Buletin Akademik Jun 2012 - Terengganu

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Buletin Akademik Jun 2012 - Terengganu
Using workplace email for personal purposes: Are we all a bunch of unethical persons?
Most organizations in this internet era provide email
services to their employees so as to facilitate communication
and sharing of information. Of course, the service will be
accompanied by rules and guidelines tailored to the objectives
of each respective organization, but the bottom line will always
be ‘not to use the email for personal purposes’. The advantage
that it brings in facilitating our daily tasks is undeniably enormous.
Similarly, it certainly is hard to deny that such service also makes
our personal life much easier, hence, it makes it even harder to
bow to the ‘not to use the email for personal purposes’ rule. As
such, despite the stipulated rule, workplace email is nevertheless
regularly used for personal – and sometimes intimate –
conversations by employees.
In UiTM Dungun, the same phenomenon prevails.
Every now and then, non-job related emails pop-up and crowd
our inbox. For example, it is quite common to receive emails with
the subjects like “Car for Sale”, “House for Rent”, “Housemate
Wanted”, “Tazkirah for Today”, “Invitation to Majlis Kesyukuran/
Wedding Ceremony” (... and the list goes on). Some get easily
irritated by such emails, some simply delete it without feeling
annoyed, while some others take great interest in it, and not to
forget, a few regard it as a saviour. Hence, there might be an
email recipient who would type “This email must only be used
for official purposes, not personal purpose” before clicking on
the ‘reply’ button. Yet, there might be a few who would type in
“thank you for your email. It has saved me from a lot of trouble”.
Perhaps, a little peep into ethics might provide an explanation to
these two antithesis.
As ethics is a vast area, my discussion will only focus on one
aspect, ethical ideology, which might provide an insight regarding
this phenomenon. Ethical ideology is “a system of ethics used to
make moral judgments, which offers guidelines for judging and
resolving behaviour that may be ethically questionable” (Henle,
Giacalone, & Jurkiewicz, 2005, p. 219). In general, people take
particular stances regarding ethics and the position taken will
influence the judgment on what is moral and what is immoral.
As such, given the same information, two people who are in
agreement over a political or religious issue, might reach opposite
conclusions when a moral judgment is to be made.
To understand ethical ideology better, let’s take a look at the
legend of Robin Hood. To many, Robin Hood was regarded as
a hero and his role has been portrayed as a saviour who helped
the poor and the needy. Even his wrongful act of stealing has
been ignored, but instead, being regarded as a hero by some
– he stole from the rich and cruel, and distributed it to the poor
and needy. To a relativist, what Robin Hood had done was not
ethically wrong as it led to desirable consequences (many poor
and needy benefited from the action). However, an idealist would
hold on to a belief that ‘stealing is wrong’, even if it is conducted
for a good cause, hence Robin Hood was certainly not a hero, but
merely a sinning thief.
Regarding using workplace email for personal purposes, as it is
against the stipulated rules, then ethically, the act can certainly
be considered as immoral and wrong. If it were wrong, then how
come it is accepted as a norm and becomes rampant in most
organizations? Perhaps this is where ethical ideology might
explicate the issue. An idealist believes that it is wrong to use the
email for personal purposes, and would refrain from attempting it.
However, for a relativist, the desirable consequence of the action
might benefit other people more than the harm it would cause.
For example, try to envisage what a happy employee would
contribute to his/her workplace when his/her difficulty of finding
a house to stay has been solved by an email titled “House for
Rent”. The employee would certainly be happier now, relieved
from pressure, and would be in a more prepared state to fully
concentrate on his/her job, resulting in increased productivity
which would eventually benefit the organization.
Thus, should workplace email for such personal purposes be
considered wrong or unethical? Of course, workplace email has
also been used for a more personal intimate matters. One might
use it to ask another colleague to lunch; or to make a ‘Happy
Birthday’ wish; or may be to send an “I love you” note to the
loved ones. In a nutshell, one might find it hard, if not impossible,
to admit that he/she has never used the workplace email for
personal purposes. Hence, would that make every member in
an organization a bunch of unethical persons? What should
management do regarding this issue? Keeping silent would be
tantamount to downgrading their rules to merely window dressing,
while taking action on each of these offence would result in an
enormous and fruitless workload.
As a final remark, as members of an organization would always
differ in their ethical ideology, then it is expected that nonjob related emails would always find their place in our inbox,
irrespective of the reminders of the rules by the management
or unpleasant replies being sent by other colleagues. Perhaps,
all it requires is a little consideration and give-and-take from
all parties. Management, would of course, need to be smart in
handling this issue so as not to be regarded as ignorant to their
members’ needs, nor the author of window-dressing rules.
