הָּ רַ חֲמָּ ן - Joseph Kushner Hebrew Academy


הָּ רַ חֲמָּ ן - Joseph Kushner Hebrew Academy
Joseph Kushner Hebrew Academy
110 South Orange Ave
Livingston, NJ 07038
(862) 437-8000
The 2015- ‫תשע"ה‬
Joseph Kushner Hebrew Academy
Middle School
‫הגדה של פסח‬
Rabbi Yaacov Feit
Cover Design
Batsheva Dattelkramer
JKHA Middle School
Faculty and Students
Dedicated by Sherry and Henry Stein
in memory of our parents:
Arie & Eva Halpern
Dr. Morris Epstein
Bernard Stein
Joseph Kushner Hebrew Academy
Rae Kushner Yeshiva High School
As a Modern Orthodox co-educational yeshiva, JKHA/RKYHS seeks to inspire students
to live lives of Torah and mitzvot; to embrace secular knowledge and
American democratic values; to love and serve the Jewish People;
and to forge a lifelong bond with the Land and State of Israel.
We aim to empower students to achieve personal excellence
by teaching them how to learn, and by encouraging them to analyze,
to create, and to pursue new intellectual challenges.
We lead students to recognize that because we were all created in the
image of God, we must treat everyone with respect and loving-kindness.
We help students form strong, healthy identities, and we prepare them
to take responsibility for themselves and their communities.
In Every Generation
"‫"בכָל ּדֹור וָדֹור ַחי ָב ָאדָ ם ל ְִראֹות אֶת ַעצְמֹו ְכאִּלּו הּוא יָצָא ִמ ִמצ ְַרי ִם‬- “In every generation a
person is obligated to see himself as if he left Egypt.” Is it really possible? Year after
year, I am troubled by what seems to be the most difficult obligation of the year. Can we,
in New Jersey in 2015, really feel as if we just experienced the miracles of Mitzrayim?
The language of “in every generation” used by the Mishnah is also interesting. Do
we ever find such phraseology by any other mitzvah? Does it say that “in every
generation we are commanded to shake a lulav”? Does it say that “in every generation we
are commanded to light Chanukah candles”? The Mishnah seems to be suggesting the
impossible; no matter where we are, in any stage of Jewish history, we are in fact
obligated to experience the Exodus. Could this be expected of someone in Auschwitz?
Could someone behind the Iron Curtain sense the freedom the Jews felt as they left
Rav Meir Twersky once suggested that the Mishnah does not expect us to feel as
if we left Egypt physically, but rather spiritually. Imagine how it felt spiritually to just
leave Mitzrayim. What would my relationship be like with Hashem? Imagine what it felt
like to see the ten makkot or keriyat Yam Suf. What would my davening be like the next
day? Imagine that Hashem just chose me to be part of His nation. What would my mitzvot
be like? They would be new, fresh, and full of passion! That awe, that renewal, these are
feelings I can experience anywhere and in any generation. Even in captivity, I can feel
close to Hashem, like I just left Egypt.
Perhaps this is why, right before reciting Hallel at the Seder, we say ‫"וְנ ֹאמַר ְל ָפנָיו‬
"‫ירה חֲדָ שָה‬
ָ ‫ש‬
ִ - “We will recite before Him a new song.” Immediately after experiencing
this year’s Exodus, our praise of Hashem needs to be new, invigorated, and infused with
excitement. That is our obligation every year and in every generation.
Year after year, after I prepare the JKHA Middle School Haggadah, I wonder how
next year’s will compare. Is there anything left to be said? Are we just repeating the same
ideas? Yet as I present this year’s Haggadah, I truly believe that we are offering Hashem
a “new song.” It is a “new song” of unique insights from a “new” student body with
“new” passion and energy and a different take on the world that is different than any
other year. Every student and every group of students is one of a kind, and each insight
found in this Haggadah offers their fresh perspective on how it feels to “leave Egypt.” It
is with this sense of enthusiasm that I introduce this year’s Haggadah.
I am truly indebted to the Middle School Judaic Studies Faculty who has worked
tirelessly and diligently to bring this project to fruition. We are once again so grateful to
the Stein Family for their generous sponsorship of this Haggadah. They are true partners
in our mission to pass our tradition to the next generation and see this project as an
excellent vehicle for doing so. Finally, we are thankful to our students. Thank you for
your fresh insights, energy and creativity. Continue to make us proud!
Chag Kasher Vesameach,
Rabbi Yaacov Feit, Director of Judaic Studies
‫דברי תורה לפסח‬
by the
Rebbeim and Morot
of the
Joseph Kushner Hebrew Academy
Middle School
Finding A Voice
By Rabbi Eliezer Rubin, Head of School
Torah is best transmitted through a thoughtful and deliberate approach. Educational
lessons are most impactful when they are internalized, seen as intrinsic, self-directed values.
When we engage in Torah education with children, we must resist the temptation to be
authoritarian. In a world of choices and messages relayed by a multitude of media, our children
will need to own their Torah commitment. Authoritarianism has limited value in the world of
Internalization is best accomplished by giving children a voice to question and a safe
place to inquire. Finding their voices around the Jewish table will enable children to create
meaning by embracing the symbols and substance of Judaism.
The Four Sons narrative in the Haggadah teaches us a great deal about the transmission
of our heritage. Nechama Leibowitz explains that whereas the wise son will ask , the wicked son
will proclaim. Encouraging children to question, and by validating their inquiries, we will help
them search for truth. If a child is compelled to embrace a value system without the benefit of
inquiry, children may ultimately reach conclusions without questioning; they will have little
interest in questioning their own, new assumptions and will be disinclined to engage in honest
Children need to be confident that questions are an integral part of the process of
developing the Jewish consciousness. Rabbi Lau sees the child that does not know how to
question as one who thinks it is forbidden to do so. Paraphrasing Rabbi Alkabetz, he explains
that parents should open the window to questions by giving the child confidence to ask. By
altering the letter Peh in the word Petach (open) to the letter Bet, the directive becomes Betach
Lo, give the child confidence.
The Seder is designed to be child-centered. It is an opportunity to speak to children about
our heritage and to encourage them to share their beliefs and assumptions with us.
The Ultimate Teaching Moment
By Mrs. Debbie Finkelstein, JKHA Principal
The Rambam writes in the middle of his commentary on the Mishnah that he will explain
a principle that is more important than all the details that he will explain throughout all the six
sections of the Mishnah. He says that the most critical thing that he has to teach is the concept of
emunah; belief in Hashem. The Seder Night is a teaching opportunity that stands above all other
times of the year for the very same reason. One form of teaching is through a classroom with a
skilled teacher and highly engaging lessons; another model of teaching is through experience.
The experience of the Pesach Seder can imbue our children with crucial experiential learning.
Just as the Rambam states that the teachings of belief are the most crucial teachings that he has to
offers, so too the Seder Night whose goal is to instill us with belief in Hashem is the ultimate
teaching moment. With the family gathered around the table, the table beautifully set, the props
of the Seder Plate and Matzah in place, the night is primed to inspire through the experience
itself. The entire goal of all that we are charged to accomplish through the Seder is to gain clarity
in our belief in Hashem.
The Ramban is bothered by the emphasis the Torah places on remembering the
redemption from Mitzrayim. Not only are we commanded to remember the Exodus once a year;
we are commanded to recall the Exodus on a daily basis. Moreover, the Torah says that we do
many mitzvot specifically because Hashem took us out of Egypt, such as teffilin, redeeming a
firstborn son, putting mezuzot on our door, Shabbat and many more mitzvot. Why is there such
an emphasis on one event?
The Ramban says that the miracles that occurred in Egypt were open miracles where we
clearly saw Hashem’s hand and whoever witnessed those events had belief in Hashem implanted
in their hearts forever. However, for generations to come, Hashem did not reveal Himself openly
and show us His hand through miracles that changed nature. For all those future generations we
learn the lesson of what happened in Mitzrayim, “and from the open miracles a person can come
to the realization that their life is made up of hidden miracles which are the foundation of the
Torah. Therefore a person does not have a portion in the Torah of Moshe Rabbeinu until he
believes that all things and happenings are not nature but in truth they are hidden miracles.” The
Ramban teaches us that the lesson of the great miracles that occurred in Egypt is that Hashem’s
hand, although not in an open and revealed way, is equally apparent in every aspect of our lives
in a hidden way. By taking advantage of what Pesach has to offer we can strengthen our belief in
Hashem’s involvement in every aspect of our lives.
As the Seder begins and we look around the table appreciating the gifts that Hashem has
given us we should realize the responsibility and opportunity that we have to imbue these lessons
of faith upon our households. We should use the experience of the Seder to teach and speak
about Hashem’s involvement in our lives, strengthen our belief in Hashem, and maximize all the
holiday has to offer.
The Great Escape
By Rabbi Dovid Selengut, Dean of Students
Jews eat Matzah to remember the chipazon, the great haste, with which Bnei Yisrael were
forced to leave Mitzrayim. They were not even given the time for the dough to rise. What is the
significance of this rush which makes it such an important part of the Yom Tov. The Seforno
explains that the chipazon of the geulah from Mitzrayim is the prototype of all past and future
redemptions-personal and national. For example, Yosef was stuck in an Egyptian jail with no
hope of getting out. His attempt to get out of jail by enlisting the help of the wine butler, failed.
No Egyptian would help him and he had no way of contacting his family in Eretz Canaan. It
seemed like his life would end in a depressing prison. Suddenly, Pharaoh sent and summoned
Yosef and they rushed him from the dungeon to explain Pharaoh’s dreams. When Yosef
interpreted them, Pharaoh immediately appointed him viceroy of Egypt. Yosef immediately went
from a dark prison to the highest office of the land, quickly and in great haste.
A similar thing happened during Yetziat Mitzrayim. For 210 years Bnei Yisrael were in
Mitzrayim and there seemed to be little possibility that they would ever be released. Even when
Hashem inflicted them with devastating makkot, Pharaoh stubbornly refused to give in. After the
tenth plague when, “there was not a house where there wasn’t a corpse”, Pharaoh expelled the
Jews in great haste.
The Seforno continues that this chipazon is the way this long and bitter galut will end as
well. As the Navi in Malachi (3:1) puts it, “Pit’om-“Suddenly, the Lord whom you seek will
come to His sanctuary”. This is an encouraging thought in our troubled times when there seems
to be no solution to the great tzarot that we find ourselves in. We often wonder how Hashem will
ever extract us from this galut where there is so much anti-Semitism in the world. The answer is
as the passuk says in Micha (7:15) “As in the days when you left Mitzrayim, I will show you
wonders.” Just as the geula from Mitzrayim happened suddenly, so too, the future geula which
we anxiously await, will happen suddenly.
Rav Pam says that this is true not only on a national scale but for each person in his or her
daily life as well. Sometimes we have problems that seem insurmountable. We become
depressed due to the inability to see the light at the end of the tunnel. It is important for us to
realize that Hashem can rapidly and unexpectedly bring a happy ending to the suffering.
Hashem’s help is not limited to slowly evolving solutions to life’s problems. It can come
quickly, Pit’om, suddenly and with great haste. Yeshuat Hashem Kiheref Ayin- the salvation of
Hashem comes in the blink of an eye.
Pesach is a time for miracles. It is a time for redemption on a national and personal level.
We pray to see the fulfillment of the Gemara in Rosh Hashana 11b that, “In Nissan we were
redeemed and in Nissan we will be redeemed.” May it happen speedily in our days.
Understanding the Seder in the Seder
By Rabbi Reuven Greenberg
On the 15th of Nissan we gather together to celebrate Chag HaPesach. The evening is
known for the Seder which we conduct to relive the significant events of the past. The Seder or
“order” is set up to enable us to re-experience the slavery in Mitzraim and the subsequent
freedom which we merited. Why did Chazal set up the evening in such a fashion based on an
orderly set of stages? One answer to this question is to recognize that life functions with a
heavenly “seder” even through times of uncertainty. For Bnei Yisrael in Mitzraim there was
sadness, pain, and uncertainty. Had Hashem abandoned them completely, or was there some
master plan that they could not possibly envision for their suffering was so intense? The events
that unfolded revealed the grand plan and Bnei Yisrael were witnesses to many miracles and
ultimately the revelation at Har Sinai. It is a lesson for all times to continue to work on one’s
emunah and bitchon during times which lack clarity. As Bnei Yisrael experienced the first geulah
in the history of our nation, so too, we should merit to see the final geulah.
Leaving Mitzrayim-Who is Leaving Who?
By Morah Danielle Goldstein
In discussing the Exodus from Mitzrayim the Torah says that we must always remember
Yetziat Mitzrayim. The Sfas Emes notes that the phrase “Yetziat Mitzrayim” is an interesting
phrase. According to proper dikduk it should say “yetziah mi’Mitzrayim,” leaving from
Mitzrayim, and not the leaving of Mitzrayim.
The choice of words here has a very deep message about how we must view the world.
The mitzvah is not about remembering that Bnei Yisrael left the confines of Egypt and went into
freedom. Rather, we the Jewish people have to make sure that Mitzrayim leaves us. The
mentality of Mitzrayim which was all about tumah and gashmiut must be uprooted from within
each one of us. We live in a challenging world, and removing the “Mitzrayim” within each of us
can be difficult. Pesach is a new beginning for us. It is a time where we search our homes, cars,
and places of work. When we are searching our boundaries we are not only searching our homes
for chametz; we are supposed to search ourselves for imperfections.
When discussing chametz found in our homes, the Torah is very machmir or stringent.
The reason for this strict approach is because chametz represents our yetzer hara. The Shla states
that as we search for our chametz we must also search our pockets. By this he means that we
should check our wallets and our business dealings for imperfections. We must take the time to
look through each aspect of our lives and find the ways in which we can rid ourselves of the
chametz or imperfections that we have found within ourselves. We must thoroughly search
ourselves and the choices we have made to make sure that we are leaving the gashmiut of
Mitzrayim behind in an attempt to rededicate ourselves to Hashem as his Am Kadosh.
This idea also connects so beautifully to sefirat haomer. On Pesach we begin counting
toward the holiday of Shavuot which commemorates Matan Torah. Using this idea of the Sfas
Emes we can say that Pesach is the time that we start to work on ourselves and focus on
removing the negativity found in our lives. We count seven weeks of sefirah in which we focus
on this goal in order to lead us to Shavuot so that we will be ready to reconnect ourselves to
Hashem just as Bnei Yisrael did at Har Sinai.
Pesach is the time to break out of our limits. It is a time that one must remember that you
are never stuck within your yetzer hara and always have the opportunity to do teshuvah. If we
prepare for Pesach with this in mind we will ready ourselves for a closer connection with
Hashem and ultimately bring Mashiach Tzidkenu in our day.
People Are Strange, When You’re A Stranger
By Rabbi Adam Hertzberg, Director of Student Activities
As we sit down to start the Haggadah, we say, “‫”כל דכפין ייתי וייכל‬- “Let all who are
hungry come and eat.” Really? We just spent weeks preparing for this. Are we really going to
invite unexpected guests now?
To answer this, let’s look at the ‫ סדר‬experience and what we are trying to accomplish.
Right after we say ‫הא לחמא עניא‬, we move into the four questions, ‫מה נשתנה‬. We answer the
questions by saying ‫עבדים היינו‬. It’s interesting that we refer to ourselves in Egypt as slaves. If
you look throughout the enslavement of the Jews in Egypt in ‫ספר שמות‬, the Jews are never
referred to as “‫ ”עבדים‬but rather as “‫”גרים‬, strangers.
What is a ‫ ?גר‬If we look throughout the Torah, the term ‫ גר‬is used differently in different
contexts. Sometimes when we refer to a ‫ גר‬in the Torah, we are referring to a convert; someone
who was not Jewish but decided to become part of the Jewish community. In some contexts it
just means stranger or someone who is different. We are given commandments to be nice to the
‫גר‬, to not oppress them ‫ ְבא ֶֶרץ ִמצ ְָרי ִם‬,‫ג ִֵרים ֱהי ִי ֶתם‬-‫ ִכי‬- because we were strangers in the land of Egypt.
We can’t be mean to someone who is different, because we were once different. We were
once strangers; we know what it feels like. In this way, the Torah teaches us empathy. Empathy
is the ability to know how someone feels and feel that way for them. We have the ability and
obligation to empathize with the ‫ גר‬because we were ‫ גרים‬in ‫מצרים‬. We know exactly how it feels
to be different, to be strangers, to be foreign. We were there. We experienced that.
It is for this reason that we invite guests on the night of the ‫סדר‬. No one actually thinks
that these people are going to come to the ‫סדר‬. No one expects anyone else at their table.
However, we begin our ‫ סדר‬by exclaiming and reflecting on our ability to be empathetic to those
who don’t have what we do. We frame our discussion of ‫יציאת מצרים‬, at which point we became a
nation, by pointing to our definitional characteristic of empathy. And, therefore, we declare as
empathetic people that we can provide for those in need and want to help all in distress.
If we are able to properly impart these ideas to our children to the point that we can see
them acting in caring and sensitive ways, we can proudly proclaim ‫"השתא הכא לשנה הבא בארעא‬
"‫דישראל‬. This year we are here, but next year we will be in Israel, as a people who are connected
to one another and care for each other as we care for ourselves.
Sefirat Ha’Omer: Simcha or Aveilut?
By Morah Kayla Bluman
Sefirat Ha’Omer seems to be a 49 day emotional tug of war. On the one hand, we are
rejoicing in our freedom and counting the days up to Matan Torah. However, on the other hand,
we are actively mourning the deaths of Rebbi Akiva’s twenty-four thousand talmidim.
The mitzvah d’oraita of counting the omer is mentioned in Parshat Emor. The Sefer
Hachinuch explains that the root of this mitzvah stems from the fact that B’nei Yisrael were
saved from Mitzrayim for the sole purpose of receiving the Torah. We therefore are told to count
the days leading up to Shavuot in anticipation, excitement and yearning for Matan Torah.
Ramban sees a strong connection between Pesach and Shavuot and compares the days of
Sefirat Ha’Omer to Chol Hamoed. Just like Sukkot has Chol Hamoed connecting the first days to
the last days of the Yom Tov, so too, Pesach and Shavuot are connected by means of Sefirat
Ha’Omer. This explanation strengthens the fact that the days of Sefirat Ha’Omer are supposed to
be days of joy and excitement. Even more so, the Sfat Emet explains that the mitzvah of Sefirat
Ha’Omer is found in Parshat Emor along with the rest of the Yamim Tovim, thereby likening it
to a Yom Tov on its own!
In addition to the fact that Sefirat Ha’Omer represents the days leading up to Matan
Torah, there is also an agricultural point to be made. On the second day of Pesach, we bring the
Korban ha’Omer of barley to offer thanks to Hashem as spring comes and the world begins to
bloom and flourish. The Sefer Hachinuch teaches that we specifically wait for the second day of
Pesach to bring the korban, rather than bring it on the first day, in order to not mix one simcha
with another; once again stressing the days of Sefirat Ha’Omer as a time filled with pure joy!
We know that nothing in Judaism is a coincidence; Hashem has a master plan and is the
orchestrator of all world events. One could then ask why Hashem planned for the tragedy of R’
Akiva’s talmidim and our adopted traditions of mourning to overlap with the simcha of Sefirat
Ha’Omer. How can we blend the simcha of the mitzvah d’oraita with the mitzvah d’rabanan of
Derech Eretz Kadma L’Torah- having proper middot comes before all else; even Torah.
R’ Chaim Vital zt”l writes that having good middot is a prerequisite for acquiring Torah. The
Torah doesn’t command us about specific middot because it is supposed to be a given! There is a
minhag for people to learn Pirkei Avot during the weeks between Pesach and Shavuot. Part of
our preparation for Matan Torah is to learn Pirkei Avot and work on the middot and derech eretz
that it teaches.
Chaza”l tell us that R’ Akiva’s talmidim were punished because, “lo nahagu kavod zeh
bazeh” – they didn’t treat each other properly. Somehow, despite their high level of Torah
learning and knowledge, they lacked the proper middot and derech eretz one to another.
As we prepare ourselves to receive the Torah, what more important lesson could we be given
than that of R’ Akiva’s talmidim? We can experience the forty nine days of simcha and
excitement but unless we are prepared to receive the Torah, all that simcha goes to waste. When
we accepted the Torah, B’nei Yisroel called out, “naaseh v’nishma” – we will do and then we
will listen. Learning Torah and acquiring the knowledge of Torah is not enough. The way in
which we live our lives needs to reflect the essence of the Torah that we accepted.
May we all learn from R’ Akiva’s talmidim to elevate our level of bein adam l’chaveiro and be
privileged to enjoy the truest simcha throughout Sefirat Ha’Omer culminating with Matan
Believing in Our Children
By Rabbi Dovid Sukenik, Mashgiach Ruchani
Right before the Jews sang ‫ אז ישיר‬at the Yam Suf, the passuk says that ‫ בני ישראל‬believed
in Hashem and Moshe His servant. Why is it important for us to know that they believed in
In ‫ פרק ג‬of ‫ספר שמות‬, Moshe Rabbeinu (at the burning bush) says to Hashem, “ ‫ְוהֵן ֹלא י ַ ֲא ִמינּו‬
‫ ”לִי‬the Jewish people will not believe me. Hashem responds that the Jewish people are ‫מאמינים בני‬
‫מאמינים‬, believers, sons of believers, so they will believe you. At the end of ‫ פרשת שמות‬when
Moshe goes to Pharaoh, the elders who accompanied Moshe and Aharon left one by one until
only Moshe and Aharon were left to meet Pharaoh alone. It would seem from here that Moshe
was right and Hashem was wrong; the elders didn’t believe. How can we understand this?
Rabbi Yisroel Reisman relates that he asked this question to a man at a grocery store in
Brooklyn. The man replied that they would have believed him; however, they didn't because
Moshe said they wouldn’t. To inspire confidence you have to be confident. To inspire emunah
you have to live emunah. Hashem was correct; they were ‫ מאמינים בני מאמינים‬and they would have
followed Moshe with complete emunah if Moshe would have believed in them.
When they stood at Yam Suf and sang songs of praise to Hashem, the Torah says that they
believed in Hashem and Moshe his servant. After the story of ‫יציאת מצרים‬, Moshe believed in the
Jews and they reciprocated. That is why the Torah specifies that the Jews believed in Hashem
and Moshe.
This is a fundamental concept in the chinuch of our children. As parents and teachers, we
have to believe in our children; but more importantly we have to show and tell them explicitly
that we believe in them and their abilities. With the help of Hashem this will hopefully inspire
them to believe in themselves and live up to their potential.
‫הגדה של פסח‬
With Commentary From
the Students of the
Joseph Kushner Hebrew Academy
Middle School
‫סדר בדיקת חמץ‬
‫בלילה שלפני ערב פסח בודקים את החמץ‪ .‬וחייבים לבדוק מיד‬
‫בתחלת הלילה‪ ,‬ואסור להתחיל לאכול או לעשות שום מלאכה‬
‫חצי שעה קודם הלילה‪.‬‬
‫קודם בדיקת חמץ אומרים‪:‬‬
‫יקת חָ מֵ ץ‬
‫ּומזּומָ ן לְ ַקיֵם ִמ ְצוַ ת ע ֲֵשה וְ ֹלא תַ ע ֲֵשה ֶׁשל בְ ִד ַ‬
‫הֲ ֵרינִי מּוכָ ן ְ‬
‫ּושכִ ינ ְֵתיּה עַ ל יְ ֵדי הַ הּוא טָ ִמיר וְ ֶׁנ ֱעלָם‬
‫קּוד ָשא בְ ִריְך הּוא ְ‬
‫לְ ֵשם יִ חּוד ְ‬
‫בְ ֵשם כָל יִ ְש ָראֵ ל‪:‬‬
‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם אֲ ֶׁשר ִק ְד ָשנּו בְ ִמ ְצוֹתָ יו וְ ִצּוָ נּו עַ ל‬
‫בִ יעּור חָ מֵ ץ‪:‬‬
‫ומיד אחר הבדיקה יבטלנו ויאמר‪:‬‬
‫ּודלָא בִ עַ ְר ֵתיּה‬
‫שּותי ְדלָא חֲ ִמ ֵתיּה ְ‬
‫ירא וַ חֲ ִמיעָ א ְד ִאיכָ א בִ ְר ִ‬
‫כל ח ִמ ָ‬
‫ַארעָ א‪:‬‬
‫ּודלָא יְ ַדעְ נָא לֵיּה לִ בָ טֵ ל וְ לֶׁהֱ וֵ י הֶׁ פְ ֵקר כְ עַ פְ ָרא ְד ְ‬
‫כל חמץ ושאור שיש ברשותי‪ ,‬שלא ראיתיו ושלא בערתיו ושלא‬
‫ידעתיו ‪ -‬יבטל ויהיה הפקר כעפר הארץ‬
‫סדר שריפת חמץ‬
‫ביום י"ד בניסן בשעה חמישית יעשה לו מדורה וישרפנו ותכף‬
‫יבטלנו ויאמר‪:‬‬
‫ּודלָא חֲ זִ ֵתיּה ַדחֲ ִמ ֵתיּה‬
‫שּותי ַדחֲ זִ ֵתיּה ְ‬
‫ירא וַ חֲ ִמיעָ א ְד ִאיכָ א בִ ְר ִ‬
‫כל ח ִמ ָ‬
‫ּודלָא בִ עַ ְר ֵתיּה לִ בָ טֵ ל וְ לֶׁהֱ וֵ י הֶׁ פְ ֵקר כְ עַ פְ ָרא‬
‫ּו ְדלָא חֲ ִמ ֵתיּה ְדבִ עַ ְר ֵתיּה ְ‬
‫ַארעָ א‪:‬‬
‫ְד ְ‬
‫כל חמץ ושאור שיש ברשותי‪ ,‬שראיתיו ושלא ראיתיו‪ ,‬שבערתיו‬
‫ושלא בערתיו ‪ -‬יבטל ויהיה הפקר כעפר הארץ‪.1‬‬
‫סדר הדלקת נרות‬
‫ אֲ ֶׁשר ִק ְד ָשנּו בְ ִמ ְצוֹתָ יו וְ ִצּוָ נּו‬,‫ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‬
ֵ ֱ‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ א‬
.‫לְ הַ ְדלִ יק נֵר ֶׁשל יוֹם טוֹב‬
Fast of the Firstborn
By Jason Singer
On Erev Pesach there is a custom that the firstborn male in every Jewish family fasts. The
halacha states that only males who have become bar mitzvah must do so. If the firstborn male is
not bar mitzvah then it's customary for his father to fast. However, if the father himself is a
firstborn then the mother should fast. The halacha continues, that if the first born is a choleh, a
sick person, then he does not have to fast. If, however, he is able to, he should limit the amount
of food he eats.
According to the rabbinical authorities a firstborn may eat a meal that is served in honor
of a mitzvah i.e a seudat mitzvah. One should follow local customs with regard to permissible
types of occasions. In America a seudat mitzvah in honor of finishing a masechta would be an
example. Interestingly enough, even though the firstborn did not personally learn the entire
masechta, if he partakes in the siyum and the seudat mitzvah he is then able to eat.
(From the Haggadah of The Roshei Yeshivah)
Laws of Erev Pesach
By Elan Goldman
One may not do any work for pay after noon of Erev Pesach. The one exception is if one
is working to buy food for Pesach. When one is using romaine lettuce for marror, it is preferable
not to clean the leaves by soaking them in a vinegar solution. According to the Shulchan Aruch,
when a food is soaked in vinegar long enough for it to be placed on fire, it is considered
“cooked” food. Since a little leaf has close to nothing left after the “outer shell” is removed, it is
highly questionable whether it may be used for marror even after such short soaking.
(From the Rav Shlomo Zalman Haggadah)
Erev Pesach - Hadlakat Neirot
By Leah Blima Rubinstein
Many women follow the custom of lighting two candles from the time they are married
and adding one more candle after each child is born. As such, they light one candle for each
member of the family.
Additionally, there is a custom for children to take naps the afternoon before the Seder so
that they will be able to stay awake that night. The great sage, Rabbi Akiva, would never say, “It
is time to stop studying Torah,” except on Erev Pesach. He did this so that the fathers could go
home and put their children to sleep in the afternoon.
(From the Artscroll Youth Haggada)
‫ ֶׁשהֶׁ חֱ יָנּו וְ ִקיְ מָ נּו וְ ִהגִ יעָ נּו לַזְ מַ ן‬,‫ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‬
ֵ ֱ‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ א‬
. ‫הַ זֶׁ ה‬
‫ַקדֵ ׁש‬
:‫בְּ ַׁשבָּ ת מַ ְּת ִחילִ ין‬
.‫ָארץ וְ כָל ְצבָ ָאם‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ וַ יְ כֻּלּו הַ ָשמַ יִ ם וְ ה‬.‫וַ יְ ִהי עֶׁ ֶׁרב וַ יְ ִהי ב ֶֹׁקר יוֹם הַ ִש ִשי‬
‫יִשבֹת בַ יוֹם הַ ְשבִ יעִ י‬
ְ ַ‫וַ יְ כַל אֱ ֹלקים בַ יוֹם הַ ְשבִ יעִ י ְמלַאכְ ת ֹו אֲ ֶׁשר עָ ָשה ו‬
Fifteen Steps to Freedom
By Rebecca Gampel
Pesach is the time when each Jew sets out on a personal journey from slavery to freedom.
In order to lead us in our quest, the sages carefully wrote a book outlining fifteen steps to
freedom. It is called the Haggadah which has fifteen parts. The Sages say that Pesach occurs
when the moon enlarges for fifteen days; so too our growth must be in fifteen gradual steps.
Think of these as fifteen pieces of the Pesach puzzle. Collect them all and you’ve got freedom.
(From Torah.org)
Who Says Kiddush?
By Allie Keiser
In most cases, the leader of the Seder recites Kiddush for the rest of the group. However,
R’ Yaakov Kanievsky, also known as “The Steipler" asked a question on this custom based on
the Gemara.
The Mishna says that the third cup of wine is connected to the mitzvah of Bircat
HaMazon. The Gemara immediately responded to this by saying that this proves that Bircat
HaMazon should be said with wine. It then decides that this isn't the case; the mitzvah does not
need to be said over wine. Rather, the Sages decided that each cup of wine should be paired with
a mitzvah and the mitzvah for the third cup is Bircat HaMazon.
The Steipler then goes on to say that if each cup of wine is connected to a mitzvah, one
should say Kiddush for himself to fulfill his own mitzvah. If only the leader says Kiddush, then
only his cup will have a mitzvah fulfilled through it.
A student responded to this statement with a solution. Normally, when Kiddush must be
said, one person will recite it out loud. As long as everyone else has their own cups of wine, this
completes the obligation for the rest of the group. This leads us to believe that so too, on the
night of the Seder, if everyone has their own cup, the mitzvah can also be completed by one
speaker reciting the bracha. It is not necessary for every person to say his own Kiddush.
(From The Hagaddah of the Roshei Yeshiva, Volume 3)
‫ִמכָ ל ְמלַאכְ ת ֹו אֲ ֶׁשר עָ ָשה‪ .‬וַ יְבָ ֶׁרְך אֱ ֹלקים אֶׁ ת יוֹם הַ ְשבִ יעִ י וַ יְ ַק ֵדש‬
‫אוֹת ֹו כִ י ב ֹו ָשבַ ת ִמכָ ל ְמלַאכְ ת ֹו אֲ ֶׁשר בָ ָרא אֱ ֹלקים ַלעֲשוֹת‪.‬‬
‫בַ חוֹל מַ ְּת ִחילִ ין‪:‬‬
‫סַ בְ ִרי מָ ָרנָן וְ ַרבָ נָן וְ ַרבוֹתַ י‬
‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם בו ֵֹרא פְ ִרי הַ גָפֶׁ ן‪.‬‬
‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‪ ,‬אֲ ֶׁשר בָ חַ ר בָ נּו ִמכָ ל עָ ם וְ רו ְֹממָ נּו‬
‫ִמכָ ל לָשוֹן וְ ִק ְד ָשנּו בְ ִמ ְצוֹתָ יו‪ .‬וַ ִת ֶׁתן לָנּו ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו בְ ַאהֲ בָ ה (בְ ַשבָ ת‪:‬‬
‫ַשבָ תוֹת לִ ְמנּוחָ ה ּו)מ ֹוע ֲִדים לְ ִש ְמחָ ה‪ ,‬חַ גִ ים ּוזְ מַ נִים לְ ָששוֹן‪ ,‬אֶׁ ת יוֹם‬
‫(הַ ַשבָ ת הַ זֶׁ ה וְ אֶׁ ת יוֹם) חַ ג הַ מַ ּצוֹת הַ זֶׁ ה‪ ,‬זְ מַ ן חֵ רּותֵ נּו (בְ ַאהֲ בָ ה)‪,‬‬
‫יציַאת ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם‪ .‬כִ י בָ נּו בָ חַ ְר ָת וְ אוֹתָ נּו ִק ַד ְש ָת ִמכָל‬
‫ִמ ְק ָרא ק ֶֹׁדש‪ ,‬זֵ כֶׁר לִ ִ‬
‫הָ עַ ִמים‪( ,‬וְ ַשבָ ת) ּומ ֹוע ֲֵדי ָק ְד ֶׁשָך (בְ ַאהֲ בָ ה ּובְ ָרצוֹן‪ ),‬בְ ִש ְמחָ ה ּובְ ָששוֹן‬
‫ִהנְחַ לְ ָתנּו‪ .‬בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’‪ְ ,‬מ ַק ֵדש (הַ ַשבָ ת וְ )יִ ְש ָראֵ ל וְ הַ זְ מַ נִים‪.‬‬
‫(בְּ מוֹצָּ אֵ י ַׁשבָּ ת מו ִֹס ִ‬
‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‪ ,‬בו ֵֹרא ְמאו ֵֹרי הָ אֵ ש‪.‬‬
‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם הַ מַ בְ ִדיל בֵ ין ק ֶֹׁדש לְ חֹל‪ ,‬בֵ ין אוֹר‬
‫יִש ָראֵ ל לָעַ ִמים‪ ,‬בֵ ין יוֹם הַ ְשבִ יעִ י לְ ֵש ֶׁשת יְ מֵ י הַ מַ ע ֲֶׁשה‪ .‬בֵ ין‬
‫חשְך‪ ,‬בֵ ין ְ‬
‫לְ ֶׁ‬
‫ְקדֻ ַשת ַשבָ ת לִ ְקדֻ ַשת יוֹם טוֹב ִהבְ ַדלְ ָת‪ ,‬וְ אֶׁ ת יוֹם הַ ְשבִ יעִ י ִמ ֵש ֶׁשת יְ מֵ י‬
‫הַ מַ ע ֲֶׁשה ִק ַד ְש ָת‪ִ .‬הבְ ַדלְ ָת וְ ִק ַד ְש ָת אֶׁ ת עַ ְמָך יִ ְש ָראֵ ל בִ ְקדֻ ָשתֶׁ ָך‪ .‬בָ רּוְך‬
‫אַ ָתה ה’ הַ מַ בְ ִדיל בֵ ין ק ֶֹׁדש לְ ק ֶֹׁדש‪).‬‬
‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‪ֶׁ ,‬שהֶׁ חֱ יָנּו וְ ִקיְ מָ נּו וְ ִהגִ יעָ נּו לַזְ מַ ן‬
‫הַ זֶׁ ה‪.‬‬
‫ׁשוֹתֶ ה רֹב ּכוֹס הַ יַיִ ן בְּ הַ ָּסבָּ ה‪.‬‬
‫ְּּורחַ ץ‬
."‫נו ְֹּטלִ ין אֶ ת הַ ָּי ַדיִ ם וְּ אֵ ין ְּמבָּ ְּרכִ ין "עַ ל נְּ ִטילַת י ַָּדיִ ם‬
‫ּכַ ְּרפַ ס‬
By Josie Jakubovic
A long time ago, most meals were started by serving small foods with dip. We also do
this at the Seder table with Karpas. By doing this, we encourage the children at the table to ask
questions about the uniqueness of the night. Considering that parsley and salt water are
delicacies, it shows that the people of Israel are now free and they can eat fancy foods rather than
being slaves who only eat small portions of bread. Although this demonstrates a symbol of
freedom, it also demonstrates the tears of Bnei Yisrael through the use of salt water. The
gematria of ‫ ס‬in Karpas is 60 and the rest of the word ‫ פרך‬means hard labor. This means 600,000
men were let out of Egypt and were enslaved in labor.
The word karpas relates to the aspect of “Egyptian exile” so there is a debate if you
should recline when eating it. Rabbeinu Manoach claims that he sees an allusion in the word
karpas, to the “ketonet passim” which refers to the multicolored tunic that Yoseph was given by
his father. This allusion would make sense because the Talmud states that the favoritism that
Yaakov gave to Yoseph caused Yoseph’s brothers to sell him to be a slave. This was the event
that led to the Egyptian exile.
(From The Sephardic Heritage Haggadah)
Whetting Their Appetite
By Michael Pedoeem
Eating Karpas has baffled many generations of our sages. People ask, ‘’Why do we dip a
vegetable in salt water at the seder? Some may say that the dipping reminds us of the tears shed
in Egypt. Others say that the Karpas leaves remind us of the green of the upcoming spring. But
these suggestions still don't answer, why we eat the Karpas in the beginning of the meal.
Shouldn't we have it in Shulchan Orech when all the other foods are eaten? Additionally, it
doesn't answer the question of why we have karpas instead of bread. The Talmud approaches this
dilemma with an interesting answer. The Talmud suggests that the timing is instituted so the
“children may ask”. Pesach is a time where parents pass down the tradition of Judaism to their
children. In order to do so we must engage our children and make them more interested in the
story of Pesach. In addition, just as Karpas serves as an appetizer in the seder, the questions the
kids have make them curious and more excited to learn. With that said, may the Jewish mesorah
get passed down generation after generation for many years to come.
