L`Impero Cinese - Centro per gli Studi di Politica Estera e Opinione

Transcription

L`Impero Cinese - Centro per gli Studi di Politica Estera e Opinione
L’Impero Cinese
L’Imperatore Wen della Dinastia
Sui, cui si deve l’avvio del progetto
di scavo del Grande Canale
(dipinto di Yan Liben, pittore di
epoca Tang, 600–673)
L’Imperatore Yang della Dinastia Sui, figlio
dell’Imperatore Wen di Sui, cui si deve il
completamento del progetto (dipinto di Yan
Liben, pittore di epoca Tang, 600–673)
Mappa del Fiume Giallo, il cui bacino copre gran parte della Cina
settentrionale, sfocia nel Golfo di Bohai (golfo interno del Mar Giallo)
Bacino del Fiume azzurro (Yangtze)
Bacino del Fiume delle Perle
Gran Canale in epoca
Sui e Tang
Gran Canale in epoca
Ming e Qing
Da Ming Hun Yi
Tu world map
(1389)
“China developed
sophisticated mapping
techniques at about
the same time as
ancient Rome, and
never lost them, so by
the ‘medieval’ period
the country had been
mapped with
considerable detail
and accuracy. When
European mapping
techniques caught up
again at about AD
1300, Islamic contacts
were able to supply
new maps of the
Mediterranean area to
China, via the
communication routes
in the Mongol Empire
and these prompted
Chinese scholars to
create world maps,
with China at the
centre and Europe,
half-way round the
globe, depicted very
small and horizontally
compressed at the
edge. Significantly,
Africa was also
mapped from an
Indian Ocean
perspective, showing
the Cape of Good
Hope area, which
Europeans would not
visit until much later.”
Hua I T'u [Map of China
and the Barbarian
Countries], ca.1137 A.D.
L’Impero Cinese sotto la
Dinastia Han
Interludio Mongolo Dinastia Yuan 1271 -- 1368 (99 anni di regno)
Chengzong, l’ultimo imperatore della dinastia
mongola degli Yuan
Cina Ming
Impero Ming
L’Impero cinese sotto
la dinastia Ming
1368 - 1644
Dalla Cina Ming
all’Impero Qing
1644 - 1760
L’Impero Cinese sotto la Dinastia Qing (1644 -1911): 267 anni di regno
Cina durante la Dinastia Mancese
Attacchi dei pirati giapponesi
Pechino, La Città proibita,
Sede ufficiale delle dinastie
Ming e Qing dal 1420 al
1924, quando la Repubblica
di Cina scacciò Puyi dalla
Corte Interna.
Confucio
Il fondatore della Dinastia Ming, Hongwu
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), known variably by his
given name Zhu Yuanzhang and by his temple name Taizu of Ming (literally "Great
Ancestor of Ming"), was the founder and first emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China.
His era name, Hongwu, means "vastly martial".
In the middle of the 14th century, with famine, plagues and peasant revolts sweeping
across China, Zhu became a leader of an army that conquered China, ending the
Yuan Dynasty and forcing the Mongols to retreat to the Mongolian steppes. With his
seizure of the Yuan capital (present-day Beijing), he claimed the Mandate of Heaven
and established the Ming Dynasty in 1368.
Monumento moderno all’eunuco Zheng
He (1371-1433) presso lo Stadthuys
Museum, Malacca Town, Malaysia.
Tomba di Zheng He a Nanjing
La grande muraglia
The Great Wall of China is the most famous wall in the world ever. This wall located in China, stretches
over approximately 6,400 km (4,000 miles) from Shanhaiguan in the east to Lop Nur in the west, along an
arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia, but stretches to over 6,700 km (4,160
miles) in total. It is 7.8 meters (25.6 ft) high and 5 meters (16.4 ft) wide.