References
Forsyth, D. R. (1980). A taxonomy of ethical ideologies. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 39(1), 175-184.
Henle, C. A., Giacalone, R. A., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2005). The role
of ethical ideology in workplace deviance. Journal of Business
Ethics, 56, 219-230.
Patrons >>
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Samad Abdol Nawi | Assoc. Prof. Dr. Baharom Abdul Rahman | Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mazidah Puteh
Advisor >>
Noor Sharulniza Sau Hamid
Chief Editor >>
Gopala Krishnan
Editors >>
Asri Salleh | Raja Mariam Raja Baniamin | Goh Ying Soon
Layout & Graphics >>Roziani Mohamad (HEA)
BOARD
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EDITORIAL
Forsyth (1980), who populated this concept, proposed that the
different conceptualization of these ethical ideologies can be
parsimoniously distinguished in two general dimensions, which
are idealism and relativism. Employees higher in idealism will try to
uphold the rules and principles in their daily pursuit. They believe
that, for whatever reason, what is considered wrong should never
be attempted as the end could never justify the means. Thus, they
would avoid using workplace email for personal purposes. On the
other hand, a more pragmatic or relativistic employee, would be
more open to exceptions, hence tend to consider a situation more
openly by taking in more alternatives even if it is against the rules.
Employees high in relativism strongly believe that ethics should
be situationally determined as no one moral rule can be applied
to all situations, indicating a need to individually evaluate each
situation. Due to this, relativists would be more likely to use email
for personal purposes as there may be an increasing likelihood to
situationally justify their action.
06/ 2012
“FREEDOM WITH RESTRICTIONS”
by; Jusniza Abdul Jamal
Malaysians are assured ‘freedom of speech and expression’
under Article 10 of the Federal Constitution. However, the
Parliament may, by law, impose certain restrictions as it deems
necessary or expedient in the interest of the security, friendly
relations with other countries, public order or morality. These
restrictions are stated in Clause 2(a) of the same Article.
Today, the issue of freedom of speech and expression seems to
have become more significant with the rapid development in the
communication technology. These days, communications are
largely done online, such as through e-mails, blogs, Facebook
and Twitter. Many of us seem to forget that with freedom, comes
a great responsibility as well. When we write online, we are not
only sharing our thoughts and opinions with others, but we are
also disseminating information to the public. We wish that we
could just write anything as we please without any legal or moral
implications but we are not! At least not in the real world!
What exactly is the danger the online communication entails?
First, is defamation. Recently, a journalist, R.Nadeswaran, was
ordered to pay RM500,000 in damages to a businessman in a
defamation suit just based on the former’s Twitter postings. It
is the first case involving Twitter in Malaysia. It goes to prove
that whatever statements we made on any social network may
cause harm not only to ourselves but to others as well, despite
our true intentions.
The outcome of that case can be regarded as a landmark decision
as it reflects the state of Malaysian Law today when it comes to
cyber-libel (‘libel’ is a defamatory statement made in writing as
opposed to oral statement which is called ‘slander’). Therefore, as
users of social network, we must be responsible for whatever we
have written as it might affect the reputation of others.
In order to prove defamation, the statement must be defamatory
in nature such as calling someone a fraud. Secondly, the
defamed party must be easily identified. This means that when
the defamatory statement was issued, it was clear as to whom
it was referred to. Thirdly, the statement must be published
to a third party, even only to one person. For example, if we
communicate with our friend using a message box instead of
writing on the Facebook wall, it can still be regarded as published
even though it was sent to one particular person. Usually, the
amount of damages awarded to the plaintiff would be assessed
by how far the defamatory remark had spread. Just imagine the
damage that we might have caused if the statement is being
posted online! Once published, it cannot be completely erased
especially when someone has commented on it or re-tweet it.
Cyber space is not a lawless medium as perceived by many.
Any statements that reflect anger or dissatisfaction against
the government may amount to sedition, especially when the
writer has many followers. Legal actions have known to be
taken against the writers of blogs because those statements
may threaten the national security. In extreme cases, they may
even be charged with high treason.
It is intriguing that many of us are actually unaware of the
existence of statute and regulatory body that govern our
behavior online. The Communications and Multimedia Act
1998 was introduced among others, to promote national policy
objectives for the communication and multimedia industry in
Malaysia by establishing a licensing and regulatory framework.
The Communication and Multimedia Content Forum (CMCF)
on the other hand, is a regulatory body that was established in
2001 to govern content-related issues. As a conclusion, we must
always behave online to avoid any unwanted legal implications
as freedom of expression is not without any restrictions.