‫נַכון לְּ כַ וֵן לִ ְּפטור גַם‬.‫ּומבָּ ְּרכִ ין‬
ְּ ,‫טוֹבְּ לִ ין ּכַ ְּרפַ ס פָּ חוֹת ִמכְּ זַיִ ת בְּ מֵ י מֶ לַח‬
.5‫אֶ ת הַ מַ רור בִ בְּ רכה זּו‬
Why Vegetables?
By Joshua Lando
Why do we eat a vegetable to start our seder? Why don't we eat bread like we usually eat
immediately after kiddush? Rabbi Yehuda Albin says that this will make everyone curious. If
everyone is curious, then everyone will pay attention throughout the whole seder. They also will
most likely be more interested in the seder, and ask more questions. This will really make a
better Pesach experience.
Blessing the Karpas and Marror
By Natalie Moses
When reciting the blessing for karpas, why should one have the intention that it applies
also for marror? Apparently, this requirement relates to the mitzvah of eating matzah. Just like
the eating of matzah on Pesach requires a special blessing of ‫על אכילת מצה‬, as well as the regular
bracha of ‫המוציא‬, so too the eating of marror requires the special bracha of ‫ על אכילת מרור‬as well
as the ordinary bracha of ‫האדמה‬. However, a person is not allowed to say ‫ האדמה‬more than once
at the seder or on more than one vegetable. Since it is the same meal, doing so would be an
unnecessary bracha. Therefore, when making the bracha for karpas, we should have marror in
mind. This is a question that I have personally always wondered and thought about during my
seder. Many might not have known about this but they can now know and understand why we do
the mitzvah this way and can incorporate it into their own seder.
(From the Rav Shlomo Zalman Haggadah)
Lechem Oni
By Joey Dredsner
Why don't we break the matzah closer to the time that it is eaten? It is broken earlier in
the meal because it is “lechem Oni”. The Torah says in Devarim that the lechem oni (bread of
poverty) is the food of the poor people. Just as a poor man eats the broken pieces of bread, we
break the matzah in half. The Gemara says that “Oni” is also related to the word “Anah” which
means to recite. The Gemara says this because the matzah is “bread over which many words are
In order to fulfill both of the above interpretations of lechem oni, we break the matzah
early in the seder, before it is eaten. This way it is truly “bread over which many words are
recited”. We learn from this that we always try to follow different opinions at the same time. In
this case the plain meaning of the Torah, and the interpretation given in the Gemara are different,
but we try our best to honor both meanings.
(From the Rav Shlomo Zalman Haggadah)
.‫ בו ֵֹרא פְ ִרי הָ אֲ ָדמָ ה‬,‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‬
‫יַחַ ץ‬
Yachatz- The Broken Matzah
By Sasha Altman
The middle matzah is broken in half. One of the sides is saved for later to fulfill the
mitzvah of eating the food that our forefathers ate when they were slaves in Egypt. It is the type
of food that a slave eats because they don’t have time to let the dough rise.
It is also the food that they ate when they left Egypt in a hurry. The dough of the matzah
had no time to rise, because the time came that they were let go and there could be no delay. The
Zohar refers to matzah as the “bread of faith” as it represents the faith of Israel in our God.
We leave the broken piece of matzah throughout the Seder because it is the “bread of
affliction” that our forefathers ate. Matzah is the bread of slavery that our fathers ate at different
stages in history. We break a piece off and leave it while we read the Hagaddah and go through
the history of the Jewish people. Additionally, the matzah will be our dessert when Messiah
comes and there is no more slavery or hunger.
(From the Passover Haggadah by Rabbi Shlomo Riskin)
Yitzchak’s Broken Matzah
By Max Yarkony
Our forefathers Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaakov represent the three matzot that are given
out at the Seder. Yitzchak who represents the middle matzah is broken into two. What is the
reason for this? The Talmud says that Yitzchak is broken into two because Yitzchak has the
ability to defend all of Israel from being punished from their sins. Yitzchak says that he has,
“half on my shoulder, and half on your shoulder.” Half of the mitzvah represents the sins of his
son Eisav. Yitzchak has taken this responsibility onto himself. The other half represents the yeast
in the dough. It is like our sins because the yeast makes the dough rise, which is similar to our
selfishness that often, makes us, sin. Jews will blame Hashem for half of their sins because the
yetzer harah is something that Hashem created. All in all, this is why Yitzchak’s matzah is
broken into two.
(From Touched By the Seder)
Hiding the Afikomen
By Grace Schapiro
On Pesach we break the middle matzah into two pieces. It is a custom for the leader of
the seder to hide the middle matzah behind his pillow and the children come and take it away and
hide it. Does this teach kids that it’s okay to steal? There are many different answers but in my
opinion it does not. It is a fun custom for children to do. Young children might get bored from
‫בַ עַ ל הַ בַ יִ ת יִ בְּ צַ ע אֶ ת הַ מַ צָּ ה הָּ אֶ ְּמצָּ עִ ית לִ ְּׁש ַתיִ ם ּומַ צְּ ִפין אֶ ת הַ חֲ צִ י‬
.7‫הַ גָּדוֹל לַאֲ ִפיקוֹמָּ ן‬
‫מַ גִ יד‬
sitting down at the seder for so long and hiding the afikoman will bring their attention back to the
seder and keep them awake. This is fun for children and a nice break for everyone to enjoy.
Yachatz-A Mitzvah is So Precious!
By Eli Zuckerman
Why do we break the matzah at the beginning of the seder? The matzah symbolizes the
poor slaves in Mitzrayim. A poor person breaks his food into smaller pieces to eat some of it now
and the rest for later. So, we break the matzah and put the smaller piece back and save the bigger
piece for later, for the Afikomen. Why is the Afikomen put into a cloth or napkin? The first
answer is so that it does not get eaten accidently. The second answer is that it reminds us of what
we did with the matzah when we left Mitzrayim. We did not put the leftover matzah on the
donkeys with the gold and silver because it was part of a mitzvah, and that it is too precious to
put on the donkeys. It was carried close to them. When you go on an airplane your most precious
items are not placed with the baggage but with your carry-on bag. We did the same with the
matzah. We carried it on our shoulders and not on the animals.
(From The Medrash Haggadah)
‫מגיד‬-More Than Just Words
By Gavi Dickman
One time there was a villager that became seriously sick. The city’s best doctor was
called in and after a full examination he wrote a prescription. He explained very carefully to the
villager’s wife, “Give your husband this prescription with water three times a day until it is
finished and he will be cured”.
The wife of the villager did exactly as was told. She tore a small piece of the paper off
and put it in water until it dissolved and then gave it to her husband every day three times.
Unfortunately, the condition did not improve. The doctor was called again and he was very
confused. He had given this prescription many times before. After a while, he asked to see the
prescription. Maybe there was a mistake. The wife said that she can’t because she had already
given it all to her husband, just like the doctor said. “Fool!”, the doctor shouted at her. It’s not
the paper that is going to cure him; it’s the words on the paper! That’s what would have cured
The words of the Haggadah are just words, not some magical formula. Reading about
‫ יציאת מצרים‬isn’t enough. We need to do everything possible to feel what it would be like to
experience ‫יציאת מצרים‬. We need to cry when we read/hear the sad parts and smile when we
read/hear the happy parts. By trying to feel how it would be like at the time of ‫ יציאת מצרים‬it will
straighten our faith in Hashem. (From the Torah Tavlin Haggadah)
:‫ וְּ אוֹמֵ ר בְּ קוֹל ָּרם‬9‫ְּמ ַגלֶה אֶ ת הַ מַ צוֹת מַ גְּ בִ יהַ אֶ ת הַ ְּקעָּ ָּרה‬
A Bracha-less Mitzvah?
By Manny Ehrlich
We are commanded by the Torah to “recall the day you went out of Egypt,” particularly
on the fifteenth day of Nissan. There is something about this fact that raises a question. If it is a
mitzvah to recall the story of Pesach, shouldn’t a bracha be said before beginning to tell that
story during Maggid? One possible answer is that it is too late to say a bracha because we fulfill
the mitzvah during Kiddush when we say, “in commemoration of the Exodus from Egypt.”
Another explanation is as follows. The mitzvah of mentioning the Exodus applies daily. There is
a separate mitzvah to tell the story of the Exodus at the Seder each year. The reason no bracha is
recited is that the mitzvah to tell the story in detail applies to the Pesach Seder, while during the
rest of the year one is obligated to only briefly mention the story. So, although they are two
separate mitzvot, they’re still very similar. No bracha can be said for a year-round mitzvah, and
because the two are essentially the same mitzvoth, just with different requirements, no bracha is
said before telling the story at the Seder.
(From The Rav Shlomo Zalman Haggadah)
Why is Maggid Different Than All Other Nights?
By Sammy Indyk
One mitzvah in the Torah is to remember the day we went out of Egypt. We say it in
Shema twice a day, one time during the day and one time during the night. So why do we say
Maggid if we already say the story of leaving Egypt it twice a day? R` Chaim Soloveitchik says
three reasons why saying it every day and telling the story on the night of the Seder are different.
The first reason is that when you recite it every day it can be in private but when we say Maggid
we are telling a story and asking questions about it. The second reason is that on Pesach there is a
requirement of saying the story by first describing the Jews before leaving Egypt and then
discussing what happened after they left. The third reason is that the mitzvah of retelling the
story on Seder night requires doing so in front of matzah, maror, and the meat of the Pesach
sacrifice. These are the reasons why we say Maggid at the Seder.
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah)
The Seder Plate
By Reuvy Keane
The Seder plate is arranged with the Zro’a, Charoset, Marror, Karpas, Lettuce and Egg.
All of the items on the plate represent the seven different character traits (so to speak) of
Hashem. Zro’a represents ‫ – חסד‬kindness. Charoset represents ‫ – נצח‬eternity. Marror represents
‫ – תפארת‬glory. Karpas represents ‫ – הוד‬splendor. Lettuce represents ‫ – יסוד‬foundation. The Egg
represents ‫ – גבורה‬might. The Ka’ara (seder plate) represents ‫ – מלכות‬kingship. These are deep
intentions quoted by the holy Chida.
‫ כָ ל ִדכְ פִ ין‬.‫ַארעָ א ְד ִמ ְצ ָריִם‬
ְ ְ‫ ִדי אֲ כָלּו ַאבְ הָ תָ נָא ב‬10‫הָ א ל ְַחמָ א עַ ְניָא‬
‫ לְ ָשנָה הַ בָ ָאה‬,‫ הָ ַש ָתא הָ כָא‬.11‫ כָ ל ִד ְצ ִריְך יֵיתֵ י וְ יִ פְ סַ ח‬,‫יֵיתֵ י וְ יֵיכֹל‬
.‫ לְ ָשנָה הַ בָ ָאה בְ נֵי חו ִֹרין‬,‫ הָ ַש ָתא עַ בְ ֵדי‬.12‫ַארעָ א ְדיִ ְש ָראֵ ל‬
ְ ְ‫ב‬
‫ הא לחמא עניא‬or ‫?כהא לחמא עניא‬
By Eytan Mobilio
Most people say ‫ הא לחמא עניא‬but some other people say ‫כהא לחמא עניא‬. The words ‫הא לחמא‬
‫ עניא‬are translated as “this is the bread of poverty”, while ‫ כהא לחמא עניא‬is translated as “this is
like the bread of poverty”. One version means the matzah we eat is the bread of poverty and the
other means it is a symbol of the bread of poverty. This story explains the difference.
A poor man once traveled with a knapsack trying to sell things for money. One day, he
was successful and became rich. He decided to make the day his luck had changed into a Yom
Tov. He called it “the knapsack Yom Tov.” He treated it as a normal Yom Tov and bought clothes
for his family. One day, his luck changed again and he lost all of his wealth. His wife told him he
should put on his knapsack and make some money. He took her advice and put on the knapsack.
When his children saw him with the knapsack, they thought it was the Yom Tov and asked him
where their new clothes were. He told them now he wasn’t pretending to be poor like a normal
“knapsack Yom Tov”; he actually was poor!
This is the difference between the two versions. When we had the ‫ בית המקדש‬we ate
matzah as a reminder of ‫יציאת מצרים‬. This is an example of ‫ ;כהא לחמא עניא‬this is like the bread of
poverty. However, now that we don’t have the ‫בית המקדש‬, it is appropriate to say ‫הא לחמא עניא‬,
this is the bread of poverty.
(From The Redemption Haggadah)
Poor Man’s Bread?
By Nathan Orbach
Why does the haggadah call the matzah of Pesach the bread of poverty? When our
fathers left Egypt, taking the matzah with them, they had no part in saving themselves and barely
understood the amazing mercy which Hashem showed them. They ignored the light of the Torah.
The passage says, “Ha Lachma Anya - this is the bread of poverty.” Then it says that “it was
eaten in Egypt”. We can understand that what was missing was an understanding of the will
of Hashem. That is what it means when it says they ate “bread of poverty” in Egypt. They were
poor from belief in Hashem. By eating the matzah we follow our fathers who
followed Hashem without even knowing why. Why do we begin the seder by emphasizing
that matzah is the bread of poverty? The reason is that it says in Avot that whoever doesn’t learn
Torah because of wealth will ultimately become poor. We are reminded that without Torah we
are like Bnei Yisraelin Egypt who were poor in their understanding of Hashem.
(From the Pesach Haggadah of the Sfas Emes)
Invitation to Freedom
By Max Dickman
In Ha Lachma Anya, the commentators wonder why the invitation for the hungry and the
request to be free are juxtaposed. The answer to this question can be learnt from a story about the
Chafetz Chaim. During World War I, thousands of Jews, including the Chafetz Chaim, were
forced to flee from the countryside to the main cities. Times were hard, the economy had come
to a stop, and food was scarce. One day, a well-dressed, wealthy looking man came to the
Chafetz Chaim’s door. The Chafetz Chaim greeted the man warmly. “Shalom Aleichem, where
are you from?” “From Minsk,” he replied. The Rabbi asked what he did, and the man said he
dealt in leather. The man then told the Chafetz Chaim how he is doing well, and what he did to
evade Russian anti-Semitism. He told the Chafetz Chaim that although no piece of leather is
perfect, if you bribe the right people, everyone is happy and the piece of leather gets accepted.
The Chafetz Chaim then told the man that he had learned something from him. In Berachot, 58a,
it says that when we go up to the heavens, our souls will be carefully scrutinized by Hashem, and
many faults will be found. How ashamed we will be when many of our good deeds are wiped
away from before our eyes? Now, the Torah says that Hashem does not take bribes, but, in
Shabbat 151b, it says that if we act with mercy toward others, Hashem will judge us with mercy.
Otherwise, we have no hope. There are some people, he concluded, who spend all of their time
involved in Torah study and do not help others less fortunate than themselves. If we take time to
do something for the less fortunate, then Hashem will judge us as if we are less fortunate and
need His help. The leather merchant understood the Chafetz Chaim’s lesson and took it to heart,
and he gave the Chafetz Chaim a large sum of money to be distributed among the poor. This
concept can be applied to the nation as well. We pray for Moshiach to come every day, but how
can we hope for Moshiach to come with all the imperfections in our deeds? If only we would
lend a hand to the less fortunate, so that we may be judged favorably enough to bring Moshiach.
This is why only after inviting the poor to eat at our table do we beseech Hashem to set us free.
(From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah)
Whoever is Hungry
By Nitti Heinamann
Feeding the poor is a great mitzvah and can be done without having huge financial assets.
The Chazon Ish (a great sage from the previous generation) would encourage, comfort, and help
many holocaust survivors who came to the land of Israel. With the many generous donations sent
to him from Jews all around the world, he married off more than a hundred orphaned girls to
young Torah scholars, and established 39 mikvaot. Yet, he himself lived in poverty and did not
even own a complete set of Shas. In the last year of his life he channeled over 100,000 lira – a
fortune of money in those days – to Torah institutions and to the poor and sick.
(From The Chazon Ish Hagaddah)
‫ מוֹזְּ גִ ין כוֹס ֵׁשנִ י וְּ כַ אן הַ בֵ ן אוֹ אֶ חָּ ד ִמן‬,‫מֵ ִסיר הַ ְּקעָּ ָּרה מֵ עַ ל הַ שֻּׁ לְּ חָּ ן‬
:13‫הַ ְּמסֻּׁ בִ ים ׁשוֹאֵ ל‬
Come and Eat
By Yehuda Kornecki
There was an American girl who had many stomach problems. Her father brought her to
Israel to get blessings from the great tzadikim and rabbis there. One of the rabbis they visited was
Rav Shach. The Rosh Yeshiva told the girl that she should eat properly; she will then have the
merit to be married to a talmid chacham. Rav Shach brought the girl food to eat and gave her a
blessing. She ate out of respect for Rav Shach. He rejoiced over every spoonful that the girl put
into her mouth. Rav Shach asked the girl to always say a beracha before she eats and to keep
him informed of how she was doing. The girl fulfilled his request and she eventually recovered
from her illness. Rav Shach’s blessing was also fulfilled, for the girl married a fine talmid
chacham and together they raised a fine Jewish family.
It says in Maggid “This is the bread of affliction that our fathers ate in the land of Egypt.
Whoever is hungry let him come and eat.” The story connects to this because the girl never ate
anything due to her stomach problems and was very hungry. Just as Hashem did for us in
Mitzrayim, Rav Shach, out of the goodness of his heart, helped the girl overcome her stomach
ailments and brought her out of her own personal affliction. We too at the start of the Seder turn
to those in need and tell them to come and eat as well.
(From the Rav Shach Haggadah)
The Origin of ‫הא לחמא עניא‬
By Daniel Simon
R' Velvel Soloveitchick explains that the words in ‫ הא לחמא עניא‬of ‫ ייתי ויפסח‬were
originally written during the time of the ‫ בית המקדש‬because it could have been an invitation to
give the‫קרבן פסח‬. In later years, however, the ‫ קרבן‬could no longer be offered, and the eating of
an extra piece of matzah (the afikoman) at the end of the meal, was substituted for the Pesach
meat. The last lines were added to the text as an apology for what had been said previously. We
have just invited people to join us in the Pesach meat, but we can no longer participate in that
mitzvah altogether. Therefore we explain: Now we are here, in exile, and now we are unable to
make good on the invitation to eat the Pesach meat. We must substitute a piece of matzah for the
Pesach meat. However, we pray that next year we may be in the land of Israel, and be able once
again to carry out the Pesach ceremony in all its details, including the sacrifice.
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva)
Never Too Young to Ask
By Liron Stern
This night is different because we don’t eat pasta, pizza, or sandwiches That’s one reason
that this night is different but the real answer is that we were slaves in Egypt, but now we are
free. We still remember this because of Hashem who took us out of our misery with a strong
‫מַ ה נ ְִש ַתנָה הַ ּלַיְ לָה הַ זֶׁ ה ִמכָל הַ ּלֵילוֹת? ֶׁשבְ כָל הַ ּלֵילוֹת ָאנּו אוֹכְ לִ ין‬
‫ כֻּל ֹו מַ ּצָ ה! ֶׁשבְ כָל הַ ּלֵילוֹת ָאנּו אוֹכְ לִ ין‬- ‫ הַ ּלַיְ לָה הַ זֶׁ ה‬,14‫חָ מֵ ץ ּומַ ּצָ ה‬
‫ הַ ּלַיְ לָה הַ זֶׁ ה מָ רוֹר! ֶׁשבְ כָל הַ ּלֵילוֹת אֵ ין ָאנּו מַ ְטבִ ילִ ין‬- ,‫ְשָאר יְ ָרקוֹת‬
‫ הַ ּלַיְ לָה הַ זֶׁ ה ְש ֵתי פְ עָ ִמים! ֶׁשבְ כָל הַ ּלֵילוֹת ָאנּו‬- ,‫אֲ פִ ילּו פַ עַ ם אֶׁ חָ ת‬
!‫ הַ ּלַיְ לָה הַ זֶׁ ה ֻכּלָנּו ְמסֻ בִ ין‬- ,‫אוֹכְ לִ ין בֵ ין יו ְֹשבִ ין ּובֵ ין ְמסֻ בִ ין‬
hand. Now we are allowed to live and have a life with family around us to help us celebrate the
celebration of ‫פסח‬.
One of Rav Shach’s students came to visit him on the first day of Pesach a few years after
he was married. “Where did you go for the Seder last night?” asked the Rosh Yeshivah. “We
went to my parents’ house,” he replied. “And did you ask the Mah Nishtanah?” he asked. “No”,
he answered. “My little girl did that!” “That’s not good,” the Rosh Yeshivah told him. “Each
generation should ask the one before it. ‘Ask your father, he will tell you’. Your daughter should
ask you, and you should ask your father.”
Each generation should ask the “Mah nishtanah” question since it shows knowledge of what had
happened to us as a nation. It is also a tradition and the halacha.
(From The Rav Shach Haggadah)
An Important Distinction
By Caleb Rinn
When asking the question about matzah why does the haggadah say that on every night
we eat chametz and matzah? Why wasn’t it enough to say that on every night we eat chametz as
opposed to this night which is completely matzah? The answer that Rabbi Yosef Dov
Soleveichik gives is that by mentioning ‫ חמץ ומצה‬we are teaching our children the concept of
‫ ;הבדלה‬the distinction between being a Jew and a non-Jew. In Shemot it states, “Remember the
day on which you left Egypt.” It also states later on, “Remember the Shabbat day.” What do they
have in common? On Shabbat, it’s not enough to mention that it’s a holy day. You must stress
the difference between Shabbat and the rest of the week. The same is true regarding Pesach. It’s
not enough to say that we eat matzah on Pesach. We need to mention that when it’s not Pesach
we eat matzah and chametz but tonight we’re only eating matzah. That creates ‫הבדלה‬.
(From the Commentator’s Pesach Seder Haggadah)
A Fifth Question?
By Joseph Mamiye
Why is there no mention of the four cups of wine in the Mah Nishtana? The Chasan Sofer
answers that the Mah Nishtana mentions only those things that have already taken place or have
already been seen at the seder table. Since the four cups have not yet taken place, therefore they
are not mentioned. The Abarbanel answers that drinking wine does necessarily show freedom
because even slaves and oppressed people drink wine.
(From the Commentator’s Haggada)
‫ הַ מַ צוֹת ִת ְּהיֶינָּה ְּמגֻּׁלוֹת בִ ְּׁשעַ ת‬.‫מֵ נִ יחַ אֶ ת הַ ְּקעָּ ָּרה עַ ל הַ שֻּׁ לְּ חָּ ן‬
.‫ירת הַ הַ גָּדָּ ה‬
ַ ‫אֲ ִמ‬
‫ וַ יו ִֹציאֵ נּו ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו ִמ ָשם בְ יָד‬,16‫עֲבָ ִדים הָ יִ ינּו לְ פַ ְרעֹה בְ ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם‬
‫ וְ ִאּלּו ֹלא הו ִֹציא הַ ָקדוֹש בָ רּוְך הּוא אֶׁ ת‬.‫חֲ זָ ָקה ּובִ זְ רוֹעַ נְטּויָה‬
Avadim Hayinu
By Katie Dickman
After the children ask ma nishtana, the father usually gives a brief summary of yitziat
mitzraim. However, some parents send their younger children to bed as soon as they finish
asking the four questions. Why should these parents send their children straight to bed without
giving them the answers to the questions they just asked? After all, somebody who does not
understand the haggadah has not relived the experiences of our ancestors, and they have not
fulfilled their obligation. Therefore, parents should at least explain ma nishtana, ha lachma anya,
and avadim hayinu, before sending their children to bed.
There are two ways to explain avadim hayinu. The first explanation is very simple. The
parents could say that we might not know the answers to these four questions asked, but we must
do these things because avadim hayinu b’mitzraim, and Hashem took us out. The second
explanation is more in-depth. It explains how during the seder, we tell the story of when we were
enslaved but then freed, and how avadim hayinu represents this.
In avadim hayinu, it mentions that we are slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt. These words
emphasize the point that we were enslaved in a country that no slave had ever escaped from and
we were under a harsh ruler. However, it then says that Hashem took us out of Egypt. This
shows that even the most powerful nation is unable to go against Hashem. In avadim hayinu, it
also adds the word ‫אלוקים‬, which was not in the original passage where this was taken from. By
using this word along with Hashem’s actual name, it shows that He is kind as well as stern. We
have to also appreciate Him making us slaves in Mitzrayim, because it makes us appreciate the
redemption so much more.
(From the ArtScroll Haggadah)
Avadim Hayinu-Out Loud?
By Yael Adler
Why is it the custom for the Ba’al Haggadah to raise his voice when reading ‫?עבדים היינו‬
The source of this custom is from the gemara in Sotah, which says that, “One should speak one’s
own praise quietly and should speak unpleasant matters in a loud voice.” We raise our voice
because we speak of the ‫ גנות‬or unpleasant facts about our history.
This leaves a few unanswered questions. First of all, we say ‫ עבדים היינו‬in response to the
four questions, but the ‫ גנות‬is referring to ‫ארמי אבד אבי‬. So why do we raise our voices here?
Second of all, why don’t we say the ‫ שבח‬or the praise, in a quiet voice as the Gemara says.
Even though the source for this custom is from the gemara in Sotah, we do not raise our
voice because of the ‫גנות‬, the shame of our fathers in slavery, but because of ‫צער‬, the pain and
misery they suffered in the past. The gemara tells us to raise our voices when talking about our
‫ הֲ ֵרי ָאנּו ּובָ נֵינּו ּובְ נֵי בָ נֵינּו ְמשֻ עְ בָ ִדים הָ יִ ינּו לְ פַ ְרעֹה‬,‫אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו ִמ ִמ ְצ ָריִם‬
‫ ֻכלָנּו‬,‫ ֻכלָנּו זְ ֵקנִים‬,‫ ֻכּלָנּו נְב ֹונִים‬,‫ וַ אֲ פִ ילּו ֻכּלָנּו חֲ כָ ִמים‬.17‫בְ ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם‬
traumatic history. It says in the gemara that to be modest, we should say that we have fulfilled
our personal obligations quietly because it is a private matter. However, we should say our ‫שבח‬
loudly so the whole world can hear. We aren’t talking about our own achievements here but that
we were redeemed by the outstretched hand of Hashem.
(From the Commentator’s Seder)
Still Slaves?
By Maya Minsky
On ‫ פסח‬we say the verse ‫עבדים היינו‬. We start the haggadah by telling the story of our
nation being enslaved by the Egyptians and then we praise ‫ ה׳‬for taking us out of Egypt. Rav
says, “In the beginning, our ancestors worshipped idols.” We were slaves to these idols like we
were slaves to the Egyptians. Egyptian kings thought of themselves as gods and they worshipped
idols and we were slaves to the Egyptians. So when ‫ ה׳‬took us out, it was a true miracle that he
took us out. This showed the Egyptians that they were not our gods and that we only have one Gd. When we say ‫ עבדים היינו‬we are really praising ‫ ה׳‬for saving us from idol worship. If ‫ ה׳‬had not
taken us out of Egypt we would still be slaves to people who think they are our gods.
On another note, this passage can affect us in modern times too. We are slaves to
technology. How many times has your phone dinged and you ran to pick it up? Even if you are in
the middle of a conversation, you make sure that you answer your text. Many Jews also cannot
take a break from technology on the holy day of Shabbat. There has been an increasing amount
of Modern Orthodox teens that have started keeping “half Shabbos” - where somebody keeps all
the rules of Shabbos except for texting. This shows that we are so attached to our phones that
kids can’t put their phones down, clearly showing how our generation is still in slavery.
(From e-nark.net, thejewishnewsweek.com)
Two Redemptions
By Abby Cohn
Every year, during the seder, we say that we were slaves and that if Hashem never would
have taken us out of Mitzrayim we, our children and our children’s children would still be there
today. But how are we to understand that if Hashem had never taken us out we today would still
be enslaved? There has never once been a nation enslaved for that long. Would we be the first?
It says that on the night we left Mitrayim two redemptions occurred. One redemption that
they had was physical. They were physically free from being slaves and from being in
Mitzrayim. Although “physically let free” may seem like all you need, that is false. It is said that
there are Jews that managed to escape from Mitzrayim, but never truly escaped because they did
not escape spiritually. This brings us to the next type of redemption that they had- spiritual
redemption. Bnei Yisrael felt the burden of Mizrayim leave that night and that was a lot of weight
lifted off their shoulders.
A lesson that can definitely be learned from this is that Hashem does everything with
good reason. When Hashem thought that we the Jews were ready to leave, he had us leave. But
‫ וְ כָל הַ מַ ְרבֶׁ ה‬.‫יציַאת ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
ִ ִ‫ ִמ ְצוָ ה עָ לֵינּו לְ סַ פֵ ר ב‬,‫יו ְֹדעִ ים אֶׁ ת הַ תו ָֹרה‬
.18‫יציַאת ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם הֲ ֵרי זֶׁ ה ְמשֻ בָ ח‬
ִ ִ‫לְ סַ פֵ ר ב‬
‫ וְ ַרבְ י‬19‫מַ ע ֲֶׁשה בְ ַרבִ י אֱ לִ יעֶׁ זֶׁ ר וְ ַרבִ י יְ הוֹשֻ עַ וְ ַרבִ י אֶׁ לְ עָ זָ ר בֶׁ ן עֲזַ ְריָה‬
ִ ִ‫ וְ הָ יּו ְמסַ פְ ִרים ב‬,‫ע ֲִקיבָ א וְ ַרבִ י טַ ְרפוֹן ֶׁשהָ יּו ְמסֻ בִ ין בִ בְ נֵי בְ ַרק‬
not only did Hashem have us leave, Hashem had us leave with bad memories erased and lifted
burdens. If we just listen to Hashem, Hashem will tell us when it is the right time to do
something. If we listen to Hashem when he tells us the time is right, Hashem will make it easier
for us.
Whoever Discusses the Exodus Should be Praised
By Benji Schanzer
A man's personality is shown from whom he or she praises. This is what Rabbi Avigdor
Miller explains in a mashal. His mashal is about three men talking about a Seudah Shlishit they
had all attended. One man praised the Rabbi’s words of Torah. The second man admired the
beautiful bracha that was said. Last but not least, the third man hated even having to hear the
bracha that had just been said. What I think Rabbi Avigdor Miller means by this is that a man's
personality can be revealed by what he or she praises or by what excites them. If one spends his
or her time talking about Yitziat Mitzriam, it shows that this is what is vital to her or him. So, it
follows that one who talks about Yitziat Mitzriam is someone who is concerned about important
matters. "The more one discusses the exodus, the more he or she should be praised”. One who is
concerned about something as important as Yitziat Mitzriam is deserving of praise.
(From The Narrative of Faith)
Rabbi Elazar Ben Azarya
By Shoshana Solomon
It says in ‫ מסכת ברכות‬that the day ‫ רבי אלעזר בן עזריה‬was inaugurated as the ‫ נשיא‬was called
‫בא ביום‬, meaning that day. But the ‫ דורות הראשונים‬has a very interesting perspective of what ‫בא‬
‫ ביום‬actually was. According to the commentary, ‫ בא ביום‬was a period of time when ‫רבי אלעזר בן‬
‫ עזריה‬was the only ‫נשיא‬. The proof that the ‫ דורות הראשונים‬uses is the text of the ‫ הגדה‬where it
says, “‫ש ַע ו ְִרבִי ֶאלִי ֶעזֶר בֶן ֲעז ְַרי ָה ו ְִרבְי ֲע ִקיבָא ו ְִרבִי ט ְַרפֹון‬
ֻׁ ‫" ַמ ֲעשֶה ב ְִרבִי ֱאלִי ֶעזֶר ו ְִרבִי י ְהֹו‬. During the time of
these ‫חכמים‬, the most important person would always sit in the middle and according to the text
‫ ִרבִי ֶאלִי ֶעזֶר בֶן ֲעז ְַרי ָה‬is the most important person in the group of ‫ חכמים‬because he is the third
listed. Another proof that ‫ ִרבִי ֶאלִי ֶעזֶר בֶן ֲעז ְַרי ָה‬was the ‫ נשיא‬is because the ‫ חכמים‬are recorded as
being at this ‫סדר‬. ‫רבן גמליאל‬, the ‫ נשיא‬prior to ‫ רבי אלעזר בן עזריה‬was not mentioned here. Could it
possibly be that ‫ רבן גמליאל‬was not invited to the ‫?סדר‬
This proves that ‫ בא ביום‬was more than one day because the ‫ סדר‬goes through the night.
This also shows that ‫ רבי אלעזר בן עזריה‬was the ‫ נשיא‬by himself for a small amount of time. But
how is this relevant to ‫ ?פסח‬This is relevant for two main reasons. The first reason this Gemara
applies to ‫ פסח‬is because it shows us that we can get answers from anywhere. People associate
the ‫ הגדה‬to ‫ פסח‬not even realizing how much more it can be used for. The second reason this has
,‫ ַרבוֹתֵ ינּו‬:‫ָאמרּו לָהֶׁ ם‬
ְ ְ‫ידיהֶׁ ם ו‬
ֵ ‫ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם כָל אוֹת ֹו הַ ּלַיְ לָה עַ ד ֶׁשבָ אּו תַ לְ ִמ‬
.‫ִהגִ יעַ זְ מַ ן ְק ִריַאת ְשמַ ע ֶׁשל ַשחֲ ִרית‬
ִ ִ‫ וְ ֹלא זָ כ‬,20‫ הֲ ֵרי אֲ נִי כְ בֶׁ ן ִשבְ עִ ים ָשנָה‬:‫ָאמַ ר ַרבִ י אֶׁ לְ עָ זָ ר בֶׁ ן עֲזַ ְריָה‬
‫ לְ מַ עַ ן‬,‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬:‫ֶׁש ֵתָאמֵ ר יְ ִציַאת ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם בַ ּלֵילוֹת עַ ד ֶׁש ְד ָר ָשּה בֶׁ ן זוֹמָ א‬
- ‫ יְ מֵ י חַ יֶׁיָך‬,‫אתָך מֵ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ ִמ ְצ ַריִם כֹל יְ מֵ י חַ יֶׁיָך‬
ְ ֵ‫ִתזְ כֹר אֶׁ ת יוֹם צ‬
- ‫ יְ מֵ י חַ יֶׁיָך‬:‫ וַחֲ כָ ִמים או ְֹמ ִרים‬. ‫ הַ ּלֵילוֹת‬- ‫ כָל יְ מֵ י חַ יֶׁיָך‬,21‫הַ י ִָמים‬
. ַ‫ לְ הָ בִ יא לִ ימוֹת הַ מָ ִשיח‬- ‫ כֹל יְ מֵ י חַ יֶׁיָך‬,‫הָ ע ֹולָם הַ זֶׁ ה‬
a lot to do with ‫ פסח‬is because this story happened during the times of the Roman rule. Jews did
not have much freedom. This teaches us who assisted ‫ בני ישראל‬during these times which simply
helps us learn about the difficulties of our people even more.
(From ‫)דורות הראשונים‬
Everyone Welcome
By Genah Grossman
The Gemara says that Rabbi Elazar Ben Azariah was eighteen years old when he got
Rabbi Gamliel’s job of Nasi. He knew that Rabbi Gamliel was fired for disrespecting others.
Rabbi Elazar Ben Azariah’s wife said that he should not take the job because he will get fired
like Rabbi Gamliel. He said that even if he gets fired it is better than nothing. That night a
miracle happened and Rabbi Elazar’s beard turned all white and he looked like a seventy year
old man. That day Rabbi Elazar went against the rule of Rabbi Gamliel who didn't allow people
to enter the Beit Medrash unless their insides were like they're outside; they had to be sincere.
Rabbi Elazar wanted everyone to come into the Beit Medrash. They were fighting for Rabbi
Elazar who wanted to change this because he was the same way as others. On the outside he was
seventy years old but in the inside he was eighteen years old.
(From Haggadah Simchas Yaavetz)
The Uniqueness of the Seder
By Itai Merlin
The story of Yetziat Mitzraim is said on the night of Pesach. Question: The Torah
obligates us to mention the story of Yetziat Mitzraim every day. What is so special about this
commandment on the Seder Night?
Answer Number 1: The Minchat Chinuch says that on the night of the Seder, the story
should be related in a question and answer format with children asking and their parents
answering. The rest of the year we only mention the idea of Yetziat Mitzraim.
Answer Number 2: The Seder Night is also unique because on other nights you are only
commanded to mention Yetziat Mitzraim. However, on the Seder Night you are supposed to go
through every detail in the story of Yetziat Mitzraim.
‫ בָ רּוְך‬,‫ בָ רּוְך ֶׁשנָתַ ן תו ָֹרה לְ עַ מ ֹו יִ ְש ָראֵ ל‬.‫ בָ רּוְך הּוא‬,23‫בָ רּוְך הַ מָ קוֹם‬
,‫ וְ אֶׁ חָ ד ָתם‬,‫ וְ אֶׁ חָ ד ָר ָשע‬,‫ אֶׁ חָ ד חָ כָם‬.24‫ַארבָ עָ ה בָ נִים ִדבְ ָרה תו ָֹרה‬
ְ ‫כְ ֶׁנגֶׁד‬
.‫וְ אֶׁ חָ ד ֶׁשאֵ ינ ֹו יו ֵֹדעַ לִ ְשאוֹל‬
Answer Number 3: Another reason the Seder Night is so unique is because in the Seder
there is the concept of ‫כל המרבה לספר ביציאת מצרים הרי זה משבח‬. This means that the more someone
talks about Yetziat Mitzraim the more praiseworthy he is. This is only true on the night of
(From the Haggadah Treasury)
Shema- A Time Bound Mitzvah?