This wonderful building built continuosly during 6th century BC to the 16th century to protect the northern
borders of the Chinese Empire from Xiongnu attacks during the rule of successive dynasties. All of
Chinese Empire Leader in that time used this wall to defend their territory, including the Qin, Han, Sui,
Northern, Jin, Shun, Ming, and Qing Dynasties. Ming Dynasty reportedly used more than one million
people to guard and defend their empire through this wall.
At the early time, the wall built from Taipa (raw materials of mud, lime, chalk, and gravel), stones, and
woods. During the era of Ming Dynasty until the last, many area of the walls rebuilt using bricks. It’s easier
to build the wall with brick than taipa or stones. Stones used only for foundation, brims, and gateway of the
wall.
Some part of this 6,700 km has been destroyed because of vandalism, erosion, and even the way
construction.
The Jianwen Emperor (5 December 1377–13
July 1402), with the personal name Zhu Yunwen,
reigned as the second Emperor of the Ming
dynasty. His reign name Jianwen means
"Establishment of Civil Virtue".
His father, Zhu Biao, Crown Prince Yiwen, was
the son and designated heir of the Hongwu
Emperor, founder of the Ming Dynasty. When Zhu
Biao died in 1392 before ascending to the throne,
the Hongwu Emperor made Zhu Biao's son, Zhu
Yunwen, his successor, rather than Zhu Biao's
younger brothers Zhu Shuang (the Prince of Qin),
Zhu Gang (the Prince of Jin) or Zhu Di (the Prince
of Yan).
Jianwen's reign was short (1398–1402). After he
assumed the throne, Jianwen Emperor began to
suppress feudal lords, including his uncle Zhu Di.
Feeling threatened, Zhu Di raised an army and in
1399, began to march toward Nanjing from his
northern base in Beijing under the banner of the
Jingnan campaign. In 1402, Zhu Di's army finally
reached Nanjing and, after a brief fight, Zhu Di
usurped Jianwen Emperor's throne and was
crowned as Yongle Emperor.
Yongle, terzo imperatore della dinastia Ming dal
1402 al 1424. Il suo nome "Yongle" significa
"Felicità Perpetua". Egli è generalmente
considerato il più grande imperatore della
dinastia Ming, e uno dei più grandi imperatori di
tutta la storia della Cina.
The Yongle Emperor (Traditional Chinese: 永樂;
Simplified Chinese: 永乐; pinyin: Yǒnglè; WadeGiles: Yung-lo; IPA: [jʊŋlɤ̂]) (2 May 1360 – 12
August 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti), was the third
emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to
1424. His Chinese era name Yongle means
"Perpetual Happiness".
He was the Prince of Yan (燕王), possessing a
heavy military base in Beiping. He became known
as Chengzu of Ming Dynasty (明成祖 also written
Cheng Zu, or Ch'eng Tsu (Cheng Tsu) in WadeGiles) after becoming emperor (self title). He
became emperor by conspiring to usurp the throne
which was against Hongwu Emperor's wishes.
He moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing where
it was located in the following generations, and
constructed the Forbidden City there. After its
dilapidation and disuse during the Yuan Dynasty
and Hongwu's reign, the Yongle Emperor had the
Grand Canal of China repaired and reopened in
order to supply the new capital of Beijing in the north
with a steady flow of goods and southern foodstuffs.
He commissioned most of the exploratory sea
voyages of Zheng He. During his reign the
monumental Yongle Encyclopedia was completed.
Although his father Zhu Yuanzhang was reluctant to
do so when he was emperor, Yongle upheld the civil
service examinations for drafting educated
government officials instead of using simple
recommendation and appointment.
L’Imperatore Yongle osserva gli eunuchi di corte impegnati nel cuju, un antico gioco Cinese simile al calcio.
Una giraffa portata dall’Africa a Yongle
(1414).