UiTM DUNGUN: Possibility of having a wind turbine
by; Norizan Ahmed | Nurbaiti Wahid | Nurhaffizah Hassan
Looking like giant fans lined up in rows, wind turbines are used
to convert kinetic energy from the wind into electrical energy or
to be more specific, to produce electricity. Nowadays, people
are realizing that wind power ‘is one of the most promising new
energy sources’ which can serve as an alternative to fossil fuelgenerated electricity. Imagine that one day, there are a number
of wind turbines along the coast of Teluk Gadung, harnessing
the wind energy to produce electricity for UiTM. Furthermore,
wind is free and an endless renewable energy, hence, isn’t it
cool to use it as a backup power supply?
Wind power involves converting wind energy into electricity by
using wind turbine which captures the wind to produce energy.
Basically, there are two types of wind turbines, rotating in the
horizontal-axis or vertical-axis. For the horizontal-axis wind
turbines, it must be pointed into the wind but for the vertical-axis,
it is not necessary. Power produced by the turbines depends
not only on the wind speed but also on the blade design. More
electricity will be generated if we are to use longer diameter
blades at the steady required speed.
To study the possibility of having wind turbines in UiTM
Dungun, a set of data must be collected to find out the relation
between wind speed, the blade diameter and the power rating.
The data collection must be taken at least for a year using a
set of turbines with different blades or rotor size. Bear in mind
that the larger the rotor diameter is, the higher the tower will
be and will have more access to faster wind. Only then, we will
have all the parameters needed in calculating the possibilities
of having a wind turbine. If the requirements are fulfilled, then
it is time to calculate the cost. And if cost is not a problem,
then the possibility of having wind turbines is possible. Wind
power is a clean energy source for the long-term future. It is
affordable, clean and sustainable; meanwhile it could reduce
global warming.
Reference:
http://science.howstuffworks.com
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The issue of employees using workplace email for personal
purposes has been long discussed. However, even after various
reminders were distributed to the users of the workplace email,
the practice is still rampant among the employees of many
organizations. Hence the widespread use of workplace email
for personal purpose remains an issue - an annoyance to some
email recipients, but a helpful note for some others.
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by; Noor Liza Adnan
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“Knowledge is intellectual property but is worth nothing until the world knows about it”
-Dato’ Dr Rajen M-
The value of an invention is priceless. It is an idea, thought,
belief, hope or commitment of being mutually transformed
into a physical form or in whatever shape we visualize. An
innovation definitely needs tremendous effort, particularly
when the innovation is indeed beneficial to all. Suffice to say,
the researcher or inventors are priceless ‘property’ given
that they are not only contributing to knowledge but also
preserving the knowledge by putting them into use.
However of particular concern is how far are these inventions
able to carry the ‘commercial value’. And should there be
commercial value, can this value be considered priceless
innovation and can the design be commercialized? On
one hand, a good invention may hold certain values, but
somehow, it fails to find its way to the market shelf. Now,
comes the inevitable question; Is it because of faulty
methods of commercialization or we have somehow failed
to showcase the invention’s commercial value? This failure
to commercialize has often been the subject of a long and
winding debate without any light being shed on the matter.
COMMERLISATION DILEMMA
It is indeed important to be able to commercialize the
innovation and design, so that the innovation and output of
creativity would not be left incognito. Of course, in carrying the
commercializing efforts, one of the most obvious concerns is
the lack of financial capability, suitability of the invention in
meeting the current market needs as well as the availability
of proper facilities to develop the commercialization.
Most of the time, there is a dilemma in manufacturing a
product- due to its uncertain market value, which is why
we conduct market research. However, the reliability of
such a research has often been in question. These are
among issues that we remain skeptical about. Although
significant research analysis on market acceptance may
have been done, the cost of developing a new, state of the
art technology product requires extensive knowledge and
expertise. We might have billions of ringgit to develop new
products; however, in order to avoid wastage, we have to
make sure that these inventions do really benefit the society
and the nation. However, letting a good product (in this
context: a product that certainly has market value) remain
undeveloped, will be another ultimate waste.
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COMMERCIALISING THE INNOVATIONS IN THE UITM
CONTEXT
Inevitably, innovators and inventors would really be happy
to see their products on the shelf once it has been patented
and developed. It requires long processes and procedures.
Commercializing the products may involve, seeking for
market funding, hiring a sales team, ensuring good support
service and carrying out further refinement1. Commercializing
products, especially products arising out of intellectual efforts
need a specific marketing strategy so that its true value is
manifest.
But how do we do this anyway? The most definite answer
would be by collaborative effort between the industry and the
universities. However, depending heavily on the industries
to develop and commercialize our products would mean
that we remain focused primarily on developing instead of
1
In Not a Bridge Too Far, The Edge Malaysia, March 2008
trying to think like an entrepreneur or business person. What
is meant here is that we should drive innovative products
towards viability based on market analysis. We should
endeavour to generate good cash flow and not merely stick
to inventing. We may get the corporate sector to help sell our
products, but the effort will be just that. We remain focused
on sales and appear to neglect further product improvement.
