorporated organisational units (legal persons);
3. Non-government organisations;
4. Churches and denominations as well as legal persons of churches and denominations;
5. Government administration;
6. Water companies;
7. PGL Lasy Państwowe (Polish Forest Management Company) and its organisational units;
8. National and landscape parks;
9. Entrepreneurs84;
10. Incorporated units from the sector of public finance (legal persons) not mentioned above.
3.4.4 Flexibility instrument (cross-financing)
To ensure efficient accomplishment of the objectives from Priority axis 4
Environmental protection a part of measures eligible for assistance from the European Social
Fund (pursuant to art. 34 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 of 11 July, 2006) will be
implemented within Axis 4. It will be possible to allocate maximum 10% of funds at the level
of Axis 4 to expenditure eligible under the ESF, necessary for completing investment projects
and directly associated with them.
84
Entities (including commercial law companies), providing public services, where a major shareholder is the
Opolskie Voivodeship, a poviat, a gmina, a town, an association of gminas, the State Treasury or entities
selected according to the regulations of the Public Procurement Law performing tasks on the basis a separate,
valid agreement concluded with a unit of local self-government (also in a form of public and private
partnerships)
101
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3.4.5 Target indicators for Priority axis 4
Tab. No. 3.5 Target indicators for Priority axis 4 of ROP OV 2007-2013
Unit
Value in
baseline
year
Value in
target year
Frequency
of
measuring
4.1. Number of projects in environmental protection
item
0
76
year
4.2. Number of projects in water and sewage management
item
0
50
year
4.3. Number of projects in waste management
item
0
3
year
4.4. Number of projects aimed at improving air quality
item
0
5
year
4.5. Number of projects in renewable energy
item
0
10
year
4.6. Number of projects in preventing threats related to floods
item
0
8
year
item
0
4,800
year
ha
0
4 ha
year
item
0
item/
km2
0
item
0
2000
year
kW
0
4,250kW
year
ha
0
200 ha
year
Indicator
No.
Name
Products
Priority axis 4 Environmental protection
4.7.
Number of people connected to a sewage system as a result of the
projects
4.8. Reclaimed/restored area
4.9.
Number of people covered by selective waste collection as a result of
the projects
4.10. Number of people protected against flood
Number of people connected to a system supplied by renewable energy
as a result of the projects
4.12. Potential generated installed power of renewable energy
Results
4.11.
*
4.13. Areas covered by biodiversity protection as a result of the projects
Target value
will be
assessed*
Target value
will be
assessed*
Target value will be assessed during the implementation of the programme when evaluating it
Source: Own study
102
year
year
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3.5
PRIORITY AXIS 5
SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND HIGHER EDUCATION
Within Priority axis 5 Social insfrastructure and higher education undertakings to be
implemented will be in compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of the European
Parliament and the of the Council on the European Regional Development Fund and repealing
Regulation (EC) No. 1783/1999, pursuant to art. 4, items 7, 10 and 11, concerning:
− investments in education;
− investments in health care infrastructure and social infrastructure;
−
investments in culture.
CATEGORIES OF INTERVENTION85:
56 -
Protection and valorisation of natural heritage
58 -
Protection and preservation of cultural heritage
59 -
Development of cultural infrastructure
75 -
Infrastructure of education system
76 -
Infrastructure of health service
3.5.1 Objectives of the priority axis
− To increase competitiveness of human resources in the labour market by improving
the standard and conditions of education in the region;
− To strengthen and improve health safety of the region’s inhabitants, in particular of
people active in the labour market;
− To protect sites of cultural and natural heritage of regional importance;
− To rise in importance the role of culture as a factor affecting an attractive image of the
region.
3.5.2 Justification of the priority axis chosen
Within the framework of Axis 5 Social infrastructure and higher education the
measures implemented will be for the development of educational and medical facilities of
the Opolskie Voivodeship, for raising the infrastructure standard in culture of supralocal and
regional importance and for protection of cultural heritage.
One of the conditions to build and develop a modern, competitive economy on a
European scale is to raise the quality of human resources which means a rise in the level of
education of the region’s inhabitants. Among the strengths of the Opolskie Voivodeship there
are increasing educational aspirations of the voivodeship population and rapidly developing
85
Official Journal 371 of 27.12.2006, p. 1
103
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
higher education. Still, however, the Opolskie Voivodeship has the smallest in Poland number
of people with higher education in total population and a serious shortage of qualified staff
and specialists which put up a major barrier to locating new investments in the Opolskie
Voivodeship. One of the weaknesses of the voivodeship is continuous and high migration of
people abroad, including well-qualified staff from the region. In order to ensure development
of human resources in the voivodeship, in particular to increase a number of people with
higher education, it is necessary to create appropriate conditions for gaining knowledge by
wide social groups in the region and establishing co-ordinated infrastructure of educational
facilities, including universities and colleges. It is necessary to provide access to a modern
educational system using mainly ICT solutions and tools86.
A proper standard of the infrastructure is a significant factor which affects the quality
of education and access to knowledge.
A changing labour market and technological progress force the society to become
well-prepared in the process of education and continuously adjust their qualifications to
employers’ expectations. To make the society prepared to requirements of the modern labour
market it is necessary to adjust education to the needs of the labour market, to continuously
broaden knowledge, improve and acquire new professional skills on a regular basis.
The opportunities for development of the region lie in preparing modern educational
infrastructure for continuous education and practical training which will affect the whole
region. To adjust the infrastructure to the development of establishments for continuous
education (CKU) and practical training (CKP) which operate in the Opolskie Voivodeship is
of key importance in processes of competitiveness of the regional economy. The measures
taken in this field within Axis 5 will be aimed, among other things, at reconstructing,
renovating and equipping infrastructure facilities, taking into account a demographic and
economic situation in a particular area. The actions within Axis 5 are also necessary to fully
achieve the objectives included in the Operational Programme Human Resources.
A survey of regional infrastructure in the field of higher, post-secondary and
secondary education as well as educational centres for equal educational opportunities
(CKU /CKP) shows that that it is necessary to improve the educational facilities and their
equipment. At universities and colleges in the Opole region it is necessary mainly to extend
research and lecturing facilities. A particular attention should be paid to the development of
lecturing facilities for the purposes of science which will contribute to growth of the regional
modern economy, in particular in the fields indicated in the research within “Regional
Foresight”. Axis 5 excludes investments in research and development infrastructure at
universities for the development of entrepreneurship which may be co-financed from funds
within Axis 1 Strengthening economic attractiveness of the region of ROP OV 2007-2013.
Preparations to mobility in the European labour market require intensive teaching of
foreign languages and thus it is so important to provide appropriate training facilities where
foreign languages will be taught, including preparations to bilingual education of pupils;
especially that year by year there are more and more persons interested in learning foreign
languages at such centres.
To increase investment attractiveness of the region it is also anticipated within the
framework of Axis 5 to implement projects to provide appropriate educational facilities for
people migrating due to investments located in the Opolskie Voivodeship.
86
Initiative ” i2010: European Information Society for Growth and Jobs”, COM(2005)229
104
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
An important element in strategic measures of the Opolskie Voivodeship, complement
to the aforesaid directions for development, is to improve a quality of educational
infrastructure at the local level.
The region has a system of educational units which suits the needs at the primary and
junior secondary levels, but the quality of educational infrastructure is poor and ICT tools
used to a small extent, in particular in rural areas. Hence, tasks to be completed within Axis 5
will be aimed at lifting barriers in access to education by children, including those from rural
and marginalised areas, i.e. in a particularly difficult situation in this respect. Within the
framework of Axis 5 the projects will be aimed at raising the infrastructure standard of
educational units at the primary and junior secondary levels to make them suit contemporary
requirements and new teaching methods, mainly with purchases of investment equipment for
teaching purposes, including ICT tools.
The quality of health care provided to the population of the Opolskie Voivodeship,
both in terms of medical staff and medical infrastructure, is not satisfactory. The indicators
concerning medical staff and the use of medical infrastructure by patients are below the
national average which means that there are significant difficulties in access to public health
centres, modern medical equipment health services.
Conditions and the pace of professional life cause greater health hazards and as a
consequence the demand for medical services becomes higher. Due to the dynamics of
demographic and social changes, significant elements in the society development will be
measures, in their broad sense, taken in the field of health care through development of health
institutions, in particular for people active in the labour market. The lifestyle, modern-age
diseases and hazards result in a larger number of disabled people. In the Opole region a
number of the disabled has been increasing and therefore there is a need for the increased
accessibility to medical services and rehabilitation by these patients, in particular in order to
enable them to return to activity in the labour market.
Due to a considerable budgetary deficit in Poland, also in the Opole region a problem
determining the quality of health care is decapitalisation of the infrastructure and restricted
access to expensive and state-of-the-art medical technologies87. Investments in this field will
support restructuring of the existing hospital facilities (stationary health care), mainly
changes in their profile and rationalisation of management. These projects are to contribute to
raising efficiency of hospital wards, adjustment of a profile and specialist hospital facilities to
the needs in the region, optimisation of a network of primary health care hospitals through
allocation of beds, further development of long-term care institutions according to the local
community requirements and extension of out-patient (daily) hospital facilities.
A priority will be given to projects to improve infrastructure of health centres where
modern-age diseases are treated, especially those related to early detection, an increase in
accessibility to, efficiency and quality of diagnostics and therapy in oncology and
haematology as well as treatment of brain vascular incidents, and those contributing to
improving health of women of child-bearing age and of neonates and infants.
An important element of strategic measures of the Opolskie Voivodeship is also to
improve a quality of and accessibility of health care infrastructure at the local level (outpatient health care).
87
“Health Care Strategy of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2006-2013”, adopted by Resolution No.
XLIV/418/2006 of the Sejmik of the Opolskie Voivodeship on 31 January, 2006 on adopting the Health Care
Strategy of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2006-2013.
105
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The accessibility of health services is limited at the moment, in particular in rural
areas, mainly due to unsatisfactory technical infrastructure of local primary health care
centres and a shortage of medical equipment at a proper level. To eliminate negative effects
of this situation the measures taken will be aimed at improving the quality of primary health
care to guarantee effective contacts with patients. Medical infrastructure will be modernised
both in terms of facilities and equipment. These measures will be supported through
optimisation of medical facilities of out-patient health care, mainly organising diagnostic and
therapeutic support for a system of primary health care units.
Within the framework of Axis 5 the aid will be provided to projects related to health
care only within a public health insurance system. The measures taken within Axis 5 must not
lead to extending the sector of health services by new medical units.
The assistance within the framework of Axis 5 excludes health units eligible for
assistance under Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment, i.e. those
established by the minister or the central body of government administration, a public
medical university running teaching and research activities in medical sciences.
The support for culture results from the recognised role of culture as a factor
creating social attitudes, moral, ethic and aesthetic standards. The support for culture should
be regarded as support for socio-economic development of the region and tourism, raising
attractiveness of the region and an element to increase competitiveness based on the regional
potential, in particular resources of cultural and natural heritage. Axis 5 will be
implemented by development of infrastructure of cultural institutions, preparing a varied
regional offer of cultural attractions, protection of monuments and cultural heritage
(sites/buildings listed in the register of monuments) and natural heritage which will bring
about an increase in attractiveness of the region as a place to work, live and spend a leisure
time.
The Opolskie Voivodeship has rich culture arising mainly from historically
determined merged Polish, Czech and German cultures. The region, however, has lower than
the average indicators in Poland for a number of spectators, listeners, readers in cultural
institutions. To increase them it is necessary to provide easier access to culture through,
among other things, extension of infrastructure, at the moment unevenly spread over the
region – located mainly in Opole which is the region’s centre.
The assistance for projects in culture will contribute to economic growth of the region
as a result of, among other things, creating new jobs, and it will be focused on material
investments in public infrastructure of culture contributing to preparation of a high quality
cultural offer and to raising active participation of the society in culture. The projects are to
affect modernisation of cultural facilities improving their equipment such as exhibition,
storage, technical and multimedia equipment as well as systems raising safety of the facilities.
The increased cultural potential will have an impact on promotion of Opole where the
majority of regional cultural institutions are situated, but also on promotion of the whole
region. National and international cultural undertakings will be carried out with the use of the
infrastructure already existing and the infrastructure to be built. Modernisation of cultural
facilities will provide conditions for creating top quality works and artistic demonstrations.
As a result, the interest in participation in different events will increase and social integration
of the regional population from municipal and rural areas will be strengthened.
The aid will be provided to projects aimed at making culture available to the whole
society removing architectural barriers in cultural institutions and system solutions for
disabled people.
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Any measures in culture will focus on the most important projects of at least
supralocal importance. The Axis excludes projects which may receive aid within Operational
Programme Infrastructure and Environment. Moreover, it excludes the investments which
will be supported within Rural Development Programme 2007-2013.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is among the richest regions in historical sites/buildings in
Poland, however, the weakness is their bad condition and limited accessibility. Among
important sites of cultural heritage there are, among other things, historically developed urban
areas and items of architecture. Owing to deterioration of monuments, measures will be
undertaken to stop degradation and destruction of buildings listed in the register of
monuments as well as to utilise them to a maximum extent for cultural purposes. In addition,
the assistance will be rendered to projects aimed at preservation of museum pieces, archive
records, antique books, book collections and other moveable monuments.
In the Opolskie Voivodeship there are over 5.5 thousand archaeological sites. A trump
card of the region is a unique on a European scale documentary site of inanimate nature
“Trias” in Krasiejów where remains of the oldest dinosaur were found. However, sites of
natural heritage are insufficiently developed and hardly available to visitors.
3.5.3 Assistance within Priority Axis 5 Social infrastructure and higher education will be
provided mainly to the following groups of beneficiaries:
1.
Units of local self-government, their unions and associations;
2.
Incorporated organisational units (legal persons);
3.
Universities;
4.
Legal and natural persons who are bodies managing schools and establishments;
5.
Health units operating in the public health care system;
6.
Non-government organisations;
7.
Churches and denominations as well as legal persons of churches and denominations;
8.
Cultural institutions;
9.
Incorporated units from the sector of public finance (legal persons) not mentioned
above.
3.5.4 Flexibility instrument (cross-financing)
To ensure efficient accomplishment of the objectives from Priority axis 5 Social
infrastructure and higher education a part of measures eligible for assistance from the
European Social Fund (pursuant to art. 34 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 of 11
July, 2006) will be implemented within Axis 5. It will be possible to allocate maximum 10%
of funds at the level of Axis 5 to expenditure eligible under the ESF, necessary for completing
investment projects and directly associated with them.
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3.5.5 Target indicators for Priority axis 5
Tab. No. 3.6 Target indicators for Priority axis 5 of ROP OV 2007-2013
Unit
Value in
baseline
year
Value in
target year
Frequency
of
measuring
5.1. Number of projects in education
item
0
11
year
5.2. Number of projects in health care
5.3. Number of projects in cultural and natural heritage
item
item
0
0
14
10
year
year
5.4. Number of students using the effects of the projects
item
0
2,900
year
5.5. Number of pupils and other people using the effects of the projects
item
0
6,750
year
year
Indicator
No.
Name
Results
Products
Priority axis 5 Social infrastructure and higher education
*
5.6.
Potential number of specialist medical examinations conducted with the
use of equipment purchased/modernised as a result of the projects
item
0
Target value
will be
assessed*
5.7.
Potential number of patients using the infrastructure and equipment as a
result of the projects
item
0
2,500
year
5.8.
Number of spectators, listeners, visitors and people using cultural
facilities
item
0
95,000
year
Target value will be assessed during the implementation of the programme when evaluating it
Source: Own study
108
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
3.6
PRIORITY AXIS 6
MOBILISATION OF MUNICIPAL AND DEGRADED
AREAS
Within Priority axis 6 Mobilisation of municipal and degraded areas undertakings to be
implemented will be in compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of the European
Parliament and the of the Council on the European Regional Development Fund and repealing
Regulation (EC) No. 1783/1999, pursuant to art. 7 and 8 concerning urban areas and those
experiencing or threatened by physical deterioration and social exclusion.
CATEGORIES OF INTERVENTION88:
50 - Revitalisation of industrial areas and reclaiming of
contaminated land
61 - Integrated projects for reviatlisation of urban and rural
areas
78 - Housing infrastructure
3.6.1 Objectives of the priority axis
− To give new social and economic functions to municipal and degraded areas and
reviving them to increase their territorial and economic attractiveness as well as to
create conditions for employment rise in these areas.
3.6.2 Justification of the priority axis chosen
One of the features distinguishing the cohesion policy is its capability to adapt to
special needs and a unique nature of particular geographical challenges and opportunities.
Hence, it is of profound importance to prevent unequal regional development which reduces
potential for economic growth. To limit heavy concentration of economic, territorial and
social problems in urban areas and threatened with degradation is a priority task for the
Opolskie Voivodeship in 2007-2013.
Diversity of the Opolskie Voivodeship as regards a number of physical and
geographical as well as social and economic features highlights the fact that problem areas
exist. Negative phenomena from economic, technical and social spheres in these areas result
in intraregional disproportions at the voivodeship level. These phenomena set up a barrier to
the development of the problem areas themselves, mainly owing to unsatisfactory
infrastructure and unfavourable processes affecting them. Weaknesses of the Opolskie
Voivodeship identified in the strategic balance of the region include areas requiring
comprehensive reviatlisation actions and intensifying social exclusion. Characteristic for
these areas – high unemployment rate, low level of economic activity, more and more often
88
Official Journal 371 of 27.12.2006, p. 1
109
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
occurring pathological phenomena in comparison with other regions, are the reasons why
even basic social needs in these areas are not sufficiently satisfied. Social inequality is more
and more noticeable in the region – areas of poverty, pathology and threat of crime near areas
inhabited by rich people with stable social status. A situation of the voivodeship as regards
housing resources is also bad in comparison with other regions in Poland. Negative
phenomena in this respect are connected both with the age structure of flats and their statistic
shortage. Low dynamics of development of the housing industry is particularly alarming as
regards a relation between a number of new flats commissioned and a number of marriages
made as in comparison with Poland it is one of the worst.89
The implementation of Axis 6 will include undertakings in indicated areas,
combined measures for the development of infrastructure with measures for socio-economic
revival. As a consequence, the tasks within the Axis will be aimed at stimulating economic
growth, promoting entrepreneurship, development of local employment as well as increasing
the quality of services provided to the population. The measures taken within the Axis will
contribute, apart from economic aspects, to re-establishing of social ties in problem areas and
restoration of spatial order.
Due to the fact that economic problems, neglected, degraded spatial structures and
social exclusion are of considerable importance to the urbanised areas of the Opolskie
Voivodeship – the aim of the measures within the Axis will be revitalisation of urban areas.
The assistance for these areas is to contribute to the development of towns as the fields for
economic growth and of neighbouring areas to affect sustainable development of the whole
Opolskie Voivodeship. It is to result in socio-economic cohesion in urban areas, increasing
their attractiveness, support of growth and new, better jobs. Reviatlisation of these areas
should introduce solutions in spatial, social and economic dimensions. The effect, on the one
hand, should be strengthening or restoration of central functions of urban areas, integrating
local communities, but also, among other things, establishing permanent functional relations
between urbanised and rural areas. Measures taken within Axis 6 in municipal areas will
relate, among other things, to rehabilitation of public space, including separation of industrial
functions from housing and recreational ones, to shaping space and building development in a
manner facilitating inhabitants mutual communication and co-operation. Moreover, actions
taken within the framework of the Axis will also relate to creating safe spaces and at the same
time tasks aimed at improving safety of inhabitants from areas subject to reviatlisation as the
areas particularly threatened with pathologies. The assistance will be given mainly to old
town centres, buildings/sites of cultural heritage and necessary measures in infrastructure,
including municipal and power industry infrastructure only in revitalised areas. Some
measures in urban areas will be associated with direct investments in the housing
construction90. Investments in the housing construction will be directed mainly to housing
co-operatives and local self-governments, and they will be related to multi-family buildings
and buildings owned by public authorities, intended for dwelling purposes for people with
low income from revitalised areas. Measures in this field will not apply to facilities used for
purposes of public administration (except external elements of buildings listed in the register
of monuments).
Within the framework of measures related to revitalisation, projects to be
implemented will cover the areas specified in the Local Revitalisation Programmes prepared
by relevant self-government units, which apply to at least planning period 2007-2013
89
acc. to “Report on land development of the Opolskie Voivodeship-synthesis”, June 2006
Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of 5 July, 2006 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p. 1), art. 7 and
Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1828/2006 of 8 December, 2006 (Official Journal 371 of 27.12.2006, p. 1),
art. 47
90
110
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
(projects included in the specified field of revitalisation as per criteria). It is of key
importance to reliably identify and analyse areas intended for revitalisation as projects
implemented within Local Revitalisation Programmes will not be eligible for assistance under
other Priority Axes of ROP OV 2007-2013. Moreover, the areas will be indicated and
necessary revitalisation actions planned by units of local self-government in co-operation
with other entities based on guidelines laid down on the basis of valid legal solutions by the
Managing Institution. As regards revitalisation of urban areas the Managing Institution may
also, during the implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013, take a decision about using an
additional financial instrument in a form of the Community Initiative JESSICA under terms
defined by the Community guidelines.