Per i cinesi la giraffa è associata al mitico
qilin, noto anche come Kylin, Kilin o Kirin,
è una creatura della mitologia cinese e
giapponese simile ad una chimera. La
leggenda
narra
che
appaia
in
contemporanea alla nascita di un uomo
saggio. È spesso rappresentato come un
mostro il cui corpo è completamente
circondato da fiamme.
L’Imperatrice Xu
La rete di relazioni diplomatiche e commerciali dell’Impero cinese in epoca Ming
Figlio di Yongle, Hongxi succede al
padre nel 1424.
Il suo nome " Hongxi " significa “Luce
immensa".
The Hongxi Emperor (洪熙
洪熙 [xʊ
ʊ̌ŋɕí]; 16
August 1378–29 May 1425) was the
fourth emperor of the Ming Dynasty in
China. He succeeded his father, the
Yongle Emperor, in 1424. His era name
means "Vastly bright".
L'Imperatore Xuande, ( 1425-1435)
dichiarava nel 1428 che la
popolazione del regno era in
diminuzione a causa della
costruzione del Palazzo Imperiale e
delle avventure militari.
In realtà si assiste sotto il suo
regno ad aumento demografico
significativo, un fatto notato da
Zhou Chen - Governatore del Sud
Zhili - nel suo rapporto del 1432 al
trono sulla diffusione del
commercio itinerante
The Xuande Emperor (Beijing, 16 March
1399 – 31 January 1435) was Emperor of
China from 1425 to 1435. His era name
means "Proclamation of Virtue".
Born Zhu Zhanji, he was the eldest son of the
Hongxi Emperor and Empress Cheng Xiao
Zhao. Xuande was also fond of poetry and
literature. Unlike his father, the Xuande
Emperor (r. 1426-35) decided to keep Beijing
as the capital and rule the dynasty in the
style of his grandfather, Yongle. He ordered
Zheng He to lead another maritime
expedition to continue the Yongle Emperor's
golden age.
1427: dipinto dell’imperatore
Xuande.
Gibboni che giocano.
L’imperatore Ming Xuande (1425-1435) gioca con i suoi eunuchi a chuiwan, un gioco simile
al golf. Il suo nome vuol dire "Proclamazione della virtù".
Zhu Qizhen ( 29 November 1427 – 23
February 1464) was an emperor of the Ming
Dynasty. He ruled as the Zhengtong Emperor
from 1435 to 1449, and as the Tianshun
Emperor from 1457 to 1464.[3] His first era
name means "Right governance" and the
second one means "Obedient to Heaven".
Candidati che hanno sostenuto
gli esami per il servizio civile, si
affollano intorno al muro dove
sono esposti i risultati
(dettaglio da un rotolo dipinto
in inchiostro e colore su
seta, di Qiu Ying (1494-1552)
The Chenghua Emperor (December 9,
1447 – September 9, 1487) was
Emperor of the Ming dynasty in China,
between 1464 and 1487. His era name
means "Accomplished change".
The Hongzhi Emperor (30 July 1470 – 8 June
1505) was emperor of the Ming dynasty in
China between 1487 and 1505. Born Zhu
Youcheng (often mispronounced as "Zhu
Youtang" since 樘 has two pronunciations, and
according to records it is pronounced as
"cheng", meaning "foundation"), he was the son
of the Chenghua Emperor and his reign as
emperor of China is called the Hongzhi Silver
Age. His era name means "Great government".
He was a wise and peace-loving ruler. Hongzhi
also had only one empress and no concubines,
and holds the distinction of being the sole
perpetually-monogamous emperor in Chinese
history.
The Zhengde Emperor (26 October 1491 – 20 April
1521) was emperor of China (Ming dynasty) between
1505-1521. Born Zhu Houzhao, he was the Hongzhi
Emperor's eldest son. His era name means "Right
virtue" or "Rectification of virtue".
The Jiajing (or Chia-ching) Emperor (16
September 1507–23 January 1567) was the
11th Ming Dynasty Emperor of China who
ruled from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu
Houcong, he was the former Zhengde
Emperor's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan
(1476–1519), the Prince of Xing, was the
fourth son of the Cheng-hua emperor
(1465–1487) and the eldest son of three
sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady
Shao.