Dato’ Dr Rajen M,CEO of Holistic Biotech Sdn Bhd, in his
2008 article in The Edge Malaysia, has outlined a way to
effectively commercialize and innovation an innovation. He
suggested the creation of a database. In the UiTM context,
the research being done over the years should be put in
a database. This would enable collaborative effort and
research networking can be done conveniently. Sometimes,
industries do have significant amount of allocation to spend
on research and development, but they might be facing
difficulties due to the lack of novel and innovative ideas.
Another way of commercializing the product is to let the
university look for its own funding and or else, creating
young entrepreneurs who would start up their own
companies. The entrepreneur might well be the former
students. This is easier said than done. But what needs to be
done before commercializing any innovation is the building
of a management team that is capable of engaging the
customers. The most important thing is the development of a
business model, which may provide competitive advantage.
Of course, building all these require excellent people and
adequate funds. But unless we are sure that our products
are capable of meeting the needs and demands of
consumers, putting a lot of effort in commercializing will not
be worthwhile. It is just going to be another waste of effort of
trying to invent products that are not needed. If universities
can have places like hospitals for medical
and research
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purposes, we might need a team or set up that is able to run
it like a company.
Selling our own inventions and making full use of our
abundant talent is indeed very rewarding. Again, this requires
a lot of deep thought but it is worth a try and does help our
graduates to get employment.
CONCLUSION
Quoting from the word of Dato’ Dr Rajen, “ Knowledge is
intellectual property but is worth nothing until the world knows
about it”. Thus, in making the world know about it, it needs
to be commercialized and improved upon from time to time.
But are we there yet? The time may come when our products
an innovations are used throughout the globe. Time has
already given us the opportunity to win awards at international
innovation competitions, but we certainly do not want our
efforts to stop just there.
Our efforts need a clear focus and direction. UiTM, through
its efforts in setting up research centres, involving participation
in many research and innovation activities is certainly on the
right track. What we would need is to be given more time to
prove that the innovation and invention by our researchers
do have values. Given good opportunities and assistance to
bridge the fund gap, we might be able to ascend even further.
“Kau bina mahligai dari air mata
Yang jatuh berderai di wajah sepiku
Hancurnya hatiku bisa tak terkata
Terhumban rasa diriku”
“Dalam kelam engkau datang
Memujuk hati yang sepi
Dalam terang engkau hilang entah ke mana
Andai kata hanya mimpi
Mengusik kenangan silam
Mengapa hangat tanganmu ku terasa”
[5]
[6]
Bagaimanapun, harus diingat pihak yang menderita bukan
sahaja yang diputuskan hubungan, malah yang memutuskan
hubungan. Ini kerana dalam hubungan tiga segi, bila pilihan
kedua terbaik terpaksa dilepaskan, memori bersama tidak
boleh dilupuskan begitu sahaja. Persoalan orang ketiga
boleh dikaitkan dengan persoalan asas ekonomi iaitu pilihan
(choice), kekurangan (scarcity) dan kos melepas (opportunity
cost). Biarpun semasa bercinta si dara boleh memiliki lebih
dari satu pasangan, apabila tiba masanya untuk berkahwin,
hanya satu sahaja uda yang boleh dipilih sebagai pasangan.
Mana mungkin untuk dia miliki kedua-duanya serentak [7].
Ini dapat dilihat dari lagu Ditelan Pahit Dibuang Sayang oleh
Legacy.
“Semakin lama semakin jelas perasaanmu terhadapku
Walau kini ku dimiliki namun diriku kau rindukan
Aku tak mampu untuk memilih
Satu diantara kau dan dia
Tak sanggup aku merelakan
Sehingga ada jiwa yang terluka”
[8]
Tidak lupa juga pada cinta terlarang terutamanya oleh orang
tua yang tidak memahami hubungan berkenaan, pada kaca
mata sang pencinta. Biasanya faktor darjat dan kekayaan
seringkali dikaitkan dengan keterlarangan ini. Tiada restu
keluarga hingga ada kalanya membawa fitnah tertulis dalam
lirik Kau Dipaksa Aku Terpaksa oleh kumpulan Scan.