As a part of removing development barriers and negative processes taking place in
problem areas, measures to be taken within the framework of Axis 6 will be aimed at
development of other degraded areas, located in municipal areas not covered by the Local
Revitalisation Programmes referred to above and in areas outside administration borders of
towns. Measures to be supported in these areas will be aimed at stimulating economic growth,
increasing investment attractiveness and improving conditions for creating jobs in these areas.
A role of projects within these undertakings will be implementation of processes which are to
restore these areas to efficient functioning through a change in structure of these areas and
allocating new functions to them, and first of all mobilisation of these areas through a positive
value of a quality change. The support will be provided to undertakings generating the added
value for the economy and resulting in an improvement in the quality of life of inhabitants.
Revitalisation measures will be taken in three interrelated areas: spatial, social and economic
A priority will be given to measures for preparing the sites for new economic
investments (including all utilities), demolishing old facilities and preparing existing facilities
to support business activity. Investments in infrastructure of facilities with economic,
educational, tourist, cultural or social functions should directly translate into an increase of
the economy efficiency, i.e. contribute to the development of entrepreneurship, an increase of
investment attractiveness of the sites as well as establishing and developing business
incubators, technological parks. A condition for fulfilling tasks in areas previously used by
army and police is a change in functions of these areas. Undertaking to be carried out will
provide inhabitants from degraded areas with access to basic supplies and services. Changes
in functions and the structure of degraded areas are to contribute to a general improvement in
land development and at the same time directly aid socio-economic growth.
3.6.3 Assistance within Priority Axis 6 Mobilisation of municipal and degraded areas will
be provided mainly to the following groups of beneficiaries:
1.
Units of local self-government, their unions and associations;
2.
Incorporated organisational units (legal persons);
3.
Universities;
4.
Incorporated units from the sector of public finance (legal persons) not mentioned
above;
5.
Non-government organisations;
6.
Churches and denominations as well as legal persons of churches and denominations;
7.
Housing co-operatives and communities;
111
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
8.
Enterprises.91
3.6.4 Flexibility instrument (cross-financing)
To ensure efficient accomplishment of the objectives from Priority axis 6 Mobilisation
of municipal and degraded areas a part of measures eligible for assistance from the European
Social Fund (pursuant to art. 34 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 of 11 July, 2006)
will be implemented within Axis 6. It will be possible to allocate maximum 10% of funds at
the level of Axis 6 to expenditure eligible under the ESF, necessary for completing
investment projects and directly associated with them.
3.6.5 Target indicators for Priority axis 6
Tab. No. 3.7 Target indicators for Priority axis 6 of ROP OV 2007-201
Unit
Value in
baseline
year
Value in
target year
Frequency
of
measuring
6.1.Number of projects aimed at reviatlisation of areas
item
0
13
year
6.2.Number of projects aimed at improving attractiveness of towns
item
0
50
year
ha
0
25
year
Indicator
No.
Name
Products
Priority axis 6 Mobilisation of municipal and degraded areas
Areas subject to revitalisation
including:
6.3.
- municipal
- degraded
Results
6.4.
*
Number of enterprises operating in the degraded areas, supported as a
item
result of the projects
6.5.Number o people covered by assistance in areas subject to revitalisation
item
0
0
Target value
will be
assessed*
Target value
will be
assessed*
Target value will be assessed during the implementation of the programme when evaluating it
Source: Own study
91
Entities (including commercial law companies), providing public services, where a major shareholder is the
Opolskie Voivodeship, a poviat, a gmina, a town, an association of gminas, the State Treasury or entities
selected according to the regulations of the Public Procurement Law performing tasks on the basis a separate,
valid agreement concluded with a unit of local self-government (also in a form of public and private
partnerships).
112
year
year
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
3.7
PRIORITY AXIS 7
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
Within Priority axis 7 Technical assistance ROP OV 2007-2013 undertakings to be
implemented will be in compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 layig down general
provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the
Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No. 1260/1999, pursuant to art. 46 concerning
technical assistance.
CATEGORIES OF INTERVENTION92:
Preparation, implementation, monitoring and
control
Evaluation, research/expert opinions, information
86 and communication
85 -
3.7.1 Objective of the priority axis
−
To ensure the effective and efficient implementation of the Regional Operational
Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013 as well as full absorption of
structural funds available within it.
3.7.2 Justification of the priority axis chosen
The projects implemented within Priority axis 7 of ROP OV 2007-2013 will be aimed
at assisting the Managing Authority and other institutions involved in the implementation of
ROP OV 2007-2013.
The amount of structural funds allocated in ROP OV 2007-2013 to undertakings of
priority importance for the region is several times greater than the funds allocated for 20042006 within, among other things, the Integrated Regional Operational Programme. To use
these funds efficiently it will be necessary to provide an effective system to implement them
which requires considerable financial expenditure.
The experiences from years 2004-2006 have confirmed that undertakings carried out
within Axis 7 Technical Assistance are extremely important for the efficient use of structural
funds. The analysis of the situation of units which have participated in the implementation
process of operational programmes in the programming period 2004-2006 shows that it was
necessary to support employment of adequately qualified staff, staff trainings, providing
institutions with the required equipment (especially computers), organising and servicing
meetings of the Monitoring Committee as well as to support promotional and publicity
actions. Without financial aid a number of tasks would have been impossible to accomplish.
92
Official Journal 371 of 27.12.2006, p. 1.
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A new, full, seven-year programming period of structural funds poses a considerable
challenge for every region. The challenge is related not only to appropriate preparations,
implementation and settlement of the projects by beneficiaries, but also to management of
own operational programme by the self-government of every voivodeship. Therefore the aim
is to best prepare the Managing Authority and other institutions involved in the
implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013, as regards technical, staff and organizational
aspects.
Technical assistance for ROP OV 2007-2013 will be given to strengthening the
institutions involved in management, implementation, monitoring, control, evaluation and
assessment of the progress of ROP OV 2007-2013 as well as to promotion and publicity
about the aid available within its framework. The assistance will be aimed at providing and
equipping office facilities as well as adapting the whole system, particular institutions and
single workstations to the needs related to efficient and effective implementation of the
programme.
It will be necessary to train staff responsible for accomplishment of tasks at particular
stages in the management of ROP OV 2007-2013. The stress will be on providing properly
educated and prepared personnel. Therefore new employees will be engaged, the staff already
working on structural funds further trained and expert support ensured. The funds will be
allocated to trainings of employees, their specialist studies, conferences, seminars,
traineeships (also abroad) and other forms of in-service training.
It will be also necessary to have organisational assistance related to serving
functions as the Managing Authority and other institutions taking part in the management of
the Programme. It will be important to support a process of collecting, assessing and selecting
projects, monitoring their implementation and monitoring the whole Programme, verification
of payments and financial audits as well as archiving documents. The assistance will be also
provided to serve committees and other auxiliary bodies, also as regards training and
preparation of their members to perform functions. A separate task will be to ensure the
efficient IT system for implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013.
Also all and any information and promotional measures are necessary as they will
popularise knowledge of the programme, raise the society awareness of access and use of
structural funds. Moreover, training and consultancy measures for potential beneficiaries are
required. The actions to be taken will include publication of materials, preparation of services
and publicity programmes, specialist analyses, evaluations and expert opinions. The support
for information and promotional measures is necessary because their efficiency will affect the
number and quality of submitted projects and in consequence the efficient use of funds within
ROP OV 2007-2013.
In the context of measures above it is also significant to ensure a smooth transfer from
the programming period 2004-2006 to the next structural funds programming period – i.e.
2007-2013, as well as proper preparation to the next programming period – after 2013.
3.7.3 Assistance within Priority Axis 7 Technical assistance will be provided to the
following beneficiary:
1.
Managing Authority for ROP OV 2007-2013 and other institutions participating in the
management of the Programme.
3.7.4 Flexibility instrument (cross-financing)
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Within the framework of Priority axis 7 Technical assistance the principle of crossfinancing shall not apply.
3.7.5 Target indicators for Priority axis 7
Tab. No. 3.8 Target indicators for Priority axis 7 of ROP OV 2007-2013
Unit
Value in
baseline
year
Value in
target year
Frequency
of
measuring
Indicator
No.
Name
Results
Products
Priority axis 7 Technical assistance
*
7.1.
Number of projects aimed at supporting a process of the programme
implementation
item
0
21
year
7.2.
Number of workstations serving the programme, co-financed from the
TA
item
0
Target value
will be
assessed*
year
7.3.
Number of workers who participated in at least one form of professional
training in relation to a total number of workers serving the programme
%
0
100
year
7.4.
Number of beneficiaries participating in different types of trainings,
conferences and information meetings about the programme
item
0
Target value
will be
assessed*
year
7.5.
Potential number of recipients of information contained in information
materials and on websites
item
0
Target value
will be
assessed*
year
Target value will be assessed during the implementation of the programme when evaluating it
Source: Own study
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3.8 Information about complementarity and co-ordination with financial
measures from the EAFRD and the EFF
ROP OV 2007-2013 is complementary to the Rural Development Programme for
2007-2013 [RDP 2007-2013], financed from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural
Development [EAFRD] and to the Operational Programme Sustainable Development of the
Fisheries Sector and Coastal Fishing Areas 2007-2013, financed from the European Fisheries
Fund [EFF], in a manner to prevent overlapping of operations financed under both
programmes, within areas relating to Priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2013 below.
Tab. No. 3.9. Complementarity and co-ordination of ROP OV 2007-2013 with RDP 20072013 and with OP Sustainable development of the fisheries sector and coastal fishing areas
2007-2013.
ROP OV
2007-2013
Rural Development Programme
for 2007-2013
Axis 3 Quality of life in rural areas and
diversification of rural economy
in the following fields:
- establishing and development of microenterprises;
- tourist,
recreational
and
sports
infrastructure.
Axis 3 Quality of life in rural areas and
Axis 4
Environmental
diversification of rural economy
protection
in the following fields:
- water and sewage management;
- waste management;
- renewable energy.
Axis 3 Quality of life in rural areas and
Axis 5
Social infrastructure diversification of rural economy
and higher education
in the following fields:
- preservation of cultural heritage;
- cultural infrastructure.
Axis 3 Quality of life in rural areas and
Axis 6
diversification of rural economy
in the following fields:
Mobilisation of
- preservation of cultural heritage;
municipal and
- cultural infrastructure;
degraded areas
- tourist,
recreational
and
sports
infrastructure.
Source: Own study
Axis 1
Strengthening
economic
attractiveness of the
region
Operational Programme
Sustainable development of the
fisheries sektor and coastal fishing
areas 2007-2013
Priority 2 Aquaculture, inland fishery, fish
processing and market
in the following fields:
- fish farming and breeding (aquaculture);
- tourist,
recreational
and
sports
infrastructure.
Priority 2 Aquaculture, inland fishery, fish
processing and market
in the following fields:
- protection and improvement of the
environment and natural resources.
-
-
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CHAPTER 4
FINANCIAL PLAN
For purposes of the implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013, the region will be
allocated under the European Regional Development Fund EUR 427,144,813.
The amount of structural funds appropriated to the Opolskie Voivodeship arises from
the algorithm 80/10/10 defined in the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013 for
Growth and Jobs, National Cohesion Strategy which, taking into account current statistical
data, is a resultant of the following criteria:
− population in particular voivodeships;
− gross domestic product [GDP] per capita;
− unemployment rate.
Distribution of the allocated funds available within ROP OV 2007-2013 between
particular priority axes arises from a number of factors, i.e.:
− needs of the region – identified at the stage of the diagnosis of the situation in the
Opolskie Voivodeship;
− the effect of particular axes on the accomplishment of the general objective of ROP OV
2007-2013, in particular on economic growth of the region;
− a scope of interventions of particular axes;
− limitations arising from the Community Regulations on implementation of structural
funds in 2007-2013;
− a demarcation line between regional operational programmes and operational programmes
national in nature;
− results of socio-economic consultations held according to the partnership principle;
− obligations of Poland concerning implementation of guidelines of the renewed Lisbon
Strategy.
Taking into account the aforementioned factors the funds have been distributed within
the Programme, what is shown in the tables from 4.1 to 4.6 below.
A full absorption of the funds for ROP OV 2007-2013 depends on a number of
factors. One of them is to ensure the appropriate own contribution. Pursuant to art. 53 of
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006, the contribution of funds at the level of operational
programmes within the Convergence objectives is maximum 85 %.
As experiences from the period between 2000-2006 show, the major beneficiary of
funds from the European Union is a local self-government. The use of the funds for ROP OV
2007-2013 to a full extent will depend mainly on ensuring appropriate co-financing from the
units of local self-government.
A forecast value of the investment potential index in the Opolskie Voivodeship, i.e. a
relation between necessary co-financing for projects aided from the EU funds to the total
amount of funds for development available to units of local self-government intending to use
117
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
the EU funds, is lower than the national average93. This shows that a risk of problems with
finding appropriate funds for co-financing of projects aided from the EU funds is relatively
low. The experiences from 2000-2006 and the analysis of financial potential of units of local
self-government provide a basis for a thesis that all the funds within the Programme will be
used.
Tab. No. 4.1 Distribution of the funds for ROP OV 2007-2013 and implementation of the
Lisbon Strategy with division into particular priority axes of the Programme.
[EUR]
No.
Priority axes of
ROP OV 2007-2013
%
of funds
ROP OV
2007-2013
Amount
% of
implementation
of Lisbon
Strategy
Amount
Strengthening economic
Axis 1 attractiveness of the
region
37 %
158,043,581
89 %
140,785,222
Axis 2 Information society
5%
21,357,241
100 %
21,357,241
Axis 3 Transport
26 %
111,057,652
7%
7,496,392
10 %
42,714,481
13 %
5,552,882
10 %
42,714,481
0%
0
9%
38,443,033
0%
0
3%
12,814,344
0%
0
100 %
427,144,813
41 %
Environmental
protection
Social infrastructure and
Axis 5
higher education
Mobilisation of
Axis 6 municipal and degraded
areas
Axis 4
Axis 7 Technical assistance
Total
175,191,737
Source: Own study.
The Managing Authority may, during the implementation of the Programme, decide
about excluding some funds from the funds allocated to Axes 3 and 4, to finance so called
integrated projects combining two support areas indicated in ROP OV 2007-2013, i.e. road
infrastructure from Axis 3 and water and sewage infrastructure from Axis 4 in order to
provide all the utilities on sites for economic investments.
Tab. No. 4.2. Distribution of total funds for ROP OV 2007-2013 divided into particular years
(borrowings).
[EUR]
Years
ERDF contribution
2007
59,880,067
2008
61,282,272
93
M. Mackiewicz, E. Malinowska-Misiąg, W. Misiąg, M. Tomalak “Ramy finansowe strategii rozwoju
województw na lata 2007-2013”, Instytut Badań nad Gospodarką Rynkową, Warsaw 2006
118
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Years
ERDF contribution
2009
62,675,245
2010
61,857,628
2011
60,702,554
2012
59,584,324
2013
61,162,723
2007-2013
427,144,813
Source: Own study, in compliance with NSRF 2007-2013.
National
public
contribution
Total
1
2
3=1+2
4=1/3
Private contribution
Community
contribution
For information
purposes
EIB loans
Priority axes
ROP OV
2007-2013
ERDF contribution index
Tab. No. 4.3. Distribution of funds with division into priority axes and sources of financing.
[EUR]
5
6
AXIS I
158,043,581
27,890,044
185,933,625
85 %
0
165,131,928
AXIS II
21,357,241
3,768,925
25,126,166
85 %
0
17,085,793
AXIS III
111,057,652
19,598,409
130,656,061
85 %
0
8,819,284
AXIS IV
42,714,481
7,537,849
50,252,330
85 %
0
6,834,317
AXIS V
42,714,481
7,537,849
50,252,330
85 %
0
8,542,896
AXIS VI
38,443,033
6,784,065
45,227,098
85 %
0
28,945,343
AXIS VII
12,814,344
2,261,355
15,075,699
85 %
0
0
2007-2013
427,144,813
75,378,496
502,523,309
85%
0
235,359,561
Source: Own study
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Tab. No. 4.4 Indicative distribution, according to categories of the programmed use of the
ERDF contribution in ROP OV 2007-2013 – priority issues.
[EUR]
Priority issues
Name of code
Code
02
Amount
Research and technological development, innovations and entrepreneurship
R+TD infrastructure (including equipment, instruments and fast IT
networks connecting research centres) and specialist centres of
technological competencies
9,798,702
05
Services in advanced support for enterprises and groups of enterprises
07
Investments in enterprises directly related to research and innovations
(innovative technologies, establishing enterprises by universities, existing
R+TD centres and enterprises, etc.)
39,194,808
08
Other investments in enterprises
60,740,099
09
Other actions aimed at
entrepreneurship at SMEs
stimulating
research,
innovations
7,111,961
and
Total
23,939,652
140,785,222
Information society
10
11
13
14
Telecommunications infrastructure (including broadband networks)
Information and communication technologies (access, security,
interoperability, preventing threats, research, innovations, digital
contents, etc.)
Services and applications for citizens (e-health, e-administration, elearning, e-integration, etc.)
Services and applications for SMEs (e-commerce, education and
training, establishing chains, etc.)
Total
10,251,476
2,562,869
4,271,448
4,271,448
21,357,241
Transport
18
Railway rolling stock
7,496,391
23
Regional/local roads
94,399,004
24
Bicycle paths
25
Municipal transport
1,665,865
29
Airports
7,496,392
862,918
Total
111,920,570
Energy
39
Renewable energy: wind
1,281,434
40
Renewable energy: solar
1,281,434
41
Renewable energy: biomass
1,281,434
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
[EUR]
Priority issues
Name of code
Code
42
Renewable energy: hydroelectrical, geothermal and other
Total
Amount
1,708,580
5,552,882
Environmental protection and preventing threats
44
Management of municipal and industrial waste
3,075,443
46
Waste treatment
47
Air quality
2,135,724
48
Integrated system of pollution prevention and control
1,059,319
50
Revitalisation of municipal areas and reclaiming contaminated land
51
Promoting biodiversity and natural protection (including NATURA 2000)
2,135,724
53
Preventing threats (including preparation and implementation of plans
and instruments for preventing and managing natural and technological
threats)
11,532,910
17,222,479
Total
15,377,213
52,538,812
Tourism
56
Protection and valorisation of natural heritage
1,281,434
57
Other support for strengthening tourist services
16,395,441
Total
17,676,875
Culture
58
Protection and preservation of cultural heritage
5,766,455
59
Development of cultural infrastructure
5,766,455
Total
11,532,910
Revitalisation of municipal and rural areas
61
Integrated projects for revitalisation of municipal and rural areas
Total
18,452,656
18,452,656
Investments in social infrastructure
75
Infrastructure of educational system
17,085,793
76
Infrastructure of health service
12,814,344
78
Housing infrastructure
Total
4,613,164
34,513,301
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[EUR]
Priority issues
Name of code
Code
Amount
Technical assistance
85
Preparation, implementation, monitoring and control
5,766,455
86
Evaluation, research/expert opinions, information and communication
7,047,889
Total
12,814,344
TOTAL
427,144,813
Source: Own study, in compliance with annex No. II to Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1828/2006 of 8
December, 2006 setting out rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 and
Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council.
Tab. No. 4.5. Indicative distribution, according to categories of the programmed use of the
ERDF contribution in ROP OV 2007-2013 – forms of financing.
[EUR]
Form of financing
Code
Name of code
Amount
01
Non-returnable aid
427,144,813
02
Aid (loan, interest-rate subsidy, guarantees)
0
03
Venture capital (purchase of shares, venture capital funds)
0
04
Other forms of financing
0
Total
427,144,813
Source: as above
Tab. No. 4.6. Indicative distribution, according to categories of the programmed use of the
ERDF contribution in ROP OV 2007-2013 - areas.
[EUR]
Area
Code
Name of code
Amount
01
Municipal area
196,472,091
02
Mountain area
0
03
Isles
0
04
Areas with low or very low population density
0
05
Rural areas (except mountain areas, isles, areas with low
or very low population density)
06
Former external borders of the EU (after 30.04.2004)
217,858,378
0
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
07
Peripherial region
0
08
Areas of transborder co-operation
0
09
Areas of transnational co-operation
0
10
Areas of interregional co-operation
0
00
N/A
Total
12,814,344
427,144,813
Source: as above.
123
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
CHAPTER 5
SYSTEM FOR IMPLEMENTING ROP OV 2007-2013 –
IMPLEMENTING REGULATIONS
5.1. Competence of institutions involved in the management of ROP OV 2007-2013
5.1.1. Co-ordination
5.1.1.1. Co-ordination at the level of NSRF – Minister competent for regional
development
The Minister competent for regional development supervises correct operation of the
NSRF implementation system and is responsible for evaluations at the level of the NSRF,
including horizontal, supplementary and ad hoc examinations arising from monitoring of the
NSRF implementation.
5.1.1.2. Co-ordination of 16 Regional Operational Programmes – Co-ordinating
Authority for Regional Operational Programmes
A function of the Co-ordinating Authority for 16 Regional Operational Programmes
will be performed by the Minister for regional development, served by the Department for
Co-ordination of Regional Programmes within the Ministry for Regional Development.