His era name means "Admirable tranquility".
The Longqing Emperor (4 March 1537- 5
July 1572) was the 12th emperor of the
Ming dynasty in China between 1567-1572.
His era name means "Great celebration".
His name at birth was Zhu Zaihou and he
was born during the reign of his father
Emperor Jiajing, at the Forbidden City at
the Ming Dynasty capital Beijing. He was
created Prince Yu in 1539.
L'Imperatore Wanli della
dinastia Ming regnò dal 1572
al 1620. Il suo regno di 48
anni fa di lui il più longevo
imperatore della dinastia
Ming. Wanli fu testimone
dell'arrivo a Pechino del
primo missionario gesuita
Matteo Ricci.
The Wanli Emperor (4 September 1563
– 18 August 1620) was emperor of China
(Ming dynasty) between 1572 and 1620.
His era name means "Ten thousand
calendars". Born Zhu Yijun, he was the
Longqing Emperor's third son. His rule of
forty-eight years was the longest in the
Ming dynasty and it witnessed the steady
decline of the dynasty.
Replica moderna del copricapo d’oro
dell’Imperatore Wanli conservata nel Tempio
Ling En di Chang Ling presso le tombe della
Dinastia Ming.
L’originale venne rinvenuto durante gli scavi
condotti negli anni ’60 da Ding Ling ed è oggi
conservato presso il Ding Ling Museum.
L’Imperatrice Xiaojing
L’Imperatore Wanli riceve i suoi generali dopo la vittoriosa campagna di Corea
“Vie delle anime“: tombe degli Imperatori della Dinastia Ming (1368 to 1644) a Changping a nord-est di Beijing
Ming Lou o Torre delle anime: la più imponente costruzione del Mausoleo Xiaoling della Dinastia Ming a Nanjing
Tomba ming
L’Imperatore Taichang
28/08/1582 – 26/09/1620), 14°imperatore della
Dinastia Ming.
Nato Zhu Changluo, era figlio primogenito
dell’Imperatore Wanli Emperor. Il suo nome
voleva dire “grande prosperità”, “grande
generosità”
However his reign came to an abrupt end less
than one month after his coronation when he
was found dead one morning in the palace
following a bout of diarrhea. He was succeeded
by his son Zhu Youxiao, who became the Tianqi
Emperor.
L’Imperatore Tianqi
(23/12/ 1605 – 30/09/1627), 15°imperatore
della Dinastia Ming regnò dal 1620 al 1627.
Nato Zhu Youxiao, era il primogenito
dell’Imperatore Taichang. Il suo nome era
sinonimo di “Celeste apertura".
L’Imperatore Chongzhen
(6/02/1611 – 25/04/ 1644), 16°e ultimo
imperatore della Dinastia Ming, regnò
dal 1627 al 1644. Il suo nome
significava "onorevole e di buon
auspicio".
Mappa della Cina nel 1765 durante la Dinastia Qing
L’imperatore Shunzhi
Eyebeer Zasagch Khaan (15/03/ 1638 – 5/02/1661)
primo imperatore Qing a governare effettivamente
la Cina dal 1644 al 1661. Un comitato di principi
mancesi lo aveva scelto per succedere al padre
Hung Taiji nel settembre 1643 quando aveva solo
cinque anni. Gli vennero affiancati due co-reggenti:
il quattordicesimo figlio di Dorgon, Nurhaci, e il
nipote di Nurhaci, Jirgalang. Il potere politico
rimase nelle mani di Dorgon fino alla sua morte
durante una battuta di caccia l'ultimo giorno del
1650.