“Hina sangatkah aku pada pandangan keluargamu
Hingga sewenang tohmahan dilemparkan
Engkau hanya bisu melihat aku
Yang bermatian seorang menepis hinaan”
Andai engkau bahagia
Akukan terus berdoa
Semoga suatu masa
Pintu hatimukan terbuka
Dan kita akan kembali
[10]
Secara umumnya, boleh dikatakan yang genre rock kapak
adalah sama seperti genre-genre yang lain, menyentuh
tentang konsep cinta sama ada baru, sedang, mahu pun
putus cinta. Bagaimanapun, mengapa ianya masih menjadi
siulan sehingga sekarang adalah kerana jiwa yang ada pada
lagu-lagunya. Berdasarkan pendapat seorang artis terkenal
tanahair, lagu-lagu sekarang tiada jiwanya kerana melodi yang
hampir sama [11]. Ramai juga bersetuju yang lagu-lagu baru
sekadar menjadi halwa telinga dan teman, seiring dengan
faktor suasana dan teknologi yang ada pada masa kini,
serta lambakan artis yang semakin hari semakin bertambah
seperti hadirnya cendawan selepas hujan. Ianya juga lebih
menekankan kepada aspek rentak dan melodi berbanding
nilai sesuatu lirik itu. Golongan muda zaman kini lazimnya
berasa keliru untuk memilih ciri-ciri sebenar dalam apa yang
hendak dicari ditambah dengan faktor semulajadi, yang mana
mereka ingin mencuba sesuatu yang baru; sesuatu yang
berlainan dari melodi dan lirik yang biasa mereka dengari.
Ini membuatkan mereka terus mencari-cari dan tercari-cari
dengan sesuatu yang boleh memenuhi kepuasan mereka.
Kekosongan yang terhasil menjelaskan mengapa lagu-lagu
di era rock kapak lebih segar malar dan mampu bertahan
walaupun bersaing dengan pelbagai jenis genre pada zaman
kini. Walaupun lagu-lagu ini disampaikan dalam nada dan
rentak yang berbeza, namun setiap satu darinya mempunyai
tujuan dan kandungan yang sama iaitu dalam meluahkan isi
hati dan ketidakpuashatian yang bercirikan sifat semula jadi
seorang manusia. Kekuatan yang hadir pada sesuatu lagu itu
juga hadir dari ketulusan atau hati yang berkata-kata untuk
meluahkan isi hati terhadap sesuatu yang tidak pasti. Nilainilai kemelayuan memainkan peranan secara tidak langsung
dalam proses penulisan lirik yang mana kita secara semulajadi
berasa malu untuk meluahkan secara langsung terhadap
sesuatu, walaupun punyai hak terhadapnya. Ia seterusnya
disampaikan dalam cara yang yang tidak terlalu berterusterang dalam lagu-lagu berkenaan, tetapi tetap terkesan
kepada para pendengar.
Kesimpulannya, jiwa yang ada pada lagu-lagu era rock kapak
membolehkannya bertahan sehingga kini. Biarpun apa jenis
genre yang hadir, jika ianya masih belum mampu menandingi
jiwa ini yang telah lama mengisi hati dan perasaan, ianya
takkan mampu melebihi mahu pun duduk sama rendah dan
berdiri sama tinggi dengan genre rock kapak.
RUJUKAN:
[9]
Biar pun begitu, masih ada menerus harap agar hubungan
tersebut dapat diteruskan kembali biarpun ianya mengambil
masa yang lama. Ada juga yang terus mendoakan kebahagiaan
pasangan masing-masing biarpun mereka telah bersama
dengan orang lain. Ini dapat dibuktikan menerusi lagu Akulah
Kekasih Mu oleh kumpulan AXLs.
“Oh kekasihmu ini akan merasa gembira
Andai dapat bersama untuk selama-lama
Hanya untuk menyayangimu
Hanya untuk bercinta lagi
Andai engkau berduka
Aku yang pertama di sisi
Bercinta lagi”
[1] Hekayat, B. (2010). Rock Kapak Tangkap Leleh. Diakses
pada 25 Jun 2012 dari http://jalantelawi.com/2010/12/rockkapak-tangkap-leleh/
[2] Youtube (2012). Jumlah hits berdasarkan lagu-lagu terpilih.
Diakses pada 25 Jun 2012. Laman web umum youtube umum
boleh diakses dari www.youtube.com/
[3] Lagu Cinta Untuk Nabila. Nyanyian kumpulan Melissa.
[4] Lagu Puisi Cinta. Nyanyian kumpulan Ilusi.
[5] Lagu Mahligaimu Dari Airmataku. Nyanyian kumpulan
Lestari.
[6] Lagu Taman Astakona. Nyanyian kumpulan Slash.
[7] Asari, F. F. A. H dan Saad, A. M. (2011). Cinta dan Ekonomi.
Biz News, July-Aug 2011 (Issue 3).
[8] Lagu Ditelan Pahit Dibuang Sayang. Nyanyian kumpulan
Legacy.
[9] Lagu Kau Dipaksa Aku Terpaksa. Nyanyian kumpulan
Scan.