The Co-ordinating Authority for 16 ROPs is responsible in particular for:
−
verifying a ROP for its compliance with the National Strategic Reference
Framework (NSRF);
−
negotiating a ROP with the European Commission in co-operation with the
Managing Authorities of a ROP;
−
ensuring consistency of guidelines applied;
−
monitoring effects of implementing ROPs in regions (comparative analyses).
Mutual relations as well as detailed responsibilities and distribution of tasks between
the Co-ordinating Authority for ROPs and the Managing Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013,
i.e. the Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship, will be specified upon agreement
between these authorities.
5.1.2. Management of ROP OV 2007-2013
5.1.2.1. Managing Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013
A function of the Managing Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013 is performed by the
Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
The Managing Authority, pursuant to art. 60 of Council Regulation No. 1083/2006, is
responsible for the management of ROP OV 2007-2013 and its implementation following a
principle of due management of finance, in particular for:
−
ensuring that operation for funding are selected in conformity with criteria applicable
to ROP OV 2007-2013 as well as that they meet relevant Community and national
principles throughout the whole implementation period;
−
verifying that co-financed goods and services have been provided as well as that
expenditure on operations declared by beneficiaries have been actually incurred and
that they are in conformity with the Community and national principles;
−
ensuring a computerised system for registering and storing accounting records for
every operation within ROP OV 2007-2013 as well as ensuring that data about
performance, necessary for purposes of financial management, monitoring,
verification, audits and evaluation are collected;
−
ensuring that beneficiaries and other entities participating in operations have a
separate accounting system or a relevant accounting code for all transactions related to
a particular operation without prejudice to the national accounting rules;
−
ensuring that the evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013, referred to in art. 48 par. 3 of
Council Regulation No. 1083/2006, is in conformity with art. 47 of the aforesaid
Regulation;
−
establishing procedures for ensuring that any documents related to expenditure and
audits, necessary for a proper audit trail, are stored pursuant to the regulations of art.
90 of Council Regulation No. 1083/2006;
−
ensuring that the Certifying Body receives all the necessary information about
procedures and verifications carried out in relation to expenditure, for certification
purposes;
−
managing works of the Regional Monitoring Committee of ROP OV 2007-2013 and
providing it with documentation required for monitoring a quality of implementation
of ROP OV 2007-2013 in the light of its specific objectives;
−
preparing and submitting annual and final reports on the implementation of ROP OV
2007-2013 to the Commission, after they are approved by the Regional Monitoring
Committee;
−
ensuring compliance with requirements concerning information and publicity defined
in art. 69 of Council Regulation No. 1083/2006;
−
providing the Commission with information to enable it to evaluate major projects.
5.1.2.2. Intermediate bodies
The Managing Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013 may commission other entities with
some of its tasks, managing or operational in nature, on the basis of a separate contract or
agreement.
Delegating tasks, however, the Managing Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013 is still
fully responsible for the entire implementation of the Programme.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
5.1.2.3. Certifying Authority
The Minister for regional development, as the one responsible for establishing a
certification system in conformity with the regulations of the Community and the Polish laws
as well as for ensuring that it operates properly, in consultation with the minister competent
for public finance will specify general rules and procedures for certification to be a basis for
all the certifying authorities to act.
A function of the institution responsible for certification of expenditure incurred
within 16 ROPs is performed by the Department of the Certifying Authority, established
within a structure of the Ministry for Regional Development.
The Certifying Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013 is responsible in particular for:
−
drawing up and submitting the Commission with certified statements of expenditure
and applications for payment;
−
certifying that a statement of expenditure is accurate, arises from reliable accounting
systems and is based on verifiable supporting documentation,
−
certifying that declared expenditure is in compliance with the relevant Community
and national principles as well as that it has been incurred in respect of operations
selected for funding according to criteria applicable to the programme and meets the
Community and national principles;
−
ensuring, for certification purposes, that it received from the Managing Authority
proper information concerning procedures and verifications carried out in relation to
expenditure included in statements of expenditure;
−
taking into account, for certification purposes, results of all audits carried out by the
Audit Authority or under its responsibility;
−
maintaining accounting records in an electronic form related to expenditure declared
to the Commission;
−
keeping an account of amounts recoverable and of amounts withdrawn after
cancellation of all or a part of financial contribution for an operation. The amounts
recovered are returned to the general budget of the European Union before closure of
the operational programme by deducting them from the next statement of expenditure;
−
if applicable – verifying and approving manuals of regional intermediate certifying
authorities.
The Certifying Authority for 16 ROPs delegates a part of functions related to
certification, on the basis of an agreement concluded, to voivodeship offices.
5.1.2.4. Audit Authority
For ROP OV 2007-2013 a function of the Audit Authority is performed by the Chief
Tax Inspector. The tasks carried out through a selected organisational unit at the Ministry of
Finance, i.e. the Department for Certifying and Declaring Funds from the European Union,
and tax inspection offices.
The Audit Authority is responsible for ensuring that audits of the management and
control systems for the operational programme as well as examinations of projects conducted
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
on the basis of a relevant sample are carried out according to internationally recognised audit
standards.
The Audit Authority fulfils tasks set in art. 62 and art. 71 par. 2 of Council Regulation
No. 1083/2006. The tasks include first of all:
−
ensuring that audits are conducted in order to verify if the management and control
systems for the operational programme function efficiently;
−
ensuring audits of operations on the basis of relevant samples in order to verify
declared expenditure;
−
presenting the Commission, within nine months after approval of the operational
programme, an audit strategy to be employed by entities carrying out audits, a
methodology to be followed, a method of selecting data samples for audit purposes
and an indicative schedule of audits in order to ensure that major entities will be
audited and audits will be evenly spread over the whole programming period;
−
providing the Commission with an annual report on audits with results of audits from
the previous 12 months, ended on 30 June of a particular year, according to the audit
strategy for the operational programme as well as informing of any gaps found in the
management and control systems for the Programme. The first report to be submitted
by 31 December, 2008 covers the period from 1 January, 2007 to 30 June, 2008.
Information concerning audits after 1 July, 2015 will be attached to the final report on
audits to be a complement of the winding-up declaration;
−
giving opinions, on the basis of controls and audits carried out under its responsibility,
if the management and control systems are efficient so as to provide a rational
guarantee that declarations of expenditure submitted to the Commission are correct
and at the same time a rational guarantee that transactions which are a basis for it are
in compliance with the law and correct;
−
submitting, if applicable, pursuant to art. 88 of Council Regulation No. 1083/2006, a
declaration of partial winding-up with the assessment of compliance with the law and
correctness of relevant expenditure.
−
submitting the Commission, by 31 March, 2017 at the latest, a winding-up
declaration, including the assessment of legitimacy of the payment application for the
final balance as well as of compliance with the law and of correctness of transactions
which are a basis for expenditure covered by the final declaration of expenditure with
the accompanying final report on audits.
The Audit Authority prepares reports on audits conducted together with any possible
recommendations. It is the Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship, i.e. the Managing
Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013, to be responsible for implementation of recommendations
within dates set by the Audit Authority.
5.1.2.5. Institution competent for receiving payments from the European Commission
Funds from the European Commission as payments on account, interim payments and
payments of final balance for ROP OV 2007-2013 will be transferred to selected bank
accounts administered by a minister competent for public finance.
5.1.2.6. Institution or institutions responsible for making payments to beneficiaries
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Payments to beneficiaries will be made by the Managing Authority of ROP OV 20072013 in a form of reimbursements of expenditure incurred or payments on account. A basis
for a transfer of funds will be an agreement between the Managing Authority of ROP OV
2007-2013 and a beneficiary as well as a correctly prepared and accepted payment
application.
5.2 Monitoring
The aim of monitoring the operational programme is to ensure a proper quality of
implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013. It is carried out by the Managing Authority and the
Regional Monitoring Committee of ROP OV 2007-2013. In addition, monitoring of the
effects of ROP OV 2007-2013 is carried out by the Co-ordinating Authority of ROP OV
2007-2013.
To properly and efficiently monitor the implementation of the Programme context
indicators, programme indicators and indicators for strategic objectives have been developed
(a system of indicators is described in chapter 2.2.5).
The Managing Authority, mainly by means of indicators to be prepared for
monitoring particular operations and on the basis of statistical data, will prepare indicators
showing the extent to which the objectives of the programme have been accomplished. This
will allow for a systematic analysis of the progress in the achievement of the objectives of
ROP OV 2007-2013 and taking necessary measures by the Managing Authority in order to
ensure attaining the objectives set. Results of current monitoring will be used also in the
reporting process and evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013, and in particular in the annual
analysis of the Programme, referred to in art. 68 of Council Regulation No. 1083/2006.
Another important element to be subject of current monitoring by the Managing
Authority is financial implementation of the Programme dependent on the progress of
projects in particular priority axes of the Programme. The aim of current monitoring is to
ensure compliance between expenditure incurred and an estimated financial plan.
5.2.1 Regional Monitoring Committee ROP OV 2007-2013
The Regional Monitoring Committee of ROP OV 2007-2013 is set up within three
months from the date of the notification to Poland of the decision approving ROP OV 20072013 by the European Commission.
The Regional Monitoring Committee in the Opolskie Voivodeship will be chaired by
representatives, among others, of: the Managing Authority, Intermediate Bodies (if appointed
at all), a minister competent for regional development as a co-ordinator of regional
operational programmes, local self-governments, social and economic partners. When
determining the composition of the Regional Monitoring Committee a partnership principle
will be applied.
The Regional Monitoring Committee satisfies itself as to the effectiveness and quality
of the implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013 in accordance with the following provisions94:
− analyses and approves criteria for selecting projects within ROP OV 2007-2013 within six
months of the approval of the operational programme and approves any revision of these
criteria in accordance with programming needs;
94
Council Regulation No. 1083/2006, art. 65.
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− periodically reviews the progress made towards achieving the specific targets of ROP OV
2007-2013 on the basis of documents submitted by the Managing Authority;
− analyses results of the implementation, in particular the achievement of the targets set for
each priority axis and results of appraisals (evaluations) related to monitoring of the
Programme, in particular if monitoring shows significant deviations from the originally
set targets or if an application for revising the Programme is filed;
− analyses and approves annual and final reports on the implementation on ROP OV 20072013, referred to in art. 67 of Council Regulation No. 1083/2006;
− is informed of the annual control report or of the part of the report referring to ROP OV
2007-2013 and of any relevant comments the European Commission may make after
analysing the report or its part referring to ROP OV 2007-2013;
− may propose to the Managing Authority any revision or examination of ROP OV 20072013, likely to make possible the attainment of the funds’ objectives, referred to in art. 3
of Council Regulation No. 1083/2006 or to improve management of the Programme,
including financial management;
− analyses and approves any proposal to amend the content of the Commission decision on
the contribution from the funds.
Monitoring is carried out pursuant to art. 66 of Council Regulation (EC) No.
1083/2006 by reference to the financial indicators and indicators related to products and
results95 specified in ROP OV 2007-2013, quantifying objectives of particular priority axes. If
possible, relevant statistical data are broken down by sex and the size of projects carried out
by the beneficiaries. Data for monitoring purposes will be exchanged with the European
Commission electronically.
5.2.2 Annual and final reports on the implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013
The first annual report on the implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013 has to be
submitted to the European Commission by the Managing Authority in 2008. Subsequent
annual reports will be sent by 30 June each year. The final report on the implementation of
ROP OV 2007-2013 will be submitted to the European Commission by 31 March, 2017.
The reports before submitting them to the European Commission will be approved by
the Regional Monitoring Committee of ROP OV 2007-2013.
Reports will include the following information in order to obtain a clear view of the
implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013:
−
the progress in implementing ROP OV 2007-2013 and its priority axes in relation to
their specific, verifiable objectives, if possible, with quantification and indicators of
product and result at the level of the priority axis;
−
information about financial implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013, with details for
each axis:
− the expenditure paid out by beneficiaries, included in applications for payment
sent to the Managing Authority and the relevant public contribution;
95
Council Regulation No. 1083/2006, art. 37 par. 1 letter c
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− the total payments received from the Commission and quantification of the
financial indicators;
− the expenditure paid out by the body responsible for making payments to
beneficiaries;
−
for information purposes – the indicative breakdown of allocation of funds by
categories of intervention, in accordance with the implementing rules adopted by the
European Commission;
−
the steps taken by the Managing Authority or the Regional Monitoring Committee in
order to ensure the quality and effectiveness of the implementation, in particular:
− measures within
arrangements;
monitoring
and
evaluation,
including
data
collecting
− a summary of any significant problems encountered in implementing ROP OV
2007-2013 and any measures taken to solve them;
− the use made of technical assistance;
−
the measures taken to provide information about ROP OV 2007-2013 and its
publicity;
−
information about significant problems associated with observing the Community law
encountered in implementing ROP OV 2007-2013 and remedial measures taken;
−
if appropriate, the progress and financing of major projects;
−
the use of made of assistance released following cancellation, referred to in art. 98 par.
2 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006, to the Managing Authority during the
period of implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013;
−
information about cases where substantial modification have been detected on the
basis of art. 57 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006.
Every year, after submitting the annual report on the implementation, the Commission
and the Managing Authority analyse the progress made in the implementation of ROP OV
2007-2013, the most important results achieved over the previous year, the financial
implementation and other factors in respect of their implementation.
The analysis may be given to any aspects of operation of the management and control
systems listed in the last annual control report, referred to in art. 62 par. 1 letter d) item i).
5.2.3 Evaluation
The aim of the evaluation is to improve the quality, effectiveness and cohesion of the
funds assistance as well as the strategy and implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013 in relation
to specific structural problems at the national and regional levels, and at the same time taking
into account the objective of durable growth and the relevant Community laws concerning the
impact on the environment and the strategic assessment of the impact on the environment.
The evaluation is carried out before (ex-ante evaluation), during (on-going evaluation)
and after the programming period (ex-post evaluation).
Pursuant to art. 47 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006, ROP OV 2007-2013
will be subject to the evaluation made, depending on current arrangements and in accordance
with the proportionality principle, by the Commission or by the Member State.
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To support the evaluation process, particularly by analysing monitoring data collected
on a regular basis, the evaluating unit will be set up in the structures of the Managing
Authority.
It is possible to identify, among other things, the following tasks of the Managing
Authority and/or of the Member State to ensure a proper evaluation process of ROP OV
2007-2013:
−
ensuring funds, within technical assistance, for evaluation as well as gaining and
collecting necessary data from the monitoring system,
−
ex-ante evaluation – before the implementation of the programme96,
−
co-operation with the European Commission in ex-post evaluation (evaluation at the
end of the Programme),
−
submitting results of the evaluation to the Regional Monitoring Committee and the
European Commission,
−
ensuring the evaluation related to monitoring of implementing the programme during
the programming period, in particular if monitoring revealed significant deviations
from the originally set targets or if an application for revising the programme is filed,
referred to in art. 33 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006,
−
making results of evaluations, carried out in accordance with the principles of
partnership and of access to information, public.
The evaluations are carried out by experts or entities, internal or external, functionally
independent of the Certifying Authority and the Audit Authority.
5.2.4. Control system
A basic control function of the Managing Authority arising directly from Council
Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 is to verify expenditure on goods and services co-financed
within projects, if they have been delivered, if the expenditure has been actually incurred and
if it is in accordance with the Community and national rules. In the Polish system, due to a
large number of institutions taking part in implementation of programmes, verification of
expenditure is usually delegated to the lower levels of management. In such a situation the
Managing Authority sets up rules for carrying out control and division of obligations in the
system.
If the Managing Authority delegates some of its functions defined in art. 60 of Council
Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 to other bodies (Intermediate Bodies), including also tasks
related to verification of expenditure, then it is obligated to carry out system control to ensure
that all the functions specified in art. 60 of the aforesaid Regulation are performed
appropriately.
A system control is carried out directly by the Managing Authority.
96
Ex-ante evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013 has been carried out by consultancy firm WYG International Sp. z
o.o. on order of the Ministry for Regional Development. The results of the ex-ante evaluation are discussed in
chapter 6 ROP OV 2007-2013.
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5.3. Exchange of electronic data to meet requirements concerning payments, monitoring
and evaluation
The minister competent for regional development is responsible for the secure system
for electronic exchange of information with the European Commission and granting
accreditation access to the system to the institutions involved in implementation of
operational programmes. The minister competent for regional development supervises the
computer system and sets standards for collecting data by all the participants in the
implementation of the NSRF.
The minister competent for public finance is responsible for building and development
of the computer system on the basis of standards for collecting data set by the minister
competent for regional development.
The Managing Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013, in co-operation with the coordinator of the NSRF, is responsible for entering data to the computer system and
introduction of the local system.
5.4 Financial flows
Funds transferred by the European Commission as pre-financing, interim payments
and the final balance will be debited to a selected bank account kept in EUR by the Minister
of Finance with the National Bank of Poland. The funds on the account, after conversion into
PLN, will be sent to the central account of the budget of the state and will constitute its
income.
Next the funds from the budget of the state will be transferred to ROP OV 2007-2013.
In compliance with the applicable legal regulations the minister competent for regional
development will conclude with the Executive Board of the Voivodeship an agreement called
“voivodeship contract” on co-financing the Programme with the funds from the budget of the
state or from the foreign sources, in scope and under terms and conditions specified by the
government (art. 20 par. 5 of the act of 6 December, 2006 on rules for the development
policy).
On the basis of the “voivodeship contract” the Managing Authority will receive funds
from the budget of the state in a form of development subsidy for expenditure to finance the
implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013, within annual limits set in the budgetary statute. The
limits will be set in agreement with the Minister for Regional Development in the course of
works on the budgetary statute on the basis of the table of payments of ROP OV 2007-2013
and multiannual limits of commitments so as to ensure efficient and punctual implementation
of the programme. The subsidy will constitute income of the voivodeship self-government.
The subsidy may be transferred in a form of pre-financing or reimbursement of
expenditure incurred on the implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013, on the basis of the
agreed schedule prepared by the Managing Authority.
A basis for transferring the first development subsidy for ROP OV 2007-2013 is a
decision of the European Commission about the approval of the programme. Subsequent
subsidies will be transferred according to arrangements made in this respect.
Payments to beneficiaries will be made by the Managing Authority in a form of
reimbursement of expenditure paid out or of pre-financing. A basis for transferring the funds
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will be the agreement between the Managing Authority and a beneficiary as well as a
correctly prepared and approved application for payment.
If the Managing Authority appoints/indicates an external institution (e.g. the
Intermediate Body) to perform selected tasks related to the implementation of the
Programme, the funds to beneficiaries will be transferred through this body. In this case a
basis for transferring funds will be an agreement between the indicated institution and a
beneficiary. The external institution will receive funds from the Managing Authority on the
basis of the demand reported once a month or once a quarter based on the projects
implemented by beneficiaries.
Funds will be transferred into accounts indicated by beneficiaries, mainly in a form of
reimbursements. In certain cases, if justified by a significant interest of a category of
beneficiaries or a unique nature of projects (measures), the funds can be transferred in a form
of pre-financing.
For own projects of the Managing Authority funds will be granted on the basis of a
decision of the Managing Authority.
On the basis of a summary of applications for payment from beneficiaries, the
Managing Authority provides the Certifying Authority with collective applications for
payment. The Certifying Authority, after positive verification of the application, sends it to
the European Commission in order to have the paid out expenditure reimbursed.
5.5 System of information and publicity
Information and publicity actions taken within ROP OV 2007-2013 will be regarded
as an element of management of the Programme and integrate major provisions of art. 69 of
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 and chapter 2, par. 1 of Commission Regulation
(EC) No. 1828/2006. Moreover, to ensure effective publicity and information actions at the
level of operational programmes implemented within NSRF 2007-2013, relevant guidelines
of the Co-ordinating Authority for 16 Regional Operational Programmes will be also taken
into consideration.
Publicity and information actions will be carried out on the basis of the
communication plan drawn up by the Managing Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013, specifying
their scope and the strategy in the Opolskie Voivodeship. The aim of the actions taken will be
to focus them on the added value of the Community assistance, e.g. by establishing and
popularising efficient and durable information flows concerning ROP OV 2007-2013 together
with indicating the financial contribution under the ERDF.
The Managing Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013 will provide all the parties
concerned, i.e. potential beneficiaries of the Programme, institutions involved in the
implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013 and the community of the Opolskie Voivodeship,
with access to clearly formulated and detailed information regarding rules for receiving
assistance from the cohesion policy funds, i.e., among other things:
− eligibility conditions for receiving co-financing within ROP OV 2007-2013,
− procedures for considering applications for co-financing and duration of particular
procedures,
− criteria for selecting operations for funding.
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In addition, information and publicity actions will be carried out to popularise the
knowledge of effects of the use made of the Community funds and emphasising the role of
the Community.
To ensure the effective information and publicity process for ROP OV 2007-2013
system actions will be carried out, the Managing Authority will undertake co-operation with
national and local authorities, social and economic partners, non-government organisations.
The scope of information and publicity actions will include, among other things, information
campaigns, publishing and distribution of publications, consultancy.