By Josh Shapiro
"All the days of your life; all the days of your life including nights". We learn from this
that not only do we say Shema during the day, but we should also say Shema at night. The
Sha'agas Aryeh asks as follows. Why are women not obligated to do the mitzvah of Shema in the
morning and night? The Rambam says it is a mitzvah to remember Yitziat Mitzraim in the day
and in the night. Therefore, it is not a time bound mitzvah, since it is all day long. Therefore, the
Sha'agas Aryeh asks why women aren't obligated for remembering Yitziat Mitzraim since it is
not time bound. The Sha'agas Aryeh answers himself by saying, that there are two different
obligations: to remember Yitziat Mitzraim at day and to remember Yitziat Mitzraim at night.
Therefore, reciting Shema is time-bound and women are exempt. According to this
understanding, if you forget to say Shema, you cannot say Tashlumen, or make it up, since they
are two different obligations.
(From the Rav Shlomo Zalman Haggadah)
Baruch Hamakom
By Josh Katz
Why during Baruch Hamakom do we refer to Hashem as “Hamakom” and not “The Holy
One”? One answer to this question is given by Rabbi Yosef Dov Soloveitchick. He says that if
the Haggadah had used the term “The Holy One” then we might think that only holy people like
the wise one can study in G-d’s Presence. This is not true since people like the rasha can also
study and G-d wants to lead them back on the right path. This is the reason we say Hamakom
because everyone has the chance to return to G-d. Makom in Hebrew means place and we are
saying that G-d is everywhere. Every Jew in the world shares the Torah and G-d tries to make
people go from the experience of Makom to being with Hakadosh Baruch Hu and that is why we
say Baruch Hamakom, Baruch Hu.
(From The Night That Unites Passover Haggadah)
The Four Sons- Which Would You Invite?
By Batsheva Dattelkramer
If you were to choose one of the four sons to have at your seder, which one would you
choose? If you think about it, most people would want the "wise one" to join them because he
can partake in the conversation and give his own opinion. The Haggagah of the Roshei Yeshiva
suggests that having the simple son would be the best choice. I truly think differently. I think that
having the wicked son at the seder could bring a greater outcome for both you and the wicked
son. It will help you because it could help you make a difference in the son. If he joins you at
your seder than he will be influenced to become a better Jew and keep the Torah. That will help
him be a better person so he won't be the wicked son and he will be the son that is kind and
The Four Sons: Why That Order?
By Jessie Tuchman
The Haggadah presents the four sons in the following order: the wise son, the wicked
son, the simple son, and the one who does not know how to ask. One may question why the
wicked son was not isolated and placed at the end of the list. He may negatively influence the
simple son and the one who does not know how to ask by being placed in the middle of the list!
One explanation given is that the wicked son was placed next to the wise son on the list, so that
the wise son can positively influence the wicked son. Also, if the wicked son was last, the simple
son and the one who does not know how to ask would be alone near the wicked son. He could
then negatively influence them. The lesson learned from this is that we should always make sure
to surround ourselves with good influences.
The Four Sons Everyday
By Julia Langman
One day, the Divrei Chaim of Sanz was by his window. A man passed by and the Rebbe
told him to come in. The Rebbe asked him, “Tell me! If you found a purse filled with gold coins,
would you return it to its owner?” The man said, “Certainly, Rebbe, I would return it
immediately.” The Rebbe said that he is a fool speaking as if he is ‫תם‬. He waited more by his
window and he waved for another person and asked the man the same question and he said, “I’m
not such a fool as to return a purse full of gold coins that fell into my hand.” The Rebbe said that
he is wicked speaking as if he is the ‫רשע‬. He waited one more time and waved to another man.
The Rebbe asked him the same question and he said, “How can I give an answer Rebbe? Do I
know what will happen at such a moment? Will I have it in myself to suppress my ‫ ?יצר הרע‬I
hope that ‫ ’ה‬would help me overcome the temptation and help me return the lost object to its
owner.” The Rebbe said, “You are wise and like the ‫חכם‬.” As we see the four sons aren’t just on
Pesach, but in your everyday life. It shows that you never know what’s going to happen, until it
actually happens because you will never know if your ‫יצר הרע‬will overcome you.
(From the Haggadah of the Chassidic Masters)
’‫חָ כָ ם מָ ה הּוא אוֹמֵ ר? מַ ה הָ עֵ דוֹת וְ הַ חֻ ִקים וְ הַ ִמ ְשפָ ִטים אֲ ֶׁשר ִצּוָ ה ה‬
‫ אֵ ין מַ פְ ִט ִירין‬:‫אֱ ֹלקינּו אֶׁ ְתכֶׁם? וְ ַאף אַ ָתה אֱ מָ ר ל ֹו כְ ִהלְ כוֹת הַ פֶׁ סַ ח‬
.25‫ַאחַ ר הַ פֶׁ סַ ח אֲ פִ יקוֹמָ ן‬
The Smart Son and the Message of the Afikoman
By Abigail Klein
There are four types of sons. Each son gets told different things based on what they ask,
or who they are. The wise son asks, "What are the testimonies, decrees, and ordinances which
Hashem our God has commanded you?" Even though this is such a broad question, he is told one
specific halacha - that you are not allowed to eat dessert after the final bite of the afikoman. The
word taste in Hebrew is ta'am, which can also be translated as reason. This shows us that we not
only want to have and remember the taste of the afikoman, but also the reason for it. Eating this
last bite of the afikoman is a law that we do not know the reason for; it is a chok. The only reason
that we have to do it is because Hashem commanded us to do it. Through all of this, we see that
maybe the answer to the smart son’s question is not so specific after all. Through our short
answer, we are saying that we understand that you have so many questions, but sometimes you
just need to do things because Hashem told you to.
(From Touched by the Seder)
Mitzvot: Just Do It
By Charles Lando
Why is it, that when the wise son asks, “what are the testimonies, decrees and ordinances
Hashem commanded you?”, does the father answer that we are not allowed to eat after the
Korban Pesach? Why does the father not answer his question? Rav Shach says that it starts when
Bnei Yisrael got the Torah and said, “We will do, and we will listen.” This quote shows that
when we are commanded a mitzvah, we will first do the mitzvah, and then we will ask what is the
reason of the mitzvah. For example, if a teacher asks if someone wants to do a favor for them,
and a person immediately volunteers, it means they want to do the mitzvah, even if it may be
extremely challenging. But a person who asks what the favor is, and then volunteers to do it or
not, shows that they don’t want to do the mitzvah as much as the person who immediately
volunteers. The same goes for the wise son. The father is telling the son to first do the mitzvah
instead of asking why we do the mitzvah and then doing it. The father tells the son to do the
mitzvah of Pesach by eating the Korban Pesach first so he could teach him to be a son who does
mitzvot before asking why he does them.
A lesson we can learn from this is that when a parent or teacher asks you to do
something, instead of responding “WHAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAT????????” (in a really
annoying voice) you should be like Nike and “just do it”. It doesn’t matter if you don’t like the
job; you should be like a chacham and do a mitzvah. (From the Rav Shach Haggadah)
‫ ּולְ פִ י‬.ֹ‫ וְ ֹלא לו‬- ‫? לָכֶׁם‬26‫ָר ָשע מָ ה הּוא אוֹמֵ ר? מָ ה הָ ֲעב ָֹדה הַ זֹאת ָלכֶׁם‬
‫ וְ ַאף אַ ָתה הַ ְקהֵ ה אֶׁ ת ִשנָיו‬.‫ֶׁשהו ִֹציא אֶׁ ת עַ ְצמ ֹו ִמן הַ כְ לָל כָ פַ ר בְ עִ ָקר‬
Eating after the Afikoman- Short and to the Point
By Jonah Mandil
When the father is telling the son why he shouldn’t eat after the afikoman he has to
explain it well. If the father uses a lot of time explaining why not to eat after the afikoman, the
meal will be missed and eating after the afikoman might happen. So the father has to explain
briefly and in a way the son will remember why he can’t eat after the afikoman. This way the
proper and full meal is remembered year after year.
(From The Rav Shlomo Haggada)
Wicked Vs. Wise
By Molly Nelson
The wicked son was punished for using the words “to you” because it shows that he is
not interested in the story of Pesach and therefore separated himself from everyone else.
However when the wise son says, “that Hashem, our God has, commanded you” he does not get
punished for saying “you”. Why does the wicked son get punished and not the wise son? The
Chafetz Chaim answers this question with a story.
There was once businessman who owned a small glassware store. After a few years his
business was doing very well so he invested in his store. He upgraded his stock, increased the
store size and built two large beautiful display widows. Meanwhile, across the street his
competitor was not doing so well. All the customers walked past his store to go to the successful
store. This man was getting very angry and jealous.
One day a high-paying customer came to the big store and placed an order that was worth
a lot of money. As this customer was leaving he slipped and fell into one of the display windows
breaking it and most of what was in the display. The storeowner and his employees rushed to the
customer making sure he was okay. The storeowner told the customer that he should not worry
about the damage. It will be fixed.
The competitor across the street saw this whole incident and came up with an idea. The
next day the competitor was walking by the big store and he “accidentally” slipped and fell into
the other display window, breaking a lot of what was in that window. However unlike the
customer from the other day he was injured from the glass. He was waiting for the owner of the
big store to come help him and forgive him for the “accident.” Instead the storeowner came over
to him with shouts and curses telling him that he had to pay for all of the damage he caused. In
return he said, “I don’t understand. Yesterday a man broke the window and was not even hurt,
and yet you ran over to him to comfort him and tell him that he was being taken care of. Yet,
here I had the same fall as he did, and you are shouting curses at me. This is not fair.”
The storeowner was very angry and said, “The man who fell yesterday was an established
customer who spends a lot of money in my store, but you are just a jealous competitor and the
evidence shows that you most likely planed this fall. Even if it was by accident you still are
responsible for paying.”
This story explains the case between the wise son and the wicked son. We are familiar
with the wise son’s behavior; he follows the mitzvot and the Torah. Even if he makes a few
mistakes that seem negative we can overlook them and assume that they were not intended.
However, the wicked son is known to be negative and not care about the Pesach story so we are
able to understand his words based on his negative personality.
(From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah, volume three)
Thought and Performance
By Eli Fishbein
The Wicked Son asks, "What purpose is this work to you?", meaning, why can't the
mitzvot be fulfilled by only thinking about them? The answer to him is that if we were satisfied
with thoughts alone with regard to the mitzvot, we would be responsible for our evil thoughts as
well and then we would surely be lost. However, the Wicked Son who is satisfied just by having
the mitzvot in mind will have his evil thoughts taken into account and judged. There is a story of
a man who married a woman and told her, "Cook me a chicken stuffed with meat and rice." She
did as she was told. He tasted it and said, "Some spices are missing, like cumin, pepper, and
salt." The woman thought to herself, if my husband likes spices so much I will stuff the chicken
completely with spices! And so she did. The next day the man came to eat his meal, and he
found handfuls of salt, pepper, and cumin! It was impossible to eat the dish. He tried to eat the
meat of the chicken, but it was too ruined from the excessive spice. "What have you done?" he
asked his wife. "I listened to what you said about how the dish lacked spice, so I filled the
chicken completely with spices." The man replied, “Foolish woman, spice is pleasant when it is
mixed with meat and rice, but by itself, spice is inedible." The moral is that the heart's intention
is pleasant to Hashem but only if that intention is combined with the performance of mitzvot. But
if it is alone, in place of the action, it is undesirable and unworthy.
(From the Ben Ish Chai Haggadah)
Of What Purpose is This Service to You?
By Itai Hudes
Why is the wicked son’s question considered so improper? After all, he is only trying to
reduce the yoke of Torah observance by concentrating more on the underlying concept and less
on the ritualistic details.
The Chafetz Chaim illustrated the problem behind the wicked son’s statement with a
parable. A man walked into a store and began hauling away loads of merchandise and throwing
it into a nearby river. Those who witnessed the man’s odd behavior looked on with pity. “The
poor man. He must have lost his mind!” they thought. There was one wise man who corrected
their oversimplified conclusion. “It is not absolutely certain that the man is insane,” he remarked.
“But one thing is for sure – the man who is throwing the merchandise into the river is not the
owner of the store!”
This is how we look at the wicked son’s attitude as well. When someone shows a
willingness to do away with even one of the mitzvot of the Torah he shows clearly that this
“merchandise” is not his; with his words he demonstrates his attitude that this service is “yours”,
not his. (From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah, Book Three)
Why is the Rasha Written in Plural?
By Benjamin Orbach
R’ Moshe Feinstein says that when the Torah mentions three out of the four sons, when
they ask a question, the Torah uses the singular tense. When it comes to the wicked son, the
Torah mentions it in plural. Why is this so? R’ Moshe explains that it is written this way because
when the wicked son acts wicked, people might follow his bad ways and become wicked also.
This makes the Rasha dangerous because he can convince so many people to be bad like him.
That is why it is written in the plural.
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah)
The Wicked Son-Happy He Came
By Devora Slonim
In the Haggada the “wicked son” is referred to as the rasha. The rasha is one of the four
sons that we read about every year during the seder. Unfortunately, many children don’t
appreciate the beauty in Torah. So the Haggada says, “ve’af atah hakhei es shinav”- you must
knock out his teeth. That sounds like an awful approach to reach a kid who does not have an
interest in learning Torah. In the pesukim about the wicked son we see the word “Vehayah”
which according to the Gemara refers to joy. Many wonder why the word “joy” is used in
association with the rasha? The Gemara tells us that there in fact is a reason to be happy or
joyful. The rasha chose to sit with his or her family and celebrate Pesach with them. The rasha
could have been anywhere he/she chose to be but as uncomfortable as it may be they still stayed
to enjoy the seder with their family. The reason that this passuk says to knock out his teeth is to
knock out his sarcasm. But we should also let him/her know that we have high expectations of
him/her as a part of the Jewish nation. The rasha is still a part of the Jewish community and we
should treat him/her with respect.
(From Touched by the Seder)
Unfair Treatment?
By Tommi Ratzker
Why is the wicked son treated so unfairly? Rav Shach answered this question with a
story. In Europe, there is a Jew who owned a deli store where he sold non-kosher delicacies. One
day, he went to his local rabbi to ask if he could give him a kashrut certificate. The rabbi
shouted, “What kind of kashrut certificate? Your store is full of pig meat and every other nonkosher food!” “No, you don’t understand!” said the meat dealer. “I want a certificate stating that
this store sells pig meat and meat that wasn’t slaughtered or salted according to Jewish law and is
absolutely non-kosher”
The rabbi didn’t understand why anyone would want such certificate from him but he
wanted to get rid of this crazy man as soon as possible. So, he signed and sealed the certificate
and gave it to the man. The butcher took the document, framed it and put it in his store. People
saw this framed, official- looking certificate with the rabbi’s signature and costumers began
pouring in! Nobody bothered to read what was in the “small print” of the sign.
Similarly, explained Rav Shach, if we give honor to the wicked son, the other sons see
this and say to themselves, “Look he’s not so bad. The rabbi is honoring him; he must be okay
‫ ִאיּלּו‬.ֹ‫ וְ ֹלא לו‬- ‫ לִ י‬.‫אתי ִמ ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם‬
ִ ֵ‫ בַ עֲבּור זֶׁ ה עָ ָשה ה’ לִ י בְ צ‬:ֹ‫וֶׁ אֱ מֹר לו‬
.‫ ֹלא הָ יָה נִגְ ָאל‬,‫הָ יָה ָשם‬
’‫ בְ חֹזֶׁ ק יָד הו ִֹציָאנּו ה‬:‫ מָ ה הּוא אוֹמֵ ר? מַ ה זֹאת? וְ ָאמַ ְר ָת אֵ לָיו‬28‫ָתם‬
.‫ ִמבֵ ית עֲבָ ִדים‬,‫ִמ ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם‬
after all. There’s nothing wrong if we hang out with him!” In order to show the other sons that
the wicked son should be avoided, we must indicate that we reject his attitude. Then, at a later
time, we should give the “wicked son” the same attention and guidance that is given to the
(From the Rav Shach Haggadah)
The Simple Son
By Maya Katz
The word tam is sometimes defined as simple. However, our forefather Yaakov is also
described as an ish tam which can be translated as a wholesome man. The Chofetz Chaim
explains that this is indeed a virtue. Jews are commanded to be wholesome in their relation with
G-d, by believing that what He does is for good. However, when we have relations with people,
we have to remain alert and realize that some people are honest and some are not. Yaakov was
wholesome in his relationship with G-d and smart in his relationship with Lavan. The simple son
lacks the judgment required to distinguish who to trust.
Simple to Wise
By Ilan Cohen
The Haggadah talks about the four sons but does not talk about them in the same order as
the Torah. First the Haggadah talks about the wise son because he is the best son to have. The
second son that is discussed is the wicked son because he is the opposite of the wise son. The
third son mentioned is the simple son because he hasn’t learned anything yet but is better than
the son who doesn’t know how to ask. The last son is the son who doesn’t know how to even
ask anything.
The order in the Torah is that the simple son comes before the wise son. R’ Moshe
Feinstein explains why this is so. The Gemara tells us that in Torah study, a person should first
accumulate large amounts of information and only then can they move on to the next step, which
is to evaluate the information that has been learned. Like our mitzvot from the Torah, you start
off simple and then as you get older you can go deeper and understand more. If someone is too
wise, they can make excuses to not be a part of a business or hobby. His way of thinking may be
correct but it is not good for his life. Sometimes it is better to understand something in a simple
way and then later they could understand the deeper meaning. You should always start off with a
simple understanding of things then move on to a better understanding.
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva Book One)
‫ וְ ִהג ְַד ָת לְ בִ נְָך בַ יוֹם‬:‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,ֹ‫ פְ תַ ח לו‬29‫ אַ ְת‬- ‫וְ ֶׁשאֵ ינ ֹו יו ֵֹדעַ לִ ְשאוֹל‬
.‫אתי ִמ ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם‬
ִ ֵ‫ בַ עֲבּור זֶׁ ה עָ ָשה ה’ לִ י בְ צ‬,‫הַ הּוא לֵאמֹר‬
‫ ִאי בַ יוֹם הַ הּוא יָכוֹל‬,‫ ַתלְ מּוד לוֹמַ ר בַ יוֹם הַ הּוא‬,‫יָכוֹל מֵ רֹאש ח ֶֹׁדש‬
‫ בַ עֲבּור זֶׁ ה ֹלא ָאמַ ְר ִתי אֶׁ לָא‬- ‫ ַתלְ מּוד לוֹמַ ר בַ עֲבּור זֶׁ ה‬,‫ִמבְ עוֹד יוֹם‬
.‫בְ ָשעָ ה ֶׁשיֵש מַ ּצָ ה ּומָ רוֹר מֻ נ ִָחים לְ פָ נֶׁיָך‬
‫ וְ עַ כְ ָשיו ֵק ְרבָ נּו הַ מָ קוֹם‬,30‫ִמ ְת ִחּלָה עוֹבְ ֵדי עֲבו ָֹדה זָ ָרה הָ יּו אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו‬
‫ כֹה ָאמַ ר ה’ אֱ ֹלהֵ י‬,‫ וַ יֹאמֶׁ ר יְ הוֹשֻ עַ אֶׁ ל כָל הָ עָ ם‬:‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,ֹ‫ַל ֲעב ָֹדתו‬
‫ ֶׁת ַרח אֲ בִ י ַאבְ ָרהָ ם‬,‫ בְ עֵ בֶׁ ר הַ נָהָ ר י ְָשבּו אֲ בוֹתֵ יכֶׁם מֵ ע ֹולָם‬:‫יִ ְש ָראֵ ל‬
‫ וָ אֶׁ ַקח אֶׁ ת אֲ בִ יכֶׁם אֶׁ ת ַאבְ ָרהָ ם‬.‫ וַ יַעַ בְ דּו אֱ ֹלקים אֲ חֵ ִרים‬,‫וַ אֲ בִ י נָחוֹר‬
The One Who Does Not Know To Ask
By Miri Wertzberger
The commentators note that the word the Haggadah uses here for “you” is “aht”, which
is usually the form used when speaking to a woman, rather than the usual masculine form, you,
“attah”. R’Zalman Sorotzkin accounted for this anomaly as follows. One might have supposed
that when dealing with a dull child, one who is not even on the level that he can ask questions, it
is sufficient to “initiate the subject” on a very superficial level. The Haggadah therefore uses the
word “aht”, which consists of the first and last letters of the alphabet, in order to intimate that
this sort of approach is inadequate, and that the entire story with all of its implications must be
set before him, “from A to Z”, even though this may involve a more challenging and timeconsuming task than with a son of greater intelligence.
(Taken from the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah)
Appreciate the Good
By Gabe Plotsker
Why does the Haggadah start with Avraham`s father Terach instead of Avraham? Terach
was an idol worshiper! It doesn’t make sense that he comes first. The Gemara explains that we
start with the bad and then go to the good so that we realize how good life really is when we look
back and see how bad it was before. Rav says that the lowest point in history was when our
fathers worshiped idols. If Hashem hadn’t taken Avraham from his land to Eretz Yisrael we
would still be idol worshipers. Shmuel says that the lowest point in history was when we were
slaves in Mitzraim and then were taken out by Hashem. Both of these points were bad and then
good so we can realize the good in life. In the Haggadah we follow Rav and Shmuel. We say
Avadim Hayinu Lepharo Bmitzraim which is the opinion of Shmuel. We also say Mitchila Ovdae
Avode Azara Hayu Avotano which is the opinion of Rav.
(From The Little Midrash Says Haggadah)
‫וַָארבֶׁ ה אֶׁ ת זַ ְרע ֹו וָ אֶׁ ֵתן ל ֹו‬
ְ ,‫מֵ עֵ בֶׁ ר הַ נָהָ ר וָ א ֹולְֵך אוֹת ֹו בְ כָ ל אֶׁ ֶׁרץ כְ נָעַ ן‬
‫ וָ אֶׁ ֵתן לְ עֵ ָשו אֶׁ ת הַ ר‬.‫ וָ אֶׁ ֵתן לְ יִ ְצחָ ק אֶׁ ת ַי ֲעקֹב וְ אֶׁ ת עֵ ָשו‬,‫אֶׁ ת יִ ְצחָ ק‬
.‫ וְ ַי ֲעקֹב ּובָ נָיו י ְָרדּו ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם‬,ֹ‫ֵשעִ יר ל ֶָׁר ֶׁשת אֹתו‬
‫ ֶׁשהַ ָקדוֹש בָ רּוְך הּוא ִח ַשב‬.‫ בָ רּוְך הּוא‬,‫בָ רּוְך שוֹמֵ ר הַ בְ טָ חָ ת ֹו לְ יִ ְש ָראֵ ל‬
,‫ ַלעֲשוֹת כְ מַ ה ֶׁשָאמַ ר לְ ַאבְ ָרהָ ם ָאבִ ינּו בִ בְ ִרית בֵ ין הַ בְ תָ ִרים‬,‫אֶׁ ת הַ ֵקץ‬
‫ ָידֹע ֵת ַדע כִ י גֵר יִ ְה ֶׁיה זַ ְרעֲָך בְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ ֹלא‬,‫ וַ יֹאמֶׁ ר לְ ַאבְ ָרם‬:‫ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬
‫ וְ גַם אֶׁ ת הַ גוֹי אֲ ֶׁשר‬.32‫ַארבַ ע מֵ אוֹת ָשנָה‬
ְ ‫ וַ עֲבָ דּום וְ עִ נּו אֹתָ ם‬,31‫לָהֶׁ ם‬
.33‫ַי ֲעבֹדּו ָדן ָאנֹכִ י וְ ַאחֲ ֵרי כֵן י ְֵצאּו בִ ְרכֻש גָדוֹל‬
Why Egypt?
By Hannah Mamet
Why were the Jewish people exiled specifically to Egypt? The Torah tells us that
Abraham and his descendants were promised the land of Canaan. He fled to Egypt because of a
famine instead of putting his trust in Hashem by staying in the land which he had been promised.
This was a sin. The Ramban explains that it was for this reason that the Jews were exiled to the
exact place where the original sin was committed.
(From the Ramban Haggadah)
Four Hundred Years?
By Liora Katz
The amount of time from Yaakov's descent into Egypt to the actual time of the Exodus
was 210 years. Why does the Torah say four hundred years? Rashi points out that if Hashem
wanted, he could have calculated differently. Rashi explains that the four hundred year period
was not started with Yaakov going to Egypt but with the birth of Yitzchak which was190 years
earlier. Rabbi Yosef Shaul Nathanson of Lvov explains that Hashem could not bear to have His
nation enslaved for four hundred years. Then Rabbi Nathanson asks, “If so, why does Hashem
say four hundred years?” He explains with a story about a king. The king decided to sentence a
criminal to 20 years and not the 10 years he deserved. The king explained that if we sentence
him to 10 years, in his 8th year he will not learn his lesson for the next two years. Instead, he will
be looking forward to the day he comes out. If we sentence him to 20 years and let him out after
10 he will have learned his full lesson. We learned our lesson after 210 years and not 400.
We Were Slaves
By Tehilla Leader
In Egypt we lost everything that we had. Just when we were at our lowest point, Hashem
did great miracles to free us and give us the wealth of Egypt. This showed us then and now, that
everything we have comes from Hashem. (Taken from the Artscroll Youth Haggada)
.‫ְּמכַ ֶסה אֶ ת הַ מַ צוֹת ּומַ גְּ בִ יהַ אֶ ת הַ ּכוֹס‬
‫וְ ִהיא ֶׁשעָ ְמ ָדה לַאֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו וְ לָנּו! ֶׁשֹּלא אֶׁ חָ ד בִ לְ בָ ד עָ מַ ד עָ לֵינּו‬
‫ וְ הַ ָקדוֹש‬,‫ אֶׁ ּלָא ֶׁשבְ כָל דוֹר וָ דוֹר עו ְֹמ ִדים עָ לֵינּו לְ כַ ּלוֹתֵ נּו‬,34‫לְ כַ ּלוֹתֵ נּו‬
.‫בָ רּוְך הּוא מַ ִּצילֵנּו ִמי ָָדם‬
.‫יַנִ יחַ הַ ּכוֹס ִמיָּדוֹ וִ י ַגלֶה אֶ ת הַ מַ צוֹת‬
‫ ֶׁשפַ ְרעֹה ֹלא גָזַ ר‬.‫צֵ א ּולְ מַ ד מַ ה בִ ֵקש לָבָ ן הָ אֲ ַר ִמי ַלעֲשוֹת לְ ַי ֲעקֹב ָאבִ ינּו‬
‫ אֲ ַר ִמי אֹבֵ ד‬:‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫אֶׁ ּלָא עַ ל הַ זְ כָ ִרים וְ לָבָ ן בִ ֵקש ַלעֲקוֹר אֶׁ ת הַ כֹל‬
‫ עָ צּום‬,‫ וַ יְ ִהי ָשם לְ גוֹי גָדוֹל‬,‫ וַ ָיגָר ָשם בִ ְמתֵ י ְמעָ ט‬35‫ וַ י ֵֶׁרד ִמ ְצ ַריְ מָ ה‬,‫ָאבִ י‬
.‫וָ ָרב‬
Little Pieces
By Hannah Nussbaum
“For not just one has risen against us to destroy us”. Why would G-d raise against us to
destroy us and then start the process all over again? The Tiferet Uziel uses an analogy to answer
this question. There was a king who got very angry with his only son and swore to throw a large
stone at him. Later, when he was calmed down, he realized what a horrible promise he had made
and needed to fulfill. He went to his advisors and asked what he should do. One of them came up
with the idea to grind the large stone into pieces and throw it at him; this way it would be
harmless. This story explains our line in the haggadah because Hashem makes all of our exiles
into little “pieces” and if he didn’t, we would never survive. This goes to show that Hashem is
always looking out for us and protecting us and making all of our struggles as harmless as
possible. When we are going through a rough time like Bnei Yisrael in Mitzrayim, we should
always take a step back and realize that Hashem is trying to make our situation as harmless as he
possibly could and that everything has a reason behind it.
(From The Peninim Haggadah)
Reading In Between the Lines
By Dalia Loeb
Every year at our Seder we recite the words “‫וירד מצרימה‬, ‫ ”ארמי אבד אבי‬which translates to
“An Aramean attempted to destroy my father. Then he descended to Egypt.” Commentators are
confused by the connection between these two points. When Rashi looks closer into this he
comes to the conclusion that Lavan, the man from Aram wasn’t the only one who tried to
eradicate us but Pharaoh from Egypt did as well. R’ Moshe Feinstein analyzes the question
differently. He says that if Yaakov didn’t have strong faith in Hashem, he never would have gone
.37‫ ָאנּוס עַ ל פִ י הַ ִדבּור‬- 36‫וַ י ֵֶׁרד ִמ ְצ ַריְ מָ ה‬
‫ ְמלַמֵ ד ֶׁשֹלא י ַָרד ַי ֲעקֹב ָאבִ ינּו לְ ִה ְש ַת ֵקעַ בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם אֶׁ ּלָא‬- ‫וַ ָיגָר ָשם‬
‫ כִ י אֵ ין‬,‫ָארץ בָ אנּו‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ לָגּור ב‬,‫ֹאמרּו אֶׁ ל פַ ְרעֹה‬
ְ ‫ וַ י‬:‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫לָגּור ָשם‬
‫ וְ עַ ָתה י ְֵשבּו נָא‬.‫ כִ י כָבֵ ד הָ ָרעָ ב בְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ כְ נָעַ ן‬,‫ִמ ְרעֶׁ ה ַלּצֹאן אֲ ֶׁשר ַל ֲעבָ ֶׁדיָך‬
.‫עֲבָ ֶׁדיָך בְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ ג ֶֹׁשן‬
to Egypt. This explanation means that Yaakov did not need others to influence his belief; he had
enough trust in Hashem to lead him in a good direction. Hashem revealed to Avraham that his
children would be enslaved in Egypt but ultimately they will become a great nation. The act of
Yaakov going to Egypt was the beginning of the prophecy. One thing led to another. What this
teaches is that actions can have consequences that go beyond what we see and what we know.
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva)
Dangerous Descent
By Jared Carmeli
"‫"וירד מצרימה‬- then he descended. When looking at this passuk one may ask, “When
Yaakov and his sons came to Egypt, the Torah no longer uses the word “descended”, but rather
they “came” to Egypt. Why? The Midrash tells us that Egypt is a place of immorality and
corruption. When the children of Yaakov came to Egypt, they experienced a “spiritual descent”.
One tends to rapidly acclimate to a situation of immorality and corruption, and gradually loses
this status. The Torah no longer uses the same verb because after they came to Egypt they no
longer reacted to it as being a descent. We may learn from this that we must recognize that when
we disassociate ourselves from Hashem, we are in danger of forgetting his values.
(From The Seder Night: An Exalted Evening)
Forced By the Word of Hashem
By Jordan Sheris
The Haggada says that Yaakov was forced to go down to Mitzrayim. Where do we find
that Yaakov was forced to go to Mitzrayim? The Vilna Gaon explains that Hashem decreed that
Avraham’s descendants would go into exile. They could have gone down in chains, but Hashem
did not want to do that. Instead, Hashem made the events “happen” so that Yaakov was “forced”
to go down to Mitzrayim in a more pleasant manner. First, Yosef was sold into slavery. Then he
became a ruler. Then there was a famine. Yaakov’s sons needed some food, so they went down
to Mitzrayim. Now we understand how Yaakov was forced by the word of Hashem. It was not
with a direct command but through the prophecy to Avraham and then the events that brought
the family to Mitzrayim.
(From The Little Medrash Says Haggadah)
,‫ בְ ִשבְ עִ ים נֶׁפֶׁ ש י ְָרדּו אֲ בוֹתֶׁ יָך ִמ ְצ ָריְ מָ ה‬:‫ כְ מַ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬- ‫בִ ְמתֵ י ְמעָ ט‬
.‫וְ עַ ָתה ָש ְמָך ה’ אֱ ֹלהֶׁ יָך כְ כוֹכְ בֵ י הַ ָשמַ יִ ם ָלרֹב‬
.‫יִש ָראֵ ל ְמ ֻצ ָינִים ָשם‬
ְ ‫ ְמלַמֵ ד ֶׁשהָ יּו‬- ‫וַ יְ ִהי ָשם לְ גוֹי‬
‫יִש ְרצּו וַ יִ ְרבּו וַ יַעַ ְצמּו‬
ְ ַ‫ ּובְ נֵי יִ ְש ָראֵ ל פָ רּו ו‬:‫ כְ מה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬- ‫ עָ צּום‬,‫גָדוֹל‬
.‫ָארץ אֹתָ ם‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ וַ ִתמָ לֵא ה‬,‫בִ ְמאֹד ְמאֹד‬
‫ וַ ִת ְרבִ י וַ ִתגְ ְדלִ י‬,‫ ְרבָ בָ ה כְ צֶׁ מַ ח הַ ָש ֶׁדה נְתַ ִתיְך‬:‫ כְ מַ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬- ‫וָ ָרב‬
.‫ וְ אַ ְת עֵ רֹם וְ עֶׁ ְריָה‬, ַ‫ּושעָ ֵרְך ִצמֵ ח‬
ְ ‫ ָש ַדיִ ם ָנכֹנּו‬,‫וַ ָתב ִֹאי בַ ע ֲִדי ע ֲָדיִ ים‬
‫ וָ אֹמַ ר‬,‫ וָ אֹמַ ר לְָך בְ ָדמַ יִ ְך חֲ יִ י‬,‫וָ אֶׁ ֱעבֹר עָ לַיִ ְך וָ אֶׁ ְראֵ ְך ִמ ְתבוֹסֶׁ סֶׁ ת בְ ָדמָ יִ ְך‬
.38‫לְָך בְ ָדמַ יִ ְך חֲ יִ י‬
.‫ וַ יִ ְתנּו עָ לֵינּו ֲעב ָֹדה ָק ָשה‬,‫ הַ ִמ ְצ ִרים וַ יְ עַ נּונּו‬39‫וַ י ֵָרעּו אֹתָ נּו‬
Through the Blood You Shall Live
By Gilad Smith
Reb Naftali, a Radmosker chassid in Auchwitz was very excited about Chanukah which
was soon approaching. The Nazis made it clear that if anyone was caught lighting a candle he
would be killed. Yet, all this Jew thought about was how he could get his hands on a candle. He
sold his shoes for a candle, risking his life since he showed up to roll-call without his shoes. All
the Jews told him, “You don't have to risk your life for this mitzvah.” Reb Naftali said to them
“That's what Chanukah is all about -miseerut nefesh.” He put the candle next to the barracks
where everyone could see it. Within two minutes a Nazi soldier burst in and demanded to know
who lit this candle. Reb Naftali said it was him. The Nazi solder beat him up. But he was still
alive to light the next candles the next night.
(From the Carlbach Haggadah)
The Egyptians Made Us Bad
By Yael Feldman
In the Haggadah it states ‫ וירעו אתנו‬which means “the Egyptians did evil to us". The
grammatical way to say this would have been ‫וירעו לנו‬. ‫ וירעו אתנו‬literally means "they made us
evil", which implies that while in Egypt, the Egyptians not only did evil to the Jewish nation but
made them evil as well. This proves that a person is affected by their environment. From this we
learn that we need to place ourselves in positive backgrounds so that we can be influenced
positively. But, if we place ourselves in negative backgrounds we will be influenced negatively,
just like Bnei Yisrael were influenced by the Egyptians. This is why it is important to surround
,‫ הָ בָ ה נ ְִתחַ כְ מָ ה ל ֹו פֶׁ ן יִ ְרבֶׁ ה‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬- 40‫וַ י ֵָרעּו אֹתָ נּו הַ ִמ ְצ ִרים‬
,‫וְ הָ יָה כִ י ִת ְק ֶׁראנָה ִמלְ חָ מָ ה וְ נוֹסַ ף גַם הּוא עַ ל שנְאֵ ינּו וְ נִלְ חַ ם בָ נּו‬
ֶׁ ָ‫וְ עָ לָה ִמן ה‬
‫ וַ י ִָשימּו עָ לָיו ָש ֵרי ִמ ִסים לְ מַ עַ ן עַ נֹת ֹו‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬- ‫וַ יְ עַ נּונּו‬
.‫ אֶׁ ת פִ תֹם וְ אֶׁ ת ַרעַ ְמסֵ ס‬.‫ וַ יִ בֶׁ ן עָ ֵרי ִמ ְסכְ נוֹת לְ פַ ְרעֹה‬.‫בְ ִסבְ ֹלתָ ם‬
‫ וַ ַיעֲבִ דּו ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם אֶׁ ת בְ נֵי‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬- ‫וַ יִ ְתנּו עָ לֵינּו ֲעב ָֹדה ָק ָשה‬
.41‫יִ ְש ָראֵ ל בְ פָ ֶׁרְך‬
ourselves with the words of the Torah and with good people.
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva, Volume One)
Friends or Enemies?
By Hailey Kops
What is the true meaning of ‫ וירעו‬in the passuk of ‫וירעו אותנו המצרים‬- “the Egyptians did
evil to us”? When the word is broken down, it is a conjunction of the word ‫ רע‬which means
friend. Although ‫ רע‬means friend, the Egyptians where definitely not friendly to us, so what does
this mean? If one really looks into it, the phrase would then read “they befriended us.” But did
they befriend us? When the Egyptians first brought us to Egypt it was an invitation to help build
a great thing for Pharaoh, but as time went on they started taking advantage of the Jews and
ultimately enslaved them. This is how the Egyptians befriended us as a ploy to turn us into their
This also relates to the ‫מרור‬. When someone grows,‫ מרור‬it normally starts off growing
sweet but when it gets larger it turns bitter. This relates to how the Egyptians at first treated us
“sweetly” but then turned “bitter” toward the Jews.