[10] Lagu Akulah Kekasih Mu. Nyanyian kumpulan AXLs.
[11] Azizi, M. A. Q. (2012). Lagu Sekarang Banyak Tiada Jiwa
- Sheila Majid. Diakses pada 25 Jun 2012 dari http://www.
mstar.com.my/hiburan/ cerita.asp?file=/2012/4/4/mstar_hibur
an/20120403192747&sec=mstar_hiburan
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by; Norhusniyati Husin & Nurhadiana Nurulmatin
ada menyesali takdir, menyalahkan orang ketiga, kecewa
dengan pasangan yang mungkir janji atau pun mencari salah
sendiri, diluahkan dengan baik melalui lagu-lagu rock kapak.
Diantaranya seperti Mahligaimu Dari Airmataku oleh Lestari
dan Taman Astakona oleh Slash.
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COMMERCIALISING UiTM’S INVENTIONS, INNOVATIONS AND DESIGNS
In conjuction with Terengganu Invention, Innovation and Design ( TIID 2012)
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THE BENEFITS OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN CLASSROOM
by; Kartini Binti Mat Rashid & Nurul Hidayah Rozlan
Exit-Entrance section in CDL
i-Learn Centre will open the Entrance Survey screen to students for a month starting from the first week of the semester while
the Exit Survey will be open in week 13. In case we have missed the Entrance Survey, we can always ask our students
to fill in the Exit Survey later. I have been using EES since last semester and it helped me to handle surveys for 4 groups.
Hopefully EES in i-Learn can be beneficial to all of you too.
ROCK KAPAK... MASIH ADAKAH LAGI JIWANYA?
Oleh: Fadli Fizari Abu Hassan Asari | Mohd Nurizwan Sarnu | Muhammad | Rahman Salim |
Mohd Shahrir Sulong
T
erkesima seketika apabila melihat himpunan lagulagu di dalam komputer riba seorang pelajar. Hampir
kesemuanya adalah lagu-lagu dari era rock kapak.
Bila ditanya adakah dia sahaja yang begitu, dia lantas
menyatakan dia bukannya keseorangan. Ramai lagi kawankawan yang mempunyai koleksi yang sama, tanpa mengira
latar belakang program dan tahap pengajian. Lagu-lagu
inilah yang menjadi pilihan sebagai koleksi untuk didengari
dan dinyanyikan mereka. Situasi yang sama dirasai semasa
berada di kampung halaman. Kedapatan ramai anak-anak
sekolah yang menjadikan lagu-lagu ini siulan di mulut
mereka, atau pun audio di telefon bimbit mereka. Lagu-lagu
seperti Patahnya Sayap Malam, Cintamu Mekar di Hati,
Tika dan Saat Ini, Bunga Angkasa, Akulah Kekasihmu dan
banyak lagi lagu rock kapak terus kedengaran bila bersama
mereka.
Ini ditambah lagi dengan bilangan pengunjung Youtube
untuk lagu-lagu ini [1]. Untuk lagu Taman Astakona oleh
Slash, hits sebanyak 1,636,016 sehingga 25 Jun 2012
telah dicatatkan. Begitu juga dengan lagu-lagu lain seperti
Nyanyian Rindu Buat Kekasih (Data) – 1,445,027, Niat
Hati Tak Nak Berpisah (Arrows) – 1,250,847, Bila Cinta
Didusta (Screen) – 1,096,999, dan Ditelan Pahit Dibuang
Sayang (Legacy) – 951,830 [2]. Jumlah hits yang banyak
ini walaupun klip-klip ini dimuatnaik lebih lambat dari klipklip lagu genre semasa, menjadi bukti empirik yang ianya
masih diminati sehingga sekarang. Persoalannya, jika
masih ada minatnya untuk muzik ini di kalangan anak
muda sekarang, mengapa? Untuk menjawap persoalan
ini, sejarah berkaitan rock kapak perlu diselusuri terlebih
dahulu.
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Bermula pada era 80-an dan berkembang pesat pada awal
90-an, rock kapak merupakan satu ekspresi bercampur di
antara genre rock yang diperkenalkan di barat sekitar era
70-an yang kelihatannya agak agresif, dengan peribadi
lemah lembut dan sentimental masyarakat Melayu. Ini
dapat dilihat daripada pemakaian rockers pada zaman
berkenaan yang hadir dengan seluar jeans ketat dan baju
berjaket. Ada yang bergelang serta berantai, dan yang
pastinya berambut panjang terutamanya kerinting kasar.