Dopo che il giovane imperatore ebbe iniziato a
governare personalmente nel 1651, cercò, con
alterne fortune, di combattere la corruzione e di
ridurre l'influenza politica della nobiltà mancese. E‘
sotto il suo regno che i Qing conquistarono la
maggior parte del territorio della ormai decaduta
dinastia Ming ed ebbero ragione dei pretendenti
ancora non domati, ponendo le basi del governo
Qing sulla Cina. Morì di vaiolo, una malattia letale
che era endemica in Cina, ma contro la quale i
Mancesi non avevano difese immunitarie. Gli
successe il terzo figlio Xuanye, già sopravvissuto
al vaiolo, che regnò per 60 anni come Imperatore
Kangxi.
Ritratto dell’Imperatore Shunzhi in età
adulta.
Prince Regent Dorgon in imperial regalia.
He reigned as a quasi emperor from 1643
to his death in 1650, a period during which
the Qing conquered almost all of China.
The circular mound of the Altar of Heaven, where the Shunzhi emperor conducted sacrifices on 30
October 1644, ten days before being officially proclaimed Emperor of China. The ceremony
marked the moment when the Qing dynasty seized the Mandate of Heaven.
Ritratto su seta del giovane Imperatore Kangxi in abiti
informali con in mano un pennello (1662—1722), di un
anonimo artista di corte (The Palace Museum, Beijing).
L’Imperatore Kangxi, 4°della Dinastia Qing
4 May 1654 –20 December 1722), the first to be born on
Chinese soil south of the Pass (Beijing) and the second
Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722.
Kangxi's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning
Chinese emperor in history (although his grandson, the
Qianlong Emperor, had the longest period of de facto
power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world.
However, having ascended the throne at the age of seven,
he was not the effective ruler until later, with that role
temporarily fulfilled for six years by four regents and his
grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang.
Kangxi is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He
suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the
Kingdom of Tungning on Taiwan to submit to Qing rule,
blocked Tzarist Russia on the Amur River and expanded
the empire in the northwest. He also accomplished such
literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary.
L’Imperatore Kangxi a cavallo seguito dalla sua guardia del corpo
L’Imperatore Kangxi con l’armatura cerimoniale, con arco e frecce, accompagnato dalla sua guardia d’onore
L’Imperatore Kangxi all’età di 45 anni (dipinto del
1699)
The KangxiEmperor
returns to the
Forbidden
City after his
southern
tour in 1689
The imperial
court is
awaiting the
emperors
arrival to the
palace.
Kangxi does
not appear in
this parts of
the roll.
The Kangxi Emperor on a tour, seated prominently on the deck of a junk
L’Imperatore Kangxi in età ormai avanzata,
intento a leggere un libro
The Yongzheng Emperor offering sacrifices at
the altar of the god of agriculture, Shennong
Ritratto su seta di Yongzheng, terzo
Imperatore Qing in abito di Corte, di un
anonimo artista di corte (1723—35) (Palace
Museum, Beijing).
From Album of the Yongzheng
Emperor in Costumes, by
anonymous court artists,
Yongzheng period (1723—35).
One of 14 album leaves, colour
on silk. The Palace Museum,
Beijing.
Yongzheng fu imperatore della Cina dal
18th-century Chinese painting of the Yongzheng Emperor wearing a European wig and
dress, preparing to strike a tiger with a tridentFrom Album of the Yongzheng Emperor
in Costumes, by anonymous court artists, Yongzheng period (1723—35). One of 14
album leaves, colour on silk. The Palace Museum, Beijing.
1723 al 1735.
Lo vediamo qui ritratto in vesti europee.
[Collection of the Palace Museum,
Beijing, China].
From Album of the Yongzheng
Emperor in Costumes, by
anonymous court artists,
Yongzheng period (1723—35).
One of 14 album leaves, colour
on silk. The Palace Museum,
Beijing
The Yongzheng Emperor (17231735)
From Album of the Yongzheng
Emperor in Costumes, by
anonymous court artists,
Yongzheng period (1723—35).