Turning Against Friends
By Dalia Adams
In the Haggadah, it says, “and the Egyptians were cruel to us.” When you first think
about this, it sounds plain and straightforward. However, when you look closer, you can find a
different meaning. The Chassidic Haggadah states that there were different steps that they took
in order to make us suffer. First, they befriended the Jews and were friendly. This caused their
level of holiness to go down and they began to adopt the Egyptian culture. Once their spiritual
standards had been lowered, the Egyptians turned against their “friends”. That is when they
began acting cruel to them.
‫ וַ י ְַרא אֶׁ ת עָ ְניֵנּו‬,‫קלֵנּו‬
ֹ ‫ וַ יִ ְשמַ ע ה’ אֶׁ ת‬,‫ אֱ ֹלהֵ י אֲ בֹתֵ ינּו‬42’‫וַ נ ְִצעַ ק אֶׁ ל ה‬
.‫וְ אֶׁ ת עֲמָ לֵנּו וְ אֶׁ ת לַחֲ צֵ נּו‬
‫ וַ יְ ִהי בַ י ִָמים הָ ַרבִ ים‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬- ‫וַ נ ְִצעַ ק אֶׁ ל ה’ אֱ ֹלהֵ י אֲ בֹתֵ ינּו‬
,‫ וַ יֵָאנְחּו בְ נֵי יִ ְש ָראֵ ל ִמן הָ עֲבו ָֹדה וַ יִזְ עָ קּו‬,‫הָ הֵ ם וַ יָמָ ת מֶׁ לְֶׁך ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
.‫וַ ַתעַ ל ַשוְ עָ תָ ם אֶׁ ל הָ אֱ ֹלקים ִמן הָ ֲעב ָֹדה‬
,‫ וַ יִ ְשמַ ע אֱ ֹלקים אֶׁ ת נַאֲ ָקתָ ם‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬- ‫קלֵנּו‬
ֹ ‫וַ יִ ְשמַ ע ה’ אֶׁ ת‬
.‫ אֶׁ ת יִ ְצחָ ק וְ אֶׁ ת ַי ֲעקֹב‬,‫וַ יִ זְ כוֹר אֱ ֹלקים אֶׁ ת בְ ִרית ֹו אֶׁ ת ַאבְ ָרהָ ם‬
With Crushing Harshness
By Dalya Stroock
Our rabbis tell us that Pharaoh started putting his preposterous plan into action with a peh
rach, or with a soft mouth. In the beginning, Pharaoh made a huge appeal for people to show
their loyalty by participating in an extremely big building arrangement. In order to make the
building project more exciting, Pharaoh gave out a payment for each single brick that was put
into place. During the time the Jews were working eagerly and energetically. The Egyptians kept
a strong eye on the number of bricks that the Jews put into place. After this, Pharaoh decided to
make the Jews continue building but he would no longer pay them for the backbreaking work.
And as a great addition, since they had work records, Pharaoh had a list of all the Jews and
where they all lived. This story relates to another time in our history with the Germans. They
used the same trick; they got everyone to register for food and fill out personal information to do
so. But in Egypt, the tribe of Levi was devoted to the great study of a sacred law. They were not
interested in making money so they didn’t volunteer in Egypt or register for any food.
Fantastically, their families and the Jewish people gave up a tenth of their earnings and food just
to support them! Even though the Nazis and the Egyptians used the very same gimmicks toward
the Jews, we did not fall for these because many of us were aware of what happened in Egypt
and would not fall for it again a second time against more of our enemies.
And We Cried Out- Why Now?
By Zachery Schachter
Why did the Jews only start groaning after the first Pharaoh died? Wasn’t the first
Pharaoh just as cruel? There was a custom in Egypt that after each king died, the courts would
decide if he was a good king who ruled with justice or an evil king who was filled with greed. If
he was good, they would honor his name and keep the decrees that he made. When the Jews saw
that the king died and was honored as a king of Egypt, they realized that his decrees would
continue. Then they groaned and cried out to Hashem.
‫ וַ י ְַרא אֱ ֹלקים‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫ ז ֹו פְ ִרישּות ֶׁד ֶׁרְך אֶׁ ֶׁרץ‬- ‫וַ י ְַרא אֶׁ ת עָ ְניֵנּו‬
.‫אֶׁ ת בְ ני יִ ְש ָראֵ ל וַ י ֵַדע אֱ ֹלקים‬
‫ כָ ל הַ בֵ ן הַ יִ ּלוֹד הַ יְ א ָֹרה‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬.43‫ אֵ ּלּו הַ בָ נִים‬- ‫וְ אֶׁ ת ֲעמָ לֵנּו‬
.44‫ַת ְשלִ יכֻהּו וְ כָ ל הַ בַ ת ְתחַ יּון‬
‫יתי אֶׁ ת הַ ּלַחַ ץ אֲ ֶׁשר‬
ִ ‫ וְ גַם ָר ִא‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫ זֶׁ ה הַ ְדחַ ק‬- ‫וְ אֶׁ ת לַחֲ צֵ נּו‬
.‫ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם ֹלחֲ ִצים אֹתָ ם‬
‫עמלינו – אלו הבנים‬
By Ethan Moses
We often find people who are so involved in their business that they don’t have any time
to learn Torah. They justify to themselves that they have to make a livelihood to raise their
children to learn Torah and do mitzvot. But then the children grow up and throw themselves into
their business, not leaving any time for Torah study, because they want their children to learn
Torah. The Yehudi Hakadosh of Pshischa says, “How I would love to meet that son, at the end of
the chain, for whom all his ancestors have been working to raise in Torah and Mitzvot!”
The Torah writes about Noach that, “These are the offsprings of Noach, Noach is a Tzadik, pure
in his generation.” Noach decided that rather than working on behalf of his children, who would
then work for their children, who would work for their children, he would first become a Tzaddik
himself. The offspring (children) of Noach was his righteousness.
(From The Chasidic Master Haggadah)
Divine Destiny
By Jonathan Langman
Rabbi Yaakov Yisrael Kanievsky pointed out the ironic effects of Pharaoh’s decree.
Pharaoh’s astrologists saw that Israel’s savior was almost upon them. He would also meet his
end through water. Moshe’s end was at Merivah, when he hit the rock instead of talking to it.
Since Pharaoh wanted to avoid Moshe’s birth, he decided to throw all male babies into the Nile.
Because of this harsh decree, Pharaoh’s daughter discovered Moshe, and the opposite of
Pharaoh’s intent occurred. Instead of killing Moshe, the decree saved Moshe. We understand
from here that when Hashem determines an event for the future, he knows man’s destiny. The
Gemara states, “A man’s legs lead him to the place he is destined to go.” A man cannot master
his own destiny no matter how hard he tries. We have to remember that a person is not able to
control their fate. Another example is Haman. He tried to destroy all of Israel, but his plan
backfired because Hashem controlled his destiny. Even if we think that our actions may lead us
to our destiny, it is not ourselves that lead us; it is Hashem that leads us.
(From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah)
,‫ ּובְ מ ָֹרא ָגדֹל‬,45‫וַ יו ִֹצאֵ נּו ה’ ִמ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם בְ יָד חֲ זָ ָקה ּובִ זְ רֹעַ נְטּויָה‬
.‫ּובְ אֹתוֹת ּובְ מֹפְ ִתים‬
‫ וְ ֹלא עַ ל‬,‫ וְ ֹלא עַ ל יְ ֵדי ָש ָרף‬,‫ ֹלא עַ ל יְ ֵדי מַ לְ אָ ְך‬- ‫וַ יו ִֹצאֵ נּו ה’ ִמ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
‫ וְ עָ בַ ְר ִתי‬:‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,ֹ‫ אֶׁ ּלָא הַ ָקדוֹש בָ רּוְך הּוא בִ כְ בוֹד ֹו ּובְ עַ ְצמו‬, ַ‫יְ ֵדי ָשלִ יח‬
ָ ֵ‫יתי כָ ל בְ כוֹר בְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם מ‬
ִ ֵ‫ וְ ִהכ‬,‫בְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם בַ ּלַיְ לָה הַ זֶׁ ה‬
.’‫ אֲ נִי ה‬.‫ ּובְ כָ ל אֱ ֹלהֵ י ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם אֶׁ ע ֱֶׁשה ְשפָ ִטים‬,‫וְ עַ ד בְ הֵ מָ ה‬
‫ אֲ נִי וְ ֹלא מַ לְ אָ ְך‬- ‫וְ עָ בַ ְר ִתי בְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם בַ ּלַיְ לָה הַ זֶׁ ה‬
‫ אֲ נִי וְ ֹלא ָש ָרף‬- ‫יתי כָל בְ כוֹר בְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
ִ ֵ‫וְ ִהכ‬
. ַ‫ אֲ נִי וֹלא הַ ָשלִ יח‬- ‫ּובְ כָ ל אֱ ֹלהֵ י ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם אֶׁ ע ֱֶׁשה ְשפָ ִטים‬
.‫ אֲ נִי הּוא וֹלא ַאחֵ ר‬- ’‫אֲ נִי ה‬
‫ ִהנֵה יַד ה’ ה ֹויָה בְ ִמ ְקנְָך אֲ ֶׁשר‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫ ז ֹו הַ ֶׁדבֶׁ ר‬- ‫בְ יָד חֲ זָ ָקה‬
.‫ ֶׁדבֶׁ ר כָבֵ ד ְמאֹד‬,‫ בַ בָ ָקר ּובַ ּצֹאן‬,‫ בַ גְ מַ ּלִ ים‬,‫ בַ חֲ מ ִֹרים‬,‫סּוסים‬
ִ ַ‫ ב‬,‫בַ ָש ֶׁדה‬
‫ נְטּויָה‬,ֹ‫ וְ חַ ְרב ֹו ְשלּופָ ה בְ יָדו‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,46‫ ז ֹו הַ חֶׁ ֶׁרב‬- ‫ּובִ זְ רֹעַ נְטּויָה‬
.‫רּושלַיִ ם‬
ָ ְ‫עַ ל י‬
With a Strong and Outstretched Arm
By Daniel Peikes
The Vilna Gaon asks, “What does it mean that Hashem took us out with a ‘strong hand’
and an ‘outstretched arm’?” The Iyun Tefila explains that the “strong hand” implies that Hashem
was not only punishing the Egyptians with the ten plagues, but needed to also overcome the
angels who claimed that the Jews were not worthy of being saved. Hashem said, “The Jews
risked their lives to obey me when I told them to kill the sheep even though the Egyptians
worshipped them.” The “outstretched arm” refers to the obvious involvement of Hashem in the
punishing of the Egyptians. Just as when someone who outstretches their arm to hit someone and
knock them down it is obvious that it wasn’t an accident, so too the punishment the Egyptians
received was obvious that it came from Hashem.
(From the Little Midrash Says Haggadah)
‫ א ֹו הֲ נִסָ ה אֱ ֹלקים ָלבֹא‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫ ז ֹו גִ ּלּוי ְשכִ ינָה‬- ‫ּובְ מ ָֹרא ָגדֹל‬
‫ ּובְ ִמלְ חָ מָ ה ּובְ יָד‬,‫אתֹת ּובְ מוֹפְ ִתים‬
ֹ ְ‫ל ַָקחַ ת ל ֹו גוֹי ִמ ֶׁק ֶׁרב גוֹי בְ מַ סֹת ב‬
’‫ כְ כֹל אֲ ֶׁשר עָ ָשה ָלכֶׁם ה‬,‫ ּובְ מו ָֹר ִאים גְ דֹלִ ים‬,‫חֲ זָ ָקה ּובִ זְ רוֹעַ נְטּויָה‬
.‫אֱ ֹלהֵ יכֶׁם בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִם לְ עֵ ינֶׁיָך‬
,‫ וְ אֶׁ ת הַ מַ טֶׁ ה הַ זֶׁ ה ִת ַקח בְ י ְָדָך‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫ זֶׁ ה הַ מַ טֶׁ ה‬- ‫ּובְ אֹתוֹת‬
ֹ ָ‫אֲ ֶׁשר ַת ֲע ֶׁשה ב ֹו אֶׁ ת ה‬
Rebellion of the Firstborns
By Hannah Kirsch
Why is it that Makat B’chorot is named after the people that it is happening to and not the
action in the plague? What is the Hagaddah referring to when it says “with an outstretched arm”
referring to a sword? Where among the plagues do we see any mention of a sword?
When the firstborn Egyptian boys found out that they would be killed during Makat
B’chorot, they reacted in an interesting way. They begged Pharaoh and the high ranking
Egyptians to let the Jews go. When they said no, the boys went ballistic. They killed 600,000
Egyptians. They did this before they themselves would die in the hands of Hashem.
In answer to the question, the plague is called Makat B’chorot in commemoration of the
action of the firstborn boys. This is also the “sword” mentioned in the quote earlier when the
Haggadah said “with an outstretched arm”.
There are so many lessons we can learn from the actions of the firstborn boys. One might
be to trust your people. If Pharaoh had listened to his people to let the Jews go, they would have
stayed calm and not killed 600,000 people from their own nation. Another lesson that we can
take away from this is that Hashem is always guiding you on the right path, even if that is not the
path you want to go on. The Egyptian boys didn’t have faith in anyone to save them and take
them on a better path. So instead, they killed people from their own nation. Whenever we are in
trouble, we should always look to Hashem and remember that he has our best interest at heart
and he will take us on the right path.
(From the Gedolei Yisrael Haggadah)
With a Sword?
By Aaron Bloomberg
Why does the Haggadah say that an out stretched arm refers to a sword? We do not find
a sword mentioned in all of the makkot. The Vilna Gaon answers that the “sword “is not to be
taken literally, but is a figure of speech which refers to the angel that protected the Jews from the
last makka until they left Mitzrayim. The Rashbam answers that the firstborn sons asked their
fathers to let the Jews go. The fathers said no. They decided to ask Pharaoh since he is a firstborn
son. When he said no also they became so angry that they killed 100,000 of their own people and
that is the sword that is spoken about here.
(From the Little Medrash Says Haggadah)
‫ עֶ ֶשר הַ מַ ּכוֹת‬,...‫ירת דָּ ם וָּאֵ ׁש‬
ַ ‫ בַ אֲ ִמ‬47‫נוֹהֲ גִ ין לְּ הַ ִטיף ִטפָּ ה ִמן הַ ּכוֹס‬
.‫ ט"ו פַ עַ ם‬,‫ בְּ יַחַ ד‬,‫ עַ ַד"ׁש בְּ ַאחַ "ב‬48‫ְּדצַ "ְך‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ וְ נָתַ ִתי מוֹפְ ִתים בַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬:‫ כְ מָ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫ זֶׁ ה הַ ָדם‬- ‫ּובְ מֹפְ ִתים‬
.‫ימרוֹת עָ ָשן‬
ְ ‫ָדם וָ אֵ ש וְ ִת‬
- ‫ ּובְ מ ָֹרא ָגדֹל‬,‫ ְש ַתיִ ם‬- ‫ ּובִ זְ רֹעַ נְטּויָה‬,‫ ְש ַתיִ ם‬- ‫ בְ יָד חֲ זָ ָקה‬:‫ָדבָ ר ַאחֵ ר‬
‫ אֵ ּלּו עֶׁ ֶׁשר מַ כוֹת‬.‫ ְש ַתיִ ם‬- ‫ ּובְ מֹפְ ִתים‬,‫ ְש ַתיִ ם‬- ‫ ּובְ אֹתוֹת‬,‫ְש ַתיִ ם‬
:‫ וְ אֵ ּלּו הֵ ן‬,‫ֶׁשהֵ בִ יא הַ ָקדוֹש בָ רּוְך הּוא עַ ל הַ ִמ ְצ ִרים בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
How to Celebrate
By Kyle Shraga
Why is it customary to remove some wine from the cup as the plagues are listed? The
four cups of wine represent our joy of being redeemed. Why then do we take out wine, reducing
our joy? Our joy cannot be full because the Egyptians suffered. Rabbi Yechezkel Abramsky
explains that unlike the angels who were rebuked for inappropriately celebrating the suffering of
the Egyptians, the Jews are right to celebrate their own redemption. However, before we can
celebrate our own salvation, we must remove that part of us that may gloat at the suffering of
others, even our enemies. Only after removing this inappropriate tendency and becoming
sensitive to others' pain, can we truly enjoy our redemption.
(From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah, Book 2)
Appreciating Appreciation
By Jonah Eisenberg
Most people know that Aharon caused the first three plagues; not Moshe. Most people
also know that the reason for this is because the water and the land saved Moshe and Moshe
could not hit the water or the land surrounding it so as to not to demonstrate a lack of
appreciation. Moshe and Aharon were taking the Jewish people out of Egypt which was the most
important thing that they were going to do at that point in their lives. Yet, Moshe would not hit
an object in order to show gratitude to something that could not even feel. This shows that even
in this time of difficulty, Moshe knew what was right and chose to show gratitude to Hashem’s
creation. Even during such a hectic time Moshe showed respect to something that did not even
matter. Everyone can learn from this to always show appreciation to one another and to anything
that Hashem created.
ֶׁ ,54‫ַארבֶׁ ה‬
ְ ,53‫ בָ ָרד‬,‫ ְש ִחין‬,‫ ֶׁדבֶׁ ר‬,‫ עָ רוֹב‬,52‫ כִ נִים‬,51 ַ‫ ְצפַ ְר ֵדע‬,50‫ָדם‬
.55‫מַ כַ ת בְ כוֹרוֹת‬
The Ten Plagues-Why Not One?
By Josh Gindi
Hashem struck the Egyptians with ten plagues. Why didn't He strike them with one blow?
R' Yaakov Yisrael Kanievsky or "the Steipler" says that each plague was to show the Egyptians
the power of Hashem. The plague of blood represents Hashem's mastery over water. The plague
of the frogs shows Hashem's rule over the underwater animals. The plague of the wild beasts
shows us Hashem's rule over the animal kingdom. The lesson of the locusts is that Hashem
controls the wind because the locusts came from the east wind. The lice plague's lesson was to
show us Hashem's mastery over the animals in the dust of Earth. The boils showed us that
Hashem rules over the well-being of a person. The plague of darkness shows us Hashem's rule
over the light in this world and the light in the heavens. The pestilence shows us Hashem's rule
over the fate of animals. The hail teaches us Hashem's control over meteorological conditions.
Through the firstborn plague we learn that Hashem controls our fate too. This shows us that
every single thing in this world has a reason behind it and we just have to find the reason.
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah)
By Aryeh Gruber
The Midrash states that if a Jew and Egyptian would drink together out of the same cup,
the Jew would be drinking water but the Egyptian would be drinking blood. Any water an
Egyptian purchased from a Jew remained water. The reason for this was to give the Jews an
opportunity to become wealthy by selling their water to the Egyptians. The reason that the Jews
needed to become wealthy at this point was because the Jews poverty was worse than all the
Egyptians plagues combined.
After Aaron hit the water it turned to blood. We were told that there was no water left in
all of Eretz Mitzrayim. So how is it possible that the magicians did the same when there was no
clean water left if it was all blood? Perhaps we can refer to the Midrash and say that they bought
water from the Jews to prove that their magicians could do the same. Ohr Same’ach states that
Pharaoh was very wealthy so he was able to buy all the water he needed from the Jews. He
therefore was not fazed by this plague.
Just before these events, the Torah states that all the water in the rivers turned to blood
and the river was left fouled as a result of all the fish that died in it. Chizkuni gives us a different
interpretation. He feels that the water turned to blood temporarily. The water turned to blood
long enough to kill the fish and leave the river foul. This is how he is able to explain that the
Egyptians did the same thing.
(From the Gedolei Yisrael Haggadah)
Hakarat Hatov
By Max Orbach
Hashem tells Aharon and Moshe to initiate the plagues in Mitzrayim. The plagues were
meant to be for Moshe to give to Mitzrayim but for some reason Aharon did the plague of blood.
The question is why did Aharon do the plague of blood and not Moshe? After all, Moshe was
going to do all the rest. Rashi explains that the reason that Aharon did the plague of blood and
not Moshe is because when Moshe was a little boy the Nile River saved him. The only way
everything would turn into blood was if Moshe or Aharon took their staff and struck the Nile
River. Moshe thought to himself, “Why should I take my staff and hit the water that saved my
life?” He realized that he shouldn’t because that would be so disrespectful to the water that saved
him. We learn a lesson from this that whenever something or someone does something to help
you or especially save your life, you should never hurt them in any way, even if it is not a
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva Book 3)
What About the Fish?
By Eitan Kaynan
The Jews were approaching the time of the Exodus and they were lacking spirit; they
didn’t deserve to be saved by Hashem. They didn’t even deserve to see the plagues and miracles
happen to the Egyptians. Regardless, Hashem showed mercy to his people. After the water of
the Nile turned to blood, all the living creatures in the water died and the Egyptians could not
drink from the water from the river because of the blood.
At the time of Noach, during the Great Flood, the Torah states that every breathing thing
will die but the fish did nothing wrong and were spared. We must therefore ask why the fish
were punished by the plague of blood? Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto writes that the Universe
was created to serve mankind. When man stains his soul by sinning he also indirectly causes
damage to the world around him. When Pharaoh claimed to be the god of the river, the fish
became “damaged” and Hashem had no choice but to kill them and prove Pharaoh wrong.
(From the Shiras Yehudah Haggadah)
A Lesson From Frogs
By Daniel Bitansky
Chananyah, Mishael, and Azaryah learned from the frogs. When Nebuchadnezzar
decreed that anyone who wouldn’t bow down to his statue would be thrown into a fiery furnace,
the three refused to bow down. They drew the following analogy. “If frogs, who are not
commanded to sanctify Hashem’s name, jumped into burning ovens, we, who are commanded to
sanctify his name, certainly should!” (Pesachim 53b). The Chazon Ish used a similar analogy to
prove that intensely devoted prayer can serve the same purpose as studying mussar: Our Sages
drew an analogy from a rock. If Moshe had spoken to the rock instead of hitting it, the people
would have said, “If this rock, which does not speak, hear, or need food, fulfills his word, we
certainly should!” (Rashi, Bamidbar 20:12). The Chazon Ish noted that we say daily in Pesukei
d’Zimrah, “Stormy wind fulfills his word” (Tehillim 148:8). If the wind, which has nothing to
fear and is not commanded to do so, fulfills his will, we certainly should! Careful attention to
prayer gives us more fear of Hashem just as studying mussar does.
(From the Chazon Ish Haggadah)
Frog Frustration
By Ethan Cantor
Rashi quoting the Midrash tells us that the plague of frogs started with a big frog. The
Egyptians thought this was a beast so they struck it. Every time they struck the frog more frogs
came out of its mouth. So, why did they continue to strike the frog? The answer is simple. The
Egyptians were getting more frustrated every time they hit it and more frogs came out. Their
anger did not allow them to think of the consequences of their actions. An example of this is
when someone fires an insult at you. Most people are tempted to make a counter-insult and fight
back when the best thing would be to ignore it instead of fighting back.
(From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah, Book One)
The Plague of Lice
By Ellie Coopersmith
The Plague of lice is the third plague, and it occurred in the month of Elul. One reason
why the Egyptians were punished with this particular plague was because they forced the Jews to
sweep their streets and paths. Therefore, all of the dust of the ground turned to lice. Even when
they dug the ground, lice would emerge. This plague gave the Jews respite from this type of toil.
There were fourteen types of lice; some commentators say that there were twenty-four. The
largest were the size of a chicken egg!
Another reason given for this plague was to punish the Egyptians for not permitting the
Jews to bathe when they became dirty from all of their hard labor. The lice were everywhere,
even in their eyes. Bathing did not help relieve the effects of the plague in any way.
(Taken from The Sephardic Haggadah)
Lice in Goshen?
By Yeruchum Dear
The Rambam in Pirkei Avot says that the plague of lice was the only plague that the land
of Goshen (where the Jews lived) also received. Why did Hashem bring lice on Jewish people?
The Midrash says that the Jews were freed from the work of making bricks after the plague of
lice because after the plague of lice the sand wasn’t good enough for them to use to make bricks.
If the sand in Goshen would have been good, the Egyptians would have forced them to use it.
Lice and its Effect on Bnei Yisrael
By Gabe Indyk
The Ramban writes that there is a tradition that the lice caused harm to the Jews in Egypt.
In Torah Shelemah the author comments that it just so happens that there is no source of this
tradition in any known Midrash or Talmudic statement. Rabbi Zalman Sorotzkin shows that this
tradition was assumed by followers. When Yaakov was at near death he told his sons to bury his
remains in Eretz Yisrael, not Egypt. Why did he do this? There are multiple answers to this
question. Yaakov knew that the soil of Egypt would eventually be turned into lice. In order to
avoid being buried in such soil he told his sons to bury him in Eretz Yisrael. Another answer to
this question is so Yaakov could be buried in the holy land of Yisrael. There is still one question
you might be asking. Why out of all ten plagues is the plague of lice the only plague that affected
the Jews? Rabbi Zalman Sorotzkin suggested that the reason for this might be based on a
Midrashic comment that says that from the time of the plague of lice and onwards, the Jews were
no longer forced to make bricks. The reason for this is that since all of the soil was turned into
lice during the plague of lice, there was no longer soil to make bricks. If this plague had not
affected Goshen, then Jews would have had to go to Goshen and gather soil for their brick labor.
This shows that Hashem saw to it that this plague would ruin the soil and affect Jewish areas in
order to help them.
(From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva, Book Three)
Subduing the Fire of the Yetzer Ha’ra
By Sammy Mayer
We hear in Sefer Yeshayahu (19:22) that when G-d struck the Egyptians with plagues he
healed the Jews with emunah or belief. For example the plague of dever (the epidemic of dying
animals) showed the Jews that no harm will be done to them because it only killed the
Egyptian’s cattle but not the Jews. There is one plague that is still unclear and that is the fiery
hail. What does it relate to this theme? R’ Moshe Feinstein explains that in the Gemara the yetzer
ha’ra is compared as a fire ball stuck inside a human and the purpose of man’s life is to control
that fire. So, what does this have to do anything? We learn from the hail that just as the fire did
not consume the ice, so too the yetzer hara can remain in human body without consuming it. We
can learn from this that one may not excuse himself regarding the yetzer ha’ra by saying he can’t
control it because it is human nature. We also learn from this that the yetzer ha’ra can be
overcome if someone tries really hard to stop it. This is impactful to our everyday lives because
with knowing this you can stop yourselves from doing millions of sins in your life.
How Long Will You Refuse?
By Noam Nissel
The makkot can be divided into a pattern of three groupings: one to three, three to six,
and six to nine. In each group, before the second plague, the Torah uses the language of ‫מאון‬,
refusal, to describe Pharaoh, meaning Pharaoh refused to let them go. The plague of Arbeh or
locust was the second plague of the third grouping. This time when Moshe asked Pharaoh to let
his people go, he says, “How long will you continue to refuse?” The Brisker Rav asks why
specifically here does Moshe’s wording change? Pharaoh already said no to Hashem’s warning
twice. Hashem is giving him a harsher wording to remind him of his previous rejections.
(From Haggadah Simchat Yaavetz)
What Happened to All the Dogs?
By Samantha Henner
An interesting question about Makat Bechorot is why didn’t the dogs bark when Makat
Bechorot was happening? The Rosh explains that dogs usually bark when a spirit of death is
going around. During Makat Bechorot the angel of death had no role. The Haggadah clarifies
that it was all in the hands of Hashem and there was no spirit of death. Chizkuni elaborates on
this topic a little bit more. He states that it’s common for dogs to bark in the middle of the night.
The Sages explain, “There are three periods in the night….. And in the second, the dogs cry out.”
As a result, it’s a huge miracle that the dogs didn’t growl during this plague!
Additionally, the Chachamim say that when dogs laugh it’s a sign that Eliyahu is in the
city, and when dogs cry it symbolizes that the angel of death is close. The night of yitziyat
Mitzrayim was a historic and well-anticipated event for the Jewish people. At the same time of
yitziyat Mitzrayim, the Mitzrim were mourning the loss of their first born sons. Because these
events were going on at the same time, the dogs were confused and didn’t know how to react. As
a result of their confusion, the dogs remained silent.
From this we learn that Hashem’s hand is behind everything. Hashem controls
everything, even a dog’s bark, in order to help his beloved nation B’nai Yisrael.
(From The Gedolei Yisrael Haggadah)
Pharaoh in Pajamas
By Natalie Berger
Imagine if you were Pharaoh and your entire nation was dying. Would you be able to
sleep? I don’t’ think you would be calm and relaxed. Pharaoh on the other hand was able to sleep
peacefully in bed on the night that Hashem killed the firstborns. In Shemot (12:30) it says that
“Pharaoh rose up at midnight.” Rashi comments that Pharaoh rose “from his bed” which proves
that he was able to fall asleep even when he had heard that his nation was about to die. How
could somebody be so heartless and careless? Pharaoh clearly cared about himself more than his
own nation.
(From the Gedolei Yisrael Haggadah)
Makat Bechorot
By Eden Bendory
Why is Makat Bechorot called, “The Plague of the Firstborn”? All of the other plagues
were named after what Hashem used to punish Egypt but he didn't exactly use the firstborn to
punish them. So why is this the name chosen? The firstborns were not the punishment, but their
deaths were. Hashem, rather than using the name of the punishment, used the name of the victim.
The Medrash says that when the firstborns heard that they were being used as a punishment, they
attacked Pharaoh and many of the Egyptians. Many died in this attack. Therefore, Hashem felt
that he needed to name this plague, “The Plague of the Firstborn.”
Moshe, instead of saying that the plague would occur at exactly midnight, said that the
plague would occur around midnight. This way, if they miscalculated the time, Pharaoh's
.‫ ְדצַ "ְך עַ ַד"ש בְ ַאחַ "ב‬:‫הּודה הָ יָה נוֹתֵ ן בָ הֶׁ ם ִסמָ נִים‬
ָ ְ‫ַרבִ י י‬
‫ ִמנַיִ ן אַ ָתה אוֹמֵ ר ֶׁשּלָקּו הַ ִמ ְצ ִרים בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬:‫ַרבִ י יוֹסֵ י הַ גְ לִ ילִ י אוֹמֵ ר‬
?‫ וְ עַ ל הַ יָם לָקּו חֲ ִמ ִשים מַ כוֹת? בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם מָ ה הּוא אוֹמֵ ר‬56‫עֶׁ ֶׁשר מַ כוֹת‬
astronomers couldn't say that Moshe and Hashem were lying because they said it would occur at
exactly midnight.
If Pharaoh was a firstborn, why wasn't he killed in the plague? The answer is that
Hashem wanted to spare Pharaoh so that once the Jews were freed from Egypt Pharaoh could tell
everyone how amazing Hashem was.
Hashem did not kill the firstborn if he/she wasn’t in the house, but killed the eldest
man/woman instead. This is why the Torah tells us that “there was not a house where there
wasn’t a dead body.” However, no Jew died that night. Even if someone was supposed to die, the
death was postponed to show the separation between the Jewish people and the Egyptians.
The ten plagues also show the truth in ‫מידה כנגד מידה‬. Hashem attacked the Egyptians with
ten plagues just like they enforced ten decrees against us when we were slaves. The Egyptians
forced us to carry their water, so their water was turned to blood. The Egyptians used to wake us
early in the morning by knocking on our windows, so Hashem gave them frogs with their
croaking noise to awake them in the morning. The Egyptians would make us be their janitors by
making us sweep their floors of the dust. So Hashem turned all of their dust to lice so we had
nothing left to sweep. The Egyptians made us bring wild beasts back from the fields for their
entertainment so Hashem had the beasts attack them. Pharaoh ordered the Egyptians to take
away mothers’ babies so Hashem made the wild beasts attack Egyptians’ homes, eating all of the
Egyptian children in the way. In Makat Bechorot, Hashem killed the Egyptians’ firstborns, just
like they took away our sons. Makat Bechorot shows that Hashem takes care of us, fights for us,
and so much more.
The Ten Plagues
By Sefi Greenwood
Every Pesach you open your haggadah and you learn about the ten plagues but you
may never understand why Hashem had to do all of these plagues! He could have destroyed the
Mitzrim in one shot? Hashem made ten plagues to show that Hashem isn't just a G-d; he is the
controller of every single thing in the universe. For example, the plague of blood showed that
Hashem controlled the sea. The frogs were to show that He controlled the creatures and again the
sea. The lice was to show that Hashem controlled the earth. The death of the Egyptian animals
was to show that He controlled the life of animals. The wild beasts showed that He controlled all
animals. The boils was to show that Hashem controlled their well-being. The hail showed that
Hashem controls the weather. The locusts showed that Hashem controlled flying animals and the
winds. Darkness showed that Hashem controlled the ability to move, light, and darkness. Finally,
the death of the first-borns showed that Hashem controlled the life of humans. This idea teaches
us that everything must be from Hashem who is the creator of the universe.
(From The Haggadah of the Rosh Yeshiva)
‫ וְ עַ ל הַ יָם מָ ה הּוא‬,‫ אֶׁ ְצבַ ע אֱ ֹלקים ִהוא‬:‫ֹאמרּו הַ חַ ְרטֻ ִמים אֶׁ ל פַ ְרעֹה‬
ְ ‫וַ י‬
‫ וַ יִ ְיראּו‬,‫אוֹמֵ ר? וַ י ְַרא יִ ְש ָראֵ ל אֶׁ ת הַ יָד הַ גְ ֹדלָה אֲ ֶׁשר עָ ָשה ה’ בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
‫ כַ מָ ה לָקּו בְ אֶׁ ְצבַ ע? עֶׁ ֶׁשר‬.ֹ‫משה עַ בְ דו‬
ֶׁ ְ‫ וַ יַאֲ ִמינּו בַ ה’ ּוב‬,’‫הָ עָ ם אֶׁ ת ה‬
‫ בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם לָקּו עֶׁ ֶׁשר מַ כוֹת וְ עַ ל הַ יָם לָקּו חֲ ִמ ִשים‬:‫ אֱ מוֹר מֵ עַ ָתה‬.‫מַ כוֹת‬
.‫מַ כוֹת‬
‫ ִמנַיִ ן ֶׁשכָ ל מַ כָה ּומַ כָ ה ֶׁשהֵ בִ יא הַ ָקדוֹש בָ רּוְך הּוא‬:‫ַרבִ י אֱ לִ יעֶׁ זֶׁ ר אוֹמֵ ר‬
‫ יְ ַשּלַח בָ ם‬:‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬57?‫ַארבַ ע מַ כוֹת‬
ְ ‫עַ ל הַ ִמ ְצ ִרים בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם הָ יְ תָ ה ֶׁשל‬
,‫ ַאחַ ת‬- ‫ עֶׁ בְ ָרה‬.‫ ִמ ְשלַחַ ת מַ לְ אֲ כֵי ָרעִ ים‬,‫ עֶׁ בְ ָרה וָ זַ עַ ם וְ צָ ָרה‬,ֹ‫חֲ רוֹן אַ פו‬
‫ אֱ מוֹר‬.‫ַארבַ ע‬
ְ - ‫ ִמ ְשלַחַ ת מַ לְ אֲ כֵי ָרעִ ים‬,‫ ָשלש‬- ‫ וְ צָ ָרה‬,‫ ְש ַתיִ ם‬- ‫וָ זַ עַ ם‬
. ‫ַארבָ עִ ים מַ כוֹת וְ עַ ל הַ יָם לָקּו מָ אתַ יִ ם מַ כוֹת‬
ְ ‫ בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם לָקּו‬:‫מֵ עַ ָתה‬
Plagues Within Plagues
By Nina Gerszberg
There were 10 plagues inflicted upon Egypt when they didn’t let the Jews go. It is said
that each of the plagues were equivalent to a few smaller plagues. Does it mean that each plague
was as bad as a bunch of smaller plagues put together? Maybe. According to R’ Zalman
Sorotzkin it means that each of the plagues were broken down into smaller plagues. This can be
seen pretty easily within the first plague, blood. This plague consisted first of the water changing
to blood which terrified the Egyptians. Then, the fish in the river died, eradicating an important
food source of the Egyptians. Next, the river began to smell making a nasty environment for all
those who lived around the river. After that Egypt ran out of fresh water to drink. And lastly,
Egyptians began unnecessary manual labor by digging around the river. From this, we can learn
that each of the plagues were not ordinary plagues and may have had other facets to them.
(From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva)
How Many Lashes?
By Mark Grossman
Rabbi Eliezer says that when the ‫ מצריים‬received lashes they were given a full forty lashes
in Egypt and two hundred lashes at the ‫ים סוף‬. We know that in the ‫ סנהדרן‬they never gave the full
forty lashes; only thirty nine lashes were given to show mercy. The ‫מצריים‬, however, weren’t
worthy of mercy. Therefore, they got the full forty lashes.
When '‫ ה‬told ‫ אברהם‬that He will judge the Egyptians He said "‫"דן אנוכי‬. When we convert
the letters to numbers they really mean 4 x 50 (‫ )דן‬which equals 200 lashes.