The Managing Authority of ROP OV 2007-2013 will ensure monitoring and
evaluation of information and publicity actions taken. Information about measures in this
respect will be supplied to the Regional Monitoring Committee and included in annual and
final reports of the implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013, referred to in art. 67 of
Regulation (EC) No. 1080/2006.
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CHAPTER 6
EX-ANTE EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAMME WITH THE
ASSESSMENT OF THE EXPECTED MACROECONOMIC
EFFECT.
6.1. Results of ex-ante evaluation of draft ROP OV 2007-2013
6.1.1 Justification and manner how ex-ante evaluation was conducted
The requirement to prepare the ex-ante evaluation for the draft Regional Operational
Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007 – 2013 within the “Convergence”
Objective is imposed on the Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship by art. 48 par. 2 of
Council Regulation No. 1083/2006. The report on the ex-ante evaluation was made within
expert opinion “Estimated evaluation of drafts of 16 Regional Operational Programmes and
Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland for 2007-2013” prepared by WYG
International Sp. z o.o. on order of the Ministry for Regional Development.
The evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013 contains all the standard elements provided for
the evaluation of regional operational programmes of particular voivodeships, taking into
account the unique nature of the region examined. The report is in conformity with the
methodology of the ex-ante evaluation of operational programmes for 2007-2013, set by the
European Commission in October 2005.
The scope of the evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013 included:
−
verification of the socio-economic analysis and of its quality in the light of identified
needs of the region’s development,
−
evaluation of the economic justification and the internal consistency of the projection
part of ROP OV 2007-2013,
−
evaluation of the external consistency of ROP OV 2007-2013 with the Community,
national and regional policies,
−
evaluation of the expected result and effect,
−
evaluation of the proposed system for implementing the operational programme.
The assumptions of ROP OV 2007-2013, including particularly a diagnosis,
objectives, priority axes and measures were evaluated in the light of such strategic
documents as: Community Strategic Guidelines (CSG), Lisbon Strategy, National
Development Strategy (NDS), National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF),
Updated National Concept of Land Development, Polish Ecological Policy,
Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment, Opolskie Voivodeship
Development Strategy (OVDS).
The chapter presents recommendations from the ex-ante evaluation of draft ROP OV
2007-2013 and the manner how they are taken into account in the present version of the
document, while the detailed estimated evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013 is presented on the
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Marshal Office website97. It is assumed that the results of the evaluation should contribute to
the improvement of ROP OV 2007-2013.
6.1.2 Recommendations from evaluation and manner how results of
estimated evaluation of draft ROP OV 2007-2013 have been integrated
Diagnosis of the operational programme
Generally the results of the evaluation showed that a diagnostic part of the Programme
serves its function, i.e. justifies a majority of objectives and priority axes.
Evaluation experts pointed out to the relation of the diagnostic part of the Programme
to the analogous field in the Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy.
Positive assessment was given to the selection of parameters, the relevance of data and
the use of time series as well as to the internal consistency of the diagnosis.
In the opinion of the evaluation expert, to improve the quality of the document it was
suggested to make slight changes in the arrangement of the subchapters and add a summary
of the diagnostic part.
According to the evaluation experts, in the diagnosis the most important stimulating
and hindering factors for the development of the region so far were presented. The diagnosis
was also completed with the criteria for selecting diagnostic areas, although their arrangement
was found accurate.
The diagnosis was completed with the comments on the method for making it and the
forecast diagnosis, where possible, extended in diagnosis areas.
Moreover, the ex-ante evaluation drew attention to adding source items, i.e. giving a
breakdown of items (bibliography) and presenting more clearly in the introduction the
structure of the document what was completed with relevant provisions in the present version
of the Programme.
SWOT analysis
In evaluation expert’s opinion, to improve the quality of the document it was
suggested to sum up the whole diagnostic part so as to show all the needs of the voivodeship
and their hierarchy, with particular attention to the needs which may be satisfied with the
implementation of ROP OV 2007-2013.
According to the results of the evaluation, the SWOT analysis covered also subchapter
1.3 (in the present version of the Programme 1.2) about the use of national and foreign funds.
For a greater consistency of the SWOT analysis, it was described how strengths and
weaknesses of the Opolskie Voivodeship as well as opportunities and threats are indicated
and it was presented how to group these elements in other areas than presented in the
diagnosis.
The opinion of the evaluation experts about hierarchisation of the region’s needs was
taken into account and the phenomena described in the SWOT hierarchised so as to clearly
97
A complete version of “Estimated evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013. Report”, WYG International Sp. z. o.o.,
Warsaw, November 2006, presented on the Internet website www.rpo.umwo.opole.pl
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and directly show that the issues are of key importance for the implementation of the
Voivodeship Development Strategy and what the most important directions for development
are.
Projection part of the operational programme
The persons evaluating the programme showed that a projection part of ROP OV
2007-2013 deserves a generally positive opinion. It was emphasised that a structure of the
projection part is clear and logical.
However, as a result of the evaluation the experts pointed to several shortcomings
which need to be addressed. Thus, the missing elements of ROP OV 2007-2013 have been
completed according to critical comments of the evaluation experts so as to ensure that the
document is complete, i.e. baseline and target values of indicators as well as frequency of
measurements together with the source of data have been added, it has been given which year
is regarded as baseline and which as target one, the use of cross-financing in particular
priority axes explained, the allocation of funds from the ERDF into particular categories of
intervention presented, corrections in the financial part according to the guidelines from the
Ministry for Regional Development made.
As regards comments to Chapter 2 devoted to the implementation strategy for ROP
OV 2007-2013, the evaluation experts indicated that the objectives had been selected
accurately which, in addition, were justified in the description of the objectives and in the
priority axes.
In reply to the results of the ex-ante evaluation, in chapter 2 it was emphasised that
when drawing up the document theoretical bases for the planned intervention were taken into
consideration, i.e. it was shown that a planned intervention focused on such fields where it
was possible to indicate that a market mechanism failed (e.g. provision of public goods,
support for markets where there are external benefits). Moreover, it was stressed that when
preparing the document and specifying particular priority axes due care was given to the
territorial cohesion of the region.
In order to ensure greater consistency between descriptions in the projection part and
the SWOT analysis, the quality of justification for the objectives and the priority axes has
been improved.
Financial part
In chapter 4 devoted to the financial part, referring to the opinion of the evaluation
experts, the criteria for distribution of funds between particular priority axes and years have
been commented as well as the values in tables updated, taking into account the current
distribution of funds (according to the draft NSRF approved by the government, version from
29 November, 2006).
The estimated evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013 points to making a reference to a risk
related to the possibility of failure to use the funds allocated to ROP OV 2007-2013, which
has been dealt with in chapter 4 of the Programme; it is forecast that the analysis of financial
potential of the units of local self-government to be the major beneficiary of the Programme
provides a basis to assume that all the funds within the Programme will be used.
External consistency of the Regional Operational Programme for 2007-2013
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
As the ex-ante evaluation pf ROP OV 2007-2013 shows, the external consistency of
the projection part of the Programme is good. It was noticed that the objectives of ROP OV
2007-2013 are consistent with the objectives of superior strategic documents (such as: CSG,
NDS, NSRF, VDS). The consistency arises both from common axiological premises at their
bases and identical or coincident diagnostic conclusions. The consistency is considerable, in
particular as regards the NSRF and the VDS.
Comments to the Programme, arising from the fact that the draft version of the
document was subject to the ex–ante evaluation, related to: the update of names of particular
guidelines (in CSG) and of the objectives of the NSRF, the explanation of divergence
between the relations strategic objectives – CSG and priorities - CSG. All the issues have
been explained.
Assessment of the expected results and effect
The ex-ante evaluation of the Programme showed that a list of indicators for ROP OV
2007-1013 required numerous completions and changes. The situation was due to the fact
that a process of drawing up the Programme was carried out at the same time as works of the
team for indicators at the Ministry for Regional Development. In the present version of the
Programme all the comments of the evaluation experts concerning a system of indicators have
been taken into account.
As a result of the evaluation, indicators for the general objective have been completed
with the effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the GDP increase, a decrease in employment in the
region, calculated on the basis of HERMIN model (“Assessment of the macroeconomic effect
of the Regional Operational Programme for 2007-2013 on the economy of the Opolskie
Voivodeship using HERMIN model. Report No. 2”).
Also the number of specific objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 has been reduced by
one so as to make it the same as the number of priority axes in order to facilitate monitoring
of ROP.
The evaluation experts pointed to the consistency between the selected proposals for
indicators and a list of indicators set by the European Commission as compulsory for
operational programmes. In the present version of the Programme all the indicators have been
completed with target and baseline values where required, pursuant to the guidelines of the
Ministry for regional Development.
For monitoring of the Programme a list of context indicators according to the
enclosure to the ex-ante evaluation has also been prepared. A list of context indicators is
appendix No. 2 to ROP OV 2007-2013.
System for implementing the operational programme
According to the evaluation experts a description of the system for implementing the
Programme is quite general and based mainly on regulations of the European Commission,
the NSRF and the guidelines of the MRD available at the moment the analysed version of the
Programme was prepared.
Due to the above, the evaluation experts indicated that there were missing elements in
the description of the management system of ROP OV 2007-2013 and recommended to make
it more precise and complete some provisions.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
In reply to the results of ex-ante evaluation a structure of management has been
described so as to show the whole system as functioning efficiently, effectively and
transparently. Apart from listing powers of particular institutions, it has been also outlined
how they function and co-operate for the effective and efficient implementation of ROP OV
2007-2013. All the descriptions of powers and relations between the institutions have been
verified in more details, according the guidelines of the Ministry for Regional Development
so as to remove repetitions, contradictions and gaps.
All the powers of institutions have been verified with the national and the Community
regulations. Also elements of the publicity system have been described – it has been indicated
that a communication plan would be prepared to specify a scope and the strategy for
implementation of measures related to information and publicity of ROP OV 2007-2013, the
system of information exchange with the European Commission has been described as well as
procedures to ensure transparency of the payment process presented.
As a result of the evaluation of ROP OV 2007-2013, in the chapter of the report
devoted to the implementation system it has been stated that in the Opolskie Voivodeship the
system variant chosen for implementation is to ensure maximum effectiveness and efficiency.
According to the recommendation that when choosing the system variant for
implementing ROP in the context of maximum effectiveness and efficiency a principle of
concentrating implementation in the managing authority should be applied, in the evaluation
of the programme it was emphasised that tasks related to entrepreneurship and innovations
should be delegated to another institution.
Taking into account the opinions of evaluation experts, ROP OV 2007-2013 contains
provisions regarding a partnership rule, not only in the context of preparing the Programme,
but also its monitoring. Thus, it has been described how partners of the system will be able to
influence the implementation process of the Programme.
Summing up, the evaluation examination proved that ROP OV 2007-2013 presented
for evaluation (preliminary draft, version No. 3 b) meets the majority of formal and factual
requirements, and the missing elements in the document indicated by the evaluation experts
have been included in the present version of the draft of ROP OV 2007-2013.
6.2. Assessment of expected macroeconomic effects of the implementation
of ROP OV 2007-2013
The analysis of potential effect of investments carried out within the Regional
Operational Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013 was conducted
following HERMIN model98. For that purpose, first the initial simulation was carried out, for
which expenditure within ROP OV 2007-2013 were not taken into account and a number of
98
The assessment of forecast effect of investments to be carried out and co-financed from the European funds
was conducted using HERMIN model for regional economies by the team of the Regional Development Agency
in Wrocław (WARR) under direction of Prof. Janusz Zaleski, in co-operation of John Bradley, PhD – the author
of HERMIN model and a long standing scientist of The Economic and Social Research Institute – ESRI in
Dublin.
HERMIN is a macro-model for analysing the impact of structural funds on the economy. The model is based on
conventional Keynes mechanisms, however, it also has important neoclassical features related to the supply
component. More information about HERMIN model: www.funduszestrukturalne.gov.pl and www.warr.pl).
A complete version of the document “Assessment of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational
Programme for 2007-2013 on the economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship using HERMIN model. Report No. 2”
available on: http://www.umwo.opole.pl
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assumptions about external and internal conditions affecting the Polish economy were made
(so called baseline scenario)99. The next simulation carried out assumed investment
expenditure at the level set in ROP OV 2007-2013100, and then its results were compared with
the baseline scenario specifying potential macroeconomic effects of the Programme.
As a result of the simulation carried out using HERMIN model the indicators
describing the effect of the Regional Operational Programme were defined and presented as a
change in relation to the baseline forecast made without the effect of ROP OV 2007-2013.
The results of the effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 were presented by means of several basic
macroeconomic parameters: GDP (expressed in prices from 1995), unemployment rate, a
number of the employed as well as resources of physical infrastructure and human resources.
The obtained results of the effect of ROP OV2007-2013 on GDP of the Opolskie
Voivodeship allow for stating that that ROP OV 2007-2013 probably will increase GDP in
relation to the baseline forecast, as the Programme will be gradually implemented. The initial
effect of 0.04% above the baseline level in 2007 is vary low which arises from the fact that in
the first year only small payments will be made within ROP OV 2007-2013. By 2013 the
effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on GDP will be increasing gradually and in 2013 will reach the
highest value. It is assessed that GDP will be higher then in relation to the baseline scenario
by 1.73% (Fig. 6.1). In next two years 2014 and 2015 the increase in relation the baseline
forecast becomes smaller as in these years all the investment undertakings within ROP OV
2007-2013 will finish (last payments will be made) (Fig. 6.1). Moreover, in 2014 next funds
will be activated related to programming period 2014-2020 whose amount we are not able to
anticipate now.
99
Main features of the baseline scenario concerning external conditions are as follows: an increase in industrial
production in Poland is forecast at the level of approx. 5 % annually, the efficiency of work is still increasing,
implying the probability that the employment will increase more slowly than production, and increasing
employment and continuous source of workforce result in continuous decrease of unemployment. It is
anticipated that an exchange rate will be constant and the inflation a little bit higher than the average in “the old
states” of the European Union.
100
The initial features for the model arising from ROP OV 2007-2013 assume, among other things, the allocation
for the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013 in the amount of EUR 427.14 mln. ROP OV 2007-2013 will be
implemented for nine years from 1 January, 2007 to 31 December, 2015 (following the “n+3” principle
applicable in 2007-2010 and the “n+2” applicable in 2011-2013). According to the methodology of recalculating
transfers into economic categories prepared by WARR, for the Opolskie Voivodeship the following distribution
has been calculated: basic technical infrastructure (BI) – 51.2%; human resources development (HRD) – 8%;
direct assistance for production sector (DAPS) – 40.8%.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Fig. 6.1. Effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on GDP*.
2,0
1,73
1,49
1,6
1,37
1,39
1,13
1,2
0,91
%
0,8
0,44
0,4
0,17
0,04
0,0
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
* % change in relation to the baseline scenario (without ROP)
Source: “Assessment of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational Programme for 2007-2013 on the
economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship using HERMIN model. Report No. 2”, Marshal Office of the Opolskie
Voivodeship, January 2007
Analysing the effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the labour market two indicators were
chosen: unemployment rate and employment.
It is assessed that the largest decrease of the unemployment rate101 will take place in
2013 and will amount to 0.61 percentage point in relation to the level of this indicator
assessed if no funds are used (Fig. 6.2). This means that the accumulated effect in a form of
the number of the employed will amount in this year to approx. 2.79 thousand people (Fig.
6.3).
Fig. 6. 2. Effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on unemployment rate in percentage points
0,0
-0,1
-0,03
-0,10
pkt proc.
-0,2
-0,23
-0,3
-0,26
-0,4
-0,38
-0,44
-0,5
-0,45
-0,51
-0,6
-0,61
-0,7
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Source: “Assessment of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational Programme for 2007-2013 on the
economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship using HERMIN model. Report No. 2”, Marshal Office of the Opolskie
Voivodeship, January 2007
101
Change in the unemployment rate is described in percentage points
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Fig. 6. 3. Effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the number of the employed in thousand people
3,0
2,79
2,28
2,5
1,98
2,04
w tys.
2,0
1,72
1,5
1,20
1,03
1,0
0,43
0,5
0,11
0,0
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Source: “Assessment of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational Programme for 2007-2013 on the
economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship using HERMIN model. Report No. 2”, Marshal Office of the Opolskie
Voivodeship, January 2007
The research conducted indicates that the effect of the European funds is relatively
higher on economic growth than on the labour market: employment rate and unemployment
rate. Structural funds have a particularly strong effect first of all on an increase in efficiency
of production factors (both due to improving qualifications of workforce and better
accessibility of technical infrastructure, including transport infrastructure). The increase in
global efficiency of the economy, with the same production level, results in limiting demand
for workforce, however, in a longer time improves international competitiveness of the
economy, attracts foreign capital, increases production and in consequence positively affects
the employment.
Tab. No. 6.1. Total effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on GDP (in %), unemployment rate (in
percentage points), number of the employed (in thousand people) and investments in fixed
assets (%) in relation to the baseline scenario.
Effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on:
Years
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
GDP
(in %)
0.04
0.17
0.44
0.91
1.13
1.37
1.73
1.49
1.39
Unemployment
rate
(in percentage
points)
-0.03
-0.10
-0.23
-0.44
-0.45
-0.51
-0.61
-0.38
-0.26
Number of the
employed (in
thousand people)
Investments in
fixed assests (%)
0.11
0.43
1.03
1.98
2.04
2.28
2.79
1.72
1.20
0.35
130
3.05
5.70
5.67
6.11
7.14
4.12
2.60
Source: “Assessment of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational Programme for 2007-2013 on the
economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship using HERMIN model. Report No. 2”, Marshal Office of the Opolskie
Voivodeship, January 2007
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Taking into consideration a potential effect which the implementation of ROP OV
2007-2013 will have on the production volume in particular sectors of economy, it turns out
that the greatest effect will be observable in the industrial sector. In 2013-2014, when it is the
highest in relation to the baseline scenario, it will amount to 2.37%. In 2013 in the sector of
market services it will be 1.73%.
In the labour market, a slightly greater effect is on the industrial sector where the
employment rate in 2013 may be higher by approx. 1.39 thousand people (in comparison to
the baseline scenario). In the sector of market services in 2013 about additional 1.29 thousand
people will find jobs.
Detailed data concerning the effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the level of actual (i.e.
expressed in constant prices) production volume and on the situation in the labour market in
particular sectors are presented in Tab. No. 6.2.
Tab. No. 6.2. Effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on production volume (expressed as a percentage
change in relation to the baseline scenario) and on the situation in the labour market
(expressed as a change in relation to the baseline scenario) in particular sectors.
Years
Production in
sector of processing
industry
(in %)
Production in
sector of market
services
(in %)
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
0.03
0.13
0.39
0.93
1.42
1.84
2.37
2.37
2.35
0.07
0.27
0.65
1.24
1.30
1.44
1.73
1.11
0.80
Employment in
sector of processing
industry
(in thousand
people)
0.02
0.09
0.25
0.57
0.82
1.06
1.39
1.35
1.34
Employment in
sector of market
services
(in thousand
people)
0.09
0.33
0.75
1.34
1.14
1.13
1.29
0.31
-0.18
Source: “Assessment of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational Programme for 2007-2013 on the
economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship using HERMIN model. Report No. 2”, Marshal Office of the Opolskie
Voivodeship, January 2007
To increase the level of objectivity of the evaluation of the effect of structural funds
on the economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship, the assessment of the macroeconomic effect
conducted using HERMIN model was compared to the results obtained with the use of the
alternative macroeconomic model. For that purpose, MaMoR2 model was used which is so
called computational model of general balance102. The comparison of forecasts of effects of
the European funds on GDB obtained using the models above are presented in tables below.
102
Report: “Forecast of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie
Voivodeship for 2007 – 2013” was prepared by the Institute of Research on Market Economy (IBnGR) on order
of the Ministry for Regional Development. The model used allows for examining some aspects of the economy
in the regional context, i.e. at the level of voivodeships. The tool used in the model does not assume simply 16
models for economies of particular voivodeships. The regions are fully autonomous as regards creating a
product as well as determining volumes of streams and resources such as consumption, investments or capital.
At the national level decisions about the structure of some streams are made: purpose of national production and
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Tab. No. 6.3. Comparison of a change in GDP with the baseline forecast in 2007-2015
obtained using HERMIN model and MaMoR2 model.
Years
HERMIN model
MaMoR2 model
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Average growth pace
0.04
0.17
0.44
0.91
1.13
1.37
1.73
1.49
1.39
0.96
-0.01
-0.01
0.10
0.38
0.78
1.17
1.60
1.97
2.11
0.90
Source: “Assessment of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational Programme for 2007-2013 on the
economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship using HERMIN model. Report No. 2”, Marshal Office of the Opolskie
Voivodeship, January 2007; “Forecast of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational Programme of the
Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007 – 2013”, IBnGR, November 2006
Tab. No. 6.3 presents the results of simulation for GDP growth pace including
investment shock which is ROP OV 2007-2013. The GDP average growth pace with the full
use of the European funds using HERMIN model is 0.96%, while using MaMoR2 model it is
0.90% annually.