Aspek luaran mereka seolahnya melihatkan imej ganas
dengan lagu yang membingit telinga. Bagaimanapun
sebaik sahaja lagu diperdengarkan, kita akan dapati yang
ianya berlawanan sama sekali. Lagu-lagu mendayu yang
penuh dengan frasa pujuk rayu, kekecewaan dan harapan,
terutamanya yang berkait rapat dengan cinta terlarang dan
cinta putus di tengah jalan merupakan fokus utama lagulagu ini. Ini juga menyebabkan peminat rock kapak dikenali
dengan mereka yang jiwang karat dan tangkap leleh [1].
Secara umumnya, cinta yang merupakan sesuatu yang
universal telah diangkat sebagai tema kepada lagu-lagu
rock kapak.
Sebagai contoh, niat sang pencinta untuk meluahkan cintanya
buat pertama kali boleh dilihat melalui lagu Cinta Untuk Nabila
oleh kumpulan Melissa:
“Cinta untuk Nabila
Aku ciptakan sepanjang hidupku ini
Telah lama aku mencari
Kemana menghilangnya puteri”
Definition
[3]
Lirik ini memperlihatkan betapa sudah lamanya si dia
mencari cinta dari ramai wanita. Bagaimanapun, tiada yang
bersesuaian dengan dirinya, sehinggalah hadir Nabila dalam
hidupnya. Nabila yang dianggapkan sebagai wanita idaman,
telah dipotretkan sebagai puteri impian yang hanya hadir sekali
dalam seumur hidup. Justeru, peluang ini perlu diambil sebaik
mungkin dalam memahami dan menyayangi Nabila dengan
sepenuh hati.
Kebiasannya juga, dalam zaman percintaan semuanya
kelihatan indah. Ini dapat dilihat dalam bait-bait lagu Puisi Cinta
oleh Ilusi, di mana suara dan senyuman si dara diibaratkan
terlalu indah dan melengkapi hidup si uda.
“Suaramu
Gemersiknya bak buluh perindu
Cuba kau lagukan
Cuba kau dendangkan
Mengisi di ruang kamarku”
Collaborative learning (CL) refers to instruction that involves
students working in teams to accomplish a common goal.
Collaborative learning brings positive results such as deeper
understanding of content, increased overall achievement
in grades, improved self-esteem, and higher motivation to
remain on the task. Students have different ideas, opinions
and perspectives to share together in the classroom. So,
collaborative learning is a suitable technique to provide an
active learning environment where students can share their
ideas, opinions, solve problems and share their knowledge to
achieve learning goals effectively.
[4]
Kita dapat melihat yang kebanyakan lirik rock kapak bersifat
puitis, di mana yang tersirat dizahirkan tapi bukan secara terus.
Dalam budaya Melayu ini dikenali sebagai cakap berlapik.
Sebagai contoh, cakap berlapik digunakan terutamanya
ketika proses meminang. Yang dipinang diwakili dengan
klausa “bunga di taman” dan proses meminang dengan
“memetik bunga di taman”. Jika si keluarga perempuan tidak
bersedia, mungkin dinyatakan “anak belum pandai menanak
nasi” atau “bunga di taman belum mekar lagi”. Persamaan ini
membolehkan lirik-lirik ini melekat di kalangan peminat muzik
rock kapak, terutamanya yang berbangsa Melayu dari dahulu
sehingga sekarang.
Subjek kecurangan kerana orang ketiga dan putus cinta
merupakan inspirasi utama kepada rock kapak. Berbanding
semasa bercinta, perasaan boleh diluahkan kepada pasangan
masing-masing. Sebaliknya pada masa konfrontasi atau
ditinggalkan, sang pencinta banyak bermonolog sendiri. Sama
Collaborative learning refers to an educational approach in
teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working
together to join intellectual efforts and to share ideas and solve
problems in completing a task. Learners or students have the
opportunity to tackle a task together for example in designing
a project, doing homework, completing assignments, making
presentations, doing exercise and experiments. This situation
can create positive interdependence, individual accountability,
face-to-face interactions, appropriate use of collaborative skills
and regular self assessment of team functioning.
Collaborative learning is a relationship among students and
students with lecturers in a process which creates effective
learning in a classroom. Lecturers and students can contribute
and learn together to achieve learning goals. This situation
can also encourage students to get involved actively in the
learning process and to ensure they understand more about
what they are learning in the classroom.
Collaborative learning also refers to the active exchange
of ideas within small groups. It increases interest among
the students and promotes critical thinking. In collaborative
learning techniques, students have the opportunity to engage in
discussions, take responsibility for their own learning and thus
become critical thinkers. Besides, collaborative learning can
generate more ideas and opinions to enable effective decision
making and foster good relationships between members.
The Benefits of Collaborative Learning
Collaborative learning techniques gives more benefit to
lecturers and their students.
Benefits for Students
Collaborative learning can help the students to develop higher
level thinking skills. It can also generate better and more
creative ideas. Students can also get involved in actively
finding the best ideas in the learning process.