(From The Little Medrash Says Haggadah)
‫ ִמנַיִ ן ֶׁשכָ ל מַ כָה ּומַ כָה ֶׁשהֵ בִ יא הַ ָקדוֹש בָ רּוְך הּוא‬:‫ַרבִ י ע ֲִקיבֶׁ א אוֹמֵ ר‬
‫ יְ ַשּלַח בָ ם‬:‫עַ ל הַ ִמ ְצ ִרים בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם הָ יְ תָ ה ֶׁשל חָ מֵ ש מַ כוֹת? ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬
-‫ חֲ רוֹן אַ פ ֹו‬.‫ ִמ ְשלַחַ ת מַ לְ אֲ כֵי ָרעִ ים‬,‫ עֶׁ בְ ָרה וָ זַ עַ ם וְ צָ ָרה‬,ֹ‫חֲ רוֹן אַ פו‬
‫ ִמ ְשלַחַ ת מַ לְ אֲ כֵ י‬,‫ַארבַ ע‬
ְ - ‫ וְ צָ ָרה‬,‫ ָשֹלש‬- ‫ וָ זַ עַ ם‬,‫ ְש ַתיִ ם‬- ‫ עֶׁ בְ ָרה‬,‫ַאחַ ת‬
‫ בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם לָקּו חֲ ִמ ִשים מַ כוֹת וְ עַ ל הַ יָם‬:‫ אֱ מוֹר מֵ עַ ָתה‬.‫ חָ מֵ ש‬- ‫ָרעִ ים‬
.‫לָקּו חֲ ִמ ִשים ּומָ אתַ יִ ם מַ כוֹת‬
!59‫כַ מָ ה מַ עֲלוֹת טוֹבוֹת לַמָ קוֹם עָ לֵינּו‬
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ִאּלּו הו ִֹציָאנּו ִמ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם וְ ֹלא עָ ָשה בָ הֶׁ ם ְשפָ ִטים‬
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ וְ ֹלא עָ ָשה בֵ אֹלהֵ יהֶׁ ם‬,‫ִאּלּו עָ ָשה בָ הֶׁ ם ְשפָ ִטים‬
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ וְ ֹלא הָ ַרג אֶׁ ת בְ כו ֵֹריהֶׁ ם‬,‫ִאּלּו עָ ָשה בֵ אֹלהֵ יהֶׁ ם‬
Fifteen Steps From Slavery to Freedom
By Jacob Rutner
In the song of Dayeinu there are fifteen phrases which talk about how Hashem took us
from slavery in Egypt to Israel. The number fifteen is deeply associated with thanksgiving. One
connection is the fifteen psalms that are called Shir Hama’alot. The other connection is the
fifteen steps in the Beit Hamikdash from which the Leviim sang to Hashem.
The word dai means enough. It relates to a phrase in Malachi which is recited as part of
Shabbat HaGadol. It says “I will pour you out a blessing ad bli dai”. This is translated as “until
your lips are exhausted through saying enough”.
(From The Rav Jonathan Sacks Haggadah)
Would it Have Been Enough?
By Jacob Elstein
In ‫ דיינו‬it says that if Hashem had taken us out of Egypt and not judged them it would
have been enough. But I think it would not have been enough because if that was enough then
we wouldn't be here today. The whole future would be different because if Hashem did not make
the plagues happen, Pharaoh would not have let us out of Egypt. And if Pharaoh wouldn't have
let us out of Egypt we would never have made it to Israel. Everything would be different. But, it
does make sense because for the Jews at that time it was enough. Every miracle of Hashem was
deserving of praise and appreciation. Even if Hashem stopped doing miracles at the ‫ ים סוף‬we
would still have reason to praise and bless him.
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ִאּלּו הָ ַרג אֶׁ ת בְ כו ֵֹריהֶׁ ם וְ ֹלא נָתַ ן לָנּו אֶׁ ת מָ מ ֹונָם‬
.61‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ִאּלּו נָתַ ן לָנּו אֶׁ ת מָ מ ֹונָם וְ ֹלא ָק ַרע לָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ יָם‬
.62‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ירנּו בְ תוֹכ ֹו בֶׁ חָ ָרבָ ה‬
ָ ִ‫ִאּלּו ָק ַרע לָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ יָם וְ ֹלא הֶׁ עֱב‬
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,ֹ‫ירנּו בְ תוֹכ ֹו בֶׁ חָ ָרבָ ה וְ ֹלא ִש ַקע צָ ֵרנּו בְ תוֹכו‬
ָ ִ‫ִאּלּו הֶׁ עֱב‬
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ַארבָ עִ ים ָשנָה‬
ְ ‫ִאּלּו ִש ַקע צָ ֵרנּו בְ תוֹכ ֹו וְ ֹלא ִספֵ ק צָ ְרכֵנּו בַ ִמ ְדבָ ר‬
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ַארבָ עִ ים ָשנָה וֹלא הֶׁ אֱ כִ ילָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ מָ ן‬
ְ ‫ִאּלּו ִספֵ ק צָ ְרכֵ נּו בַ ִמ ְדבָ ר‬
It Would Have Been Enough?
By Maya Mendelson
In Dayenu, it is said that if Hashem would have given us the spoils of the ‫ מצרים‬and not
have split the ‫ים סוף‬, it would have been enough. But how is that possible? The ‫ מצרים‬who were
chasing us definitely would have taken us back to ‫ מצרים‬to be slaves again. Also, in Dayenu, it
says that if Hashem would have taken us to Har Sinai and not given us the Torah, it would have
been enough. But how can we say that too? What would we have done there?
The explanation for this is simple. It is not that Dayenu means that each thing Hashem
did for us simply “would have been enough”. But rather, Dayenu states that every act alone
would have been a great miracle and enough for Bnei Yisrael to be obligated to thank Hashem! It
teaches us a lesson that we should always be grateful for what Hashem gives us!
(From The Haggadah by Rabbi Joseph Elias)
Walking on Dry Land
By Drew Rabinowitz
Why did Hashem bring Bnei Yisrael into the Yam Suf? Why would it “have been enough”
if Hashem brought us through the sea on dry land? There are two main things that Hashem was
trying to show. The first one is that the Egyptians enslaved the Jews for 210 years. Hashem
wanted to lure the Egyptians into the sea. Hashem needed to punish the Egyptians for their sins.
Hashem was able to free the Jews in all kinds of ways. The second reason is that he
wanted to show his greatness by performing miracles. This explains why Hashem made the
ground so easy and pleasant to walk on. Hashem could have left the ground all muddy and at
different levels but he did not; he made all smooth and dry. This also shows that Hashem is the
Supreme Ruler of anything anywhere. This piece from Dayainu teaches us that no matter what
happens in life, Hashem still cares about everyone.
(From the Abarbanel Haggadah)
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ִאּלּו הֶׁ אֱ כִ ילָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ מָ ן וְ ֹלא נָתַ ן לָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ ַשבָ ת‬
.63‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ וְ ֹלא ֵק ְרבָ נּו לִ פְ נֵי הַ ר ִסינַי‬,‫ִאּלּו נָתַ ן לָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ ַשבָ ת‬
The Mountain of Unity
By Hannah Ginsberg
“If He had brought us to Mount Sinai and not given the Torah…it would have sufficed
for us.” How could this be? The sole purpose for bringing us to this mountain from being
enslaved in Mitzraim was to receive the Torah! The answer is right there in front of us; just being
there was equivalent to receiving the Torah itself.
To explain, there is a story of a man who came to Hillel and asked him to teach him the
entire Torah standing on one leg. Hillel responded by saying, “Do not do upon others what you
would not want them to do upon you. This is the entire Torah. The rest is commentary. Now go
and learn.” Once a person asked the same question to Rabbi Akiva and the response was “Love
your neighbors as you love yourself - this is the guiding principles of the Torah.” When Bnei
Yisrael came to Har Sinai, it was at that moment that Bnei Yisrael started feeling for their fellow
people, even before Hashem gave them the Torah. Each fellow Jew’s appreciation for one
another was so great at this moment that the Torah refers to Bnei Yisrael as one person and one
heart. It was as if they had already known and followed the whole Torah. We can learn from this
how to treat one another. Even though it can be hard at times to appreciate and love your fellow
Jew, it is completely doable. Once we all except each other the way Bnei Yisrael did at Har
Sinai, Moshiach can come.
(From the Heritage Hagaddah)
The Har Sinai Experience
By Zevi Wiesz
If a person goes into a spice shop, even if he does not buy anything, he will leave
smelling of nice spices. Rabbi Y. Rabinowitz explains that the same thing goes for us having the
merit to stand around Har Sinai (Mount Sinai) and the Ananei Hakvod (clouds of glory). It
would have been enough for us even had we not received the Torah just to see and experience
the greatness of Hashem.
(From Chinuch.org)
Was Mount Sinai Enough?
By Chloe Katz
The prayer “Dayeinu” states our gratitude to Hashem. After every miracle He performed
for us, he still gave more. But one line in this prayer seems very strange. It tells us that “If G-d
had brought us to Mount Sinai and not given us the Torah, it would have been enough.” How
could it have been enough? Traveling to a mountain in a desert just for the fun of it does not
seem like a huge act of kindness. The Talmud tells us that when Bnei Yisrael arrived at Mount
Sinai, it was like they were “one person with one heart” and that was enough of a treasure. In this
united act, Bnei Yisrael was fulfilling the mitzvah of “loving someone like one would love
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫ וְ ֹלא נָתַ ן לָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ תו ָֹרה‬,‫ִאּלּו ֵק ְרבָ נּו לִ פְ נֵי הַ ר ִסינַי‬
.‫ ַדיֵינּו‬,‫יִש ָראֵ ל‬
ְ ‫ִאּלּו נָתַ ן לָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ תו ָֹרה וְ ֹלא ִהכְ נִיסָ נּו לְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ‬
ָ ‫ וְ ֹלא בָ נָה לָנּו אֶׁ ת בֵ ית הַ בְ ִח‬64‫ִאּלּו ִהכְ נִיסָ נּו לְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ יִ ְש ָראֵ ל‬
:‫ּומכֻפֶׁ לֶׁת לַמָ קוֹם עָ לֵינּו‬
ְ ‫ טוֹבָ ה כְ פּולָה‬,‫ כַ מָ ה וְ כַמָ ה‬,‫עַ ל ַאחַ ת‬
‫ וְ הָ ַרג אֶׁ ת‬,‫ וְ עָ ָשה בֵ אֹלהֵ יהֶׁ ם‬,‫ וְ עָ ָשה בָ הֶׁ ם ְשפָ ִטים‬,‫ֶׁשהו ִֹציָאנּו ִמ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
‫ירנּו בְ תוֹכ ֹו‬
ָ ִ‫ וְ הֶׁ עֱב‬,‫ וְ ָק ַרע לָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ יָם‬,‫ וְ נָתַ ן לָנּו אֶׁ ת מָ מ ֹונָם‬,‫בְ כו ֵֹריהֶׁ ם‬
,‫ַארבָ עִ ים ָשנָה‬
ְ ‫ וְ ִספֵ ק צָ ְרכֵנּו בַ ִמ ְדבָ ר‬,ֹ‫ וְ ִש ַקע צָ ֵרנּו בְ תוֹכו‬,‫בֶׁ חָ ָרבָ ה‬
‫ וְ נָתַ ן‬,‫ וְ ֵק ְרבָ נּו לִ פְ נֵי הַ ר ִסינַי‬,‫ וְ נָתַ ן לָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ ַשבָ ת‬,‫וְ הֶׁ אֱ כִ ילָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ מָ ן‬
ָ ‫ ּובָ נָה לָנּו אֶׁ ת בֵ ית הַ בְ ִח‬,‫יִש ָראֵ ל‬
ְ ‫ וְ ִהכְ נִיסָ נּו לְ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ‬,‫לָנּו אֶׁ ת הַ תו ָֹרה‬
.‫לְ כַפֵ ר עַ ל כָ ל ֲעוֹנוֹתֵ ינּו‬
his/herself.” According to Hillel and Rabbi Akiva since this is the whole concept of the Torah it
was as if the whole Torah had already been given.
Walking in the Holy Land
By Moshe Marashli
When Rabbi Eliyahu Lopion came to Israel, he was so overjoyed by the mitzvah of living
in Israel that he stated, “Even the street cleaners get a mitzvah every time they walk down the
street to clean. Unfortunately, as time goes by we become too familiar with the holy land and
sometimes we even lose focus on this great mitzvah.
Endless Gratitude
By Yosef Amos
We don’t mean to say it would have been enough for us without all of these blessings.
How can we imagine living without Israel or the Beit Hamikdash?
Rabbi Y. Rabinowitz explains that what we mean to say is that any of these gifts would
have been enough to make us praise Hashem non-stop; how much more Hakarat Hatov
(gratitude) should we have if Hashem has given us all these wonderful gifts.
(From Chinuch.org)
,‫לשה ְדבָ ִרים אֵ ּלּו בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‬
ָ ‫ כָל ֶׁשֹּלא ָאמַ ר ְש‬:‫ַרבָ ן ג ְַמלִ יאֵ ל הָ יָה אוֹמֵ ר‬
.‫ ּומָ רוֹר‬,‫ מַ צָ ה‬,‫ פֶׁ סַ ח‬:‫ וְ אֵ ּלּו הֵ ן‬,ֹ‫ֹלא יָצָ א יְ ֵדי חוֹבָ תו‬
‫ עַ ל שּום‬,‫פֶ ַסח ֶׁשהָ יּו אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו אוֹכְ לִ ים בִ זְ מַ ן ֶׁשבֵ ית הַ ִמ ְק ָדש הָ יָה ַקיָם‬
,‫ הַ ָקדוֹש בָ רּוְך הּוא עַ ל בָ ֵתי אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬66‫מָ ה? עַ ל שּום ֶׁשפָ סַ ח‬
‫ אֲ ֶׁשר פָ סַ ח עַ ל בָ ֵתי בְ נֵי יִ ְש ָראֵ ל‬,' ‫ וַ אֲ מַ ְר ֶׁתם זֶׁ בַ ח פֶׁ סַ ח הּוא ַלה‬:‫ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬
.‫ וַ יִ קֹד הָ עָ ם וַ יִ ְש ַתחֲ וּו‬,‫ וְ אֶׁ ת בָ ֵתינּו ִה ִּציל‬,‫בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם בְ נָגְ פ ֹו אֶׁ ת ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
:‫מַ ְּראֶ ה אֶ ת הַ מַ צוֹת ל ְַּמסֻּׁ בִ ים וְּ אוֹמֵ ר‬
‫ עַ ל שּום מָ ה? עַ ל שּום ֶׁשֹלא ִה ְספִ יק בְ צֵ ָקם‬,‫ ֶׁשָאנּו אוֹכְ לִ ים‬67‫מַ צָּ ה ז ֹו‬
‫ הַ ָקדוֹש‬,‫ֶׁשל אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו לְ הַ חֲ ִמיץ עַ ד ֶׁשנִגְ לָה ֲעלֵיהֶׁ ם מֶׁ לְֶׁך מַ לְ כֵ י הַ ְמלָכִ ים‬
Because . . . He passed over
By Eliana Schwartz
It is amazing that Hashem's "passing over" the houses of Israel supplies the name to both
the sacrifice and the festival. When we look at all the miraculous events of the ten plagues and
the Exodus in their totality, the "passing over" seems to be rather marginal.
R' Yerucham of Mir says that this shows us that the most important element of the
deliverance from Egypt, that which can be attributed solely to the Holy One Himself and no
other, is the act of differentiating between firstborn and non-firstborn, between Jew and
Egyptian. The act of making such distinctions stands above all the miracles.
(From The Haggadah of the Baalei Mussar)
This Matzah and This Marror
By Alexandra Degen
Rabban Gamliel tells us that whoever does not explain Pesach, Matzah and Marror at the
Seder has not fulfilled their obligation of Sippur Yetziat Mitzrayim. However, when the
Haggadah describes each of these three items it useses different lanaguage for Pesach, than for
Matzah and Marror. Why for Matzah and Marror does the Haggadah say “zeh” or “zo”, “this
matzah” or “this marror”, but for Pesach there is no similar designation?
According to the Baale’ Tosfot, by saying Pesach Ze, this Pesach, it would be declaring
that this is the Korban Pesach that we would be preparing and offering. We, unfortunately, are
unable and not allowed to do make an offering as there are no korbanot without the Beit
Hamikdash. Rav Yosef Dov Halevi Soloveitchik, provides another answer. He says that we need
to designate “this Matzah” and “this Marror”, because Matzah and Marror are eaten year round.
Matzah can be eaten at any meal and Marror is a vegetable, romaine lettuce or horseradish.
Therefore, we are required to note that the Matzah and Marror of the Seder are special and
‫ וַ יֹאפּו אֶׁ ת הַ בָ צֵ ק אֲ ֶׁשר הו ִֹציאּו ִמ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬:‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫ ּוגְ ָאלָם‬,‫בָ רּוְך הּוא‬
‫ וְ גַם‬, ַ‫ כִ י ג ְֹרשּו ִמ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם וְ ֹלא יָכְ לּו לְ ִה ְתמַ ְהמֵ ּה‬,‫ כִ י ֹלא חָ מֵ ץ‬,‫ֻע ֹג ת מַ ּצוֹת‬
.68‫צֵ ָדה ֹלא עָ שו לָהֶׁ ם‬
:‫מַ ְּראֶ ה אֶ ת הַ מָּ רוֹר ל ְַּמסֻּׁ בִ ים וְּ אוֹמֵ ר‬
‫? עַ ל שּום ֶׁשמֵ ְררּו הַ ִמ ְצ ִרים‬69‫ עַ ל שּום מָ ה‬,‫מָּ רוֹר זֶׁ ה ֶׁשָאנּו אוֹכְ לִ ים‬
‫ וַ יְ מָ רֲ רּו אֶׁ ת חַ יֵיהֶׁ ם בַ ֲעב ָֹדה‬:‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,70‫אֶׁ ת חַ יֵי אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו בְ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
designated as such. The Korban Pesach was only offered and eaten one night each year so there
is no need to separate the Pesach of the Seder night from any other Pesach, as no other exists.
Similarly, later on during Motzie Matzah and Marror, we recite special brachot prior to eating
the Matzah and Marror that are not recited at any other time when Matzah and Marror are eaten.
But at Tzafun, there is no bracha, when eating the Afikomen. So too is it with individuals. There
are some who we need to point out that they are special. There are others, like the Rav
Soloveitchik and Rav Kook whose gadlut was so special that the mention of their name is
enough and there is no need to say anymore; these giants are like the Korban Pesach.
(From the Commentators Haggadah)
Be Thankful
By Aaron Shamsian
Why did the Holy One take the people out of Egypt without provisions for the road and
with only the bread of affliction in their hands? The commentators answer that by doing so the
Holy One prepared the children of Israel for receiving the Torah. The people left Egypt this way
to show the children that you should be happy with what you have even if you don’t have a lot.
There is a story that explains this. There once was a woodcutter and everyday he would chop
wood and sell it to people in the city. One day, during the month of Tammuz, he sat to rest and
he started to bitterly think, “I work so hard and I barely make any money and all I have to eat is
bread with onions.” He all of a sudden started to cry and then fell soundly asleep. In his dream,
an angel came up to him and told him to make one wish and it will be granted. The woodcutter
answered him, “I wish that everything I touch will turn to gold.” The wish came true. The
woodcutter got so excited and he started jumping up and down. Because of his excitement he
was really thirsty so he went to get a drink of water. Unfortunately, when his lips touched the
water it turned into solid gold. At once, the man understood the meaning of his request. He soon
realized that he will never be able to eat or drink ever again so he started to cry. Through his
sobbing, he awakened and behold it was a dream. He was overjoyed and said, “This dream was
to show me so that I should know that it is not good to complain about my lot and my toil and
that it is not good to envy the lot of others. I was guided from the heavens to be happy with my
lot, and not to desire anything I don’t have.”
(From Od Yoseph Chai, Beha’alotcha)
‫ בְ חֹמֶׁ ר ּובִ לְ בֵ נִים ּובְ כָל ֲעב ָֹדה בַ ָש ֶׁדה אֶׁ ת כָ ל ֲעב ָֹדתָ ם אֲ ֶׁשר עָ בְ דּו‬,‫ָק ָשה‬
.‫בָ הֶׁ ם בְ פָ ֶׁרְך‬
,‫ָאדם לִ ְראוֹת אֶׁ ת עַ ְצמ ֹו כְ ִאּלּו הּוא יָצָ א ִמ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
ָ ‫בְ כָל דוֹר וָ דוֹר חַ יָב‬
‫ בַ עֲבּור זֶׁ ה עָ ָשה ה’ לִ י‬,‫ וְ ִהג ְַד ָת לְ בִ נְָך בַ יוֹם הַ הּוא לֵאמֹר‬:‫ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬
,‫ גַָאל הַ ָקדוֹש בָ רּוְך הּוא‬71‫ ֹלא אֶׁ ת אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו בִ לְ בָ ד‬.‫אתי ִמ ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם‬
ִ ֵ‫בְ צ‬
Maror- A Lesson in Kindness
By Lexi Berger, Maya Stein, and Lily Kaplan
We eat maror to remember how the Egyptians were bitter to G-d by treating the Jewish
people unfairly. It teaches us that we can’t be happy while watching others suffer, just like how
G-d couldn’t bear to watch us suffer. When people are suffering, Hashem tells us not to just go
off and mind your own business. You should not be happy while watching people suffer. You
should feel for them and do something about it. In conclusion, as Jews we should eat maror to
remind us of the suffering of other people.
(From the Rav Shach Haggadah)
In Egypt
By Jacob Colchamiro
The Haggadah says the words ‫ שמררו המצרים את חיי אבותנו במצרים‬while discussing ‫מרור‬. It
seems superfluous to say, “in Egypt”. Is it not obvious that the Jews were persecuted in Egypt?
The answer is as follows. “In Egypt”, does not refer to Egypt but to the Egyptian cities. The Jews
were only supposed to dwell in the beautiful land of Goshen. Over time, Jews moved to other
Egyptian cities. In these cities, the Jewish people began to assimilate to the Egyptians’ ways, and
this led to great spiritual decline. That is why the Haggadah says “In Egypt”.
(From the Shirat Yehudah Haggadah)
‫לא אבותינו בלבד‬
By Ariana Matthew
“It was not only our fathers.” Most commentators agree that this refers to the fact that not
only did our ancestors experience redemption but that we need to view ourselves as personally
having left Mitzrayim as well. The Maharal states that we need to view that we all were freed and
each one of us needs to focus on what we received that night. The Netziv explains that Hashem
caused the redemption for each one of us, not only for our ancestors. The Rambam points out
that we also need to show the excitement over leaving Mitzrayim as if it just happened. We need
to have an excited, joyful feeling at the Seder; we need to feel as if it personally happened to
each one of us. Those that left Egypt understood that they were going to receive the Torah. We
believe that all Jewish souls were present at Har Sinai when we received the Torah. The
generations that left Egypt reproduced and multiplied up to this day. Therefore, we can say that
“we” left Egypt.
‫ לְ מַ עַ ן‬,‫ וְ אוֹתָ נּו הו ִֹציא ִמ ָשם‬:‫ ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫אֶׁ ּלָא ַאף אוֹתָ נּו גַָאל עִ מָ הֶׁ ם‬
.‫ָארץ אֲ ֶׁשר נ ְִשבַ ע לַאֲ בֹתֵ נּו‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ לָתֶׁ ת לָנּו אֶׁ ת ה‬,‫הָ בִ יא אֹתָ נּו‬
.‫יהים אֶ ת הַ ּכוֹס עַ ד הַ לְּ לּויָּה‬
ִ ִ‫מַ גְּ ב‬
,‫ לְ הַ ֵדר‬,‫ לְ רוֹמֵ ם‬,‫ לְ פָ אֵ ר‬, ַ‫ לְ ַשבֵ ח‬,‫ לְ הַ ּלֵל‬,72‫לְ פִ יכְָך אֲ נ ְַחנּו חַ יָבִ ים לְ הוֹדוֹת‬
‫ לְ עַ ּלֵה ּולְ ַקּלֵס לְ ִמי ֶׁשעָ ָשה לַאֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו וְ לָנּו אֶׁ ת כָל הַ נ ִִסים‬,‫לְ בָ ֵרְך‬
,‫ ּומֵ אֵ בֶׁ ל לְ יוֹם טוֹב‬,‫ הו ִֹציָאנּו מֵ עַ בְ דּות לְ חֵ רּות ִמיָגוֹן לְ ִש ְמחָ ה‬:‫הָ אֵ לּו‬
:‫ירה חֲ ָד ָשה‬
ָ ‫ וְ נֹאמַ ר לְ פָ נָיו ִש‬.‫ּומ ִשעְ בּוד לִ גְ אֻ ּלָה‬
ִ ,‫ּומֵ אֲ פֵ לָה לְ אוֹר גָדוֹל‬
.‫הַ לְ לּויָּה‬
‫ יְ ִהי ֵשם יְ הוָ ה ְמב ָֹרְך‬.‫הַ לְ לּו יָּה הַ לְ לּו עַ בְ ֵדי יְ הוָ ה הַ לְ לּו אֶׁ ת ֵשם יְ הוָ ה‬
‫ ָרם עַ ל‬.‫ ִמ ִמזְ ַרח ֶׁשמֶׁ ש עַ ד ְמבוֹא ֹו ְמהֻ ּלָל ֵשם יְ הוָ ה‬.‫מֵ עַ ָתה וְ עַ ד ע ֹולָם‬
.‫יהי ל ָָשבֶׁ ת‬
ִ ִ‫ ִמי כַ יהוָ ה אֱ ֹלקינּו הַ מַ גְ ב‬.ֹ‫כָ ל גוֹיִ ם יְ הוָ ה עַ ל הַ ָשמַ יִ ם כְ בוֹדו‬
‫ימי מֵ עָ פָ ר ָדל מֵ אַ ְשפֹת י ִָרים‬
ִ ‫ ְמ ִק‬.‫ָארץ‬
ֶׁ ָ‫הַ מַ ְשפִ ילִ י לִ ְראוֹת בַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬
It is agreed that the message of “lo leavoteinu bilvad” is one of the most important texts
in the Haggadah. It reminds us that this refers to every generation. We need to remember the
pain of the past so we can improve our current world, as it states, “Bechol dor v’dor.” In every
generation there is suffering and as time passes we tend to forget. This text points out that we
need to fight human nature and on this special night we need to remember in a very different
way. We need to remember what it was like to suffer. Each person is obligated to see himself as
if he himself has come out of Mitzrayim.
(From The Artscroll Living Exodus Haggadah)
The Key to the Future Is It’s Past
By Asher Lefkowitz
One of the most important things we do on Pesach is the Seder. Has anyone ever asked
why the Seder is so important? There are two reasons. One reason that everyone knows is that it
is a remembrance of Hashem’s taking us out of Egypt. However, I believe there is also a deeper
reason for the Seder. Rav Mordechai Gifter once asked, “Do we really ever analyze the good or
do we just say thank you and go on with our regular business.” I believe that the point of the
Seder is for it not to be like every other day. It’s a special day where we are supposed to reflect
on our lives and stop and think and analyze the gratitude that Hashem deserves. For the key to
the future is it’s past.
‫ מו ִֹשיבִ י ע ֲֶׁק ֶׁרת הַ בַ יִ ת אֵ ם‬.ֹ‫ לְ הו ִֹשיבִ י עִ ם נ ְִדיבִ ים עִ ם נ ְִדיבֵ י עַ מו‬.‫אֶׁ בְ יוֹן‬
.‫הַ בָ נִים ְשמֵ חָ ה הַ לְ לּו יָּה‬
‫הּודה לְ ָק ְדש ֹו‬
ָ ְ‫ הָ יְ תָ ה י‬.‫בְ צֵ את יִ ְש ָראֵ ל ִמ ִמ ְצ ָריִ ם בֵ ית ַי ֲעקֹב מֵ עַ ם ֹלעֵ ז‬
‫ הֶׁ הָ ִרים‬.‫ הַ י ְַר ֵדן יִ סֹב לְ ָאחוֹר‬73‫ הַ יָם ָרָאה וַ ָינֹס‬.‫יִ ְש ָראֵ ל מַ ְמ ְשלוֹתָ יו‬
‫ מַ ה ּלְ ָך הַ יָם כִ י תָ נּוס הַ י ְַר ֵדן ִתסֹב‬.‫ָר ְקדּו כְ אֵ ילִ ים גְ בָ עוֹת כִ בְ נֵי צֹאן‬
‫ ִמּלִ פְ נֵי ָאדוֹן חּולִ י‬.‫ הֶׁ הָ ִרים ִת ְר ְקדּו כְ אֵ ילִ ים גְ בָ עוֹת כִ בְ נֵי צֹאן‬.‫לְ ָאחוֹר‬
‫ חַ ּל ִָמיש לְ מַ עְ יְ נ ֹו‬74‫ הַ הֹפְ כִ י הַ ּצּור אֲ גַם מָ יִ ם‬.‫ָארץ ִמּלִ פְ נֵי אֱ לוֹּהַ ַי ֲעקֹב‬
.‫מָ יִ ם‬
The Fleeing Sea
By Yochanan Sragow
In the paragraph of ‫בצאת ישראל‬, it mentions that the sea fled, or receded. What caused the
sea to flee? There are two explanations to this. The first explanation is about B’nai Yisrael’s
belief in Hashem. B’nai Yisrael’s willingness to follow Hashem’s command and step into the
raging waters amazed the sea so much that it made the sea also follow Hashem’s command and
split. The other explanation refers to a much earlier occurrence. According to the Chachamim,
the sea was also impressed when Yosef resisted his temptation for Potiphar’s wife, and instead
fled from her. This motivated the sea to recede for B’nai Yisrael, and to do Hashem’s will. Just
as Yosef went against his natural inclination, the sea also defied nature. We can see from this
that the best thing to do in any difficult situation is to follow Hashem’s commands with all of our
hearts, just like B’nai Yisrael, Yosef, and of course, the sea.
(From Artscroll’s The Pesach Hagaddah)
What Did the Yam Suf See?
By Jason Karger
In Hallel we say, "the Yam Suf saw it and ran away." What did it see? The Maharsha
answers that it saw the courageous Jews who overcame their fear and stepped into the water. The
Yam Suf also went against its nature and split. The Kli Yakar answers that it saw the casket of
Yosef. Just as Yosef did not sin with the wife of Potifar but fled from her, so too the Yam Suf
"fled"; it split for the Bnai Yisrael who also did not sin with the Egyptian women when they were
in Mitzrayim.
(From the Little Midrash Says Haggadah)
Hashem’s Control Over Nature
By Max Kaufman
In Hallel it says, "He turns solid rock into a pool of water." This refers to the miracle of
Hashem giving Bnai Yisrael water from a rock in the desert. Why does this miracle belong in the
.‫יהים אֶ ת הַ ּכוֹס עַ ד גַָּאל יִ ְּש ָּראֵ ל‬
ִ ִ‫מַ גְּ ב‬
‫ אֲ ֶׁשר גְ ָאלָנּו וְ גַָאל אֶׁ ת אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו‬,‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‬
‫ כֵ ן ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו‬.‫ וְ ִהגִ יעָ נּו ַלּלַיְ לָה הַ זֶׁ ה לֶׁאֱ כָל ב ֹו מַ ּצָ ה ּומָ רוֹר‬,‫ִמ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
‫וֵ אֹלהֵ י אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו יַגִ יעֵ נּו לְ מ ֹוע ֲִדים וְ לִ ְרגָלִ ים אֲ חֵ ִרים הַ בָ ִאים לִ ְק ָראתֵ נּו‬
‫ וְ נֹאכַ ל ָשם ִמן‬.‫ירָך וְ ָש ִשים בַ עֲבו ָֹדתֶׁ ָך‬
ֶׁ ִ‫ ְשמֵ ִחים בְ בִ ְניַן ע‬,‫לְ ָשלוֹם‬
‫ וְ נו ֶֹׁדה‬,‫ּומן הַ פְ סָ ִחים אֲ ֶׁשר יַגִ יעַ ָדמָ ם עַ ל ִקיר ִמזְ בַ חֲ ָך לְ ָרצוֹן‬
ִ ‫הַ זְ בָ ִחים‬
‫ בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ גַָאל‬.‫לְ ָך ִשיר חָ ָדש עַ ל גְ אֻ ּלָתֵ נּו וְ עַ ל פְ דּות נַפְ ֵשנּו‬
.‫יִ ְש ָראֵ ל‬
.75‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם בו ֵֹרא פְ ִרי הַ גָפֶׁ ן‬
.‫ׁשו ִֹתין אֶ ת הַ ּכוֹס בְּ הַ ָּסבַ ת ְּשמֹאל‬
‫ָּר ְּחצָּ ה‬
‫ּומבָּ ְּרכִ ים‬
ְּ ‫נו ְֹּטלִ ים אֶ ת הַ י ַָּדיִ ם‬
paragraph that talks about the splitting of the Yam Suf? The Radak answers that both of these
events show Hashem's control over nature. They are two opposite miracles. At Kriyat Yam Suf
He changed the water into dry land, and in the desert he turned dry rocks into water.
(From the Little Medresh Says Haggadah)
Why Wine?
By Daniel Ben-Zvi
Why did the Rabbis choose wine for the Seder rather than a different symbol such as four
Matzot? Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin explains that the Rabbis chose wine because it brings a
glow to a person’s face. When we drink the first cup of wine our faces and hearts brighten. With
the second cup, the glow increases. With the third and the fourth cups our inner and outer
enjoyment increases. Similar increases of enjoyment were felt by our ancestors when they heard
the four expressions of promised redemption. With each promise of liberation they got more and
more excited. So too will be the experience of our people when the ultimate redemption will
arrive in the same four stages. Therefore, wine is the most appropriate symbol to mark the
increases of glow and the four expressions of liberation.
(From A Treasury of Inspiration for the Passover Seder)
‫ אֲ ֶׁשר ִק ְד ָשנּו בְ ִמ ְצוֹתָ יו וְ ִצּוָ נּו עַ ל‬,‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‬
.‫נ ְִטילַת י ָָדיִ ם‬
‫מוֹצִ יא מַ צָּ ה‬
Matzah vs. Marror
By Betzalel Brickman
What is the difference between matzah and marror? First, matzah represents freedom
because when we were leaving Egypt we had matzah. Since we were in a rush the bread didn’t
have time to rise. So, when we make the matzah we make it with special care from the time the
seeds are planted to the time when the matzah is baked. When we plant the seeds, we plant them
carefully and watch them for a long time. Then, when it is harvested we guard it from moisture.
Finally, when it is baked we make sure that it does not over bake or that anything mistakenly
goes into the batter. That shows how much work and care goes into making matzah.
Marror is made in a very different way. For marror we do not make it with special care.
Marror is just planted. We water it and wait for it to grow. The only special step we do with
marror is check for bugs.
So, there are many lessons we can learn from this. First, matzah and marror are very
important ingredients in the Seder. We learn from the matzah which represents freedom that we
should watch over freedom with great care and make sure that we use it properly. The marror
which represents hardship teaches us that while we do not make hardship happen to us willingly,
when it comes in life we just have to accept it.
(From the Commentators Haggadah)
Machine Matzah vs. Handmade Matzah
By Erin Feiglin
Everyone knows the different types of matzot. There are the clean, perfectly square, white
machine baked ones and the lumpy, black, burnt, circular "handmade matzah". But have you
ever thought about both of them? Their differences? Which one is "better" to use?
The Gemara in Pesachim (116b) says that just as a poor man’s wife bakes the matzah
while the oven is still being heated, so too should we bake our matzah. Rashi comments on this
that the Gemara is stressing the importance of putting the matzah directly in the oven so that the
dough does not rise and turn to chametz. However, Rabbi Yaakov Kamenetsky has a different
explanation. He says that just like a poor man bakes his own bread, we too should make our own
matzah, so that we can make sure it is baked with the proper intent. We can infer from this that
Rabbi Kamenetsky supports the idea of handmade matzah.
However, Rabbi Yisrael YaakovKanievsky disagrees. He says that the only reason why
the poor man wants to bake his matzah quickly is because he cannot afford to keep his oven at
high temperatures. Therefore, he makes his matzah quickly and as soon as the oven is hot he
sticks it in. If he doesn't, there is fear that the oven won't be at a high enough temperature to bake
it properly, and so he is forced to quickly put it in. However, a rich man can first heat his oven
‫ וְּ יֹאחַ ז‬,‫רּוסה בֵ ין ְּׁש ֵתי הַ ְּשלֵמוֹת‬
ָּ ‫ הַ ְּפ‬,‫יִ ַקח הַ מַ צוֹת בְּ סֵ דֶ ר ֶׁש ִהנִ יחָּ ן‬
‫ְּׁשל ְָּּׁש ָּתן בְּ יָּדוֹ וִ יבָּ ֵרְך "הַ מוֹצִ יא" בְּ כַ ָּּונָּה עַ ל הָּ עֶ לְּ יוֹנָּה ו"עַ ל אֲ כִ ילַת‬
‫ ַאחַ ר ּכָּ ְך יִ בְּ צַ ע ּכְּ זַיִ ת ִמן הָּ עֶ לְּ יוֹנָּה‬.77‫רּוסה‬
ָּ ‫מַ צָּ ה" בְּ כַ ָּּונָּה עַ ל הַ ְּפ‬
ִ ‫רּוסה וְּ יֹאכַ ל בְּ הַ ָּסבָּ ה ְּׁשנֵי הַ ז‬
ָּ ‫הַ ְּשלֵמָּ ה וְּ כַ זַיִ ת ֵׁשנִ י ִמן הַ ְּפ‬
ֶׁ ָ‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם הַ מו ִֹציא לֶׁחֶׁ ם ִמן ה‬
‫ אֲ ֶׁשר ִק ְד ָשנּו בְ ִמ ְצוֹתָ יו וְ ִצּוָ נּו עַ ל‬,‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‬
.‫אֲ כִ ילַת מַ ּצָ ה‬
‫מָּ רוֹר‬
and then make and bake the dough because his oven is good. Therefore, because we are trying to
act like a poor man, machine made matzah is the way to go, because there is less time between
the making and baking the dough, just like the poor man.