The results obtained with the use of different research tools are coincident and within
the limits of modelling accuracy errors and suggest a positive effect of ROP OV 2007-2013
on the economy of the Opolskie Voivodeship.
consumption goods. (Report: “Forecast of macroeconomic effect of the Regional Operational Programme of the
Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007 – 2013”, IBnGR, November 2006).
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CHAPTER 7
ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF ROP OV 2007-2013
ON THE ENVIRONMENT
7.1 Legal basis
Pursuant to Art. 47 of Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006103 and the Act of 27 April
2001 on Environmental Protection Law104, actions were instigated with respect to the
Environmental Impact Assessment of ROP OV 2007-2013.
7.2 Preparer of the Assessment of the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment
Preparation of the Assessment of the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment was
entrusted with The Institution of Urban Development in Kraków. The preparer was selected
after analysis of quotations which had been submitted by external companies, in their
functioning independent from the Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship, with
experience in preparing such documents and meeting requirements set out by the Executive
Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship. In selection of the preparer the following criteria were
considered:
− references confirming experience in preparation of such analyses, compliant with the
order;
− order completion price;
− order completion date.
7.3 Assessment of the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment
The subject of the Assessment of the impact of the environment was the Regional Operational
Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 2007-2013 (draft project, version 3b of 14 July
2006). The framework scope and the degree of detail in the Assessment of the impact of ROP
OV 2007-2013 on the environment results from regulations of the Act on Environmental
Protection Law as well as arrangements made by the Executive Board of the Opolskie
Voivodeship with the Governor of the Opolskie Voivodeship (representing the environmental
protection body) and the State Voivodeship Sanitary Inspectorate. The key aim of the
assessment was to determine possible effects seen in the environment, which may arise
following the implementation of the document being assessed.
Below a summary of the Assessment of the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the
environment is presented. It was prepared by the Institute of Urban Development in Kraków,
with the exclusion of the fragment describing the structure of ROP OV 2007-2013105.
103
104
Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 (OJ L 210 of 31.07.2006)
Journal of Laws No. 62 of 20 June 2001, it. 627 with subsequent amendments.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
7.3.1 Scope of the assessment
The assessment is composed of eight parts. In the introductory part an outline and structure of
the main national plans were described and so were their links with the EU guidelines.
Additionally, goals of the EU Structural Funds were discussed, along with documents which
confirm validity of the EU strategy of Sustainable Development from Göteborg, including
quotations of binding principles of this policy. The initial part also comprises the topic-related
account of ROP OV 2007-2013.
The starting point for the analysis of the Assessment was the diagnosis of the state of the
environment in the Opolskie Voivodeship, the main problems encountered in the
environmental protection, as well as a general description of a development scenario, if plans
for the years 2007-2013 were not implemented.
The fundamental part in chapter 5 of the Assessment starts with the analysis of ROP OV
2007-2013, with reference to six (6) zones making up sustainable development, as well as the
assessment to what degree Priorities of the Programme will constitute implementation
thereof. Compliance of goals of the Programme was assessed as against the Opolskie
Voivodeship Development Strategy and the Community Strategic Guidelines and Council
Regulation (EC) No 1080/2006106. Chapter 5.3 is of crucial significance in the assessment,
where an overall review was carried out concerning environmental protection goals,
contained in the programme documents of the voivodeship, including an analysis of whether
relevant assumptions in ROP OV 2007-2013 would enable, with a build-up of projects, to
cover them with programme's support, or whether they could be achieved in the region
through national operational programmes.
In the Assessment of considerable environmental impact, conducted at the lowest level of
arrangements in the Programme, i.e. types of future undertakings, an analysis of mutual
interactions of the Programme's goals was performed, indicating the need to join projects with
overlapping territories, for reaching effects of project synergy; or the necessity of control
whether the goals stand in contradiction with one another which may be revealed in
completion of projects with overlapping territories carried out in its various goals.
An analysis of alternative solutions of the Programme includes an assessment of possibility to
achieve the subject-related scope of environmental goals, allowing for insufficient, as for the
actual needs, funds allocated for the environmental priority.
In the summary main conclusions were gathered from the Assessment, as well as, among
others, criteria were suggested which should be taken into consideration in qualifying projects
for inclusion in the Programme's financial support.
The essential obstacle in preparing the Assessment of the impact on the environment laid in
the open character of ROP OV 2007-2013, concentrated on goals and types of actions, but not
including any quantitative projection of goals, or information on the scope and preferences of
future actions with location and time not being specified. Therefore, the Assessment of
possible impact of the Programme provides a rather general view. Moreover, the lack of any
up-to-date statistical data, unavailable at the time of preparation of the Assessment, weakened
validity of conclusions drawn from the diagnosis of the environmental state.
105
Entire text of the final report „Environmental Impact Assessment of RPO WO 2007-2013” is available
at the Internet site of the Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship: www.rpo.umwo.opole.pl.
106
OJ L 210 of 31.7.2006, page 1.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
7.3.2 State of the environment in the voivodeship and major problems
Environmental issues were ranked high within the structure of ROP OV 2007-2013,
recognised as one of seven strategic objectives, such as Improvement of the environment and
environmental protection as well as ensuring flood safety.
For the needs of the Assessment, the diagnosis of the environmental state was analysed,
which had been prepared within ROP OV 2007-2013, as well as in other, problem-related
documents. The balance of environmental strengths and weaknesses, carried out by the
authors of the Programme, sees as indisputable advantages of the region its abundance of
mineral resources and underground waters, as well as the steady tendency to decrease the
burden on the environment, noticeable throughout the recent years and resulting from various
actions being undertaken. Strengths of the region include also the palaeontological site in
Krasiejów, unique on the European scale, which is expected to revive tourism in the area. As
against the entire country, the voivodeship is characterised by a good quality of soil, reflected
in high productivity of agriculture. In general, technical infrastructure of the environmental
protection is better and the level of its financing is high. However, relatively poor natural
resources across the voivodeship, and, above all, insufficient promotion of these assets
prevent further development of tourism and recreation in the region.
Factors recognised as unfavourable in the balance include the following:
− insufficient flood protection,
− lack of general and fully operational system of municipal waste utilisation,
− arduous, low emission of air pollution,
− continuing surface water pollution and deteriorating quality of underground waters,
− areas suffering from degradation requiring comprehensive revitalising actions.
Ecodevelopment indicators deviating from average values for the entire country are,
including but not limited to, the following:
-
low percentage of areas under protection within system Natura 2000,
-
no usage of production of renewable energy, including hydro-energy,
-
low share of ecological crops in the entire agricultural area.
The most important problems covering the entire region include water management and its
infrastructure. The Opolskie Voivodeship has limited resources of good quality surface
water, and, additionally, they are unevenly located, which translates into their insufficient
availability for the needs of inhabitants and agriculture. A considerable percentage of surface
waters is characterised by high pollution, which requires highly effective methods of water
treatment to be applied if a need of their usage arises. In order to improve this situation, it
would be necessary to intensify protection in river catchments, particularly of the rivers of
Nysa Kłodzka, Biała Głuchołaska, Prosna and Widawa.
Since underground waters constitute the major source of water for the inhabitants, its
protection is of key importance, primarily the protection of quantity and quality of main
groundwater reservoirs, in the first place, GZWP No. 333, as well as the development of
monitoring system for these waters.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Irrespectively of the aforementioned problems, it is necessary to continue rationalisation of
usage of water resources towards:
− limitation and elimination of usage of underground waters for purposes other than for
drinking water supply, as well as for the needs of food and pharmaceutical industries,
− introduction of systems of closed water circulation into industry, water-efficient
production technologies; reduction of water losses across water mains.
As everywhere in Poland, the problem in the region is also untreated sewage discharge and
the necessity to reduce the load of contamination in municipal and industrial sewage entered
into waters or ground, including substances especially arduous for the water.
What results from this is the necessity to sort out sewage management, in the first place on
areas strategic from the point of view of the present and long-term water supply, including
rural areas and outskirts of towns without any sewage system of towns, through construction
of collective sewage systems and sewage treatment plants, in line with the National
Programme of Municipal Sewage Treatment.
With respect to air protection, a considerable problem will represent technological
adjustment of industry and energy producers to tightened emission standards which will be
introduced in 2008. A quality of air in housing complex is influenced, in an equal or even
higher degree, by low municipal emission, elimination of which is related both to
comprehensive revitalising actions of huge areas, and with modernisation of individual
traditional sources of heat; construction of highly efficient systems of heat transfer, as well as
thermo-modernisation of buildings, substantially reducing usage of energy, including
emission of air pollution from the existing sources of heat.
Facing not decreasing automotive pressure, without necessary essential exclusion of traffic in
the centres of towns, and simultaneous prudent transport policy with respect to construction
of roads and development of collective transport, any significant improvement in the air
condition over densely built-up areas seems unlikely.
The high level of pollution is followed by increasingly extending zones of excessive traffic
noise, additionally strengthened by a poor technical condition of roads, and postponed
introduction of duties which lie on administrators of these roads with respect to protection
from noise.
A serious side-effect of mineral resources exploitation is continuous presence of huge areas
suffering from degradation and devastation, including central and eastern poviats, country
poviat of Opole and selected gminas, including Lewin Brzeski, Otmuchów and Paczków. In
the recent years, the pace of reclamation works has been decreasing. Municipal landfill sites
being closed down also need reclamation.
Although the voivodeship has plans for waste management, due to the lack of funds, any
comprehensive system of selective waste collection does not function within the
voivodeship. In 2004, a selected part of waste accounted for just 3.7% of the entire mass of
municipal waste. The major method of waste management continues to be storage on
landfills, the number of which has dropped to 38 in the recent years, according to the plan to
close down a number of these facilities.
The scope of necessary steps with respect to the protection of areas with valuable natural
resources should, in the upcoming years, cover putting into practice the system of areas
Natura 2000 and ECONET, along with propositions of ecological organisations submitted in
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
the “shadow list”. The essential problem is the lack of approved plans of protection.
Restitution, renaturisation and reclamation actions should be effected on the following areas:
V. majority of forest complexes of the Opolskie Voivodeship, characterised by bio-topic
irregularity of the tree stand, seen particularly in forest complexes located within the area
of Bory Niemodlińskie, Bory Raciborskie, and in the area of the Protected Landscape
“Mokre Lewice”;
VI. forest complexes located on flood terraces in the Valley of Odra, Nysa Kłodzka, Mała
Panew and on polder “Stobrawa Rybna”;
VII. forest complexes requiring reconstruction in areas consumed by the huge fire in 1992
within the limits of the Forest Division of Kędzierzyn-Koźle;
VIII. areas requiring comprehensive renaturisation within the river valleys of Odra (upper
and middle river), Nysa Kłodzka (middle river) and Mała Panew, below the Turawa
reservoir;
IX. areas of xerothermic devastations of plant community within the borders of the Landscape
Park of the St. Anna Mountain.
The essential issue is extension of degree of ecological safety of inhabitants, by way of
introduction of new legal regulations for management of materials and substances hazardous
for health and the environment, resulting from the EU guidelines; elimination of the existing
threats caused by accumulation in the environment of particularly hazardous substances, such
as asbestos, PTBs, dioxins and furans; as well as improvement in safety of food and water
quality. External operating and rescue plans of high-risk plants located across the voivodeship
need to be worked out. A programme of control against release of genetically modified
organisms and products of genetically modified food into the environment should be
implemented. Organisation of transport routes of hazardous substances needs to be
comprehensively solved, and this involves construction of parking spaces for vehicles
carrying such substances.
The Opolskie Voivodeship is among the ones most liable to floods, due to both probability of
occurrence of flood situations, and extent of possible floods. Areas exposed to particular risk
are located in the valley of Odra, Nysa Kłodzka, Osobłoga, Stobrawa, Mała Panew, Biała
Głuchołaska, Opawa, Opawica, Psina, Troja, and Złoty Potok. Simultaneously, the level of
flood retention on these rivers is insufficient. There is no comprehensive system of flood
control which would allow for preservation of natural resources, particularly river valleys, or
a system of monitoring, meteorological shield and flood alert system.
The flood threat may be reduced on condition that assumptions of the “Programme for the
Odra River 2006”), will be fully implemented. This includes construction of water tanks,
modernisation and construction of embankment, construction of polders, redevelopment and
clearance of river beds, construction and modernisation of weirs and flood-gates, and
improvement in the water retention system according to the “Programme of construction of
small-size retention in the Opolskie Voivodeship”.
In addition to the aforementioned problems, one should mention also the poor condition of
land reclamation facilities and the necessity to restore drainage and irrigation mainly on
agricultural areas, as well as the lack of modern infrastructure for activation of waterway on
the Odra River.
In the judgement of units of local self-government of the Opolskie Voivodeship (based on
eight indicators of environmental load and one related to animated nature potential), areas
with deteriorated environmental quality include:
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
− the town of Kędzierzyn-Koźle, due to air pollution, pollutant load in effluents, waste
contamination;
− the town of Opole – as above, and also due to devastation of land surface;
− gmina of Zdzieszowice – as above and also due to flood threat;
− gmina of Dobrzeń Wielki – as above.
This group also includes gminas of Bierawa, Nysa, Strzelce Opolskie and Ozimek which, at
the same time, have high natural potential, measured with the size of natural areas under
protection and woodiness indicator of the area.
7.3.3 Assessment of goals of sustainable development and environmental protection in
ROP OV 2007-2013 as against the Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy and
national operational programmes.
Within the structure of development plans for the country up to 2013, regional operational
programmes are documents which implement voivodeship strategies to a degree determined
by the internal division of powers among national and regional programmes. Projects with the
national and partially regional range may be carried out within the national programmes, the
remaining regional and local projects should be included in ROP.
For establishment of goals in ROP important factors were the Community Strategic
Guidelines, putting great emphasis on the development of economic sphere, which met
response in national guidelines determining limits on individual management divisions in
regions. It should be pointed out that the regulation on the European Regional Development
Fund, from which funds are to be received for the performance of regional programmes in the
three main objectives of the community within the framework of sustainable development,
assumes that they will be accomplished largely by way of environment-related priorities.
With respect to large-scale goals of the Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy, ROP
OV 2007-2013 concentrates future actions in its major fields. As to spheres of sustainable
development, the main strategic objectives of the Programme are oriented towards
management of economic resources, which will directly be achieved through one of the axis,
and the results of a number of others are to bring positive changes in the development of
entrepreneurship, improved competitiveness and a rise in employment. The remaining
priorities of the Programme are distributed in the manner which enable each sphere of
sustainable development become the subject of axis actions, however they do not all embrace
the range covering sustainable development, particularly in the context of the EU objectives
(schedule No. 2 of the Assessment).
The conducted assessment of the environmental state and the collected materials for diagnosis
show that directions of intents making up the environmental priority simultaneously represent
environmental protection issues, most important for the Opolskie Voivodeship, which will be
subject to intervention of the Programme.
Other objectives related to balancing of actions, or environment-related actions falling outside
the range of the environmental priority lie in fields related to the following:
− development of tourist and recreation infrastructure – meant to raise their standard;
− development of culture and preservation of cultural heritage – serving, among others, to
preserve regional cultural and natural heritage;
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
− public transport infrastructure – in which, among others, collective transport is to play a
significant role;
− urban areas – oriented towards the improvement in living conditions of the inhabitants,
including improvement in quality of the environment;
− post-military, post-police and post-industrial areas – concentrated on new functions of
areas subject to revitalisation actions, with concurrent rise of their environmental
standards.
A review of objectives stipulated in the most important regional operational documents,
particularly in the Programme of Environmental Protection in the Opolskie Voivodeship and
the Plan for Waste Management in the Opolskie Voivodeship, indicates that draft ROP OV
2007-2013, through adequate regulations of types of tasks, enables accomplishment of
majority of objectives specified in these documents in the future. Other environmental tasks,
not included in ROP OV 2007-2013 will be carried out mainly in OP Infrastructure and
Environment and the Programme for Development of Rural Areas.
7.3.4 Weighting and quantitative estimate of environmental objectives
ROP OV 2007-2013 suggests three types of indicators:
− indicators related to strategic objectives,
− indicators related to products,
− indicators related to results.
As concurrently national programmes will also be implemented in the region,
indicators of ROP OV 2007-2013 will have to be prepared by the implementation team of the
Programme with a view to faithfully reflecting progress in implementation of ROP OV 20072013 in relation to the set target indicators of particular objectives, which should be weighted.
Draft ROP OV 2007-2013 analysed in the Forecast does not quote any numerical
values for objectives to be achieved, but only stipulates the type of indicator to serve as a
quantifier together with the baseline value from the last period. The target numerical values
are to be supplied at a later time. For the purpose of forecasting, this circumstance precludes
answering the key question: in the light of the issues and needs defined in other regional and
national documents, how well draft ROP OV 2007-2013 will be pursuing the objectives and
what the relations between these objectives will be. Thus, at the present stage of preparation
of programmes the issue of efficacy of the Programme is still debatable.
Irrespective of the indicators stipulated in the document, in order to determine the
impact of all development plans on a larger scale, it will be necessary to make use of
numerous so-called 'contextualised' indicators or 'interrelations' obtained from services
dealing with statistics at the national and regional levels. In order to define these databases,
especially with respect to evaluation of sustainable development, the Programme should
adopt first of all the set of 98 indicators used in Eurostat and EEA analyses as well as
materials published on the website of the Ministry of the Environment. This type of indicators
is completely ignored in the draft of the National Cohesion Strategy, which stipulates the
types of indicators for regional programmes.
The Forecast contains some indicators of ecological development for Poland and the
Opolskie Voivodeship which may be useful in providing the information missing from the
Programme.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
7.3.5 Expected major environmental impact of the objectives, priorities and lines of
activity defined in ROP OV 2007-2013
It is expected that achievement of the objectives related to Priority 4 Protection of the
natural environment will directly and significantly contribute to reducing the current adverse
effects on the environment in respect of:
− limiting the amount of pollutants emitted to surface waters and air, and indirectly
hazards to soil and underground waters,
− increasing the use of environment-friendly energy from renewable resources,
including biomass,
− coping with waste management on a local scale,
− reducing the risk of flood damage,
− improving qualitative and quantitative indicators of environmental protection
and increasing biological diversity of the region.
The range and location of these changes will be regulated by future projects as yet not
defined in ROP OV 2007-2013.
Apart from the environmental priority, probably a clearly favourable impact on the
environment and human health may be an outcome of implementation of projects:
− under Priority 3 Transport, e.g. those aiming to increase the role of public transport,
which could result in a reduction of environmental hazard in this branch of economy;
− under Priority 6 Mobilisation of municipal and degraded areas, focused on
regeneration of urban and other areas, which should result in an improvement of
environmental standards in these areas.
The ultimate extent of positive outcomes generated under the Programme will depend
on the projects under priorities implementing non-environmental objectives which intensify
or introduce new activities, which involves a certain increase in the amount of pollutants
emitted to the environment, changes in the spatial development of the area and the risk of
occurrence of emergencies. Judging by the types of activities meeting these priorities, as
envisaged in the Programme, it can be inferred that the Programme does not favour activities
characterised as particularly hazardous to the environment. Also the scale of these projects
will be limited to the local or sub-regional dimension107.
An analysis of possible interrelations between particular lines of activity envisaged in
the Programme with a view to limiting adverse effects and enhancing the positive outcomes
resulting from implementation of future projects has proved that it is necessary:
− to join projects from the same area in order to obtain a synergy of favourable
environmental impact;
− in the case of non-environmental projects (with physical outcomes), to apply the criteria
and indicators related to ecological efficacy in the selection process for such projects;
107
Objectives of national and sometimes regional importance will be pursued under national operational programmes.
152
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
− to carefully analyse projects from the same area implemented under objectives which may
be non-cohesive or even divergent (e.g. construction of a road and protection of a rare
natural area);
− to examine cohesion of projects developed under different programmes also in relation to
one objective, e.g. the environmental objective.
An analysis of possible projects stemming from detailed regional programmes has
made it clear that some objectives contained therein may clash with other programmes and
simultaneously with the objectives of the Programme. This is the case with several projects
drawn under the small retention programme and the designed Natura 2000 sites. This requires
on the part of the selection committees introduction of appropriate procedures precluding and
excluding financing of such projects.
Types of actions which should be mutually supportive in order to achieve the synergy
effect, and these which may clash have been presented on the basis of the matrix for
interactions between lines of activity, that is at the most detailed level in the Programme.
7.3.6 Alternative solutions to those contained in ROP OV 2007-2013 with justification of
their selection along with a description of the selection methods
Taking into account a diagnosis of the state of the natural environment in the
voivodeship in draft ROP OV 2007-2013, there are no equivalent options of a different
composition of activities under the environmental priority, as the current range corresponds to
the major environmental issues in the region. What come to the fore, however, are the
financial resources allocated to the implementation of the 'environmental' priority, which are
definitely insufficient. On the basis of the amounts of initially allocated funds it becomes
evident that such resources cannot guarantee the accomplishment of objectives remaining in
the authority of self-governments, for which detailed programmes have been drafted over the
recent years, e.g. small retention or construction of sewage systems from wastewater
treatment plants.