Additionally through collaborative learning techniques,
students can create an active learning environment because
Students can enhance their satisfaction when a lecturer gives
them the opportunity to share knowledge, skills and learning
experiences together. That can increase students’ interest,
maintain individual accountability, encourage students to take
responsibility for their learning, promote higher achievement
and class attendance, creates a more positive attitude towards
lecturers and also reduce classroom anxiety.
Benefits for Lecturers
Collaborative learning is an appropriate technique that
lecturers can use in the class because it can help the lecturers
to improve their skill and innovation in teaching and learning.
They can use multiple techniques to deliver their teaching and
learning to attract their students interest.
Collaborative learning technique also can guide the lecturer
to choose which method to be used to produce an effective
learning in the classroom.
Besides that, lecturers can used collaborative learning
techniques to involve their students to learn together in the
process of giving opinions and ideas or sharing knowledge and
learning experience. This can encourage students to give full
attention to the learning process.
Lecturers can also develop two-way-communication and
build a good relationship with their students. Two-waycommunication means lecturers tries to get feedback from
students. For example, lecturer can ask the questions during
the learning process or after the learning process to check the
level of understanding and get feedback from the students.
Lecturers can also improve self confidence to manage their
students in class effectively. This is important to influence their
students to work together to achieve learning goals and to get
first-hand information.
Conclusion
Collaborative learning is the most suitable technique that can
be used in the classroom because it gives more benefit to
students and lecturers. For example, collaborative learning
can encourage students to practice trust-building, leadership,
decision-making, communication, and resolve conflicts. The
important thing, in collaborative learning is that the lecturer
gets involved with the students to learn together and create an
effective teaching and learning environment in the classroom.
So, to be a creative and innovative lecturer, one needs to
overcome any problem that can hinder the use of collaborative
learning techniques in the classroom.
Refferences
http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/librarylinks/articles/
nousecooplearn.html
http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/deliberations/
collaborative-learning/panitz-discussion/
http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/collaborative.html
http://www.cs.grinnell.edu/~walker/coll-learning/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaborative_learning
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Lecturers play important roles in teaching and learning to
achieve learning goals with effectiveness. In the teaching and
learning process, lecturers can use multiple methods to deliver
their knowledge in the classroom. There are several techniques
that can help lecturers to produce effective teaching and
learning. The most popular technique is collaborative learning
technique. Collaborative learning differs from traditional
teaching approaches because students work together rather
than compete with each other individually.
all students are participating in the learning process. This
situation can help students to practice building leadership skills,
and transform them into better leaders. Through collaborative
learning, they can learn how to be the a good leader who is
good in communications, decision making and interpersonal
relationships.
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Introduction
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Entrance and Exit Survey in i-Learn: The Easier Way to complete your OBE duty
by; Norlina Mohd Sabri
Completing our OBE duties can sometimes be tedious work especially for those who have to handle large groups of students.
There is a way that can actually ease us in the first step of the OBE work. May be some of us are not familiar with i-Learn usage.
One of the features provided by i-Learn is the Entrance and Exit Survey (EES). Not only Online EES can help us to get the
survey results easier, but we can also reduce the use of paper and save time. The following are the steps to follow if you are
interested to use EES in i-Learn (http://i-learn.uitm.edu.my):
1.
Copy
Click the Ent/Exit Survey menu and choose the current semester.
6.
2.
Paste
Sort your data so that the students’ IDs will be arranged from smallest to largest.
Sort
Check if the Entrance and Exit Survey for the course code has been uploaded and published by the Resource
Person appointed by the respective faculty in Shah Alam.
7.
Copy the Exit Survey result and paste it to a different Excel file to sort the data first before transferring them to the
Entrance and Exit Template.
Sort
Ask your students to answer the Entrance and Exit Survey in i-Learn. Entrance Survey can be accessed by
students in the early part of the semester while Exit Survey can be accessed only from week 13.
4.
By the end of the semester, you can filter the EES according to your group.
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5.
The reason to sort the Entrance and Exit results first is because the students’ results will not be arranged in the same
order for Entrance and Exit in i-Learn. Both the Entrance and Exit Survey will display the results for students who answer the survey first. Therefore, the arrangements of students are different for both Entrance and Exit results.
8.
The total Frequency (Exit-Entrance) provided in EES analysis can be copied and pasted into the Exit-Entrance section in the CDL.
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Copy the Entrance Survey result and paste it to your OBE Entrance and Exit Template (downloaded from http://
www2.tganu.uitm.edu.my/kualiti/OBE-SCL/OBEPensyarah.asp)
Copy
Frequency (Exit-Entrance) in i-Learn
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Copy
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