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva)
The Middle Matzah
By Gabi Buch
Rabbi Eliezer Ginsburg writes that the three matzot represent Avraham, Yitzchak and
Yaakov. According to this opinion, why specifically is the middle matzah, which represents
Yitzchak, the one that is split? Based on the Gemara, Hashem will confront the three Avot and
say that B’nei Yisrael have sinned. The three Avot will stand together and defend B’nei Yisrael’s
mistakes. Avraham and Yaakov will say that the Jews have sinned in such a way that they should
be destroyed in order to protect the kedusha of Hashem’s name. Only Yitzchak will beg Hashem
for mercy and forgiveness. Yitzchak’s matzah was chosen because he will be the only one to beg
on behalf of B’nei Yisrael’ sins.
(From the Haggada Shirat Yehuda)
Maror: History and Choices
By Danielle Shapiro
For all of my life, ‫ מרור‬has been the staple item on my Seder table (besides the ‫ ַמצָה‬of
course.) One might think that it's interesting, but there is no direct mitzvah from the Torah to eat
‫ מרור‬alone; only together with the Korban Pesach. Eating ‫ מרור‬alone came after the ‫בית המקדש‬
was destroyed. After the destruction, the ‫ חכמים‬said that ‫ מרור‬must be eaten to commemorate
slavery, and the ‫ פסח‬sacrifice.
‫ מרור‬comes from the word “‫ ”מר‬which means bitter. The Talmud talks about different
foods you can eat that will serve as ‫מרור‬. They are horseradish, romaine lettuce, endives, and
iceberg lettuce. One might disagree about the romaine lettuce, but that might be more symbolic
to ‫ יציאת מצרים‬than anything else. The Talmud explains that when you first have romaine lettuce,
it isn’t bitter. It is the aftertaste that gets you. The same goes for the Jew’s experience in Egypt. It
wasn’t bad until ‫ פרעה‬didn’t recognize the good that ‫ יוסף‬did. In addition, some ‫ ספרדים‬use green
onions, or curly parsley. Lastly, you may not know that the ‫ מרור‬has to be eaten alone. You may
not add spices or anything to distract the real flavor.
(From The Chassidic Hagadah)
First is the Worst?
By Michael Zuckerman
The Mishna in Pesachim lists five different types of herbs that are preferable to use for
maror. The first and the best one to use is chazeret, which is Romaine lettuce. The Talmud
Yerushalmi asks why chazeret is on the list if it really does not have much of a bitter taste. The
explanation for this is as follows: when one begins to eat the chazeret it has a sweet taste and
only after a while does it become bitter. This is reminiscent of the Egyptians, who invited the
Jews to settle in their land and later made their lives bitter with back breaking work. If one does
not have chazeret, one is permitted to use horseradish.
Rabbi Moshe Feinstein says that one can learn a lesson from the fact that lettuce, which is
not bitter, is first on the list. Only after that are more bitter options listed. When Hashem looks to
punish his people for not following his command, he starts off by sending them a warning and
punishing them slowly. Only after they continue to sin, does the punishment get greater and
greater. This is the message from the maror as well. Hashem does not intend to make our lives
bitter; it is only after we repeatedly do not listen to the favorable treatments that Hashem takes
more drastic steps in punishing us.
Why So Bitter?
By Tzippy Kaplan
During the Seder, we eat, talk, celebrate our freedom, and debate about the four sons; so
why would we want to mess up our happy, merry night with sadness? According to the Sefas
Emes, quoted by R’ Gedalia Schorr, the marror is part of the process of redemption because
without the hardships why would we need to be freed and then redeemed by Hashem? Mixing in
the bitterness during a celebration sets us apart from every other nation in this world.
Even in the Torah it says that we are different and alone. For example, it says in the story
of Yaakov that he beat Esav’s angel because he was alone; he did not follow Lavan or Esav
because they were not at the right level of spirituality. Even Bilaam admitted that the reason
B’nei Yisrael had survived for so long was because they stood alone. According to Targum
Yonatan, we are only deserving of the world to come if we remain alone, not following the
nations. The quote that Yaakov says, “Save me, please, from my brother, from Esav,” relates to
that because Yaakov meant that he would not want to be lured into wanting to be Esav’s friend.
The lesson that I learned is that everybody should not become like everybody else; they should
stay different and unique. (From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva, Book Three)
‫ּומנַעֵ ר‬
ְּ ‫ חוֹזֵר‬,‫ּכָּ ל אֶ חָּ ד מֵ הַ ְּמסֻּׁ בִ ים לו ֵֹקחַ ּכְּ זַיִ ת מָּ רוֹר ּומַ ְּטבִ לוֹ בַ חֲ רו ֶֹסת‬
.‫ ְּמבָּ ֵרְך וְּ אוֹכֵ ל בְּ לִ י הַ ָּסבָּ ה‬,‫הַ חֲ רו ֶֹסת‬
‫ אֲ ֶׁשר ִק ְד ָשנּו בְ ִמ ְצוֹתָ יו וְ ִצּוָ נּו עַ ל‬,‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‬
.‫אֲ כִ ילַת מָ רוֹר‬
‫ּכו ֵֹרְך‬
Maror-Reliving the Experience
By Amy Dyckman
Why do we eat maror on Pesach? When the Jewish people were in Egypt, they would cry
out to G-d to come and take them out of Egypt. The maror is very bitter and when we eat it, it
makes us cry. This should remind us of all the tears that were shed from the Jewish people in
Egypt. The Jewish people suffered in Egypt. We should feel bad when we eat the maror so that
we know how it felt. This mitzvah is part of our responsibility to relive the Exodus from Egypt
as if it was actually happening. That is why we use “real” props to relive the experience.
Why So Sour?
By Naomi Gottlieb
Why do we have Maror during such a happy time? Rabbeinu Bachya explains that when
the Haggadah says, “The Egyptians embittered our lives” it is saying that when the Egyptians
were abusing us, Hashem felt sad and empathetic for us. It says in Yeshayahu 63:9 that, “In all
their troubles He is troubled.” This is clearly showing that Hashem showed compassion and
empathy and we must emulate these traits. We must not forget all the hardships Bnei Yisrael
went through and cannot forget to share their sadness and show them empathy. One morning
Rav Menachem Zvi Berlin went to Rav Shach to discuss a matter and when Rav Shach came
home he directed all of his attention to his guest instead of eating. Rav Zvi said he would
happily wait for Rav Scach to eat but, Rav Shach declined. He said that he does not eat
between 8:00 and 8:30 because that is when kids go to secular school and don’t start the day with
Shema. We learn from this that we should always strive to be as empathetic as we possibly can.
(From the Rav Shach Haggadah)
Why Do We Eat the Korech Sandwich?
By Shayna Mandelbaum
Why do we eat ‫כורך‬, a sandwich of ‫ מצה‬and ‫ ?מרור‬The ‫ כורך‬sandwich shows us the
strengths and weaknesses of everyone as the ‫ מצה‬represents strengths and the ‫ מרור‬represents our
weaknesses. Our strengths come from our souls. Just like the ‫ מצה‬doesn't rise, our souls do not
‫יׁשית עִ ם ּכְּ זַיִ ת מָּ רוֹר‬
ִ ִ‫ּכָּ ל אֶ חָּ ד מֵ הַ ְּמסֻּׁ בִ ים לו ֵֹקחַ ּכְּ זַיִ ת ִמן הַ מַ צָּ ה הַ ְּשל‬
‫ זֵ כֶׁר‬.‫ לִ ְּפנֵי ָאכְּ לוֹ אוֹמֵ ר‬.‫ אוֹכְּ לִ ים בְּ הַ ָּסבָּ ה ּובְּ לִ י בְּ ָּרכָּ ה‬,‫וְּ כו ְֹּרכִ ים יַחַ ד‬
‫ הָ יָה‬:‫ כֵן עָ ָשה ִהּלֵל בִ זְ מַ ן ֶׁשבֵ ית הַ ִמ ְק ָדש הָ יָה ַקיָם‬.‫לְ ִמ ְק ָדש כְ ִהּלֵל‬
‫ עַ ל מַ ּצוֹת‬:‫ לְ ַקיֵם מַ ה ֶׁשנֶׁאֱ מַ ר‬,‫כו ֵֹרְך מַ ּצָ ה ּומָ רוֹר וְ א ֹוכֵל בְ יַחַ ד‬
.80‫ּומר ִֹרים יֹאכְ לֻהּו‬
have an ego. Our weaknesses come from our bodies. We are tempted to do things that may not
be right and are faced with challenges and inner struggles. This part of our personality is
represented by the bitterness of the ‫מרור‬. It is a mitzvah to eat ‫ מרור‬at the Seder table because we
are acknowledging our weaknesses and working to overcome them. Initially, we eat them
separately, but we later eat them in a sandwich, combining both sides of our personality. The
‫ מרור‬is bitter by itself, but when controlled by the ‫מצה‬, it becomes a delicious sandwich.
Another reason why we eat the ‫ כורך‬sandwich is because of Hillel. He lived during the
time of the ‫ בית המקדש‬when the Jews would eat the ‫ קרבן פסח‬during Pesach. He put the ‫מרור‬, the
‫ מצה‬and the ‫ קרבן פסח‬together and ate it as a sandwich. Today, we eat the sandwich, but without
the ‫קרבן פסח‬. The other sages disagreed with Hillel and said that the ‫ מצה‬and ‫ מרור‬should be eaten
separately so we first eat them separately and then we eat them together in the ‫ כורך‬sandwich.
(From Chabad.org)
By Jesse Koppel
The third matzah is the only unbroken matzah at the time of ‫כורך‬. Since it isn’t broken,
we use it for a sandwich. We have to use extra matzah to add to this matzah because it is usually
not sufficient for everyone to have a sandwich.
Hillel said that the Korban Pesach, matzah, and the marror should be eaten together.
Since we don’t have the Korban Pesach today, the marror is only Rabbinic. Matzah is still a
Torah obligation today. Therefore, even Hillel agrees that today the matzah is eaten separately,
and we only have the sandwich of matzah and maror to remind us of the Korban Pesach, matzah,
and maror that were eaten in the time of the Beit Hamikdash. Since it is only a reminder, we
don’t recite a blessing on it.
(From the Artscroll Pesach Haggadah)
‫ׁשֻּׁ לְּ חָּ ן עו ֵֹרְך‬
‫עּודה הָּ עֲרּוכָּ ה וְּ נוֹהֲ גִ ים לֶאֱ כוֹל ְּת ִחלָּה בֵ יצִ ים‬
ָּ ‫אוֹכְּ לִ ים וְּ ׁשו ִֹתים הַ ְּס‬
‫ שֹלא ִת ְּהיֶה עָּ לָּיו אֲ כִ ילַת אֲ ִפיקוֹמָּ ן‬,‫ וֹלא יֹאכַ ל יוֹתֵ ר ִמדֵ י‬.‫ֻּׁשלוֹת‬
ָּ ‫ְּמב‬
.‫אֲ כִ ילָּה ג ַָּסה‬
‫צָּ פּון‬
‫ַאחַ ר גְּ מַ ר הַ ְּסעֻּׁדָּ ה לו ֵֹקחַ ּכָּ ל אֶ חָּ ד מֵ הַ ְּמסֻּׁ בִ ים ּכְּ זַיִ ת מֵ הַ מַ צָּ ה ֶׁשהָּ יְּ תָּ ה‬
‫ וְּ צָּ ִריְך לְּ ָאכְּ לָּּה ק ֶֹדם‬.‫ וְּ אוֹכֵ ל ִממֶ נָּה כַ זַיִ ת בְּ הַ ִסבָּ ה‬82‫צְּ פּונָּה לַאֲ ִפיקוֹמָּ ן‬
.‫חֲ צוֹת הַ לַיְּ לָּה‬
How to Eat a Proper Meal
By Eli Novick
In Pirkei Avot, the passuk says that if three people sit down to eat a meal, and they don’t
say any Torah, it’s like they’ve eaten a meal of Avoda Zarah. But if they do speak words of
Torah, it’s like they’ve eaten a meal of Hashem.
R’ Yaakov Kamenetsky has an explanation for this Mishna. He says that there is a
difference between types of people in the world. Some people in the world believe in a
separation between their physical and spiritual life. They go houses of prayer to pray, and then
they come home and play soccer. Jews have a connection between their physical and spiritual
life. We go to Shul and daven, and then we come home and make a bracha on our baloney
sandwich. For this same reason, non-Jews can’t give the Korban Shlamim, the peace offering,
because some of it is eaten by the giver. There is a connection between the physical part (eating)
and the spiritual part (giving the Korban). But non-Jews can bring the Korban Olah, the burnt
offering, because it is completely burnt by the fire, and therefore there is no connection between
the physical and spiritual parts.
Getting back to the Mishna, eating is a really important part in everyone's physical life,
Jews or non-Jews. When we don’t speak any words of Torah, we are separating our physical life
and spiritual life, so it is like eating a meal of Avoda Zarah. But when we do say Torah, we are
combining the two “lives” and eating a meal of Hashem. When we eat the meal at the Seder
known as Shulchan Orach, we are supposed to speak words of Torah so that we are eating a meal
of Hashem.
(From the Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah)
‫בָּ ֵרְך‬
.‫ּומבָּ ְּרכִ ין בִ ְּרּכַ ת הַ מָּ זוֹן‬
ְּ ‫יׁשי‬
ִ ִ‫מוֹזְּ גִ ין ּכוֹס של‬
‫ ָאז יִ מָ לֵא‬.83‫ִשיר הַ מַ עֲלוֹת בְ שּוב ה’ אֶׁ ת ִשיבַ ת ִציוֹן הָ יִ ינּו כְ חֹלְ ִמים‬
.‫ֹאמרּו בַ גוֹיִ ם ִהגְ ִדיל ה’ ַלעֲשוֹת עִ ם אֵ ּלֶׁה‬
ְ ‫ְשחוֹק פִ ינּו ּולְ ש ֹונֵנּו ִרנָה ָאז י‬
‫ שּובָ ה ה’ אֶׁ ת ְשבִ יתֵ נּו‬.‫ִהגְ ִדיל ה’ ַלעֲשוֹת עִ מָ נּו הָ יִ ינּו ְשמֵ ִחים‬
Is Stealing Allowed?
By Michal Cohen
During ‫ צפון‬we eat the smaller part of the broken matzah. There is also a minhag, to hide
the afikoman and have the children bring it. However, wouldn’t it appear to be like stealing?
Being Jews and following the Torah, this seems to send the wrong message. Rabbi Milevsky
shows us a simple but thoughtful answer. We let the tzafun represent redemption and going back
to Yerushalayim. We need to use Torah and mitzvot to connect the generations with hope for
future generations to merit being returned to Yerushalayim. When generations misuse their lives
that they were given, they are “stealing” our hopes for the future. When we teach our children to
steal the Afikomen, we are teaching them to go and “steal” back our hopes for our future
redemption and return back to Yerushalayim.
(From http://thenaturalparent.com.au/blog/?p=2092)
Am I Dreaming?
By Maya Klibanoff
In bentching, we say, “‫”בשוב ה‘ את שיבת ציון היינו כחולמים‬. Its translation is, “When
Hashem brings back the exiles to Zion, we will have been like dreamers”. Why does it say that
after ‫ משיח‬comes, our past will be represented as a dream? When redemption arrives, we are
going to look back and realize that all the good and bad events that occur were because Hashem
had a plan for all of us. It says, “‫ ”היינו כחולמים‬because these events will seem more like a dream
to us and we will realize in their true essence they were beneficial for us. While we are in exile,
we don’t comprehend how this experience is actually helping us and that Hashem does
everything for a reason. The more spiritual a person gets, the more the person could understand
this concept. From this we learn the purpose of life. It isn’t just to live as a normal person; rather
it to serve Hashem. Instead of worrying about troubles like money or honor, you should help
others, do mitzvot and fulfill the Torah that Hashem gave to us. As we rise spiritually, we will no
longer worry about the small things in life and see our past as if we were “dreaming”.
(From The Pesach Haggadah)
‫יקים בַ ֶׁנגֶׁב‪ .‬הַ ז ְֹרעִ ים בְ ִד ְמעָ ה בְ ִרנָה יִ ְקצֹרּו‪ .‬הָ לוְֹך ֵילְֵך ּובָ כֹה נ ֵֹשא‬
‫כַ אֲ פִ ִ‬
‫מֶׁ ֶׁשְך הַ זָ ַרע בֹא יָבוֹא בְ ִרנָה נ ֵֹשא אֲ לֻמֹתָ יו‪.‬‬
‫לׁשה ֶׁשָאכְּ לּו ּכְּ אֶ חָּ ד חֲ יָּבִ ין לְּ זֵמֵ ן וְּ הַ ְּמזַמֵ ן פוֹתֵ חַ ‪:‬‬
‫ְּׁש ָּ‬
‫ַרבוֹתַ י‪ְ ,‬נבָ ֵרְך!‬
‫הַ ְמסֻ בִ ים ע ֹונִים‪ :‬יְ ִהי ֵשם ה’ ְמב ָֹרְך מֵ עַ ָתה וְ עַ ד ע ֹולָם‪.‬‬
‫הַ ְמזַ מֵ ן אוֹמֵ ר‪ :‬בִ ְרשּות ְמ ָרנָן וְ ַרבָ נָן וְ ַרבוֹתַ י‪ ,‬נְבָ ֵרְך (בעשרה אֱ ֹלקינּו)‬
‫ֶׁשָאכַלְ נּו ִמ ֶׁשלוֹ‪.‬‬
‫הַ ְמסֻ בִ ים ע ֹונִים‪:‬בָ רּוְך (אֱ ֹלהֵ ינו) ֶׁשָאכַ לְ נּו ִמ ֶׁשל ֹו ּובְ טּוב ֹו חָ יִ ינּו‪.‬‬
‫הַ ְמזַ מֵ ן חוֹזֵ ר וְ אוֹמֵ ר‪ :‬בָ רּוְך (אֱ ֹלקינּו) ֶׁשָאכַלְ נּו ִמ ֶׁשל ֹו ּובְ טּוב ֹו חָ יִ ינּו‪.‬‬
‫בָּ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם הַ זָ ן אֶׁ ת הָ ע ֹולָם כֻּל ֹו בְ טּוב ֹו בְ חֵ ן‬
‫בְ חֶׁ סֶׁ ד ּובְ ַרחֲ ִמים הּוא נֹתֵ ן לֶׁחֶׁ ם לְ כָל‪-‬בָ ָשר כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו ּובְ טּוב ֹו‬
‫הַ גָדוֹל ָת ִמיד ֹלא חָ סַ ר לָנּו וְ ַאל י ְֶׁחסַ ר לָנּו מָ זוֹן לְ ע ֹולָם וָ עֶׁ ד בַ עֲבּור ְשמ ֹו‬
‫ּומפַ ְרנֵס ַלכֹל ּומֵ ִטיב ַלכֹל ּומֵ כִ ין מָ זוֹן לְ כָל‪-‬‬
‫הַ גָדוֹל כִ י הּוא אֵ ל זָ ן ְ‬
‫בְ ִריוֹתָ יו אֲ ֶׁשר בָ ָרא בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ הַ זָ ן אֶׁ ת הַ כֹל‪.‬‬
‫נו ֶֹדה ּלְ ָך ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו עַ ל ֶׁש ִהנְחַ לְ ָת לַאֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו אֶׁ ֶׁרץ חֶׁ ְמ ָדה טוֹבָ ה ְּורחָ בָ ה‬
‫וְ עַ ל ֶׁשהוֹצֵ אתָ נּו ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֵ אֶׁ ֶׁרץ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם ּופְ ִדיתָ נּו ִמבֵ ית עֲבָ ִדים וְ עַ ל‬
‫יתָך ֶׁשחָ תַ ְמ ָת בִ בְ ָש ֵרנּו וְ עַ ל תו ָֹר ְתָך ֶׁשּלִ מַ ְד ָתנּו וְ עַ ל חֻ ֶׁקיָך ֶׁשהו ַֹדעְ ָתנּו‬
‫בְ ִר ְ‬
‫ּומפַ ְרנֵס‬
‫וְ עַ ל חַ יִ ים חֵ ן וָ חֶׁ סֶׁ ד ֶׁשח ֹו ַננ ְָתנּו‪ ,‬וְ עַ ל אֲ כִ ילַת מָ זוֹן ָשאַ ָתה זָ ן ְ‬
‫אוֹתָ נּו ָת ִמיד‪ ,‬בְ כָל יוֹם ּובְ כָ ל עֵ ת ּובְ כָל ָשעָ ה‪.‬‬
‫ּומבָ ְרכִ ים אוֹתָ ְך‪ ,‬יִ ְתבָ ַרְך ִש ְמָך‬
‫וְ עַ ל הַ כֹל ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו אֲ נ ְַחנּו מו ִֹדים לְָך ְ‬
‫בְ פִ י כָל חַ י ָת ִמיד לְ ע ֹולָם וָ עֶׁ ד‪ ,‬כַ כָתּוב‪" :‬וְ ָאכַלְ ָת וְ ָשבַ עְ ָת‪ּ ,‬ובֵ ַרכְ ָת אֶׁ ת‬
‫ָארץ הַ טוֹבָ ה אֲ ֶׁשר נָתַ ן לְָך"‪ .‬בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’‪ ,‬עַ ל הָ ֶׁ‬
‫ה’ אֱ ֹלהֶׁ יָך עַ ל הָ ֶׁ‬
‫וְ עַ ל הַ מָ זוֹן‪.‬‬
‫ירָך‪ ,‬וְ עַ ל ִציוֹן‬
‫רּושלַיִ ם עִ ֶׁ‬
‫ַרחֶ ם נָא ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו עַ ל יִ ְש ָראֵ ל עַ מֶׁ ָך‪ ,‬וְ עַ ל יְ ָ‬
‫ִמ ְשכַן כְ בו ֶֹׁדָך‪ ,‬וְ עַ ל מַ לְ כּות בֵ ית ָדוִ ד ְמ ִשיחֶׁ ָך‪ ,‬וְ עַ ל הַ בַ יִת הַ גָדוֹל‬
‫וְ הַ ָקדוֹש ֶׁשנ ְִק ָרא ִש ְמָך עָ לָיו‪ .‬אֱ ֹלקינּו‪ָ ,‬אבִ ינּו‪ְ ,‬רעֵ נּו‪ ,‬זּונֵנּו‪ ,‬פַ ְרנְסֵ נּו‬
‫וְ כַלְ כְ לֵנּו וְ הַ ְרוִ יחֵ נּו‪ ,‬וְ הַ ְרוַ ח לָנּו ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו ְמהֵ ָרה ִמכָל צָ רוֹתֵ ינּו‪ .‬וְ נָא‬
‫ידי מַ ְתנַת בָ ָשר וָ ָדם וְ ֹלא לִ ֵ‬
‫ַאל ַת ְצ ִריכֵנּו ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו‪ֹ ,‬לא לִ ֵ‬
‫הַ לְ וָ ָאתָ ם‪ ,‬כִ י ִאם לְ י ְָדָך הַ ְמלֵָאה הַ פְ תּוחָ ה הַ ְקדו ָֹשה וְ הָ ְרחָ בָ ה‪ֶׁ ,‬שֹלא‬
‫נֵבוֹש וְ ֹלא נִכָ לֵם לְ ע ֹולָם וָ עֶׁ ד‪.‬‬
‫בְּ ַׁשבָּ ת מו ִֹס ִ‬
‫ְּרצֵ ה וְ הַ חֲ לִ יצֵ נּו ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו בְ ִמ ְצוֹתֶׁ יָך ּובְ ִמ ְצוַ ת יוֹם הַ ְשבִ יעִ י‬
‫הַ ַשבָ ת הַ גָדוֹל וְ הַ ָקדוֹש הַ זֶׁ ה‪ .‬כִ י יוֹם זֶׁ ה גָדוֹל וְ ָקדוֹש הּוא לְ פָ נֶׁיָך‬
‫לִ ְשבָ ת ב ֹו וְ לָנּוחַ ב ֹו בְ ַאהֲ בָ ה כְ ִמ ְצוַ ת ְרצ ֹונֶָׁך‪ּ .‬ובִ ְרצ ֹונְָך הָ נִיחַ לָנּו‬
‫ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשֹּלא ְתהֵ א צָ ָרה וְ יָגוֹן וַ אֲ נָחָ ה בְ יוֹם ְמנּוחָ תֵ נּו‪ .‬וְ הַ ְראֵ נּו‬
‫רּושלַיִ ם עִ יר ָק ְד ֶׁשָך כִ י‬
‫ירָך ּובְ בִ ְניַן יְ ָ‬
‫ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו בְ נֶׁחָ מַ ת ִציוֹן עִ ֶׁ‬
‫אַ ָתה הּוא בַ עַ ל הַ יְ שּועוֹת ּובַ עַ ל הַ נֶׁחָ מוֹת‪.‬‬
‫אֱ ֹלקינּו וֵאֹלהֵ י אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו ַי ֲעלֶׁה וְ ָיבֹא וְ יַגִ יעַ וְ י ֵָראֶׁ ה וְ י ֵָרצֶׁ ה וְ יִ ָשמַ ע וְ יִ פָ ֵקד‬
‫וְ יִ זָ כֵר זִ כְ ר ֹונֵנּו ּופִ ְקד ֹונֵנּו וְ זִ כְ רוֹן אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו וְ זִ כְ רוֹן מָ ִשיחַ בֶׁ ן ָדוִ ד עַ בְ ֶׁדָך‬
‫רּושלַיִ ם עִ יר ָק ְד ֶׁשָך וְ זִ כְ רוֹן כָל עַ ְמָך בֵ ית יִ ְש ָראֵ ל לְ פָ נֶׁיָך‬
‫וְ זִ כְ רוֹן יְ ָ‬
‫לִ פְ לֵיטָ ה לְ טוֹבָ ה לְ חֵ ן ּולְ חֶׁ סֶׁ ד ּולְ ַרחֲ ִמים לְ חַ יִ ים (טוֹבִ ים) ּולְ ָשלוֹם ביום‬
‫חג המצות הזה‪ 84‬זָ כְ ֵרנּו ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו ב ֹו לְ טוֹבָ ה ּופָ ְק ֵדנּו ב ֹו לִ בְ ָרכָה‬
‫‪Chag Hamatzot‬‬
‫‪By Tal Dachut‬‬
‫‪Isn’t it funny how in hebrew mitzvot and matzot are spelled the same way? This means‬‬
‫‪that chag hamitzvot and chag hamatzot can be confused with each other. What this means is that‬‬
‫‪by leaving Mitzrayim and getting the Torah, Bnei Yisrael were then able to perform mitzvot.‬‬
‫‪Pesach means to Passover. Hashem passed over Bnei Yisrael’s houses in Mitzrayim. We call the‬‬
‫‪holiday Pesach to show how much good Hashem does for us. Hashem call it Chag Hamtzot to‬‬
‫‪show how much we do for Him.‬‬
‫)‪(From ohr.edu‬‬
‫וְ הו ִֹשיעֵ נּו ב ֹו לְ חַ יִ ים טוֹבִ ים‪ּ .‬ובִ ְדבַ ר יְ שּועָ ה וְ ַרחֲ ִמים חּוס וְ חָ נֵנּו וְ ַרחֵ ם‬
‫עָ לֵינּו וְ הו ִֹשיעֵ נּו כִ י אֵ לֶׁיָך עֵ ינֵינּו כִ י אֵ ל מֶׁ לְֶׁך חַ נּון וְ ַרחּום אָ ָתה‪:‬‬
‫רּושלַיִ ם עִ יר הַ ק ֶֹׁדש בִ ְמהֵ ָרה בְ יָמֵ ינּו‪ .‬בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’‪ ,‬ב ֹונֵה‬
‫ּובְ נֵה יְ ָ‬
‫רּושלַיִם‪ָ .‬אמֵ ן‪.‬‬
‫בְ ַרחֲ מָ יו יְ ָ‬
‫ַאד ֵ‬
‫בָּ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’‪ ,‬אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‪ ,‬הָ אֵ ל ָאבִ ינּו‪ ,‬מַ לְ כֵ נּו‪ִ ,‬‬
‫בו ְֹראֵ נּו‪ ,‬גֹאֲ לֵנּו‪ ,‬יו ְֹצ ֵרנּו‪ְ ,‬קדו ֵֹשנּו ְקדוֹש ַי ֲעקֹב‪ ,‬רוֹעֵ נּו רוֹעֵ ה יִ ְש ָרַאל‪,‬‬
‫הַ מֶׁ לְֶׁך הַ טוֹב וְ הַ מֵ ִטיב ַלכֹל‪ֶׁ ,‬שבְ כָ ל יוֹם וָ יוֹם הּוא הֵ ִטיב‪ ,‬הּוא מֵ ִטיב‪,‬‬
‫ֵיטיב לָנּו‪ .‬הּוא גְ מָ לָנּו הּוא גו ְֹמלֵנּו הּוא יִ גְ ְמלֵנּו לָעַ ד‪ ,‬לְ חֵ ן ּולְ חֶׁ סֶׁ ד‬
‫הּוא י ִ‬
‫ּולְ ַרחֲ ִמים ּולְ ֶׁרוַ ח הַ ּצָ לָה וְ הַ ְצלָחָ ה‪ ,‬בְ ָרכָה וִ ישּועָ ה נֶׁחָ מָ ה פַ ְרנָסָ ה‬
‫ּומכָ ל טּוב לְ ע ֹולָם עַ ל‬
‫וְ כַלְ כָ לָה‪ ,‬וְ ַרחֲ ִמים וְ חַ יִ ים וְ ָשלוֹם וְ כָל טוֹב; ִ‬
‫יְ חַ ְס ֵרנּו‪.‬‬
‫הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יִ ְמלוְֹך עָ לֵינּו לְ ע ֹולָם וָ עֶׁ ד‪.‬‬
‫הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יִ ְתבָ ַרְך בַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּובָ ֶׁ‬
‫הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יִ ְש ַתבַ ח לְ דוֹר דו ִֹרים‪ ,‬וְ יִ ְתפָ ַאר בָ נּו לָעַ ד ּולְ נֵצַ ח נְצָ ִחים‪,‬‬
‫וְ יִ ְתהַ ַדר בָ נּו לָעַ ד ּולְ עוֹלְ מֵ י ע ֹול ִָמים‪.‬‬
‫הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יְ פַ ְרנְסֵ נּו בְ כָבוֹד‪.‬‬
‫ּוָארנּו‪ ,‬וְ הּוא יוֹלִ יכֵ נּו קו ְֹמ ִמיּות‬
‫הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יִ ְשבוֹר ֻעּלֵנּו מֵ עַ ל ּצַ ֵ‬
‫ַארצֵ נּו‪.‬‬
‫לְ ְ‬
‫הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יִ ְשלַח לָנּו בְ ָרכָה ְמרֻ בָ ה בַ בַ יִת הַ זֶׁ ה‪ ,‬וְ עַ ל שֻ לְ חָ ן זֶׁ ה‬
‫ֶׁשָאכַלְ נּו עָ לָיו‪.‬‬
‫הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יִ ְשלַח ָלנּו אֶׁ ת אֵ לִ יָהּו הַ נָבִ יא זָ כּור לַטוֹב‪ ,‬וִ יבַ ֵשר לָנּו‬
‫בְ שוֹרוֹת טוֹבוֹת יְ שּועוֹת וְ נֶׁחָ מוֹת‪.‬‬
‫בבית אביו אומר‪ :‬הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יְבָ ֵרְך אֶׁ ת ָאבִ י מו ִֹרי בַ עַ ל הַ בַ יִ ת הַ זֶׁ ה‪,‬‬
‫וְ אֶׁ ת ִא ִמי מו ָֹר ִתי בַ ֲעלַת הַ בַ יִ ת הַ זֶׁ ה‪.‬‬
‫נשוי אומר‪ :‬הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יְ בָ ֵרְך או ִֹתי‪( ,‬אם אביו ואמו בחיים‪ :‬וְ אֶׁ ת‬
‫ָאבִ י מו ִֹרי‪ ,‬וְ אֶׁ ת ִא ִמי מו ָֹר ִתי‪ ),‬וְ אֶׁ ת ִא ְש ִתי‪ ,‬וְ אֶׁ ת זַ ְרעִ י‪ ,‬וְ אֶׁ ת כָל אֲ ֶׁשר‬
‫לִ י‪.‬‬
‫אשה נשואה אומרת‪ :‬הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יְ בָ ֵרְך או ִֹתי‪( ,‬אם אביה ואמה‬
‫בחיים‪ :‬וְ אֶׁ ת ָאבִ י מו ִֹרי‪ ,‬וְ אֶׁ ת ִא ִמי מו ָֹר ִתי‪ ),‬וְ אֶׁ ת בַ עֲלִ י‪ ,‬וְ אֶׁ ת זַ ְרעִ י‪,‬‬
‫וְ אֶׁ ת כָל אֲ ֶׁשר לִ י‪.‬‬
‫אורח אומר‪ :‬הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יְ בָ ֵרְך אֶׁ ת בַ עַ ל הַ בַ יִ ת הַ זֶׁ ה וְ אֶׁ ת בַ ֲעלַת‬
‫הַ בַ יִ ת הַ זֶׁ ה‪ ,‬אוֹתָ ם וְ אֶׁ ת בֵ יתָ ם וְ אֶׁ ת זַ ְרעָ ם וְ אֶׁ ת כָ ל אֲ ֶׁשר לָהֶׁ ם‪.‬‬
‫יְ ִהי ָרצוֹן‪ֶׁ ,‬שֹּלא יֵבוֹש בַ עַ ל הַ בַ יִ ת בָ ע ֹולָם הַ זֶׁ ה‪ ,‬וְ ֹלא יִ כָ לֵם לָע ֹולָם הַ בָ א‪,‬‬
‫ּוקרוֹבִ ים‬
‫וְ יִ ְצלַח ְמאֹד בְ כָ ל נְכָ סָ יו‪ ,‬וְ יִ ְהיּו נְכָ סָ יו ּונְכָסֵ ינּו מֻ ְצל ִָחים ְ‬
‫לָעִ יר‪ ,‬וְ ַאל יִ ְשֹלט ָשטָ ן ֹלא בְ מַ ע ֲֵשי י ָָדיו וְ ֹלא בְ מַ ע ֲֵשי י ֵָדינּו‪ ,‬וְ ַאל יִ זְ ַד ֵקק‬
‫(נוסח הגמרא‪ :‬יִ זְ ַד ֵקר) ֹלא לְ פָ נָיו וְ ֹלא לְ פָ נֵינּו שּום ְדבַ ר הַ ְרהוֹר חֵ ְטא‬
‫וַ עֲבֵ ָרה וְ עָ וֹן מֵ עַ ָתה וְ עַ ד ע ֹולָם‪.‬‬
‫בסעודה משותפת אומר‪ :‬הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יְ בָ ֵרְך אֶׁ ת כָ ל הַ ְמסֻ בִ ין כַאן‪.‬‬
‫אוֹתָ ם וְ אֶׁ ת בֵ יתָ ם וְ אֶׁ ת זַ ְרעָ ם וְ אֶׁ ת כָ ל אֲ ֶׁשר לָהֶׁ ם‪ ,‬אוֹתָ נּו וְ אֶׁ ת כָל‬
‫אֲ ֶׁשר לָנּו‪ ,‬כְ מ ֹו ֶׁשנ ְִתבָ ְרכּו אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו ַאבְ ָרהָ ם יִ ְצחָ ק וְ ַי ֲעקֹב "בַ כֹל"‪-‬‬
‫"מכֹל"‪"-‬כֹל" – כֵן יְ בָ ֵרְך אוֹתָ נּו ֻכּלָנּו יַחַ ד בִ בְ ָרכָ ה ְשלֵמָ ה‪ .‬וְ נֹאמַ ר‪:‬‬
‫"ָאמֵ ן"‪.‬‬
‫בַ מָ רוֹם יְ ל ְַמדּו ֲעלֵיהֶׁ ם וְ עָ לֵינּו זְ כּות ֶׁש ְתהֵ א לְ ִמ ְשמֶׁ ֶׁרת ָשלוֹם‪ .‬וְ נ ִָשא‬
‫ּוצ ָד ָקה מֵ אֹלהֵ י יִ ְשעֵ נּו‪ ,‬וְ נ ְִמצָ א חֵ ן וְ ֵשכֶׁ ל טוֹב בְ עֵ ינֵי‬
‫בְ ָרכָה מֵ אֵ ת ה’‪ְ ,‬‬
‫אֱ ֹלקים וְ ָ‬
‫ּומנּוחָ ה לְ חַ יֵי הָ ע ֹול ִָמים‪.‬‬
‫בשבת‪ :‬הַ ָּרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא ַינ ְִחילֵנּו יוֹם ֶׁשכֻל ֹו ַשבָ ת ְ‬
‫הַ ָּרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא ַינ ְִחילֵנּו יוֹם ֶׁשכֻל ֹו ט ֹוב‪ ,‬יוֹם ֶׁשכֻּל ֹו ָארוְֹך‪ ,‬יוֹם ֶׁשּצַ ִד ִ‬
‫יהי חֶׁ לְ ֵקנּו‬
‫אשיהֶׁ ם וְ נֶׁהֱ נִין ִמזִ יו הַ ְשכִ ינָה‪ ,‬וִ ִ‬
‫יו ְֹשבִ ים וְ עַ ְטרוֹתֵ יהֶׁ ם בְ ָר ֵ‬
‫עִ מָ הֶׁ ם‪.‬‬
‫הָּ ַרחֲ מָּ ן הּוא יְ זַ כֵנּו לִ ימוֹת הַ מָ ִשיחַ ּולְ חַ יֵי הָ ע ֹולָם הַ בָ א‪.‬‬
‫ִמגְ דוֹל יְ שּועוֹת מַ לְ כוֹ‪ ,‬וְ ע ֶֹׁשה חֶׁ סֶׁ ד לִ ְמ ִשיחוֹ‪ ,‬לְ ָדוִ ד ּולְ זַ ְרע ֹו עַ ד ע ֹולָם‪.‬‬
‫ע ֶֹׁשה ָשלוֹם בִ ְמרוֹמָ יו‪ ,‬הּוא ַיע ֲֶׁשה ָשלוֹם עָ לֵינּו וְ עַ ל כָל יִ ְש ָרַאל‪.‬‬
‫וְ ִא ְמרּו‪ָ" :‬אמֵ ן"‪.‬‬
‫ירָאיו‪ .‬כְ פִ ִירים ָרשּו וְ ָרעֵ בּו‪,‬‬
‫יְ ראּו אֶׁ ת ה’ ְקד ָֹשיו‪ ,‬כִ י אֵ ין מַ ְחסוֹר לִ ֵ‬
‫וְ ד ְֹר ֵשי ה’ ֹלא י ְַח ְסרּו כָ ל טוֹב‪ .‬הוֹדּו ַלה’ כִ י טוֹב‪ ,‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסדוֹ‪.‬‬
‫פוֹתֵ חַ אֶׁ ת י ֶָׁדָך‪ּ ,‬ומַ ְשבִ יעַ לְ כָל חַ י ָרצוֹן‪ .‬בָ רּוְך הַ גֶׁבֶׁ ר אֲ ֶׁשר יִ בְ טַ ח בַ ה’‪,‬‬
‫יתי צַ ִדיק ֶׁנעֱזָ ב‪,‬‬
‫יתי גַם זָ ַקנ ְִתי‪ ,‬וְ ֹלא ָר ִא ִ‬
‫וְ הָ יָה ה’ ִמבְ טַ חוֹ‪ .‬נַעַ ר הָ יִ ִ‬
‫וְ זַ ְרע ֹו ְמבַ ֶׁקש לָחֶׁ ם‪ .‬ה’ עֹז לְ עַ מ ֹו יִ ֵתן‪ ,‬ה’ יְ בָ ֵרְך אֶׁ ת עַ מ ֹו בַ ָשלוֹם‪.‬‬
‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם בו ֵֹרא פְ ִרי הַ גָפֶׁ ן‪.‬‬
‫ׁשו ִֹתין בַ הֲ ָּסבַ ת ְּשמֹאל‪.‬‬
‫מוזגין כוס רביעי וכוס של אליהו‪ .85‬פותחים הדלת כדי שנזכר‬
‫שהוא ליל שמורים‪.‬‬
‫‪The Cup of Eliyahu‬‬
‫‪By Raquel Fusman‬‬
‫‪Why do we have a cup for Eliyahu on Pesach but not on any other holiday? There is a‬‬
‫‪machloket among the Rishonim if we should have four or five cups at the Pesach seder. The fifth‬‬
‫‪. This means that‬תיקו ‪cup would be for Eliyahu. In the Gemarah we have a rule which is called‬‬
‫‪Eliyahu answers the questions when we do not have the answer. Eliyahu will answer our‬‬
‫‪questions and particularly the question of whether we should have four or five cups for the‬‬
‫ְּׁשפְֹך חֲ מָ ְתָך אֶׁ ל הַ גוֹיִ ם אֲ ֶׁשר ֹלא יְ ָדעּוָך וְ עַ ל מַ ְמלָכוֹת אֲ ֶׁשר בְ ִש ְמָך ֹלא‬
‫ ְשפְֹך ֲעלֵיהֶׁ ם זַ עְ מֶׁ ָך וַ חֲ רוֹן‬.‫ כִ י ָאכַ ל אֶׁ ת ַי ֲעקֹב וְ אֶׁ ת נָוֵ הּו הֵ ַשמּו‬.‫ָק ָראּו‬
.’‫ידם ִמ ַתחַ ת ְשמֵ י ה‬
ֵ ‫ ִת ְרדֹף בְ ַאף וְ תַ ְש ִמ‬.‫אַ פְ ָך י ִַשיגֵם‬
‫הַ ֵלל‬
‫ לָמָ ה‬.‫ עַ ל אֲ ִמ ֶׁתָך‬,‫ עַ ל חַ ְס ְדָך‬,‫ כִ י לְ ִש ְמָך ֵתן כָבוֹד‬,‫ֹלא לָנּו ה’ ֹלא לָנּו‬
‫ כֹל אֲ ֶׁשר חָ פֵ ץ‬,‫ וֵאֹלהֵ ינּו בַ ָשמָ יִ ם‬,‫ֹאמרּו הַ גוֹיִ ם אַ יֵה נָא אֱ ֹלהֵ יהֶׁ ם‬
ְ ‫י‬
,‫ פֶׁ ה לָהֶׁ ם וְ ֹלא יְ ַדבֵ רּו‬.‫ָאדם‬
ָ ‫ עֲצַ בֵ יהֶׁ ם כֶׁסֶׁ ף וְ זָ הָ ב מַ ע ֲֵשה יְ ֵדי‬.‫עָ ָשה‬
.‫ ַאף לָהֶׁ ם וְ ֹלא יְ ִריחּון‬,‫ ָאזְ נַיִ ם לָהֶׁ ם וְ ֹלא יִ ְשמָ עּו‬.‫עֵ ינַיִ ם לָהֶׁ ם וְ ֹלא יִ ְראּו‬
‫ כְ מוֹהֶׁ ם‬.‫ ֹלא י ְֶׁהגּו בִ גְ ר ֹונָם‬,‫ ַרגְ לֵיהֶׁ ם וְ ֹלא יְהַ ּלֵכּו‬,‫יְ ֵדיהֶׁ ם וְ ֹלא יְ ִמישּון‬
‫ עֶׁ זְ ָרם ּומָ גִ נָם‬,’‫ יִ ְש ָראֵ ל בְ טַ ח בַ ה‬.‫ כֹל אֲ ֶׁשר בֹטֵ חַ בָ הֶׁ ם‬,‫יִ ְהיּו ע ֵֹשיהֶׁ ם‬
,’‫ יִ ְראֵ י ה’ בִ ְטחּו בַ ה‬.‫ עֶׁ זְ ָרם ּומָ גִ נָם הּוא‬,’‫ בֵ ית ַאהֲ רֹן בִ ְטחּו בַ ה‬.‫הּוא‬
.‫עֶׁ זְ ָרם ּומָ גִ נָם הּוא‬
‫ יְ בָ ֵרְך‬.‫ יְבָ ֵרְך אֶׁ ת בֵ ית ַאהֲ רֹן‬,‫ יְ בָ ֵרְך אֶׁ ת בֵ ית יִ ְש ָראֵ ל‬,‫ה’ זְ כ ָָרנּו יְ בָ ֵרְך‬
Pesach Seder. We end up having five cups in honor of Eliyahu so he will answer all of the
questions that we do not know the answer to.