One of 14 album leaves, colour
on silk. The Palace Museum,
Beijing.
The private life of Yongzheng is
represented in this gallery by
paintings of twelve concubines,
arranged according to the four
seasons. The many roles in
which he envisaged himself are
shown in a set of thirteen album
leaves in which he appears
spearing a tiger, wearing a
European wig, as a Daoist Monk
and a Buddhist devotee. The
Yongzheng period is famous for
fine porcelains and lacquer ware.
A range of different examples are
presented, particularly a very
fine group of glazed plates, all in
different colours.
From Album of the Yongzheng
Emperor in Costumes, by
anonymous court artists,
Yongzheng period (1723—35).
One of 14 album leaves, colour on
silk. The Palace Museum, Beijing.
The Qianlong Emperor, born Hongli, 25 September
1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of
the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing
emperor to rule over China proper. The fourth son of
the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from
11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796. On 8 February,
he abdicated in favor of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor
– a filial act in order not to reign longer than his
grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor. Despite
his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power
until his death in 1799. Although his early years saw
the continuation of an era of prosperity in China, his
final years saw troubles at home and abroad
converge on the Qing Empire.
Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress, by
anonymous court artists. Hanging scroll, colour on silk.
The Palace Museum, Beijing.
The Qianlong Emperor Viewing Paintings, 1746—c.1750, by
Giuseppe Castiglione (Chinese name Lang Shining, 1688—
1766) and Ding Guanpeng (fl.c. 1738—1768). Hanging scroll,
ink and colour on paper. The Palace Museum, Beijing.
Emperor
Qianlong in
his study,
painting by
Giuseppe
Castiglione,
18th century
The French Jesuit Joseph-Marie Amiot
(1718–1793) was the official translator of
Western languages for Emperor Qianlong.
Mogli di Qianlong
Portrait of the Xiaosheng Empress Dowager, Qianlong period, 1751,
by anonymous court artists. Hanging scroll, colour on silk.
230.5×141.3 cm. The Palace Museum, Beijing.
This portrait presents the Xiaosheng Empress Dowager (1691—1771),
the mother of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1736—95), on her sixtieth
birthday, a major celebration in China that signalled a person?s
entrance into a new phase of life (the traditional calendar was based
on a repeating sixty-year cycle). The Qianlong Emperor honoured his
mother with a full-scale imperial celebration which included sutra
recitations at the Yanshou si (Extended Long-life Temple), an
elaborate building that had been specially constructed at the Summer
Palace for the occasion. Priests chanted wishes for her longevity and
lavish gifts were presented, including a set of nine Buddhist images
from the Emperor. Such elaborate festivities were consistent with the
Emperor’s personal devotion to his mother and his belief that the
Imperial Mother, the de facto leader of all the palace women, was of
greater importance to the State than the Imperial Wife and should
therefore receive special commemoration.
This grand likeness follows the rigid codes — such as full frontality
and elaborate dress — that were employed in all formal imperial
portraits, including images made for ancestor worship. The Xiaosheng
Empress Dowager is attired in full winter regalia, including a furtrimmed crown decorated with five pearl-studded golden phoenixes,
an ornament restricted to women of exalted rank. Her three earrings
signify Manchu ethnicity.
Mogli e figli di Qianlong nella città proibita (Giuseppe Castiglione)
The Qianlong Emperor in Ceremonial Armour on
Horseback, 1739 or 1758, by Giuseppe Castiglione
(Chinese name Lang Shining, 1688—1766).
Hanging scroll, ink and colour on silk. The Palace
Museum, Beijing.
Armatura dell’Imperatore Qianlong (Musée de l'Armée, Paris).
Chinese soldier of Emperor Qianlong, by
William Alexander, 1793.
The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour,
Scroll Twelve: Return to the Palace (detail), 1764—
1770, by Xu Yang (fl.c.1750—after 1776) and
assistants. Handscroll, colour on silk. The Palace
Museum, Beijing.