7.3.7 Solutions aiming at prevention, limitation or environmental sustenance of possible
adverse impact on the environment resulting from implementation of ROP OV 20072013
Recommendations for entities implementing the Programme related to possible
limitation of the adverse impact on the environment resulting from the implementation of
future projects pertain to:
− extension of the range of activities stipulated in Priority 1, among others, inclusion of
pro-environmental and ecologically innovative projects in order to facilitate
implementation of projects in compliance with the overall aims of the II National
Ecological Policy and the Programme for Protection of the Environment in the Opolskie
Voivodeship, and also in order to facilitate implementation of ecological education
projects under the environmental Priority;
− introduction of necessary amendments to the programme, among others, by specifying
quantitative objectives, including environmental objectives;
− at the stage of project selection, introduction of evaluation of ecological projects in order
to identify and analyse the possibilities to enhance the ecological outcomes of projects
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
implemented under non-environmental Priorities of the Programme or also joining
projects from the same area with a view to achieving these outcomes at a smaller cost;
− application of appropriate ecological, legal and social eligibility criteria for projects,
taking into account circumstances external to the Programme, e.g. analysis of
compatibility with other objectives, irrespective of the requirements stipulated in the
administrative procedures for these projects;
− maintenance of open procedures of the Programme management at the stage of planning,
selection and implementation of projects, with appropriately extended information for
potential beneficiaries as to how to best draft projects to meet eligibility criteria.
7.4 Social consultations on the Forecast about impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the
environment.
In accordance with Art. 43 of the Environmental Protection Act,108 the Forecast about
the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment, together with the Programme in
question, was launched for social consultations between 16 August and 10 September, 2006.
This was done according to the regulations and methods adopted by the Executive Board of
the Opolskie Voivodeship in the previous stages of public consultation (described in Chapter
8 of ROP OV 2007-2013), i.e. among others by offering unlimited access to the documents in
question to all persons and groups interested.
Information about launching consultation on both documents was published on the
website www.rpo.umwo.opole.pl as well as in two regional daily papers - in 'Nowa Trybuna
Opolska' and in Opole supplement to 'Gazeta Wyborcza'. The website offered access to the
Forecast about the impact on the environment as well as ROP OV 2007-2013 in the evaluated
version. During the consultation period comments could be sent to the following e-mail
address: [email protected]
In order to arouse the interest of ecological circles for both documents, they were
invited to a consultation meeting on 31 August 2006, in which the content of both documents
and the main conclusions resulting from the Forecast were presented. The invitation to
participate in this consultation meeting was printed in the local press. In addition, 31
institutions – representatives of ecological organisations and institutions involved in the
issues of environmental protection – were sent personalised invitations to the meeting
7.5 Information about consideration given to suggestions contained in the Forecast
about the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment, the comments made
during the consultation period as well as the recommendation of the Governor of the
Opolskie Voivodeship and the State Voivodeship Sanitary Inspector
7.5.1 Suggestions contained in the Forecast about the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on
the environment
The Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship became acquainted with the
suggestions contained in the Forecast about the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the
The Environmental Protection Act of 27 April 2001, Journal of Laws No. 62 of 20 June 2001, item 627 with
subsequent amendments.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
environment. With reference to the conclusions contained in the Forecast it has been
ascertained that:
− Priority 1 does not preclude implementation of pro-environmental and ecologically
innovative projects;
− implementation of ecological educational projects – under Priority 4, apart from the areas
of water and sewage management, waste management, protection of air, renewable
sources of energy, such initiatives will also be accepted in the area of Protection of
biological diversity. Training sessions can be cross-financed, as a main or supplementary
action within the investment project;
− ROP OV 2007-2013 will be supplied with the target values of the monitoring indicators;
− recommendations related to detailed eligibility criteria for projects will be recognised, as
long as they stem from the binding law, in additional documents supplementing ROP OV
2007-2013;
− openness of Programme management procedures at each stage of its implementation –
ROP OV 2007–2013 will be implemented in accordance with the adopted system of legal
regulations, both European and national, and also some other principles, including
partnership, safeguarding that the preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation
of ROP OV 2007–2013 will be done on the basis of partnership with appropriate
institutions of government administration, self-government and other public authorities,
economic and social partners as well as other interested parties.
7.5.2 Comments received during social consultations
During the consultation period no comments concerning either of the documents were
submitted, with the exception of the consultation meeting on 31 August 2006, during which
comments were made with reference to both the Forecast about the impact on the
environment and ROP OV 2007-2013. They concerned:
− the diagnosis of the current condition of the voivodeship, mainly obsolete statistical data
quoted in the diagnosis – in subsequent versions of ROP OV 2007-2013 statistical data
were updated where it was possible;
− allocation of funds under ROP OV 2007-2013 proportionally, and not fully based on
recognition of real needs – allocation of funds to particular Priorities of ROP OV 20072013 is done on the basis of the diagnosis of the condition of the Opolskie Voivodeship,
the European Regional Development Fund priority axis as well as the limits set by the
Ministry for Regional Development;
− no reference in the Forecast about the impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment
to forecasts on environmental impact made in the Opolskie Voivodeship for other
documents - the forecasts were analysed next to the key documents (these are listed in
Annex 1 to the Forecast), but since they bore no direct relation on the range of stipulations
contained in ROP OV 2007-2013 they were not quoted in the forecast;
− too superficial treatment in the Forecast of Natura 2000 sites - the forecast identifies the
existing and planned areas earmarked for protection of natural habitats as well as wild
flora and fauna, including those created upon the initiative of non-government
organisations, emphasises the principle of procedural equality in environmental
evaluation in relation to both kinds of areas and draws attention to potential conflicts
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
concerning localisation of projects with projects developed under previously adopted
detailed programmes, e.g. small retention, requiring on the basis of these procedures,
decisions at the level of eligibility and selection criteria for funding future projects under
ROP OV 2007-2013;
− discrepancies in the diagnosis of ROP OV 2007-2013 and the Forecast about the impact
on the environment in the respect of assessment of the resources and the quality of surface
waters in the voivodeship – the mistakes in Chapter 1 of ROP OV 2007-2013 have been
rectified.
7.5.3 Recommendation of the Governor of the Opolskie Voivodeship (the body
responsible for protection of the natural environment) and the State Voivodeship
Sanitary Inspector
In accordance with Art. 44 of the Environmental Protection Act,109 on 21 August,
2006 the Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship addressed the Governor of the
Opolskie Voivodeship (representing the body responsible for protection of the natural
environment) and the State Voivodeship Sanitary Inspector with a request to issue their
recommendation concerning ROP OV 2007-2013 and the Forecast about its impact on the
environment.
The recommendation from the State Voivodeship Sanitary Inspector was passed
on 11 September, 2006 and did not contain any critical remarks about the Programme.
Moreover, it ascertained that the solutions adopted in ROP OV 2007-2013 safeguard
compliance with standards for protection of the natural environment as well as hygiene and
health.
The Governor of the Opolskie Voivodeship issued a favourable opinion for both
documents on 16 October, 2006. The Governor of the Opolskie Voivodeship also attached to
his recommendation a copy of 'The paper to accompany the forecast about the impact of ROP
OV 2007-2013', written in October 2006 by Dr Eng. Adam Rak, on the basis of which the
Governor’s positive opinion was issued.
109
Journal of Laws No. 62 of 20 June 2001, item 627 with subsequent amendments.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
CHAPTER 8
INFORMATION ABOUT SOCIAL CONSULTATIONS
HELD ON ROP OV 2007-2013
8.1 Legal basis of consultations
The requirement to hold consultations arises from Council Regulation (EC) No.
1083/2006110. Art. 11 of the aforementioned Regulation states that every member state
pursuing objectives of the funds by means of the operational programme is obliged to close
co-operation (partnership) with the authorities as well as social and economic partners, also at
the stage of preparing the programme. To implement this provision the Executive Board of
the Opolskie Voivodeship assumed that ROP OV 2007-2013 should be drawn up and then
evaluated by as many environments interested in the development of the region as possible.
8.2. Aim, organisation and course of the process of social consultations
8.2.1 Aim and course of consultations
The aim of social consultations was to gather opinions on proposals contained in
preliminary drafts of ROP OV 2007-2013 and to discuss in a circle of specialists detail,
problem themes integrally connected with the Programme.
A process of consultations on ROP OV 2007-2013 began in September 2005. It was
carried out in four stages:
− 1st stage – internal consultations, directed to people involved in creating the
document – Heads of Departments and Offices of the Marshal Office of the Opolskie
Voivodeship, representatives of subordinate units and co-operating people, held from
12 September, 2005 to 21 October, 2005. Internal suggestions and comments gathered
during internal consultations were used in further works and formulating the
Preliminary Draft of ROP OV 2007-2013 in the version adopted by the Executive
Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship on 15 November, 2005.
− 2nd stage – socio-economic consultations, directed to all the people and
environments from the Opolskie Voivodeship, were held from 15 November, 2005 to
9 January, 2006. When organising them the principle was to make them as broadly
conceived as possible in geographical as well as sectoral and backgrounds terms. In
20 consultation meetings organised in total 328 people participated. The consultation
meetings were an opportunity for presenting to a broad circle of people interested the
document, its function and role it is to have in the economic and social development
of the region in 2007-2013. During consultations 50 entities sent 287 comments. The
aim of this stage of consultations was to gather opinions on proposals contained in the
Preliminary draft of ROP OV 2007-2013 of 15 November, 2005, and their effect was
drawing up ROP OV 2007-2013 (preliminary draft, version No. 2 of 28 February,
2006). The enclosure to this document was the Report on socio-economic
consultations held where the second stage of consultations was summed up.
− 3rd stage of socio-economic consultations took place from 20 April, 2006. The
subject of consultations was ROP OV 2007-2013 (preliminary draft, version No. 3 of
19 April, 2006) which in particular integrated comments of the representatives of the
110
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006)
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
European Commission, guidelines of the Ministry for Regional Development, the
opinion of the Governor of the Opolskie Voivodeship and motions filed at the second
stage of consultations. To this stage of consultations 234 people/entities were invited
by name. The 3rd stage of consultations was summarized in detail in July 2006 in the
Report on social consultations on ROP OV 2007-2013111.
− 4th stage of consultations related to a procedure of preparing the Forecast about the
impact of ROP OV 2007-2013 on the environment. Pursuant to the Act of 27 April,
2001 Environmental Protection Law112, the Forecast of the impact of ROP OV 20072013 on the environment and the Programme to which it referred were subject to
social consultations. They were held from 16 August to 10 September, 2006. They are
summed up in Chapter 7 ROP OV 2007-2013.
Motions put at every stage of consultations contributed to verification of provisions of
the programme and giving it a form which was an attempt to combine provisions to best fulfil
the objectives established in the new programming period and expectations of potential
beneficiaries.
8.2.2 Notification of consultations
An official notification of consultations and an invitation from the Executive Board of
the Opolskie Voivodeship to participate in consultations each time were published on the
Internet website of the Marshal Office (www.rpo.umwo.opole.pl.) and in two regional daily
papers – in “Nowa Trybuna Opolska” and in the Opole supplement to “Gazeta Wyborcza”.
In addition, environments interested in the development of the Opolskie Voivodeship
were invited by name to participate in consultations.
8.2.3 Participants of consultations
The consultations were based on the openness principle to ensure free access
documents and data, on the equality, openness and partnership principles which mean that
anybody interested was allowed to participate in them (not only institutions). Apart from
public invitations to consultations published in the press and on the Internet website, the
Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship invited by name, among others:
− Parliament members from the Opolskie Voivodeship;
− representatives of all the levels of local self-government in the voivodeship;
− Marshals of neighbouring voivodeships;
− the Governor of the Opolskie Voivodeship and representatives of government
administration in the voivodeship;
− social and economic organisations operating in the Opolskie Voivodeship;
− organisations of entrepreneurs;
− organisations dealing with issues of the natural environment;
− scientific environments;
− other groups of interest.
111
Report on social consultations on ROP OV 2007-2013 is available on the website of the Marshal Office of
the Opolskie Voivodeship: www.rpo.umwo.opole.pl.
112
Journal of Laws No. 62 of 20 June, 2001, item 627 with subsequent amendments.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
8.2.4 Internet website
The Internet sub-site of the Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship about ROP
OV 2007-2013 www.rpo.umwo.opole.pl was launched in November 2005. In order to
provide all the interested with access to documents directly related to the version of ROP OV
2007-2013 subject to consultations, the sub-site contained also, apart from the version of draft
ROP OV 2007-2013 being consulted, updated versions of legal acts (the Community and
national ones), strategic documents and drafts of national operational programmes. In
addition, it contained information about organisation of meetings, procedures and rules for
participating in consultations and a Form for suggesting comments/amendments. For
communication
purposes
a
special
e-mail
address
was
launched:
konsu[email protected]
8.2.5 Consultation meetings – 3rd stage
On 21 April, 2006 the conference inaugurating the 3rd stage of social consultations on
ROP OV 2007-2013 and consultations on the National Cohesion Strategy113 was held and,
among others, the participants were:
− Władysław Ortyl, Undersecretary of State at the Ministry for Regional Development
and representatives of the Ministry for Regional Development,
− Manfred Beschel from the Directorate General for Regional Development and
representatives of the European Commission,
− Governor of the Opolskie Voivodeship and representatives of the regional state
administration,
− Parliament members from the Opolskie Voivodeship, representatives of local selfgovernments, of the institutions for regional development, of science, education,
culture and health.
Within the framework of the 3rd stage of consultations from 20 April to 30 June, 2006
in total 23 meetings, conferences and discussion panels were organised. In comparison to the
2nd stage of socio-economic consultations, they were more specialist and detailed in nature –
they related to selected problems, thematic issues or beneficiaries of ROP OV 2007-2013.
Consultation meetings were organised at the request of institutions and were
concerned with thematic areas suggested by the entity making a request. 4 such meetings
were held:
− with the Executive Board of the Association of the Opole Silesia Gminas, about financial
issues (algorithm of funds allocation under ERDF to regions, allocation for the Opolskie
Voivodeship, algorithm of funds allocation for implementation of local projects);
− with representatives of the Regional Directorate of the Forest Management Company in
Katowice, about a possibility of including among beneficiaries of the priority axes of
ROP OV 2007-2013 entities subordinate to the Directorate of the Forest Management
Company;
− with representatives of health service, about provisions of the Programme concerning
health care;
113
Present name is the National Strategic Reference Framework.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
− with representatives of the Customs Chamber and the Voivodeship Police Headquarters in
Opole, about a possibility of co-financing projects of these bodies within ROP OV 20072013.
Also 7 conferences and discussion panels were organised which concerned selected,
detailed problems of ROP OV 2007-2013.
Another form of presenting and consulting ROP OV 2007-2013 it was a series of
meetings, organised in co-operation with powiat starosts and the Voivodeship Fund for
Environmental Protection and Water Management in Opole, about preparing future
beneficiaries to using ROP OV 2007-2013 as well as other sources of support. Between May
and July 2006 12 meetings we organised in all the voivodeship poviats, directed to units of
local self-government. Their main aim was to prepare future beneficiaries to applying for
funds within ROP OV 2007-2013 and to present the Internet database (so called System of
Project Record).
In consultation meetings information materials were distributed: printed versions of
ROP OV 2007-2013 (preliminary draft, version No. 3); National Cohesion Strategy (National
Strategic Reference Framework) draft of 14 February, 2006 and Form for suggesting
comments/amendments to the Programme.
8.2.6 Form of making comments and motions
When organising social consultations it was decided that comments and motions to
ROP OV 2007-2013 could be made only on the “Form for suggesting
comments/amendments”. The form made it possible to suggest new content of a provision
and justify the comment what allowed for reading the intention of the persons making the
comment. Suggestions for amendments could be sent traditionally (fax, mail) or electronically
at the e-mail address created especially for that purpose: [email protected]
8.2.7 Documentation of a process of social consultations
Complete documentation of social consultations, including opinions, comments and
stands from consultations, has been collected at the Unit for Programming and Monitoring of
the Department for Co-ordination of Operational Programmes of the Marshal Office of the
Opolskie Voivodeship. Also here the documentation on consultation meetings, discussion
panels and conferences is stored, except poviat meetings organised and documented by the
Unit for Preparing Projects at the Department for Co-ordination of Operational Programmes
of the Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship.
8.3. Comments passed during social consultations – 3rd stage
At the 3rd stage of consultations on ROP OV 2007-2013 the Department for Coordination of Operational Programmes of the Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship
received in total 266 comments which were different in terms of how detailed they were,
from comments general and analytical in nature to proposals for detailed provisions.
The comments were made by 50 entities, including 5 institutions from the outside the
Opolskie Voivodeship (the Marshal Office of the Dolnośląskie Voivodeship, Ekstraklasa S.A.
in Warsaw, Fundacja Wspomagania Wsi [Foundation for Countryside Support] in Warsaw,
Club of Naturalists in Świebodzin and the Regional Directorate of the Forest Management
Company in Katowice).
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From among 266 comments in total passed during consultations, subject to
consideration by the Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship were 217 comments about
the content of ROP OV 2007-2013. Other comments did not refer directly to provisions of
ROP OV 2007-2013 – they were related to measures and conditions extreme for the
measures. These comments were considered at the stage of works on supplementary
documents for the Programme. Some of these comments were not subject to consideration as
they referred to the provisions of ROP OV 2007-2013 which were verified during
consultations by the Managing Authority in a form of own amendments, e.g. formulating
general and specific objectives of the Programme, names of priority axes precisely specifying
its content.
The consideration was not given to the comments concerning indicators for
monitoring the programme and particular axes as a special work force for indicators set up at
the Ministry for Regional Development worked on indicators in order to make them uniform
for all the operational programmes for 2007-2013 and establish a central database.
As regards thematic content the comments made related mainly to:
− a description and a subject scope of priority axes to be implemented in 2007-2013,
− beneficiaries anticipated within particular priority axes,
− proposals for distribution of funds.
Tab. No. 8.1. Comments gathered during consultations by thematic areas.
Chapters of ROP OV 2007-2013 (preliminary draft, version No. 3)
Number of comments
Comments to the whole document
15
Diagnosis of the current situation in the Opolskie Voivodeship
12
SWOT analysis
4
Analysis and assessment of the use of state aid and foreign assistance in
1999-2005
4
Strategy for implementing ROP OV 2007-2013
11
Priority axes ROP OV 2007-2013:
151
Financial plan
18
Other elements ROP OV 2007-2013
2
TOTAL
217
Source: Own study.
Comments on specific provisions of priority axes of the Programme were aimed at
making them more precise, i.e. among other things:
−
listing specific tasks which may receive financial assistance;
−
completing a list of beneficiaries for particular priority axes with additional
categories;
−
completing thematic areas and types of projects with additional, not included
categories;
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
−
indicating directions for regional development of strategic importance.
A part of comments related to proposals for distribution of funds, e.g. shifting funds
between priority axes, allocating funds intended as programme reserve.
All the comments passed during the consultations on ROP OV 2007-2013 were
considered by the Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship which on 24 July, 2006 took
a decision about the manner how to address the comments sent – taking them into account or
not.
A collective summary of comments sent as well as individual decisions about each of
them are available on website: www.rpo.umwo.opole.pl., as an element of the report on
consultations held114.
8.4. Conclusions
As a result of the consultations on subsequent versions of drafts, ROP OV 2007-2013
has undergone changes. The comments sent by participants of the consultations were
analysed by the Executive Board of the Opolskie Voivodeship and, if justified and possible,
in particular taking into consideration provisions of EC regulations and guidelines of the
Ministry for Regional Development, integrated in further works on the document.
The changes were related to all the chapters of ROP OV 2007-2013 and, among other
things, consisted in:
−
updating a diagnosis of the socio-economic situation in the Opolskie Voivodeship and
the assessment of the use of state aid and foreign assistance on the basis of current and
available statistical data;
−
restructuring the SWOT analysis, both as regards factual content (differently laid
stresses, new gradation, indicating new strengths and weaknesses of the region) and
clearer presentation of elements of the SWOT analysis;
−
new formulating of the objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013;
−
restructuring provisions concerning priority axes – taking into account changes related
to the thematic scope and potential beneficiaries, types of projects and support areas
as well as the allocation of funds to particular axes;
−
restructuring parts concerning indicators for monitoring the programme and axes;
−
preparing the comprehensive system of implementation and management of ROP OV
2007-2013.
114
Detailed description of the process of consultations is presented in the Report on social consultations on
ROP OV 2007-2013, available on the website of the Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship:
www.rpo.umwo.opole.pl.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Glossary
TERM
EXPLANATION
Conurbation
Type of settlement system with a group of towns and villages concentrated around one
centre with central functions. It is a concentration, set, grouping of (several or more)
settlement units, functionally interrelated, located close to each other and displaying a
tendency towards further development of closer economic, social and cultural cooperation, leading to integration into a more compact complex. Conurbation all the
time transforms, develops and grows (rarely regresses).
Autochthonous
population
Population of Polish origin living in Silesia. Commonly called “Silesians” applied both
to indigenous population in the region, to incoming population living there even for
several generations and identifying themselves with a new place of residence as well as
to German-speaking population connected with Silesia as a place of birth, residence,
tradition and at the moment often living in Germany.