(From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva vol. 2)
The Fifth Cup
By Dina Bash
There is a very distinct difference between the first four cups of wine and the fifth. As
R’Moshe Feinstein explains, the first four cups represent Hashem helping us throughout our
experience in ‫ מצרים‬and Hashem taking us out of ‫מצרים‬. Meanwhile, the fifth cup represents
something totally different. It represents the gift of ‫ארץ ישראל‬. As special as that is, the fifth cup
is not on the same level as the other four. That is why we do not drink from it. One can learn
from this that at the Pesach Seder, ‫ ארץ ישראל‬is not our main focus. Remembering ‫ מצרים‬is
obviously more important at this time. At the Seder, we should stick to talking about our
(From The Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah)
‫יִ ְראֵ י ה’‪ ,‬הַ ְקטַ נִים עִ ם הַ גְ דֹלִ ים‪ .86‬יֹסֵ ף ה’ ֲעלֵיכֶׁם‪ֲ ,‬עלֵיכֶׁם וְ עַ ל בְ נֵיכֶׁם‪.‬‬
‫ָארץ‪ .‬הַ ָשמַ יִ ם ָשמַ יִ ם ַלה’ וְ הָ ֶׁ‬
‫בְ רּוכִ ים אַ ֶׁתם ַלה’‪ ,‬ע ֵֹשה ָשמַ יִ ם וָ ֶׁ‬
‫ָאדם‪ֹ .‬לא הַ מֵ ִתים יְ הַ לְ לּו יָּה וְ ֹלא כָ ל י ְֹר ֵדי דּומָ ה‪ .‬וַ אֲ נ ְַחנּו‬
‫נָתַ ן לִ בְ נֵי ָ‬
‫נְבָ ֵרְך יָּה מֵ עַ ָתה וְ עַ ד ע ֹולָם‪ .‬הַ לְ לּויָּה‪:‬‬
‫ָאהַ בְ ִתי כִ י יִ ְשמַ ע ה’ אֶׁ ת קוֹלִ י‪ַ ,‬תחֲ נּונָי‪ .‬כִ י ִהטָ ה ָאזְ נ ֹו לִ י ּובְ יָמַ י‬
‫ּומצָ ֵרי ְשאוֹל ְמצָ אּונִי‪ ,‬צָ ָרה וְ יָגוֹן אֶׁ ְמצָ א‪.‬‬
‫אֶׁ ְק ָרא‪ .‬אֲ פָ פּונִי חֶׁ בְ לֵי מָ וֶׁ ת ְ‬
‫ּובְ ֵשם ה’ אֶׁ ְק ָרא‪ ,‬אָ נָא ה’ מַ ּלְ טָ ה נַפְ ִשי‪ .‬חַ נּון ה’ וְ צַ ִדיק‪ ,‬וֵ אֹלהֵ ינּו‬
‫ְמ ַרחֵ ם‪ .‬שֹמֵ ר פְ תָ איִ ם ה’‪ַ ,‬דּלו ִֹתי וְ לִ י יְ הו ִֹשיעַ ‪ .‬שּובִ י נַפְ ִשי לִ ְמנּוחָ יְ כִ י‪,‬‬
‫כִ י ה’ גָמַ ל עָ לָיְ כִ י‪ .‬כִ י ִחּל ְַצ ָת נַפְ ִשי ִממָ וֶׁ ת‪ ,‬אֶׁ ת עֵ ינִי ִמן ִד ְמעָ ה‪ ,‬אֶׁ ת ַרגְ לִ י‬
‫ַארצוֹת הַ חַ יִ ים‪ .‬הֶׁ אֱ מַ נ ְִתי כִ י אֲ ַדבֵ ר‪ ,‬אֲ נִי‬
‫ִמ ֶׁד ִחי‪ .‬אֶׁ ְתהַ ּלְֵך לִ פְ נֵי ה’ בְ ְ‬
‫ָאדם כֹזֵ ב‪.‬‬
‫ִיתי ְמאֹד‪ .‬אֲ נִי ָאמַ ְר ִתי בְ חָ פְ זִ י‪ ,‬כָל הָ ָ‬
‫עָ נ ִ‬
‫מָ ה אָ ִשיב ַלה’ כָל ַתגְ מּולו ִֹהי עָ לָי‪ .‬כוֹס יְ שּועוֹת אֶׁ ָשא ּובְ ֵשם ה’‬
‫אֶׁ ְק ָרא‪ .‬נ ְָד ַרי ַלה’ אֲ ַשּלֵם ֶׁנגְ ָדה נָא לְ כָ ל עַ מוֹ‪ .‬י ָָקר בְ עֵ ינֵי ה’ הַ מָ וְ תָ ה‬
‫ידיו‪ .‬אָ נָא ה’ כִ י אֲ נִי עַ בְ ֶׁדָך‪ ,‬אֲ נִי עַ בְ ְדָך בֶׁ ן אֲ מָ תֶׁ ָך‪ ,‬פִ ַת ְח ָת‬
‫לַחֲ ִס ָ‬
‫לְ מוֹסֵ ָרי‪ .‬לְ ָך אֶׁ זְ בַ ח זֶׁ בַ ח תו ָֹדה ּובְ ֵשם ה’ אֶׁ ְק ָרא‪ .‬נ ְָד ַרי ַלה’ אֲ ַשלֵם‬
‫רּושלָיִ ם‪ ,‬הַ לְ לּויָּה‪:‬‬
‫נֶׁגְ ָדה נָא לְ כָ ל עַ מוֹ‪ .‬בְ חַ ְצרוֹת בֵ ית ה’‪ ,‬בְ ת ֹוכֵכִ י יְ ָ‬
‫הַ לְ לּו אֶׁ ת ה’ כָ ל גוֹיִ ם‪ַ ,‬שבְ חּוהּו כָ ל הָ אֻ ִמים‪ .‬כִ י גָבַ ר עָ לֵינּו חַ ְסדוֹ‪,‬‬
‫וֶׁ אֱ מֶׁ ת ה’ לְ ע ֹולָם‪ ,‬הַ לְ לּויָּה‪:‬‬
‫הוֹדּו ַלה’ כִ י טוֹב כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסדוֹ‪.‬‬
‫‪The Small and the Great Together‬‬
‫‪By Nathaniel Haar‬‬
‫‪, which means “the small together with the great” will be‬הקטנים עם הגדולים ‪ we say‬הלל ‪In‬‬
‫‪blessed by Hashem. What does this really mean? The Iyun Tefilla explains that the “small” refers‬‬
‫‪to the children and the “great” refers to the parents. Even though children are taught to trust in‬‬
‫‪Hashem, they usually trust their parents, thinking that their parents are so powerful. The parents‬‬
‫‪know, however, that they are dependent on Hashem.‬‬
‫)‪(From the Medrash Haggadah‬‬
‫יֹאמַ ר נָא יִ ְש ָראֵ ל כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסדוֹ‪.‬‬
‫ֹאמרּו נָא בֵ ית ַאהֲ רֹן כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסדוֹ‪.‬‬
‫י ְ‬
‫ֹאמרּו נָא יִ ְראֵ י ה’ כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסדוֹ‪.‬‬
‫י ְ‬
‫ירא‪ ,‬מַ ה ַיע ֲֶׁשה לִ י‬
‫אתי יָּה‪ ,‬עָ ָננִי בַ מֶׁ ְרחָ ב יָּה‪ .‬ה’ לִ י ֹלא ִא ָ‬
‫ִמן הַ מֵ צַ ר ָק ָר ִ‬
‫ָאדם‪ .‬ה’ לִ י בְ עֹזְ ָרי וַ אֲ נִי אֶׁ ְראֶׁ ה בְ ש ְנָאי‪ .‬טוֹב לַחֲ סוֹת בַ ה’ ִמבְ טֹחַ‬
‫ָאדם‪ .‬טוֹב לַחֲ סוֹת בַ ה’ ִמבְ טֹחַ בִ נ ְִדיבִ ים‪ .‬כָל גוֹיִ ם ְסבָ בּונִי‪ ,‬בְ ֵשם ה’‬
‫בָ ָ‬
‫כִ י אֲ ִמילַם‪ .‬סַ בּונִי גַם ְסבָ בּונִי‪ ,‬בְ ֵשם ה’ כִ י אֲ ִמילַם‪ .‬סַ בּונִי כִ ְדב ִֹרים‪,‬‬
‫ֹדעֲכּו כְ אֵ ש קו ִֹצים‪ ,‬בְ ֵשם ה’ כִ י אֲ ִמילַם‪ָ .‬דחֹה ְד ִחיתַ נִי לִ ְנפֹל‪ ,‬וַ ה’‬
‫עֲזָ ָרנִי‪ .‬עָ זִ י וְ זִ ְמ ָרת יָּה וַ יְ ִהי לִ י לִ ישּועָ ה‪ .‬קוֹל ִרנָה וִ ישּועָ ה בְ ָאהֳ לֵי‬
‫יקים‪ ,‬יְ ִמין ה’ ע ֵָֹשה חָ יִ ל‪ .‬יְ ִמין ה’ רוֹמֵ מָ ה‪ ,‬יְ ִמין ה’ ע ֵָֹשה חָ יִ ל‪ֹ .‬לא‬
‫צַ ִד ִ‬
‫ָאמּות כִ י אֶׁ ְחיֶׁה‪ ,‬וַ אֲ סַ פֵ ר מַ ע ֲֵשי יָּה‪ַ .‬יסֹר יִ ְס ַרנִי יָּה‪ ,‬וְ לַמָ וֶׁ ת ֹלא נְתָ ָננִי‪.‬‬
‫פִ ְתחּו לִ י ַשע ֲֵרי צֶׁ ֶׁדק‪ָ ,‬אבֹא בָ ם‪ ,‬או ֶֹׁדה יָּה‪ .‬זֶׁ ה הַ ַשעַ ר ַלה’‪ ,‬צַ ִד ִ‬
‫ָיבֹאּו בוֹ‪ .‬או ְֹדָך כִ י ֲענִיתָ נִי וַ ְת ִהי לִ י לִ ישּועָ ה‪ .‬או ְֹדָך כִ י ֲענִיתָ נִי וַ ְת ִהי לִ י‬
‫לִ ישּועָ ה‪ .‬אֶׁ בֶׁ ן מָ אֲ סּו הַ ב ֹונִים הָ יְ תָ ה לְ רֹאש פִ נָה‪ .‬אֶׁ בֶׁ ן מָ אֲ סּו הַ ב ֹונִים‬
‫הָ יְ תָ ה לְ רֹאש פִ נָה‪ .‬מֵ אֵ ת ה’ הָ יְ תָ ה זֹאת ִהיא נִפְ לָאת בְ עֵ ינֵינּו‪ .‬מֵ אֵ ת ה’‬
‫הָ יְ תָ ה זֹאת ִהיא נִפְ לָאת בְ עֵ ינֵינּו‪ .‬זֶׁ ה הַ יוֹם עָ ָשה ה’ נָגִ ילָה וְ נ ְִש ְמחָ ה‬
‫בוֹ‪ .‬זֶׁ ה הַ יוֹם עָ ָשה ה’ נָגִ ילָה וְ נ ְִש ְמחָ ה בוֹ‪.‬‬
‫אָ נָא ה’‪ ,‬הו ִֹשיעָ ה נָא‪.‬‬
‫אָ נָא ה’‪ ,‬הַ ְצלִ יחָ ה נָא‪.‬‬
‫אָ נָא ה’‪ ,‬הו ִֹשיעָ ה נָא‪.‬‬
‫אָ נָא ה’‪ ,‬הַ ְצלִ יחָ ה נָא‪.‬‬
‫בָ רּוְך הַ בָ א בְ ֵשם ה’‪ ,‬בֵ ַרכְ נּוכֶׁם ִמבֵ ית ה’‪ .‬בָ רּוְך הַ בָ א בְ ֵשם ה’‪,‬‬
‫בֵ ַרכְ נּוכֶׁם ִמבֵ ית ה’‪ .‬אֵ ל ה’ וַ יָאֶׁ ר לָנּו‪ִ .‬א ְסרּו חַ ג בַ ֲעב ִֹתים עַ ד ַק ְרנוֹת‬
‫הַ ִמזְ בֵ חַ ‪ .‬אֵ ל ה’ וַ יָאֶׁ ר לָנּו‪ִ .‬א ְסרּו חַ ג בַ ֲעב ִֹתים עַ ד ַק ְרנוֹת הַ ִמזְ בֵ חַ ‪ .‬אֵ לִ י‬
‫אַ ָתה וְ או ֶֹׁדךָ‪ ,‬אֱ ֹלהַ י אֲ רו ְֹממֶׁ ךָ‪ .‬אֵ לִ י אַ ָתה וְ או ֶֹׁדךָ‪ ,‬אֱ ֹלהַ י אֲ רו ְֹממֶׁ ךָ‪ .‬הוֹדּו‬
‫ַלה’ כִ י טוֹב‪ ,‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסדוֹ‪ .‬הוֹדּו ַלה’ כִ י טוֹב‪ ,‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסדוֹ‪.‬‬
‫יקים עו ֵֹשי ְרצ ֹונֶָׁך‪ ,‬וְ כָ ל‬
‫ידיָך צַ ִד ִ‬
‫יְ הַ לְ לּוָך יי אֱ ֹלקינּו כָ ל מַ ע ֲֶׁשיָך‪ ,‬וַ חֲ ִס ֶׁ‬
‫ישבְ חּו וִ יפָ אֲ רּו‪ ,‬וִ ירו ְֹממּו‬
‫עַ ְמָך בֵ ית יִ ְש ָראֵ ל בְ ִרנָה יוֹדּו וִ יבָ ְרכּו‪ ,‬וִ ַ‬
‫וְ ַיע ֲִריצּו‪ ,‬וְ י ְַק ִדישּו וְ י ְַמלִ יכּו אֶׁ ת ִש ְמָך‪ ,‬מַ לְ כֵנּו‪ .‬כִ י לְ ָך טוֹב לְ הוֹדוֹת‬
‫ּולְ ִש ְמָך נָאֱ ה לְ זַ מֵ ר‪ ,‬כִ י מֵ ע ֹולָם וְ עַ ד ע ֹולָם אַ ָתה אֵ ל‪.‬‬
‫הוֹדּו לַאֲ ֹדנֵי הָ אֲ ֹדנִים ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫לְ ע ֵֹשה נִפְ לָאוֹת גְ דֹלוֹת לְ בַ ד ֹו ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫לְ ע ֵֹשה הַ ָשמַ יִ ם בִ ְתבּונָה ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫ָארץ עַ ל הַ מָ יְ ם ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫לְ רו ַֹקע הָ ֶׁ‬
‫לְ ע ֵֹשה או ִֹרים גְ דֹלִ ים ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫אֶׁ ת הַ ֶׁשמֶׁ ש לְ מֶׁ ְמ ֶׁשלֶׁת בַ יוֹם ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫אֶׁ ת הַ י ֵָרחַ וְ כ ֹוכָבִ ים לְ מֶׁ ְמ ְשלוֹת בַ ּלַיְ לָה ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫לְ מַ כֵה ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם בִ בְ כו ֵֹריהֶׁ ם ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫יִש ָראֵ ל ִמתוֹכָם ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫וַ יוֹצֵ א ְ‬
‫בְ יָד חֲ זָ ָקה ּובִ זְ רוֹעַ נְטּויָה ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫לְ גֹזֵ ר יַם סּוף לִ גְ זָ ִרים ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫וְ הֶׁ עֱבִ יר יִ ְש ָראֵ ל בְ תוֹכ ֹו ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫וְ נִעֵ ר פַ ְרעֹה וְ חֵ יל ֹו בְ יַם סּוף ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫לְ מוֹלִ יְך עַ מ ֹו בַ ִמ ְדבָ ר ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫לְ מַ כֵה ְמלָכִ ים גְ דֹלִ ים ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫ַאד ִירים ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫וַ יַהֲ רֹג ְמלָכִ ים ִ‬
‫לְ ִסיחוֹן מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ אֱ מ ִֹרי ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫ּולְ עוֹג מֶׁ לְֶׁך הַ בָ ָשן ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫ַארצָ ם לְ נַחֲ לָה ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫וְ נָתַ ן ְ‬
‫נַחֲ לָה לְ יִ ְש ָראֵ ל עַ בְ ד ֹו ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫ֶׁשבְ ִשפְ לֵנּו זָ כַר לָנּו ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫וַ יִ פְ ְר ֵקנּו ִמּצָ ֵרינּו ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫נֹתֵ ן לֶׁחֶׁ ם לְ כָל בָ ָשר ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסד ֹו‬
‫הוֹדּו לְ אֵ ל הַ ָשמָ יִ ם ‪ -‬כִ י לְ ע ֹולָם חַ ְסדוֹ‪:‬‬
‫נ ְִשמַ ת כָל חַ י ְתבָ ֵרְך אֶׁ ת ִש ְמָך‪ ,‬ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו‪ ,‬וְ רּוחַ כָ ל בָ ָשר ְתפָ אֵ ר‬
‫ּותרוֹמֵ ם זִ כְ ְרָך‪ ,‬מַ לְ כֵ נּו‪ָ ,‬ת ִמיד‪ִ .‬מן הָ ע ֹולָם וְ עַ ד הָ ע ֹולָם אַ ָתה אֵ ל‪,‬‬
‫ּומפַ ְרנֵס וְ ע ֹונֶׁה‬
‫ּומבַ לְ עָ ֶׁדיָך אֵ ין לָנּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך גוֹאֵ ל ּומו ִֹשיעַ ‪ ,‬פו ֶֹׁדה ּומַ ִּציל ְ‬
‫צּוקה‪ .‬אֵ ין לָנּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך עוֹזֵ ר וְ סוֹמֵ ְך אֶׁ ּלָא אָ ָתה‪.‬‬
‫ּומ ַרחֵ ם בְ כָ ל עֵ ת צָ ָרה וְ ָ‬
‫אֱ ֹלהֵ י הָ ִראש ֹונִים וְ הָ ַאחֲ ר ֹונִים‪ ,‬אֱ ֹלּהַ כָ ל בְ ִריוֹת‪ ,‬אֲ דוֹן כָ ל ת ֹולָדוֹת‪,‬‬
‫הַ ְמהֻ לָל בְ רֹב הַ ִת ְשבָ חוֹת‪ ,‬הַ ְמנַהֵ ג ע ֹולָמ ֹו בְ חֶׁ סֶׁ ד ּובְ ִריוֹתָ יו בְ ַרחֲ ִמים‪.‬‬
‫ישן הַ ְמעו ֵֹרר יְ ֵשנִים וְ הַ מֵ ִקיץ נ ְִר ָד ִמים‪,‬‬
‫וַ ה’ עֵ ר ִהנֵה ֹלא יָנּום וְ ֹלא יִ ָ‬
‫סּורים וְ הַ סוֹמֵ ְך נוֹפְ לִ ים וְ הַ זו ֵֹקף כְ פּופִ ים‬
‫וְ הַ מֵ ִשיחַ ִאּלְ ִמים וְ הַ מַ ִתיר אֲ ִ‬
‫וְ הַ ְמפַ ֲענֵחַ ֶׁנ ֱעל ִָמים‪ּ .‬ולְ ָך לְ בַ ְדָך אֲ נ ְַחנּו מו ִֹדים‪.‬‬
‫ירה ַכיָם‪ּ ,‬ולְ ש ֹונֵנּו ִרנָה כַהֲ מוֹן ַגּלָיו‪ ,‬וְ ִשפְ תוֹתֵ ינּו‬
‫וְ ִאּלּו פִ ינּו מָ לֵא ִש ָ‬
‫כַשמֶׁ ש וְ כַ י ֵָרחַ ‪ ,‬וְ י ֵָדינּו פְ רּושוֹת‬
‫ֶׁשבַ ח כְ מֶׁ ְרחֲ בֵ י ָר ִקיעַ ‪ ,‬וְ עֵ ינֵינּו ְמ ִאירוֹת ֶׁ‬
‫יקים לְ הוֹדוֹת‬
‫כְ נ ְִש ֵרי ָשמַ יִ ם‪ ,‬וְ ַרגְ לֵינּו ַקּלוֹת כָ אַ יָלוֹת אֵ ין אֲ נ ְַחנּו מַ ְספִ ִ‬
‫לְ ָך‪ ,‬ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו וֵאֹלהֵ י אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו‪ּ ,‬ולְ בָ ֵרְך‪ ,‬אֶׁ ת ִש ְמָך מַ לְ כֵ נּו עַ ל ַאחַ ת‪,‬‬
‫מֵ ָאלֶׁף‪ַ ,‬אלְ פֵ י אֲ לָפִ ים וְ ִרבֵ י ְרבָ בוֹת פְ עָ ִמים‪ ,‬הַ טוֹבוֹת נוסח ספרד‪:‬‬
‫נ ִִסים וְ נִפְ לָא ֹות ֶׁשעָ ִשיתָ עִ ם אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו וְ עִ מָ נּו‪ .‬נוסח ספרד‪ִ :‬מּלְ פָ נִים‬
‫ּומבֵ ית עֲבָ ִדים פְ ִדיתָ נּו‪ ,‬בְ ָרעָ ב זַ נ ְָתנּו‬
‫ִמ ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם גְ ַאלְ ָתנּו‪ ,‬ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו‪ִ ,‬‬
‫ּומ ֶׁדבֶׁ ר ִמּל ְַט ָתנּו‪ּ ,‬ומֵ חָ לָיִ ם ָרעִ ים‬
‫ּובְ ָשבָ ע כִ לְ כַ לְ ָתנּו‪ ,‬מֵ חֶׁ ֶׁרב ִהּצַ לְ ָתנּו ִ‬
‫וְ ַרבִ ים וְ נֶׁאֱ מָ נִים ִדּלִ יתָ נּו‪ .‬עַ ד הֵ נָה עֲזָ רּונּו ַרחֲ מֶׁ יָך וְ ֹלא עֲזָ בּונּו חֲ סָ ֶׁדיָך‪,‬‬
‫וְ ַאל ִת ְט ֵשנּו‪ ,‬ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו‪ָ ,‬לנֶׁצַ ח‪ .‬עַ ל כֵ ן אֵ בָ ִרים ֶׁשפִ ּלַגְ ָת בָ נּו וְ רּוחַ‬
‫ּונ ְָשמָ ה ֶׁשנָפַ ְח ָת בְ אַ פֵ ינּו וְ לָשוֹן אֲ ֶׁשר ַש ְמ ָת בְ פִ ינּו הֵ ן הֵ ם יוֹדּו וִ יבָ ְרכּו‬
‫ישבְ חּו וִ יפָ אֲ רּו וִ ישו ְֹררּו וִ ירו ְֹממּו וְ ַיע ֲִריצּו וְ י ְַק ִדישּו וְ י ְַמלִ יכּו אֶׁ ת ִש ְמָך‬
‫וִ ַ‬
‫מַ לְ כֵנּו ָת ִמיד‪ .‬כִ י כָ ל פֶׁ ה לְ ָך יו ֶֹׁדה‪ ,‬וְ כָ ל לָשוֹן לְ ָך ִת ָשבַ ע וְ כָל בֶׁ ֶׁרְך לְ ָך‬
‫יראּוָך‪ ,‬וְ כָ ל ֶׁק ֶׁרב‬
‫ִתכְ ַרע‪ ,‬וְ כָ ל קוֹמָ ה לְ פָ ֶׁניָך ִת ְש ַתחֲ וֶׁ ה‪ ,‬וְ כָ ל לְ בָ בוֹת יִ ָ‬
‫ּוכְ לָיוֹת יְ זַ ְמרּו לִ ְשמֶׁ ָך‪ ,‬כ ַָדבָ ר ֶׁשכָתּוב‪ ,‬כָל עַ ְצמֹתַ י תֹאמַ ְרנָה‪ :‬ה’‪ִ ,‬מי‬
‫כָ מוָֹך מַ ִּציל עָ נִי מֵ חָ זָ ק ִממֶׁ נּו וְ עָ נִי וְ אֶׁ בְ יוֹן ִמגֹזְ לוֹ‪ִ .‬מי יִ ְדמֶׁ ה ּלְָך ִ‬
‫ּומי ַיע ֲָרְך לְָך הָ אֵ ל הַ גָדוֹל‪ ,‬הַ גִ בוֹר וְ הַ נו ָֹרא‪ ,‬אֵ ל עֶׁ לְ יוֹן‪ֹ ,‬‬
‫יִ ְשוֶׁ ה ּלְָך ִ‬
‫ָארץ‪ .‬נְהַ ּלֶׁלְ ָך ּונ ְַשבֵ חֲ ָך ּונְפָ אֶׁ ְרָך ּונְבָ ֵרְך אֶׁ ת ֵשם ָק ְד ֶׁשָך‪ ,‬כָָאמּור‪:‬‬
‫ָשמַ יִ ם וָ ֶׁ‬
‫לְ ָדוִ ד‪ ,‬בָ ְרכִ י נַפְ ִשי אֶׁ ת ה’ וְ כָ ל ְק ָרבַ י אֶׁ ת ֵשם ָק ְדשוֹ‪.‬‬
‫הָ אֵ ל בְ תַ ֲעצֻמוֹת עֻזֶׁ ָך‪ ,‬הַ גָדוֹל בִ כְ בוֹד ְשמֶׁ ָך‪ ,‬הַ גִ בוֹר ָלנֶׁצַ ח וְ הַ נו ָֹרא‬
‫יושב עַ ל כִ סֵ א ָרם וְ נ ִָשא‪.‬‬
‫בְ נו ְֹראוֹתֶׁ יָך‪ ,‬הַ מֶׁ לְֶׁך הַ ֵ‬
‫יקים בַ יהוה‪ ,‬לַיְ ָש ִרים‬
‫ש ֹוכֵן עַ ד מָ רוֹם וְ ָקדוֹש ְשמוֹ‪ .‬וְ כָתּוב‪ַ :‬רנְנּו צַ ִד ִ‬
‫יקים ִת ְתבָ ַרךְ ובִ לְ שוֹן‬
‫נָאוָ ה ְת ִהּלָה‪.‬בְ פִ י יְ ָש ִרים ִת ְתהַ ּלָל ּובְ ִדבְ ֵרי צַ ִד ִ‬
‫ידים ִת ְתרוֹמָ ם ּובְ ֶׁק ֶׁרב ְקדו ִֹשים ִת ְת ַק ַדש‪.‬‬
‫חֲ ִס ִ‬
‫ּובְ מַ ְקהֲ לוֹת ִרבְ בוֹת עַ ְמָך בֵ ית יִ ְש ָראֵ ל בְ ִרנָה יִ ְתפָ אֵ ר ִש ְמָך‪ ,‬מַ לְ כֵנּו‪ ,‬בְ כָ ל‬
‫צּורים לְ פָ נֶׁיָך‪ ,‬ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו וֵ אֹלהֵ י‬
‫דוֹר וָ דוֹר‪ֶׁ ,‬שכֵן חוֹבַ ת כָל הַ יְ ִ‬
‫אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו‪ ,‬לְ הוֹדוֹת לְ הַ ּלֵל לְ ַשבֵ חַ ‪ ,‬לְ פָ אֵ ר לְ רוֹמֵ ם לְ הַ ֵדר לְ בָ ֵרְך‪ ,‬לְ עַ ּלֵה‬
‫ּולְ ַקּלֵס עַ ל כָל ִדבְ ֵרי ִשירוֹת וְ ִת ְשבְ חוֹת ָדוִ ד בֶׁ ן יִ ַשי עַ בְ ְדָך‪ְ ,‬מ ִשיחֶׁ ָך‪.‬‬
‫יִ ְש ַתבַ ח ִש ְמָך לָעַ ד מַ לְ כֵנּו‪ ,‬הָ אֵ ל הַ מֶׁ לְֶׁך הַ גָדוֹל וְ הַ ָקדוֹש בַ ָשמַ יִ ם‬
‫ּושבָ חָ ה‪ ,‬הַ ּלֵל‬
‫ָארץ‪ ,‬כִ י לְ ָך נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו וֵאֹלהֵ י אֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו‪ִ ,‬שיר ְ‬
‫ּובָ ֶׁ‬
‫בּורה‪ְ ,‬ת ִהלָה וְ ִתפְ אֶׁ ֶׁרת‪ְ ,‬קדֻ ָשה‬
‫וְ זִ ְמ ָרה‪ ,‬עֹז ּומֶׁ ְמ ָשלָה‪ ,‬נֶׁצַ ח‪ ,‬גְ דֻ ּלָה ּוגְ ָ‬
‫ּומַ לְ כּות‪ ,‬בְ ָרכוֹת וְ הו ָֹדאוֹת מֵ עַ ָתה וְ עַ ד ע ֹולָם בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’‪ ,‬אֵ ל מֶׁ לְֶׁך‬
‫גָדוֹל בַ ִת ְשבָ חוֹת‪ ,‬אֵ ל הַ הו ָֹדאוֹת‪ ,‬אֲ דוֹן הַ נִפְ לָאוֹת‪ ,‬הַ בוֹחֵ ר בְ ִש ֵ‬
‫זִ ְמ ָרה‪ ,‬מֶׁ לְֶׁך אֵ ל חֵ י הָ ע ֹול ִָמים‪.‬‬
‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם בו ֵֹרא פְ ִרי הַ גָפֶׁ ן‪.‬‬
‫ׁשוֹתֶ ה בַ הֲ ָּסבַ ת ְּשמֹאל‬
‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‪ ,‬עַ ל הַ גֶׁפֶׁ ן וְ עַ ל פְ ִרי הַ גֶׁפֶׁ ן‪ ,‬עַ ל‬
‫ְתנּובַ ת הַ ָש ֶׁדה וְ עַ ל אֶׁ ֶׁרץ חֶׁ ְמ ָדה טוֹבָ ה ְּורחָ בָ ה ֶׁש ָר ִציתָ וְ ִהנְחַ לְ ָת‬
‫ֹלקינּו עַ ל‬
‫לַאֲ בוֹתֵ ינּו לֶׁאֱ כֹל ִמפִ ְריָּה וְ לִ ְשבֹעַ ִמטּובָ ּה ַרחֶׁ ם נָא ד' אֱ ֵ‬
‫ירָך וְ עַ ל ִציוֹן ִמ ְשכַן כְ בו ֶֹׁדָך וְ עַ ל ִמזְ בְ חֶׁ ָך‬
ֶׁ ִ‫יִ ְש ָראֵ ל עַ מֶׁ ָך וְ עַ ל יְ רּו ָשלַיִ ם ע‬
‫רּושלַיִ ם עִ יר הַ ק ֶֹׁדש בִ ְמהֵ ָרה בְ יָמֵ ינּו וְ הַ ֲעלֵנּו לְ תוֹכָּה‬
ָ ְ‫וְ עַ ל הֵ יכָ לֶָׁך ּובְ נֵה י‬
‫וְ ַש ְמחֵ נּו בְ בִ ְנ ָינָּה וְ נֹאכַ ל ִמפִ ְריָּה וְ נ ְִשבַ ע ִמטּובָ ּה ּונְבָ ֶׁרכְ ָך עָ לֶׁיהָ בִ ְקדֻ ָשה‬
‫ ְּורצֵ ה וְ הַ חֲ לִ יצֵ נּו בְ יוֹם הַ ַשבָ ת הַ זֶׁ ה) וְ ַש ְמחֵ נּו בְ יוֹם‬:‫ּובְ טָ הֳ ָרה (בְ ַשבָ ת‬
‫ָארץ וְ עַ ל‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ כִ י אַ ָתה ד' טוֹב ּומֵ ִטיב ַלכֹל וְ נו ֶֹׁדה ּלְ ָך עַ ל ה‬,‫חַ ג הַ מַ ּצוֹת הַ זֶׁ ה‬
.‫ָארץ וְ עַ ל פְ ִרי הַ גָפֶׁ ן‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ד' עַ ל ה‬.‫פְ ִרי הַ גָפֶׁ ן‬
‫נִ ְּרצָּ ה‬
.ֹ‫ כְ כָ ל ִמ ְשפָ ט ֹו וְ חֻ ָקתו‬,ֹ‫חֲ סַ ל ִסדּור פֶׁ סַ ח כְ ִהלְ כָ תו‬
.ֹ‫כַ אֲ ֶׁשר זָ כִ ינּו לְ סַ ֵדר אוֹת ֹו כֵן נִזְ כֶׁה ַלעֲשוֹתו‬
.‫ קוֹמֵ ם ְקהַ ל ע ֲַדת ִמי מָ נָה‬,‫זָ ְך ש ֹוכֵן ְמע ֹונָה‬
.‫בְ ָקרוֹב נַהֵ ל נ ְִטעֵ י כַ נָה פְ דּויִ ם לְ ִציוֹן בְ ִרנָה‬
.‫ירּושלָיִ ם‬
ִ‫לְ ָשנָה הַ בָ ָאה ב‬
Nirtzah: The Choice is Ours
By Matthew Plotsker
Nirtzah conveys hope that our celebration of the Seder and our observance of its mitzvot
have been accepted by Hashem. On the one hand, we hopefully elevated ourselves to a higher
level because it is like we lived through the experience of Mitzrayim again. On the other hand,
we are right back where we were before in galut. How can we celebrate leaving Mitzrayim at the
end of the Seder if we are about to resume our normal lives in galut? We are told you need to
learn Torah if you want to be a free man. We learn this because the gematriah of Nirtzah is also
the same as the gematriah of Moshe. Throughout the history of the Jews, during exile, torment
and torture, Torah has always been there for us. There is a story of two girls during the War of
Independence in 1948. They hid in an alley with their family and their dad told them to always
follow the path of Torah no matter what. You always have to follow Torah. They promised their
father that they would choose the path of Torah. Just as the two girls promised to always choose
the path of Torah, we have to choose the path of Torah. Nirtzah is here and Hashem is willing to
forgive us now. We need to make a choice. Do we choose to follow Torah now? Do we choose
to be free? The choice is ours at the beginning of Nirtzah.