The Qianlong Emperor in Buddhist Dress, Puning si,
c. 1758, by an anonymous artist. Thangka, colours
on cloth. The Palace Museum, Beijing.
The Jiaqing Emperor (Sayishiyaltu Yirugertu Khaan, 13
November 1760 – 2 September 1820) was the seventh
emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth
Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.
He was the son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign,
he prosecuted Heshen (和珅) (the corrupt favourite of
Qianlong) and attempted to restore the state and curb the
smuggling of opium inside China.
Ritratto dell’Imperatore Jiaqing nel suo studio
The Daoguang Emperor (Doro Eldengge Hūwangdi;
16 September 1782 – 25 February 1850) was the
eighth emperor of the Manchurian Qing dynasty and
the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820
to 1850.
L’Imperatore Daoguang nei suoi giardini
preferiti
L’Imperatore Daoguang – seduto in alto a destra – assiste all’arrivo dei prigionieri catturati in occasione delle campagna
militare contro i ribelli del Turkestan Orientale (1828) A destra è la Porta meridionale (ovvero Wu-men) che dà ingresso alla
Città Proibita.
The Xianfeng Emperor (17 July 1831 – 22 August 1861),
born Aisin-Gioro I Ju, was the ninth Emperor of the Qing
Dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China,
from 1850 to 1861.
Ritratto dell’Imperatore Xianfeng nei suoi giardini
The Tongzhi Emperor (27 April 1856 – 12 January 1875), born
Aisin-Gioro Dzai Šun, was the tenth emperor of the Manchuled Qing Dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over
China, from 1861 to 1875. His reign, which effectively lasted
through his adolescence, was largely overshadowed by the
rule of his mother, the Empress Dowager Cixi. Although he
had little influence over court affairs, the events of his reign
gave rise to what historians call the "Tongzhi Restoration", an
unsuccessful attempt to stabilize and modernize China.
Il giovane Imperatore Tongzhi scrive nel suo studio
Un ritratto occidentale dell’Imperatrice
Vedova Cixi, 1903
The Guangxu Emperor (14 August 1871
– 14 November 1908), born Zaitian of the
Aisin-Gioro clan, was the eleventh emperor
of the Manchurian Qing Dynasty, and the
ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. His
reign lasted from 1875 to 1908, but in
practice he ruled, under Empress Dowager
Cixi's influence, only from 1889 to 1898. He
initiated the Hundred Days' Reform, but
was abruptly stopped when Cixi launched a
coup in 1898, after which he was put under
house arrest until his death. His regnal
name means "The Glorious Succession".
Ritratto dell’Imperatore Guangxu nel suo studio
Fotografia dell’Imperatore
Guangxu (al centro)
The three year old emperor Puyi (right),
standing next to his father the 2nd Prince
Chun and his little brother Pujie
Puyi (7 February 1906 – 17 October
1967), of the Aisin Gioro clan, was the
last Emperor of China. He ruled in two
periods between 1908 and 1917,
firstly as the Xuantong Emperor from
1908 to 1912, and nominally as a nonruling puppet emperor for twelve days
in 1917. He was the twelfth and final
member of the Manchu Qing Dynasty
to rule over China.
He was married to the Empress
Gobulo Wan Rong under the
suggestion of the Imperial Dowager
Concubine Duan-Kang. Later,
between 1934 and 1945, he was the
Kangde Emperor of Manchukuo. In
the People's Republic of China, he
was a member of the Chinese
People's Political Consultative
Conference from 1964 until his death
in 1967. His abdication was a symbol
of the end of a long era in China, and
he is widely known as The Last
Emperor.
L’Imperatore Puyi e l’Imperatrice Wan
Rong a Tianjin
Puyi nel 1922 negli abiti di Imperatore
della Cina
Puyi, Imperatore di Manchukuo
con Chū Kudō
Puyi prigioniero dei Sovietici

Similar documents