Beneficiary
Pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) 1083/2006 – economic entity, entity or
enterprise, public or private, responsible for initiation or initiating and carrying out
undertakings. Within aid schemes referred to in art. 87 of the Treaty, beneficiaries can
be public or private enterprises which implement individual projects and receive public
aid.
Biomass
It is the third in volume natural energy source in the world. According to the European
Union definition, biomass includes any organic substances of plant or animal origin as
well as all derivatives obtained as a result of processing substances of plant or animal
origin. According to the order of the Minister of Economic Affairs and Labour of 9
December, 2004 biomass is biodegradable solid or liquid substance of plant or animal
origin.
Biodiversity
Diversity of forms of life with their variability at the level of genes, species and
ecosystems, on the global scale or closer biogeographical units. According to the
definition officially adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity, species
diversity means diversity of all living organisms on the Earth, among others in land,
sea and other water ecosystems as well as in ecological complexes whose part these
organisms are. It applies to diversity within the species and diversity at the level of
ecosystems.
Strategic objective
Objective set in a wider sectoral, regional or national perspective to which the project
is to contribute. It specifies a required vision of reality within time covered by the
programme.
Cross-financing
Principle of flexible, cross financing aimed at making single-fund operational
programmes easier to implement through funding measures which fall within the
intervention area of another structural fund, in compliance with art. 34 Council
Regulation (EC) 1083/2006. This principle applies only to the measures which are both
necessary for successful completion of the project and directly connected with the
project or a group of projects. The percentage of funds which may be covered by the
principle is limited to 10% at the priority axis level of the Programme.
Research and
development
Creative work undertaken in a systematic manner in order to broaden knowledge and
use the knowledge for creating new application.
(R&D)
Today, economic growth depends on scientific and technical progress which
determines its directions and pace. The Treaty of Rome of 1957 (art. 130 f) provides
for the necessity of strengthening a scientific and technological position of the
European Community in the global market. The aims of the Community measures
within R&D are to co-ordinate policies of particular member states as well as to call
for and implement scientific and research programmes, in particular related to research
problems which – due to many disciplines involved, the amount of expenditure,
research staff – may be better, more quickly and more efficiently conducted jointly.
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draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
TERM
EXPLANATION
The Community R&D policy is also aimed at creating cohesion between measures
taken in this area by particular states as well as making the results available to small
and medium-sized enterprises. It is to support and in consequence make technological
differences between regions smaller and create better conditions for fair competition.
The abbreviation for research and development is R&D.
The R&D sphere includes scientific, research and development units, units serving
science (scientific libraries, archives, scientific associations), universities running
R&D operations and development units running R&D operations apart from other
operation.
Effectiveness (of funds
use)
Evaluation criterion to compare expenditure on the programme (e.g. financial,
administrative, human) with actual effects of the programme at the level of product,
result and impact.
Ecosystem
Ecological unit which includes biocoenosis (all the populations inhabiting a particular
area) and biotope (environment of these populations).
European Regional
Development Fund
(ERDF)
One of structural funds whose objective is to eliminate disproportions in development
of the EU regions. In particular, the fund provides support for investments in
production, infrastructure development, local development initiatives as well as small
and medium-sized enterprises.
European Social Fund
(ESF)
One of structural funds, the main instrument of the Community social policy. It
ensures financial assistance for projects related to professional trainings, changing
professional qualifications and creating jobs.
European Agricultural One of structural funds whose aim is to promote sustainable development of rural areas
in the whole Community in the manner complimentary to market instruments.
Fund for Rural
Development (EAFRD)
European Fisheries
Fund (EFF)
One of structural funds whose major aims are rational management of living resources
of waters and improvement in efficiency of the fisheries sector as well as increasing
competitiveness of fisheries and fish processing.
Euroregion
Clearly specified and sectioned off borderland in two or more states which cooperating with each other through local self-governments solve common problems of
inhabitants, break down mutual prejudices. It can be defined as a formal structure of
cross-border co-operation between representatives of societies, local and regional
authorities, as well as economic and cultural partners. Joint projects are related most
often to: transport, trade, ecology or energy consumption. Joint initiatives on regional
development and environmental protection facilitates solving problems at a local level.
In the European Union euroregions were strongly promoted as pilot solutions,
preceding and preparing to integration of member states. Euroregions and their
functioning were regulated by the European framework convention on transborder cooperation (of 1980) and the European Charter of Border and Cross-Border Regions (of
1995). The aims of euroregions include first of all economic co-operation,
development of transport connections, environmental protection, cultural and
educational activities as well as tourism. Euroregional co-operation is the closest and
most institutionalised form of cross-border co-operation.
e-services
Services provided electronically. Pursuant to the act of 18 July, 2002 on provision of
electronic services (Journal of Laws No. 144, item 1204 as amended), electronic
services are those rendered through sending and receiving data by means of
telecommunications and IT systems, at the customer’s individual request, without both
parties present at the same time, and the data are transmitted via public networks. Eservices are for example: purchases in Internet shops, opening bank accounts and bank
operations, programme downloading, taking part in auctions.
Programme evaluation
Assessment of the Community structural assistance impact in relation to objectives and
analysis of its effect on specific structural problems.
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Ex-post evaluation
Evaluation made after the programme implementation is completed whose major aim
is to specify its long-term effects, including the amount of funds involved, efficiency
and effectiveness of the assistance. The major aim of the ex-post evaluation is first of
all to provide information about lasting effects brought about by the implementation of
a particular programme along with conclusions on structural policy directions.
Ex-ante evaluation
Evaluation made before the implementation of the programme begins. Its basic aim is
to verify long-term effects of support, included in programme documents. The
essential aim of the ex-ante evaluation is to improve a quality of programme
documents due to participation of an entity independent of the programming institution
in a programming process. Ex-ante evaluation is to ensure that funds appropriated for
implementing the policy of eliminating differences in development between particular
regions in the European Union will be used so as to guarantee the best effects.
Regional foresight
Analysis of development and tendencies of the region in order to show the desired
directions for changes and optimum route for shaping internal factors of regional
growth taking into account the effect of external factors, to identify current priorities in
research, development, technologies and innovations on the basis of scenarios for the
desired development of these fields as well as the economy and society.
Results of the Foresight inform policy-makers of new tendencies, help agree upon
scenarios of development, allow for making actions of social partners harmonious.
Metropolitan functions
Functions of cities and urban complexes. Depending on their level of development and
specialisation, quality and uniqueness, they are regional, national, continental or even
global in nature. They should ensure external expansion of the region where they are
located on national and international scale. Metropolitan functions have a value of rare
goods and are characterised by a high quality of basic service functions (including also
high quality of space).
Private Equity and
Venture Capital
investments
Private Equity investments are those where an investor makes his/her equity available
to companies not quoted on the stock exchange. This equity enables entrepreneurs to
finance their considerable growth. Private Equity means any investments in a nonpublic capital market aimed at earning medium and long-term profits on capital equity
growth. One of the PE investments is participation in a PE Fund. PE Funds may invest
in different types of enterprises: mature companies, planning to be listed on the stock
exchange in future, requiring restructuring or changing owners. In the Western Europe
a popular form of PE investments is management buyout. Venture Capital is another
type of Private Equity. These are investments made in early stages of enterprise
developments aimed at starting up a particular company or at its expansion. Private
Equity investments are investments in enterprises in different phases of their
development. Every phase is characterised by specific financing possibilities and has
specific requirements.
Pre-accession funds
Funds of non-returnable financial aid granted to candidate countries by the European
Union. Their major aim is to prepare these states to membership in the EU and to help
in eliminating economic differences. The instruments within these funds include:
PHARE, ISPA, SAPARD.
Structural funds
EU financial resources which allow for assistance in restructuring and modernisation
of member states economy with interventions in key sectors and regions (improvement
in structure). There are four structural funds: European Regional Development Fund
(ERDF), European Social Fund (ESF), European Agricultural Fund for Rural
Development (EAFRD) [in 2004-2006 European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee
Fund], European Fisheries Fund [in 2004 -2006 Financial Instrument for Fisheries
Guidance].
Knowledge-based
economy
Economy directly based on production, distribution and use of knowledge and
information. The knowledge is regarded as a product and a factor driving economic
growth. The most important feature of the knowledge-based economy is the increasing
importance in globalisation, IT technologies, and first of all in the development of
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science and knowledge as a basis for changes in the economy.
ICT
Information and Communication Technologies
.A branch of knowledge covering information technology (including hardware and
software used for creating, transmitting, presenting and securing information),
telecommunications, tools and other technologies related to information. It provides a
user with tools which help him obtain information, sort it out, analyse, process,
manage and transmit to other people. Modern information and communication
technologies are first of all IT technologies (telephone and IT) related to storing,
processing, transmitting and using resources of information and knowledge.
Business incubator
Innovation
Non-commercial instrument for entrepreneurship development whose aim is to
streamline establishment and operation of small and medium-sized enterprises. It is an
instrument aiding job creation and development of different types of business activity,
leading to establishing a greater number of firms which use high technologies.
Idea, conduct or thing which in quality terms is different from those existing so far.
Innovations include products and services as well as actions aimed at providing them
to customers and convincing them of their usefulness. They offer entrepreneurs and
managers favourable opportunities for making significant changes, undertaking a new
activity, rendering new services and attracting innovative customers thanks to them. A
test for a successful innovation is a success in the market. [T. Szucki “Encyklopedia
marketingu”, Warsaw 1998.
In a company innovation means most often novelties used in products, technology or
management. Actually, innovations in a company are divided into: process, product,
organizational, marketing and environmental.
Innovativeness
Capability of enterprises to create and implement innovations as well as an actual skill
of launching new and modernised products, new or changed technological or
organisational and technical processes.
Business support
institutions
Units of financial and insurance system, organisations which facilitate establishing of
economic contacts and support economic growth.
Intermediate body in
management
Pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006, art. 2 – every entity or institution,
public or private, for whose operation the managing or certifying authority is
responsible, or unit which is delegated with a part of powers by such an authority for
beneficiaries implementing operations.
Managing Authority
Pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006, art. 59 - national, regional or
local body of public authorities, or public or private entity indicated by a member state
to manage an operational programme.
Single European
Market
Specific economic organism and at the same time a set of rules on common economic
policy. Its aim is to bring about such structural changes in economy of the member
states in order to increase the EU capability to create economic growth and jobs.
Cluster
Geographical centres of interrelated firms, specialised suppliers, units providing
services, plants/workshops operating in related sectors as well as institutions connected
with them (e.g. universities, units for standardisation and trade associations) in
particular sectors, competing but also co-operating with each other. Clusters, achieving
critical mass and remarkable competition successes in certain fields are a conspicuous
feature of almost every national, regional, state economy, and even big-city economy,
in particular in developed countries.
The effect of their operation is strengthening innovative potential of the region,
development of co-operation between firms from related sectors of economy (by cooperation with the R&D sector and business support organisations as well as
increasing competitiveness of companies in the local, national and international
markets).
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Competitiveness of the
region
Set of features which determine attractiveness of the region as a place for investing or
living; it is also a manifestation of technological advantage or lower prices of goods
and services produced in the region in comparison with other regions.
Convergence
One of the three strategic objectives of the EU in programming period 2007-2013. The
objective is aimed at areas with low socio-economic development whose priority is
economic growth and creating jobs. The objective is to be achieved by improving
conditions for growth and jobs thanks to increased investments in material and human
resources, development of innovativeness and knowledge-based society, abilities to
adapt to economic and social changes, protection and improvement of the
environment, increasing in efficiency of administration.
Voivodeship contract
Pursuant to the act of 6 December, 2006 on rules for development policy – an
agreement about co-financing a regional operational programme with funds from the
state budget of from foreign sources, concluded between a minister competent for
regional development and the executive board of the voivodeship under terms and
conditions set by the government.
Ecological corridor
Pursuant to the act of 16 April, 2004 (Journal of Laws of 2004 No. 92, item 880, of
2005 No. 113, item 954, No. 130, item 1087.) on protection of nature, it is the area
allowing for migration of plants, animals and fungi.
Third Pan-European
corridor
Pan-European transport corridors were established at conferences on transport
organised by the European Parliament and the European Commission in Crete (1994)
and Helsinki (1997). Across Poland there are four pan-European corridors running.
The Third Pan-European Transport Corridor is a road and railway route which runs at
the northern part of Sudeten and Carpathian Mountains, from southern Germany,
across southern Poland, western Ukraine, to Kiev at the Dniepr River. In Poland it
connects the most important centres in the south: Legnica, Wrocław, Opole, Gliwice,
Katowice, Kraków, Rzeszów, Przemyśl.
Continuing education
Process of continuous improvement of general and professional qualifications which
lasts all man’s life. It is regular adaptation to economic, cultural and scientific changes
in the contemporary world as education received at school becomes out-of-date with
time. It should be continued and rounded out as time goes by. Continuing education is
provided by public and non-public units.
Eligibility of
expenditure
Criteria concerning expenditure incurred when the project is carried out, implemented
and monitored which have to be satisfied in order to have it partially reimbursed from
structural funds or from the Cohesion Fund.
LEADER
Community initiative for aiding projects related to rural development, in particular
local pilot undertakings. The initiative is fully financed by the Guidance Section of the
European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund. LEADER assistance is intended
for grass-roots formulation and implementation of the development strategy for a
particular area, not for concrete projects whose themes are imposed in advance. Local
community has to organise itself in a local action group (LAG) and present a
development strategy for its region. Then it receives financial resources (so called
global grant) which is at their disposal within the adopted strategy. The programme
provides for two schemes of measures and aid: scheme I – promotion, information and
training as a preliminary stage to prepare for devising a strategy. It includes expert
evaluations, studies, analyses, assistance in establishing a LAG. Scheme II – financing
operational costs of a LAG, promotion of the region, including organisation of cultural
events, fairs, exhibitions, competitions etc., information, trainings, inter-regional cooperation, consultancy and expert evaluations. The Community Initiative implemented
in Poland in 2004-2006.
Small and mediumsized enterprises
Pursuant to the Act of 2 July, 2004 on free economic activity, a small enterprise is the
one which in at least one of two recent financial years: on average employed fewer
than 50 people and recorded net turnover in sales of goods, products and services as
well as financial operations not exceeding the equivalent in PLN of EUR 10 million ,
or sums of its assets in the balance sheet prepared at the end of one of these years did
(SMEs)
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not exceed the equivalent in PLN of EUR 10 million.
A medium enterprise is the one which in at least one of two recent financial years: on
average employed fewer than 250 people and recorded net turnover in sales of goods,
products and services as well as financial operations not exceeding the equivalent in
PLN of EUR 50 million, or sums of its assets in the balance sheet prepared at the end
of one of these years did not exceed the equivalent in PLN of EUR 43 million.
Small and medium-sized enterprises are not the enterprises where another enterprise,
the State Treasury or a unit of local self-government hold: 25% and more shares; rights
to 25% or more share in profits; 25% or more votes in the meeting of shareholders,
general meeting of shareholders or general meeting of co-operative.
Migration
In general, phenomena related to travelling of population between spatial units - towns,
gminas, regions, states. Migration also means movement of people aimed at changing
permanently or temporarily a place of stay both within a particular state (internal,
domestic migrations) as well as from one state to the other (external migrations –
emigration and immigration). Migration also includes phenomena of population
transfer and displacement.
Micro-enterprise
Pursuant to the Act of 2 July, 2004 on free economic activity, a micro-enterprise is the
one which in at least one of two recent financial years: on average employed fewer
than 10 people and recorded net turnover in sales of goods, products and services as
well as financial operations not exceeding the equivalent in PLN of EUR 2 million, or
sums of its assets in the balance sheet prepared at the end of one of these years did not
exceed the equivalent in PLN of EUR 2 million. A micro-enterprise is not a firm where
another enterprise, the State Treasury or a unit of local self-government hold: 25% and
more shares; rights to 25% or more share in profits; 25% or more votes in the meeting
of shareholders, general meeting of shareholders or general meeting of co-operative.
Hermin model
Econometric model for assessing the effect of the EU structural funds on the
macroeconomic situation in Poland.
Monitoring
Process of collecting and analysing systematically financial and material information
concerning implementation of projects and programmes.
National Strategic
Framework of
Reference / National
Cohesion Strategy
Strategic document setting priorities and support areas as well as the implementation
system for EU funds: European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), European Social
Fund (ESF) and Cohesion Fund within the Community budget for the years 2007–
2013. The NSRF was adopted by the government on 29 November, 2006.
NATURA 2000
Programme for establishing in the states of the European Union a common system of
areas where nature is protected. A basis for the programme is provided by the Birds
Directive and the Habitats Directive as well as a number of other regulations and
implementing documents. The aim of the programme is to preserve certain types of
natural habitats and species regarded as valuable and endangered on European scale
and listed in appendices to the Directives.
Irregularity
Pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006, art. 2 – any infringement of a
provision of the Community law resulting from an act or omission of an economic
entity which has, or would have the effect of prejudicing the general budget of the
European Union by charging an unjustified item of expenditure to the general budget.
Public site
Site owned by an entity from the sector of public finance.
Metropolitan area
Area of great city and its immediate surroundings functionally related to it, established
in the concept of land development for the state.
Rural areas
Area of the state excluding towns whose population is at least 5 thousand people (i.e.
rural gminas as well as municipal and rural gminas, excluding the area of towns whose
population is at least 5 thousand people within their administrative borders).
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Renewable energy
sources
Energy sources whose resources renew themselves and for that reason they are
practically inexhaustible. Non-renewable sources are first of all fossil resources: hard
coal, brown coal, peat, petroleum and natural gas. The most important renewable
source is energy of falling water. Other renewable sources – solar energy, wind energy,
biomass, geothermal energy and other – are used to a smaller extent. Renewable
energy is cheap, user and environment friendly. Renewable sources are available for
free (solar, wind, biogas energy) or at a low cost (straw, wood).
Programming period
Period when programme documents are valid providing a basis for applying for
assistance from the European Commission.
Priority axis
Pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 – one of the priorities of the
strategy in an operational programme comprising a group of operations which are
related and have specific measurable goals.
Industrial park
Industrial lands prepared by gmina for companies which want to invest. Location for
plants which, due to the end of “incubation” period in a business incubator, have to
continue production in some other place. Such lands should be provided with basic
utilities and have prepared roads. A particular type of industrial parks are special
economic zones in Poland where investors may obtain tax reliefs.
Technological park
Institution which supports any measures requiring a high level of innovativeness. A
customer of the technological park can be anybody, in particular a small and medium
entrepreneur, who would like to start a business based on state-of-the-art technologies
or to modernise and improve existing production. A technological park helps in:
drawing up a project of innovative enterprise, risk assessment, preparation of business
plan, projects and applications for grants and funds, in contacting partners to
implement innovative enterprises, obtaining land, premises, necessary equipment for
the project, applying to financial institutions and local administration, establishing
international relations, marketing actions, promotion of products in Poland and abroad.
State aid
Any assistance granted by a Member State or with the use of state resources in any
form which disrupts or may disrupt competition by favouring some enterprises or
manufacturing of some goods, it is against the single market to the extent to which it
affects trade exchange between Member States.
Gross Domestic
Product
It is a synthetic measure for a socio-economic level of the state. It signifies production
in a particular state in a particular period, usually of one year, as a sum of expenditure
by households on purchases of consumption goods and services, expenditure of a
private sector on purchases of investment goods and services, state expenditure on
purchases of goods and services as well as foreign trade balance.
Programme for the
Odra River 2006
It was approved for implementation with the Sejm act on 6 July, 2001 as a long-term
governmental programme (Journal of Laws 2001, No. 1067, item 98), covering a
number of economic and investment measures related to modernisation of the Odra
River water system, among which the most important is flood prevention in the whole
Odra River basin. The programme is carried out by the Council of Ministers through
the agency of the Government Proxy for the "Programme for the Odra River 2006"
(Journal of Laws of 2002, No. 31, item 278). A consultative and advisory body is a
Steering Committee made up, among others, of: Prime Minister’s representative,
representatives of competent ministers (for water management, public finances, public
administration, rural development, regional development, economic affairs, transport,
sea management and environment), European Integration Committee as well as of
governers of lubuskie, śląskie, opolskie, dolnośląskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, łódzkie,
wielkopolskie, zachodniopomorskie voivodeships, representatives of science and
ecological organisations. The programme is scheduled for the years 2002-2016, and its
cost will be more than 9 milliard PLN. For comparison – damage due to the flood in
July 1997 were assessed at 14-25 milliard PLN.
Operational
Document submitted by a Member State and approved by the Commission which
specifies a development strategy with the use of coherent set of priorities to be
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programme
achieved be means of the fund or as for the “Convergence” objective of the Cohesion
Fund and ERDF.
Project of regional
importance
Project to the greatest extent is to affect economic growth of the region and creating
jobs as well as constitute a driving force for the development of the voivodeship.
Integrated project
Package of individual projects integrating investment tasks in providing complete
utilities for a site which at the same time are covered by two support areas indicated in
ROP, i.e. road infrastructure from priority axis 3 - Transport and water and sewage
infrastructure from priority axis 4 – Environmental protection.
Taking intervention measures in the areas with the smallest opportunities for
Fight against social
exclusion in some areas development and the most difficult socio-economic situation.
