DOTACJE UNIJNE

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DOTACJE UNIJNE
Sources of conflict

Conflict in negotiations
Agnieszka Postuła, Ph.D.
[email protected]
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Positive consequences of conflict
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We speak about differences and problems openly; often, conflict reveals
one’s problems that other party didn’t know about (some people don’t
admit that conflict exist – but it usually means problems)
Conflict extort defining which problems are important (small longlasting
contract or big single agreement?)
Conflict situation helps to establish priorities (what is more important:
average salary or security of employment?)
Conflict is favourable to equalizing patries’ positions (the worst solution is
to stop trying to make situation better and consider yourself weaker party)
Conflict may lead to interesting changes and beneficial solutions.
Human needs (need of social security, group affiliation,
acceptance etc.)
needs
aspirations
Conflict of interests occurs when needs’ satisfaction is not
possible because of others parties’ aspirations (divergence of
interests)
Time – simultaneous satisfaction of one’s needs
Objective causes; conflict between: management – staff, board
– shareholder, sale – marketing, production – sale etc.
Negative consequences of conflict
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Escalation of a conflict
Pseudosolution of a conflict
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ignoring
delaing
peaceful co-existence
depreciating (dehumanizing)
reorientation (scapegoat)
separation (moving two parties away of each other living space)
fight (irreconciliable pose; other party treat as an enemy)
compromise
1
Circle of conflict
Conflict of interests
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Information
conflict
Conflict of
interests
Interpersonal
conflict
C
o
n Y
s
ci
o
u
s N
n
e
s
s
Structural
conflict
Conflict
of values
DOMINATION
PROBLEM
SOLUTION
COMPROMISE
OMISSION
Y
Real world
N
Real conflict
False conflict
Hidden conflict
Lack of conflict
NEGOTIATIONS
Strategies of conflict resolution
My
interests
Divergence of interests or conviction of parties that
their aspiration can not be accomplished
simultaneously

Definition:
two-sided process of communication, in
order to reach the agreement, that is
making common decision on future
actions, when at least some of parties’
interests are contradictory.
RETREATING
Interests of other party
2
Types of interests
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When to negotiate
When there is no sense to negotiate
 When there are other ways of conflict resolution: voting,
casting, arbitration etc.
 When there is no correlation between parties
 When we know everything about other party
Contradictory (basic reason and a
purpose of conversation)
Common (base of agreement)
Different (tool of exchange)
When negotiating is worthwhile
 There is mutual correlation of the parties (freedom of one
party is limited by interests of other party)
 There is mutual uncertainty
 When parties perceive (conflict) divergence interests
 Cultural acceptation (i.e. arabian or asian style is different
from european style of negotiation; in Turkey you must
negotiate, in banks negotiations are rather psychological
trick)
PRISONER’S DILEMMA
Negotiator dilemma
Smith

Do not confess
Confess
1 year
Do not
confess
Small punishment for
both of them
1 year
Johnson
release
Big punishment for Johnson,
nothing for Smith
8 years
8 years
Confess
Big punishment for Smith,
nothing for Johnson
release
3 years
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Creating (cooperation) – seeking for solution beneficial for both
parties or beneficial for one party and not expensive for other.
Openness, sharing information, common work on possible
solutions.
Demanding (competition) – division, maximalization of individual
benefits.
Deceiving about goals, interests and priorities, closing for
argumentation.
Average punishment for
both of them
3 years
3
Negotiator dilemma
Smith
Creating
Demanding
good
excellent
Creating
Johnson
good
fatal
trivial
fatal
Demanding
excellent
trivial
4

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