Entrepreneurship
Set of characteristics and behaviours for which typical are a skill of perceiving Leeds
and readiness to take a risk. Apart labour, land and capital, it is a production factor.
A measure of entrepreneurship is an entrepreneurship indicator, usually show as a
number of economic entities per 1,000 people.
Recycling
Use of waste or used elements (e.g. machinery parts) for making new products, e.g.
waste paper to manufacture paper, used car tyres as fuel in cement plants.
Regional Innovation
Strategy
Necessary document which has to be prepared in every region to make it possible for
the region to use the EU funds for measures related to innovations and transfer of new
technologies. The document is focused on the SMEs sector, universities, scientific and
research institutes as well as large companies.
Reemigration
Come back of emigrants (return migration) to their homeland after permanent stay
abroad. Reemigrants are persons who come back to the home country after permanent
stay abroad.
Reintroduction
In biology a term meaning reintroducing into old places of living native species of
animals and plants which used to live there but were killed off. In the Opole region a
programme for reintroduction of Spermophilus citellus (a species of gopher) is in
progress.
Register of
monuments
On the basis of the Act of 15 February, 1962 on protection of cultural goods and
museums (Journal of Laws No. 10 of 1962, item. 48) the Voivodeship Inspector of
Monuments keeps a register of monuments located in the voivodeship. The
monuments listed in the register of monuments are subject to legal protection.
Protection of cultural goods consists in protecting them against destroying, damage,
devastation, loss or taking abroad, in ensuring conditions for their durability, in
preparation of scientific documentation, recording and registration as well as
conservation, restoration or reconstruction, based on scientific principles. Immovable,
movable cultural goods and collections are listed in the register of monuments on the
basis of a decision of, among others, of the voivodeship inspector of monuments,
issued automatically or upon application of the owner of the cultural goods, their user
or competent body of the poviat or gmina.
Restitution
Restoration of a species or population threatened with extinction.
Revitalisation
Includes a process of rehabilitation and redevelopment of polluted areas or areas
whose natural conditions have been adversely changed, in order to restore such
conditions which will make it possible for these areas to serve functional purposes.
General regulation
A fundamental legal act of the European Union which regulates the use of structural
funds and Cohesion Fund: Council regulation laying down general provisions on the
European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion
Fund. [Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 of 11 July, 2006, Official Journal 210
of 31.07.2006]
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Regional development
All the measures taken by regional and national authorities aimed at increasing
economic potential of regions as well as permanent improving of their competitiveness
and living standards of their inhabitants which contribute to socio-economic growth of
the state.
Population equivalent
Conventional parameter specifying the size of sewage treatment plants. 1 PE is a
biodegradable organic unit expressed in five-day biochemical demand for oxygen
(BDO5) in 60 g of oxygen per day (pursuant to art. 43 par. 2 of the act of 18 July, 2001
Water law).
High-tech sector
High-tech companies use first of all knowledge and human resources. They require
intensive innovative activities and considerable outlays on research and development,
aiding growth of all the sectors of economy. Strong and rapidly developing high-tech
companies are one of the most important factors determining a success of the whole
economy. Thanks to high-tech companies the economies receive new solutions. Their
experiences are used by a traditional part of the economy.
Transeuropean
networks
Infrastructure network including transport connections (TENT), power lines (TEN-E)
and telecommunications system within the EU area.
Habitat
Place where an organism or population occurs naturally.
Information society
Establishing a network of information technology which will radically change living
and working conditions in Europe. Joint efforts to create the European information
society is a task of top priority for the European Union. In 1994 so called
Bangemann’s report highlighted the importance of electronics, IT sector and
telecommunications for economic future of the EU. Since 1996 a few thematic projects
have been initiated to popularise modern technologies in different environments in the
member states. Target groups for projects are enterprises, in particular small and
medium-sized, public administration and educational sector. During the summit of the
European Union in Helsinki in 1999 a declaration was made to jointly perform tasks
recognised as of key importance for building the information society: introduction of
digital technology into everyday life, creating opportunities for making use of digital
information, social support for these processes and strengthening the European unity.
New technologies constitute enormous potential of new services. Often it is enough to
use a computer and connect it to a telephone network.
Lisbon Strategy
Socio-economic programme of the European Union whose aim is to build in Europe by
2010 the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world, knowledge-based,
capable of long-term development, creating more, better jobs and characterised by
greater social cohesion. The Strategy was adopted in March 2000 during the summit of
the European Union in Lisbon, completed during the summit in Goeteborg in 2001.
National Development
Strategy
A basic strategic document specifying objectives and priorities of the development
policy for the nearest years and conditions to ensure his development. The National
Development Strategy is a superior, multiannual, strategic document for the socioeconomic growth of the state which is a reference for other government strategies and
programmes as well as those prepared by units of local self-government. The National
Development Strategy is not a document required by the European Commission.
However, for information purposes, it will be submitted to the Commission. On 29
November, 2006 the government adopted the National Development Strategy for
2007-2015.
Community Strategic
Guidelines
Community document setting general priorities of the cohesion policy which provides
a framework for programming development for 2007-2013. The idea of the document
is to give general guidelines for the cohesion policy in programming period 2007-2013
to be taken into account in development plans prepared in particular member states of
the EU. The Community Strategic Guidelines were adopted with Council Decision of 6
October, 2006 (2006/702/WE).
Form of permanent access to the Internet of high quality, including services added and
active equipment administered by an operator, provided with quality warranty;
Broadband access to
the Internet
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common name of transfer technologies (wired, wireless, fibre optic and infra red)
which provide a final user with a high capacity access to information (bandwidth
several times higher than an access via modem).
Development
conditionality
External and internal conditions and occurrences which may significantly affect
economic growth and structural changes in the region.
Indicators
Measure for objectives to be achieved, resources involved, products and effects
obtained as well as other variables (in particular economic, social, related to
environmental protection)
Storage reservoir
Also called artificial, is constructed at water dykes on rivers and intended for taking
surplus water (in case of flood, spring melt) and returning it during droughts. Storage
reservoirs protect lower situated areas against flood. Water stored in them is often used
for power generation purposes (for driving turbines in hydroelectric power stations),
irrigation of arable land, water supplies to towns and industrial plants, improvement in
conditions of sailing as well as for recreational purposes.
Sustainable
development
Socio-economic development where political, economic and social measures are
integrated and at the same time natural balance and basic natural processes are
maintained in order to guarantee that basic needs of particular communities or citizens
both in contemporary and future generations will be satisfied.
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List of abbreviations
EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATION
ABBREVIATION
R&D
Research and Development
BAEL
Population Economic Activity Poll
CKP
Centre for practical training
CKU
Centre for continuing education
EIB
European Investment Bank
EIF
European Investment Fund
EFF
European Fishery Fund
ERDF
European Regional Development Fund
EARDF
European Agricultural Rural Development Fund
ESF
European Social Fund
EQUAL
Initiative on supporting measures aimed at creating a greater number of
jobs and ensuring access to them
CF
Cohesion Fund
GUS
Central Statistical Office
GZWP-333
Underground water reservoir Opole - Zawadzkie
ICT
Information and Communication Technology – sector of information and
telecommunications technologies
INTERREG
Initiative of inter-regional co-operation between the European Union
regions
IB
Intermediate Body
ISPA
Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession
IB
Implementing Body
MA
Managing Authority
SEM
Single European Market
SGU
Self-government units
EC
European Commission
MC
Monitoring Committee
NPMWT
National Programme for Municipal Waste Treatment
LEADER
Community initiative on supporting rural development projects
MEN
Ministry of Education
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ABBREVIATION
MRR
Ministry for Regional Development
SMEs
Small and medium-sized enterprises
MSMEs
Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises
NSRF/NCS
National Strategic Reference Framework/National Cohesion Strategy
RES
Renewable energy sources
RDP
Rural Development Programme
PHARE CBC
PHARE Cross-Border Co-operation Programme
PHARE SEC
Socio-economic cohesion
OP
Operational Programme
OP TA
Operational Programme Technical Assistance
OP I&E
Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment
PE
Population equivalent
ROP OV 2007-2013
Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie Voivodeship for 20072013
SOP
Sectoral Operational Programme
SOP RURAL
Sectoral Operational Programme “Restructuring and Modernisation of
Food Sector and Rural Development”
SOP FISH
Sectoral Operational Programme “Fisheries and Fish Processing”
SOP HRD
Sectoral Operational Programme “Human Resources Development”
SOP T
Sectoral Operational Programme “Transport”
SOP IEC
Sector
Operational
Programme
“Increase
in
Enterprises
Competitiveness”
NDS
National Development Strategy
OVDS
Opolskie Voivodeship Development Strategy
SWOT
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats – a method for analysing
advantages and weaknesses in comparison with opportunities and threats
in the area
CSG
Community Strategic Guidelines
TFOGR
Regional Agricultural Land Protection Fund
EU
European Union
UMWO
Marshal Office of the Opolskie Voivodeship
WFOŚiGW
Regional Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
174
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
ABBREVIATION
EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATION
IROP
Integrated Regional Operational Programme 2004-2006
IG
Integrated Guidelines on Growth and Jobs
175
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
List of tables
NO.
TITLE OF TABLE
PAGE
1.1
Changes in population as well as birth rate and migration balance per 1,000 people in
the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1995-2005
12
1.2
Forecast of basic demographic values in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2002-2030
13
1.3
Population and forecast on population in the Opolskie Voivodeship in towns and in
rural areas in 2010-2030 (in thousand people)
14
1.4
Changes is average monthly employment in the sector of enterprises in 2000-2005 in
the Opolskie Voivodeship.
16
1.5
Number of unemployed registered in the Opolskie Voivodeship and unemployment
rate in 1999-2005 in Poland and in the Opolskie Voivodeship (at the end of December
2005)
17
1.6
GDP per capita in the EU 25 in 2003
19
1.7
Flats equipped with systems in the Opolskie Voivodeship in towns and in rural areas
in 2004 (w %)
23
1.8
Density of water-supply and sewage systems in rural areas in the Opolskie
Voivodeship in 1999-2004
23
1.9
Entities of national economy in the Opolskie Voivodeship by the number of
employees 1995 and 2004
25
1.10
Entities of national economy by units belonging to the business support sector in
1995-2003
26
1.11 Number of employed in R&D in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1995-2004
28
1.12
Public hard-surface roads per 100 km2 and percentage of roads with improved surface
in total length of roads in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1999-2005
29
1.13
Number of schools by the level of education and number of pupils in school year
2004/2005
35
1.14
Audience at cinemas per 1,000 people and audience at theatres and music institutions
per 1,000 people in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1999-2005
42
1.15 Number of monuments in the Opolskie Voivodeship (at the end of 2005)
1.16
Projects from the Opolskie Voivodeship approved for implementation within
particular Sectoral Operational Programmes
1.17 Summary of implementation of programmes carried out in 1999-2006
42
55
59
2.1
Consistency of objectives of ROP OV 2007-2013 with documents at the national and
regional levels
76
2.2
Analysis of priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2013 in comparison to the National
Programme of Reforms for 2005-2008 for the Lisbon Strategy
79
2.3
Indicators for general objective of ROP OV 2007-2013
80
3.1
List of priority axes ROP OV 2007-2013
87
3.2
Target indicators for Priority Axis 1 ROP OV 2007-2013
89
3.3
Target indicators for Priority Axis 2 ROP OV 2007-2013
93
176
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
3.4
Target indicators for Priority Axis 3 ROP OV 2007-2013
98
3.5
Target indicators for Priority Axis 4 ROP OV 2007-2013
103
3.6
Target indicators for Priority Axis 5 ROP OV 2007-2013
109
3.7
Target indicators for Priority Axis 6 ROP OV 2007-2013
113
3.8
Target indicators for Priority Axis 7 ROP OV 2007-2013
117
3.9
Complementarity and co-ordination of ROP OV 2007-2013 with PDRA 2007-2013
and with OP Sustainable Development of Fisheries and Coastal Fishing Areas 20072013
118
4.1
Distribution of funds for ROP OV 2007-2013 and implementation of the Lisbon
Strategy with division into particular priority axes of the Programme
120
4.2
Distribution of total funds for ROP OV 2007-2013 with division into particular years
(commitments)
120
4.3
Distribution of funds with division into priority axes and sources of financing
121
4.4
Indicative distribution by categories of the programmed use of the ERDF contribution
in ROP OV 2007-2013 – priority issues
122
4.5
Indicative distribution by categories of the programmed use of the ERDF contribution
in ROP OV 2007-2013 – form of financing
124
4.6
Indicative distribution by categories of the programmed use of the ERDF contribution
in ROP OV 2007-2013 – territory
124
6.1
Total effect of ROP OV on GDP (in %), unemployment rate (in percentage points),
number of the employed (in thousand people) and investments in fixed assets (%) in
relation to the baseline scenario
144
6.2
Effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on production volume (expressed as percentage change
in relation to the baseline scenario) and situation in the labour market (expressed as
change in relation to the baseline scenario) in particular sectors
145
6.3
Change in GDP in comparison to baseline forecast in 2007-2015 obtained using
HERMIN model and MaMoR2 model
145
8.1
Comments gathered during consultations by thematic areas
163
177
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
List of drawings
NO.
TITLE OF DRAWING
PAGE
1.1
Migration balance and birth rate in the Opolskie Voivodeship by poviats in 2004
12
1.2
Total number of crimes in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1998-2004
16
1.3
Indicator of crime detection in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1998–2004
16
1.4
Working people by sectors in the Opolskie Voivodeship and Poland in comparison to
the European Union in 2003 (in %)
17
1.5
Unemployment rate in Poland by voivodeships (at the end of December 2005)
18
1.6
Unemployment rate in Poland by poviats (at the end of December 2005)
18
1.7
Changes in Gross Domestic Product in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1995-2003 (in PLN
mld)
19
1.8
GDP per capita in the Opolskie Voivodeship in relation to the national average in 19952003 (%) (Poland=100)
19
1.9
Synthetic assessment of investment attractiveness of voivodeships
20
1.10 Investment sites in poviats of the Opolskie Voivodeships (at the end of 2005)
20
1.11
Structure of creating GVA in the state of the European Union and in the Opolskie
Voivodeship in 2002 (in %)
22
1.12
Number of economic entities per 1,000 inhabitants in the Opolskie Voivodeship and in
Poland in 1998-2004
25
1.13 Relation of outlays on R&D to GDP by voivodeships in 2003 (in %)
28
1.14 Transport system in the Opolskie Voivodeship
29
1.15 Number of accidents and fatalities in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 1999–2004
30
1.16 Density of water-supply, sewage and gas systems by voivodeships in 2004
32
1.17
Investment outlays on environmental protection per one inhabitant by voivodeships in
2004 (in PLN)
33
1.18 Target Natura 2000 network in the Opolskie Voivodeship
34
1.19 Percentage of people with higher education in Poland in 2002
37
1.20 Level of education in 2002 (in %)
37
1.21
Number of telephone lines per 100 inhabitants in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2002 in
comparison to the national average, to other voivodeships and the EU
1.22 Number of computers used per 1,000 people in selected states of the European Union in 2003
38
39
1.23
Number of beds per 100 thousand inhabitants in the states of the European Union and in
the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2002
40
1.24
Audience at cinemas, theatres and music institutions per 1,000 people by voivodeships
in 2004
41
1.25
Number of tourist facilities of collective accommodation per 100 km2 in the states of
the European Union and in the Opolskie Voivodeship in 2004
44
1.26 Number of projects implemented in 1999-2006 with division into areas
60
178
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
1.27 Amount of co-financing for projects implemented in 1999-2006 with division into areas
60
2.1
Relations between documents at the Community, national and regional levels
68
2.2
Consistency of strategic objectives and priority axes of ROP OV 2007-2013
71
6.1
Effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on GDP
143
6.2
Effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on unemployment rate in percentage points
144
6.3
Effect of ROP OV 2007-2013 on number of the employed in thousand people
144
179
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Appendix No. 1. Information about major projects
Major projects, pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006115, are
expenditure associated with an operation comprising a number of works, measures or
services:
− whose aim is to accomplish a non-divided task precise in economic or technical nature,
− which has clearly set objectives,
− whose total cost does not exceed EUR 25 mln in the natural environment and EUR 50
mln in other fields.
Within the framework of the Regional Operational Programme of the Opolskie
Voivodeship for 2007-2013 it is not anticipated to finance expenditure associated with
implementation of major projects.
115
Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 (Official Journal 210 of 31.7.2006, p. 25)., art. 39.
180
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Appendix No. 2. Context indicators for ROP OV 2007-2013
Item
Variable/Indicator
Baseline
value
SOCIETY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Employment rate*:
− by age groups (up to 25; 25-55, 55-64) [%]**:
− up to 24
− 25-54
− 55 and more
− by sex [%]**:
− men
− women
Working in total, including **:
− previous year=100 [%]
− in private sector [%]
− in SMEs [%]
Long-term unemployed in % total unemployed*
− including women [%]
Unemployment rate*:
− acc. to BAEL [%]
− including women [%]
− including town [%]
− including village [%]
− Registered
Households equipped with computer with access to the Internet in %
total households.**
Percentage of schools equipped with computers with access to the
Internet by level of education [%]*:
- primary and junior secondary [in Polish gimnazjum] schools;
- post-primary and post-gimnazjum schools (including postsecondary ones)
Education of people at the age of 15 and more****:
− secondary (including vocational and post-secondary) [%]
− higher [%]
− including in villages [%]
Rooms rented in tourist facilities of collective accommodation per 1
thousand of inhabitants [items]*:
− Including foreign tourists [item]
Fatalities in road accidents [items]*:
− per 100 thousand of inhabitants;
− previous year=100 [%]
Migration balance [‰]*:
− in towns [‰]
− in villages [‰]
− abroad [‰]
43.0%
22.7%
70.6%
13.9%
51.3%
35.8%
290,772
99.8%
70.3%
74.9%
65.6%
70.6%
17.0%
20.7%
17.0%
17.0%
18.7%
13.1
75.3%
12.5%
55.8%
8.3%
4.0%
475.0
69.6
147
14.0
98.0%
-3.0 ‰
-4.6 ‰
-1.4 ‰
-2.4 ‰
181
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Item
Variable/Indicator
Baseline
value
ECONOMY
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Gross domestic product [PLN mln]**:
− per capita [PLN]
Increase in GDP (in constant prices) [%]**
21,902
20,785
13.7%
Gross added value by sectors of economy [PLN]**:
- per 1 working person [PLN]
- Agriculture, hunting and forestry, fishery and fishing
- Industry
- including industrial processing
- Building industry
- Market services
- Non-market services
21,589
84,951
80,264
59,495
79,765
53,677
Structure of working people by sectors of economy [%]**:
− voivodeship=100 [%]
- Agriculture, hunting and forestry, fishery and fishing
- Industry
- including industrial processing
- Building industry
- Market services
- Non-market services
− previous year=100 [%]
- Agriculture, hunting and forestry, fishery and fishing
- Industry
- including industrial processing
- Building industry
- Market services
- Non-market services
Entities of national economy registered in the REGON register per 10
thousand of population [items]*:
− including: SMEs [items]
Outlays on research and development (current prices) in relation to
GDP [PLN]**:
− including financed by enterprises [PLN]***
Percentage of enterprises running innovative operations in industry
[%]**
Production of new and modernised goods in the sold production in
industry [%]*
17.3%
24.8%
22.1%
5.4%
32.5%
20.0%
99.6%
99.8%
100.0%
101.7%
99.2%
105.5%
865.0
864.1
0.13%
0.05%
40.8%
9.0%
ENVIRONMENT
182
draft of ROP OV 2007-2013
Item
19.
20.
21.
22.
Variable/Indicator
Total emission of pollution to air*:
− dust [thousand tonnes/year];
− previous year = 100 [%]
− sulphur dioxide (without CO2) [thousand tonnes/year];
− previous year = 100 [%]
− nitrogen oxides [thousand tonnes/year]
− previous year = 100 [%]
Population using sewage system [thousand] *
- in % total population:
− including in villages [%]
Population using water-supply system [thousand] *
- in % total population:
- including in villages [%]
Population served by sewage treatment plants in % total population,
- including in villages [%]**
Baseline
value
3.8
86.0
12.2
97.6
20.9
98.0
561.4
53.6%
17.3%
981.5
93.7%
89.6%
55.1%
15.3%
25.
Treated industrial and municipal waste:
− per km2 of area**
− in % sewage needing treatment*
Percentage of waste recycled in total waste (excluding municipal
waste) produced [%] (industrial) *
Municipal waste produced per 1 inhabitant [kg] **
26.
Energy from renewable sources, installed power [MW]*
22.84
5.2%
29.
Percentage of energy production from renewable sources of energy in
total production [%]****
Area with special natural assets legally protected in % total area [%]
**
Area of reclaimed and developed post-industrial and other degraded
land to total land for reclaiming [%]**
30.
CO2 emission [thousand tonnes/year]**
23.
24.
27.
28.
*
**
***
****
0.874 m3
96.6%
90.5%
9.3
27.1%
2.1%
13,669.2
Data at the end of 2005;
Data at the end of 2004;
Data at the end of 2003;
Data at the end of 2002;
Source: Central Statistical Office (GUS)
183

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