(From Touched by the Seder)
ַ ‫ָָּארץ בְּ לֵיל ֵׁשנִ י ֶשל פֶ ַסח לִ ְּספֹר ּכַ אן ְּס ִפ‬
ֶ ‫יֵׁש נוֹהֲ גִ ין בְּ חּוץ ל‬
:‫הָּ עֹמֶ ר‬
‫ אֲ ֶׁשר ִק ְד ָשנּו בְ ִמ ְצווֹתָ יו וְ ִצוָ נּו עַ ל‬,‫בָ רּוְך אַ ָתה ה’ אֱ ֹלקינּו מֶׁ לְֶׁך הָ ע ֹולָם‬
.‫ירת הָ עֹמֶׁ ר‬
ַ ִ‫ְספ‬
.‫הַ יוֹם יוֹם אֶׁ חָ ד בָ עֹמֶׁ ר‬
:‫בְּ לֵיל ִראשוֹן או ְֹּמ ִרים‬
‫ּובְ כֵ ן וַ יְ ִהי בַ חֲ ִצי הַ ּלַיְ לָה‬
,‫ָאז רוֹב נ ִִסים ִהפְ לֵאתָ בַ ּלַיְ לָה‬
,‫בְ רֹאש אַ ְשמו ֶֹׁרת זֶׁ ה הַ ּלַיְ לָה‬
,‫גֵר צֶׁ ֶׁדק נִּצַ ְחת ֹו כְ נֶׁחֱ לַק ל ֹו לַיְ לָה‬
.‫וַ יְ ִהי בַ חֲ ִצי הַ ּלַיְ לָה‬
,‫ַדנ ְָת מֶׁ לְֶׁך גְ ָרר בַ חֲ לוֹם הַ ּלַיְ לָה‬
,‫ִהפְ חַ ְד ָת אֲ ַר ִמי בְ אֶׁ מֶׁ ש לַיְ לָה‬
,‫וַ י ַָשר יִ ְש ָראֵ ל לְ מַ לְ אָ ְך וַ יּוכַל ל ֹו לַיְ לָה‬
.‫וַ יְ ִהי בַ חֲ ִצי הַ ּלַיְ לָה‬
,‫זֶׁ ַרע בְ כו ֵֹרי פַ ְתרוֹס מָ חַ ְצ ָת בַ חֲ ִצי הַ ּלַיְ לָה‬
,‫חֵ ילָם ֹלא מָ ְצאּו בְ קּומָ ם בַ ּלַיְ לָה‬
It Happened At Midnight
By Jacob Colchamiro
The Haggadah says that the Jews were allowed to leave Egypt at midnight. This is the
first time that midnight assumes significance in the Torah. Why is it here? Rabbi Hutner zt”l
explains that midnight and midday assume special significance in that they are beginnings of a
different part of the day. At midnight the day begins, and at midday the night begins. The night
was not a fitting time for the Jews to be freed, since during the night Hashem sits in strict
judgment over the world. However, once the day begins, which begins at midnight, Hashem no
longer judges the world. This is why midnight was a fitting time for the Jews to be freed from
(From the Shirat Yehudah Haggadah)
‫רשת ִסלִ יתָ בְ כוֹכְ בֵ י לַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫ִטיסַ ת נְגִ יד חֲ ֶׁ‬
‫וַ יְ ִהי בַ חֲ ִצי הַ ּלַיְ לָה‪.‬‬
‫יָעַ ץ ְמחָ ֵרף לְ נוֹפֵ ף ִאּוּוי הוֹבַ ְש ָת פְ ג ָָריו בַ ּלַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫כָ ַרע בֵ ל ּומַ צָ ב ֹו בְ ִאישוֹן לַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫לְ ִאיש חֲ מּודוֹת נִגְ לָה ָרז חֲ זוֹת לַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫וַ יְ ִהי בַ חֲ ִצי הַ ּלַיְ לָה‪.‬‬
‫ִמ ְש ַתכֵר בִ כְ לֵי ק ֶֹׁדש נֶׁהֱ ַרג ב ֹו בַ ּלַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫נו ַֹשע ִמבוֹר אֲ ָריוֹת פוֹתֵ ר בִ עֲתּותֵ י לַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫ִשנְָאה נָטַ ר אֲ גָגִ י וְ כָ תַ ב ְספָ ִרים בַ ּלַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫וַ יְ ִהי בַ חֲ ִצי הַ ּלַיְ לָה‪.‬‬
‫עו ַֹר ְר ָת נ ְִצחֲ ָך עָ לָיו בְ נ ֶֶׁׁדד ְשנַת לַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫פּורה ִת ְדרוְֹך לְ שוֹמֵ ר מַ ה ִמלַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫צָ ַרח כַשוֹמֵ ר וְ ָשח ָאתָ א ב ֶֹׁקר וְ גַם לַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫וַ יְ ִהי בַ חֲ ִצי הַ ּלַיְ לָה‪.‬‬
‫ָק ֵרב יוֹם אֲ ֶׁשר הּוא ֹלא יוֹם וְ ֹלא לַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫ָרם הו ַֹדע כִ י לְ ָך הַ יוֹם ַאף לְ ָך הַ ּלַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫שו ְֹמ ִרים הַ פְ ֵקד לְ עִ ְירָך כָל הַ יוֹם וְ כָל הַ ּלַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫ָת ִאיר כְ אוֹר יוֹם חֶׁ ְשכַ ת לַיְ לָה‪,‬‬
‫וַ יְ ִהי בַ חֲ ִצי הַ ּלַיְ לָה‪.‬‬
‫בְּ לֵיל ֵשנִ י או ְֹּמ ִרים‪:‬‬
‫ּובְ כֵ ן וַ אֲ מַ ְר ֶׁתם זֶׁ בַ ח פֶׁ סַ ח‬
‫אֹמֶׁ ץ גְ בּורוֹתֶׁ יָך ִהפְ לֵאתָ בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬בְ רֹאש כָל מ ֹועֲדוֹת נ ִֵשאתָ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬גִ לִ יתָ‬
‫לְ אֶׁ זְ ָר ִחי חֲ צוֹת לֵיל פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬וַ אֲ מַ ְר ֶׁתם זֶׁ בַ ח פֶׁ סַ ח‪.‬‬
‫ְדלָתָ יו ָדפַ ְק ָת כְ חֹם הַ יוֹם בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ִ ,‬ה ְסעִ יד נו ְֹצ ִצים עֻגוֹת מַ ּצוֹת בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪,‬‬
‫וְ אֵ ל הַ בָ ָקר ָרץ זֵ כֶׁר לְ שוֹר עֵ ֶׁרְך פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬וַ אֲ מַ ְר ֶׁתם זֶׁ בַ ח פֶׁ סַ ח‪.‬‬
‫ז ֹועֲמּו ְסדו ִֹמים וְ לוֹהֲ טּו בָ אֵ ש בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬חֻ ּלַץ לוֹט מֵ הֶׁ ם ּומַ ּצוֹת ָאפָ ה בְ ֵקץ‬
‫ַאדמַ ת מֹף וְ נֹף בְ עָ בְ ְרָך בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬וַ אֲ מַ ְר ֶׁתם זֶׁ בַ ח פֶׁ סַ ח‪.‬‬
‫פֶׁ סַ ח‪ִ ,‬טאטֵ אתֶׁ ְ‬
‫יָּה רֹאש כָל אוֹן מָ חַ ְצ ָת בְ לֵיל ִשמּור פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬כַבִ יר‪ ,‬עַ ל בֵ ן בְ כוֹר פָ סַ ְח ָת‬
‫בְ ַדם פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬לְ בִ לְ ִתי ֵתת מַ ְש ִחית ָלבֹא בִ פְ תָ חַ י בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬וַ אֲ מַ ְר ֶׁתם זֶׁ בַ ח‬
‫פֶׁ סַ ח‪.‬‬
‫ְמסֻ ג ֶֶׁׁרת סֻ ג ָָרה בְ עִ תוֹתֵ י פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬נ ְִש ְמ ָדה ִמ ְדיָן בִ ְצלִ יל ְשעו ֵֹרי עֹמֶׁ ר פֶׁ סַ ח‪,‬‬
‫יקד יְ קוֹד פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬וַ אֲ מַ ְר ֶׁתם זֶׁ בַ ח פֶׁ סַ ח‪.‬‬
‫שוֹרפּו ִמ ְשמַ נֵי פּול וְ לּוד בִ ַ‬
‫כָתבָ ה לְ ַקע ֲֵקעַ צּול‬
‫עוֹד הַ יוֹם בְ נֹב ַלעֲמוֹד עַ ד גָעָ ה ע ֹונַת פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬פַ ס יַד ְ‬
‫בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬צָ פֹה הַ ּצָ פִ ית ִ ָערוְֹך הַ שֻ לְ חָ ן בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬וַ אֲ מַ ְר ֶׁתם זֶׁ בַ ח פֶׁ סַ ח‪.‬‬
‫ָקהָ ל כִ נְסָ ה הֲ ַדסָ ה לְ ַשּלֵש צוֹם בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬רֹאש ִמבֵ ית ָר ָשע מָ חַ ְצ ָת בְ עֵ ץ‬
‫עּוּצית בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ָ ,‬תעֹז י ְָדָך וְ תָ רּום‬
‫חֲ ִמ ִשים בַ פֶׁ סַ ח‪ְ ,‬ש ֵתי אֵ ּלֶׁה ֶׁרגַע ָתבִ יא לְ ִ‬
‫יְ ִמינְָך כְ לֵיל ִה ְת ַק ֵדש חַ ג פֶׁ סַ ח‪ ,‬וַ אֲ מַ ְר ֶׁתם זֶׁ בַ ח פֶׁ סַ ח‪.‬‬
‫כִ י ל ֹו נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו יָאֶׁ ה [כֶׁתֶׁ ר ְמלּוכָ ה]‪.‬‬
‫אמרּו לוֹ‪ :‬לְ ָך ּולְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך כִ י לְ ָך‪,‬‬
‫דּודיו ֹי ְ‬
‫ַאדיר בִ ְמלּוכָ ה‪ ,‬בָ חּור כַהֲ לָכָה‪ ,‬גְ ָ‬
‫לְ ָך ַאף לְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך ה’ הַ מַ ְמלָכָ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו יָאֶׁ ה [כֶׁתֶׁ ר ְמלּוכָה]‪.‬‬
‫ֹאמרּו לוֹ‪ :‬לְ ָך ּולְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך כִ י לְ ָך‪,‬‬
‫יקיו י ְ‬
‫ָדגּול בִ ְמלּוכָה‪ ,‬הָ דּור כַהֲ לָכָה‪ ,‬וָ ִת ָ‬
‫לְ ָך ַאף לְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך ה’ הַ מַ ְמלָכָ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו יָאֶׁ ה [כֶׁתֶׁ ר ְמלּוכָה]‪.‬‬
‫ֹאמרּו לוֹ‪ :‬לְ ָך ּולְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך כִ י לְ ָך‪,‬‬
‫זַ כַ אי בִ ְמלּוכָה‪ ,‬חָ ִסין כַהֲ לָכָה טַ פְ ְס ָריו י ְ‬
‫לְ ָך ַאף לְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך ה’ הַ מַ ְמלָכָ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו יָאֶׁ ה [כֶׁתֶׁ ר ְמלּוכָה]‪.‬‬
‫ֹאמרּו לוֹ‪ :‬לְ ָך ּולְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך כִ י לְ ָך‪,‬‬
‫מּודיו י ְ‬
‫י ִָחיד בִ ְמלּוכָ ה‪ַ ,‬כבִ יר כַהֲ לָכָה לִ ָ‬
‫לְ ָך ַאף לְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך ה’ הַ מַ ְמלָכָ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו יָאֶׁ ה [כֶׁתֶׁ ר ְמלּוכָה]‪.‬‬
‫ֹאמרּו לוֹ‪ :‬לְ ָך ּולְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך כִ י לְ ָך‪,‬‬
‫מו ֵֹשל בִ ְמלּוכָה‪ ,‬נו ָֹרא כַהֲ לָכָה ְסבִ יבָ יו י ְ‬
‫לְ ָך ַאף לְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך ה’ הַ מַ ְמלָכָ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו יָאֶׁ ה [כֶׁתֶׁ ר ְמלּוכָה]‪.‬‬
‫ֹאמרּו לוֹ‪ :‬לְ ָך ּולְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך כִ י לְ ָך‪,‬‬
‫יקיו י ְ‬
‫עָ נָיו בִ ְמלּוכָ ה‪ ,‬פו ֶֹׁדה כַהֲ לָכָה‪ ,‬צַ ִד ָ‬
‫לְ ָך ַאף לְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך ה’ הַ מַ ְמלָכָ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו יָאֶׁ ה [כֶׁתֶׁ ר ְמלּוכָה]‪.‬‬
‫ֹאמרּו לוֹ‪ :‬לְ ָך ּולְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך כִ י לְ ָך‪,‬‬
‫ָקדוֹש בִ ְמלּוכָ ה‪ַ ,‬רחּום כַהֲ לָכָה ִשנְַאנָיו י ְ‬
‫לְ ָך ַאף לְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך ה’ הַ מַ ְמלָכָ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו יָאֶׁ ה [כֶׁתֶׁ ר ְמלּוכָה]‪.‬‬
‫ֹאמרּו לוֹ‪ :‬לְ ָך ּולְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך כִ י לְ ָך‪,‬‬
‫ַת ִקיף בִ ְמלּוכָה‪ ,‬תוֹמֵ ְך כַהֲ לָכָה ְת ִמימָ יו י ְ‬
‫לְ ָך ַאף לְ ָך‪ ,‬לְ ָך ה’ הַ מַ ְמלָכָ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו נָאֶׁ ה‪ ,‬כִ י ל ֹו יָאֶׁ ה [כֶׁתֶׁ ר ְמלּוכָה]‪.‬‬
‫אַ ִדיר הּוא יִ בְ נֶׁה בֵ ית ֹו בְ ָקרוֹב‪.‬‬
‫בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪ ,‬בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪ ,‬בְ יָמֵ ינּו בְ ָקרוֹב‪ .‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬בְ נֵה בֵ ְ‬
‫בְ ָקרוֹב‪.‬‬
‫בָ חּור הּוא‪ ,‬גָדוֹל הּוא‪ָ ,‬דגּול הּוא יִבְ נֶׁה בֵ ית ֹו בְ ָקרוֹב‪ .‬בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪,‬‬
‫יתָך בְ ָקרוֹב‪.‬‬
‫בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪ ,‬בְ יָמֵ ינּו בְ ָקרוֹב‪ .‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬בְ נֵה בֵ ְ‬
‫הָ דּור הּוא‪ ,‬וָ ִתיק הּוא‪ ,‬זַ כַ אי הּוא‪ ,‬חָ ִסיד הּוא יִ בְ נֶׁה בֵ ית ֹו בְ ָקרוֹב‪.‬‬
‫בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪ ,‬בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪ ,‬בְ יָמֵ ינּו בְ ָקרוֹב‪ .‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬בְ נֵה בֵ ְ‬
‫בְ ָקרוֹב‪.‬‬
‫טָ הוֹר הּוא‪ ,‬י ִָחיד הּוא‪ ,‬כַבִ יר הּוא‪ ,‬לָמּוד הּוא‪ ,‬מֶׁ לְֶׁך הּוא יִ בְ ֶׁנה בֵ ית ֹו‬
‫בְ ָקרוֹב‪ .‬בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪ ,‬בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪ ,‬בְ יָמֵ ינּו בְ ָקרוֹב‪ .‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬בְ נֵה‬
‫יתָך בְ ָקרוֹב‪.‬‬
‫בֵ ְ‬
‫נו ָֹרא הּוא‪ ,‬סַ גִ יב הּוא‪ ,‬עִ זּוז הּוא‪ ,‬פו ֶֹׁדה הּוא‪ ,‬צַ ִדיק הּוא יִ בְ נֶׁה בֵ ית ֹו‬
‫בְ ָקרוֹב‪ .‬בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪ ,‬בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‪ ,‬בְ יָמֵ ינּו בְ ָקרוֹב‪ .‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬אֵ ל בְ נֵה‪ ,‬בְ נֵה‬
‫יתָך בְ ָקרוֹב‪.‬‬
‫בֵ ְ‬
‫ָקדוֹש הּוא‪ַ ,89‬רחּום הּוא‪ַ ,‬ש ַדי הּוא‪ַ ,‬ת ִקיף הּוא יִ בְ נֶׁה בֵ ית ֹו בְ ָקרוֹב‪.‬‬
‫‪The Holy One‬‬
‫‪By AJ Keiser‬‬
‫‪In “Adir Hu” the Haggada lists many different descriptions of Hashem. One of these‬‬
‫”‪descriptions is “Kadosh Hu,” He is Holy. Chazal chose to call Hashem “HaKadosh Baruch Hu,‬‬
‫‪choosing holiness as the best description of G-d. Rabbi Eliyahu Dessler asks, why is “The Holy‬‬
‫‪One” chosen from all the other descriptions of Hashem? He answers that Chazal contrast the‬‬
‫‪working of Hashem to the neshama of a person. The soul of a person is influenced by the body‬‬
‫‪and actions of the person. Hashem, however, is not influenced by the world at all because he is‬‬
‫‪holy and independent. All the other names of Hashem imply that in some way Hashem is‬‬
ְ ֵ‫ בְ נֵה ב‬,‫ אֵ ל בְ נֵה‬,‫ אֵ ל בְ נֵה‬.‫ בְ יָמֵ ינּו בְ ָקרוֹב‬,‫ בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‬,‫בִ ְמהֵ ָרה‬
.‫בְ ָקרוֹב‬
.90 ַ‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫אֶׁ חָ ד ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
ֶׁ ָ‫אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬
. ַ‫ ְשנַיִ ם אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫ְשנַיִ ם ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬.‫ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת הַ בְ ִרית‬
. ַ‫לשה אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬, ַ‫לשה ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
ָ ‫ְש‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬,‫ ְשנֵי לֻח ֹות הַ בְ ִרית‬,‫לשה ָאבוֹת‬
ָ ‫ְש‬
. ַ‫ַארבַ ע אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬
ְ , ַ‫ַארבַ ע ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו‬,‫ ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת הַ בְ ִרית‬,‫לשה ָאבוֹת‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬,‫ַארבַ ע ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬
. ַ‫ חֲ ִמ ָשה אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫חֲ ִמ ָשה ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
‫ ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת‬,‫לשה ָאבוֹת‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬,‫ַארבַ ע ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ְ ,‫חּומ ֵשי תו ָֹרה‬
ְ ‫חֲ ִמ ָשה‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬,‫הַ בְ ִרית‬
. ַ‫ ִש ָשה אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫ִש ָשה ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
perceived by human understanding “The Holy One” is the only name that shows Hashem’s
separation from the world.
(From Haggadat Gedolei Tenuat HaMussar)
Echad Mi Yodea: What is it all about?
By Danny Lundner
Echad Mi Yodea is a song where each verse is repeated on top of the previous verses.
There are thirteen verses altogether. Even though it seems like this song is a “children’s” song,
the song has a lot of meaning and an important message. At the seder table we need to remember
the physical freedom (that Hashem physically took us out of Mitzrayim) and the spiritual
freedom (the freedom that Bnei Yisrael had once they were not slaves anymore.) Echad Mi
Yodea is a song about the spiritual freedom. As we sing the song we are remembering all the
things that Hashem gave us and did for us, the Jewish people. Hashem gave us the aseret
hadibrot, the books of the Mishna, the books of the Torah, the Avot, the Imahot etc. We are
reminded that Hashem gave us all of these things and that everything we do should be related
back to Hashem. The reason why we say Echad Mi Yodea at the seder is to strengthen our belief
in the OralTorah. We need to remember that “One is (Our) Hashem, in the heavens and on
ָ ‫ ְש‬,‫ַארבַ ע ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ְ ,‫חּומ ֵשי תו ָֹרה‬
ְ ‫ חֲ ִמ ָשה‬,‫ִש ָשה ִס ְד ֵרי ִמ ְשנָה‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬,‫ ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת הַ בְ ִרית‬,‫ָאבוֹת‬
. ַ‫ ִשבְ עָ ה אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫ִשבְ עָ ה ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
‫ַארבַ ע‬
ְ ,‫חּומ ֵשי תו ָֹרה‬
ְ ‫ חֲ ִמ ָשה‬,‫ ִש ָשה ִס ְד ֵרי ִמ ְשנָה‬,91‫ִשבְ עָ ה יְ מֵ י ַשבַ ָתא‬
‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם‬,‫ ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת הַ בְ ִרית‬,‫לשה ָאבוֹת‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬,‫ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ּוב‬
. ַ‫ ְשמ ֹונָה אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫ְשמ ֹונָה ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
‫ חֲ ִמ ָשה‬,‫ ִש ָשה ִס ְד ֵרי ִמ ְשנָה‬,‫ ִשבְ עָ ה יְ מֵ י ַשבַ ָתא‬,92‫ְשמ ֹונָה יְ מֵ י ִמילָה‬
‫ אֶׁ חָ ד‬,‫ ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת הַ בְ ִרית‬,‫לשה ָאבוֹת‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬,‫ַארבַ ע ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ְ ,‫חּומ ֵשי תו ָֹרה‬
When All Your Work is Done
By David Wolkoff
“Seven are the days of the week”- six days lead up to the seventh which is Shabbat. In
Parshat Berashit it says, "Vayishbot BaYom HaShvi'i"- Hashem rested from His work on the
seventh day because everything was complete. There was absolutely nothing left to do. Rav
Eliyahu Dessler writes in the Michtav MeiEliyahu that we also must celebrate Shabboat this
way. As it says in Parashat Yitro, “V'Asita Kol Milachtecha"- during the six work days you will
do all your work. Rashi says that on Shabbat we should feel that we have completed all of our
What if we are in the middle of a big business transaction that we know we will need to
complete next week? Compared to Shabbat, any other matter is not important. The whole week
is just preparation for Shabbat. We have no reason to think about next week’s transaction.
Our whole week is only preparation for Shabbat. We work, eat, sleep, and better
ourselves all week just to get ourselves ready for the next Shabbat. Even if you are in the middle
of a huge deal, Shabbat is here now.
Avraham’s Treaty
By Gidi Fox
When Hashem commanded Avraham to give himself a brit he went to his friend, Mamre,
for his opinion. He said that Hashem was the one that saved you from the enemies and from
famine so why are you questioning him. There is a question about this. Why would Avraham ask
someone for advice if Hashem told him to and he never asked questions about Hashem’s
Rabbi Meir Tzvi Bergmen explains that all of the prophets got visions, but they seemed
confusing. This command was like that, so he went to Mamre to help understand it. Avraham
thought that Bnei Israel would think he was crazy for risking his life just to make himself
different. Mamre told him don’t make any calculations; just do it.
(From The Commentators Seder by Rabbi Yaakov Sender)
ֶׁ ָ‫אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬
. ַ‫ ִת ְשעָ ה אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫ִת ְשעָ ה ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
‫ ִש ָשה ִס ְד ֵרי‬,‫ ִשבְ עָ ה יְ מֵ י ַשבַ ָתא‬,‫ ְשמ ֹונָה יְ מֵ י ִמילָה‬,‫ִת ְשעָ ה י ְַרחֵ י ל ֵָדה‬
‫ ְשנֵי‬,‫לשה ָאבוֹת‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬,‫ַארבַ ע ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ְ ,‫חּומ ֵשי תו ָֹרה‬
ְ ‫ חֲ ִמ ָשה‬,‫ִמ ְשנָה‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬,‫לֻחוֹת הַ בְ ִרית‬
. ַ‫ ע ֲָש ָרה אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫ע ֲָש ָרה ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
‫ ִשבְ עָ ה יְ מֵ י‬,‫ ְשמ ֹונָה יְ מֵ י ִמילָה‬,‫ ִת ְשעָ ה י ְַרחֵ י ל ֵָדה‬,93‫ע ֲָש ָרה ִדבְ ַריָא‬
,‫ַארבַ ע ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ְ ,‫חּומ ֵשי תו ָֹרה‬
ְ ‫ חֲ ִמ ָשה‬,‫ ִש ָשה ִס ְד ֵרי ִמ ְשנָה‬,‫ַשבַ ָתא‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬,‫ ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת הַ בְ ִרית‬,‫לשה ָאבוֹת‬
ָ ‫ְש‬
. ַ‫ ַאחַ ד עָ ָשר אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫ַאחַ ד עָ ָשר ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
‫ ְשמ ֹונָה יְ מֵ י‬,‫ ִת ְשעָ ה י ְַרחֵ י ל ֵָדה‬,‫ ע ֲָש ָרה ִדבְ ַריָא‬,‫ַאחַ ד עָ ָשר כוֹכְ בַ יָא‬
,‫חּומ ֵשי תו ָֹרה‬
ְ ‫ חֲ ִמ ָשה‬,‫ ִש ָשה ִס ְד ֵרי ִמ ְשנָה‬,‫ ִשבְ עָ ה יְ מֵ י ַשבַ ָתא‬,‫ִמילָה‬
‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו‬,‫ ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת הַ בְ ִרית‬,‫לשה ָאבוֹת‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬,‫ַארבַ ע ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬
. ַ‫ ְשנֵים עָ ָשר אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬, ַ‫ְשנֵים עָ ָשר ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
‫ ִת ְשעָ ה י ְַרחֵ י‬,‫ ע ֲָש ָרה ִדבְ ַריָא‬,‫ ַאחַ ד עָ ָשר כוֹכְ בַ יָא‬,‫ְשנֵים עָ ָשר ִשבְ טַ יָא‬
,‫ ִש ָשה ִס ְד ֵרי ִמ ְשנָה‬,‫ ִשבְ עָ ה יְ מֵ י ַשבַ ָתא‬,‫ ְשמ ֹונָה יְ מֵ י ִמילָה‬,‫ל ֵָדה‬
‫ ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת‬,‫לשה ָאבוֹת‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬,‫ַארבַ ע ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ְ ,‫חּומ ֵשי תו ָֹרה‬
ְ ‫חֲ ִמ ָשה‬
The Ten Commandments
By Ezra Strook
One of the Ten Commandments is, "Honor your father and mother so that your days will
be lengthened and so that it will be good for you." There is a story from the Chazon Ish
Haggadah about a man who was suddenly diagnosed with a life threatening disease. He wanted a
blessing from a great tzaddik but had no money to go on a journey to visit the Chazon Ish. He
tried and tried to make money and he finally came up with the money and went. The Chazon Ish
asked one question- “are your parents in poverty?” The man answered yes. The Chazon Ish
responded that the man’s actions didn’t make sense. He said, “If you don't have a lot of money
why would you pay so much money to come visit me when I may or may not be able to help
you? The Torah says honor your father and mother and guarantees that your days will lengthen.
Why did you travel so far? Go home and then honor your parents.” He went home and devoted
all of his time to honoring his parents and the illness went away. He lived to a ripe old age.
(From the Chazon Ish Haggadah)
ֶׁ ָ‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬,‫הַ בְ ִרית‬
. ַ‫לשה עָ ָשר אֲ נִי יו ֵֹדע‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬, ַ‫לשה עָ ָשר ִמי יו ֵֹדע‬
ָ ‫ְש‬
‫ ע ֲָש ָרה‬,‫ ַאחַ ד עָ ָשר כוֹכְ בַ יָא‬,‫ ְשנֵים עָ ָשר ִשבְ טַ יָא‬.‫לשה עָ ָשר ִמ ַדיָא‬
ָ ‫ְש‬
,‫ ִשבְ עָ ה יְ מֵ י ַשבַ ָתא‬,‫ ְשמ ֹונָה יְ מֵ י ִמילָה‬,‫ ִת ְשעָ ה י ְַרחֵ י ל ֵָדה‬,‫ִדבְ ַריָא‬
ָ ‫ ְש‬,‫ַארבַ ע ִאמָ הוֹת‬
ְ ,‫חּומ ֵשי תו ָֹרה‬
ְ ‫ חֲ ִמ ָשה‬,‫ִש ָשה ִס ְד ֵרי ִמ ְשנָה‬
ֶׁ ָ‫ אֶׁ חָ ד אֱ ֹלקינּו ֶׁשבַ ָשמַ יִ ם ּוב‬,‫ ְשנֵי לֻחוֹת הַ בְ ִרית‬,‫ָאבוֹת‬
‫ חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‬,‫חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‬
.‫ חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‬,‫ חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‬,‫ְדזַ בִ ין אַ בָ א בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‬
Song or Lesson
By Eitan Maron
Many people think that Chad Gad Yah is just a song that shows the justice of G-d. This
is only the tip of the iceberg regarding the meaning of this song. According to the ‫הגדה של פסח‬,
written by Rabbi Joseph Elias, there are many more hidden meanings to this song. One hidden
meaning is that the kid is the Jewish nation, the two zuzim are Moshe and Aharon, and the father
is G-d. Therefore this song could show how G-d uses Moshe and Aharon to bring the
redemption from Egypt. Another meaning could be that the song shows how we come from G-d,
and that eventually we return to G-d. This is seen as G-d being the father, parents being the two
zuzim, and as the kid being a child. A third idea that we can take away from the song is that G-d
is all mighty and powerful, and that all idols are completely powerless and useless. Even if it
does not seem like it, we can find a lot of hidden meaning, in things that seem to have none.
(From ‫ הגדה של פסח‬by Rabbi Joseph Elias)
Why Do We Say ‫?חד גדיא‬
By Megan Glajchen
One question that comes to mind while singing Chad Gadya is, why do we sing this
song at the Pesach seder? Chad Gadya is typically the last song of the seder. It is a song about
different creatures overpowering one another and in the end Hashem overpowers them all. But
what does this have to do with Pesach?
The Gedolei Yisroel Haggadah says that Chad Gadya represents the Jews in exile and
Hashem saving us in the end. The Pesach Haggadah takes a slightly different approach. The
Pesach Haggadah says that Chad Gadya represents Jewish history and the Jewish future as a
whole, from the days of Yaakov until the time that Hashem's promise of peace is fulfilled.
Chad Gadya is a song that teaches how Hashem will save us from galut, even if we don't think
that He will.
(From The Gedolei Yisroel Haggadah and The Pesach Haggadah)
‫חד גדיא‬
By Jesse Langer
Many people probably think that the song ‫ חד גדיא‬is just a song sang at the end of the ‫סדר‬
for fun. It actually represents how the Jews were tortured and oppressed by other nations but
eventually those other nations will be punished and wiped out. Eventually the Angel of Death
will go away and the world will be good. The baby goat represents ‫ בני ישראל‬and all of the other
things in the song represent the other nations. This song shows that ultimately Hashem will
defeat all of our enemies, including the Angel of Death, and the Jews will be free.
Chad Gadya, Avraham and Nimrod
By Seth Goldman
The Medrash (Bereshit Rabba 38) tells us the following incident. Terach, the father of our
forefather Avraham, used to make and sell idols. One day, Terach asked Avraham to mind the
store while he was out. A man came into the store and told Avraham that he wished to worship
an idol. Avraham asked him how old he was. When the man mentioned that he was around 50 or
60 years old, Avraham commented, "Oh my - here you are so many years old and you want to
worship an idol that is but a day old!" The man left the store ashamed. On another occasion, a
woman came into the store with a large flour-offering that she wanted to leave for the idols.
After she left, Avraham picked up a stick, smashed all of the idols in the store except for the
largest one, and placed the stick in the hands of this idol. Terach returned to the store to find all
of his wares destroyed. He asked Avraham, “who caused all the damage?” Avraham explained
that a woman brought an offering into the store, and each idol wanted to be the first to partake of
the offering. The largest idol, however, took a stick and smashed all of the other idols so that he
would be the one to eat the offering. Terach was upset with this response. "How can you be so
cruel to me? Do you think the idols can really talk, move or understand?" Avraham responded,
"Don't you hear what you are saying about these idols!" Terach, who was not happy with this
disobedience, took Avraham to the great King Nimrod. Nimrod said to Avraham, "If you will not
worship these idols, then you should worship fire." Avraham responded that, if anything, he
should worship water, as water extinguishes fire. Nimrod then told Avraham to worship water.
Avraham responded that as clouds are really water that has been drawn into the heavens, he
should worship clouds. Nimrod told Avraham to worship clouds. Avraham replied that being that
the air has power to move clouds via the wind, he should worship the air. Nimrod then instructed
Avraham to worship the air. Avraham pointed out that as man has the ability to retain air,
although he is full of holes, man should be the object of worship. At this point, Nimrod was no
longer amused by all of the responses. He told Avraham, "You are speaking empty and
meaningless words. I worship only fire, and I will therefore cast you into fire, and let the G-d
who you worship save you." Avraham was cast into fire and was miraculously saved by Hashem.
According to the Maharal, the songs we sing at the end of the Seder are part of Hallel our praises of G-d. On the Seder night, we recall how in Egypt, the Jews were spared from the
tenth plague, Makat Bechorot, the death of the first born, which occurred on the night that the
Jews were eating the special offering that they had been commanded to bring. This offering was
to be either a lamb or a kid which the Egyptians worshipped. Yet, the Egyptians did not harm the
Jews for doing this heretical act. The Jews were saved from this threat, and they were saved from
‫וְ ָאתָ א שּונ ְָרא וְ ָאכְ לָה לְ ג ְַדיָא‪ְ ,‬דזַ בִ ין אַ בָ א בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪ ,‬חַ ד‬
‫ג ְַדיָא‪.‬‬
‫וְ ָאתָ א כַ לְ בָ א וְ נ ַָשְך לְ שּונ ְָרא‪ְ ,‬דָאכְ לָה לְ ג ְַדיָא‪ְ ,‬דזַ בִ ין אַ בָ א בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‪,‬‬
‫חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪.‬‬
‫חּוט ָרא וְ ִהכָה לְ כַלְ בָ א‪ְ ,‬דנ ַָשְך לְ שּונ ְָרא‪ְ ,‬דָאכְ לָה לְ ג ְַדיָא‪ְ ,‬דזַ בִ ין‬
‫וְ ָאתָ א ְ‬
‫אַ בָ א בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪.‬‬
‫חּוט ָרא‪ְ ,‬ד ִהכָה לְ כַלְ בָ א‪ְ ,‬דנ ַָשְך לְ שּונ ְָרא‪ְ ,‬דָאכְ לָה‬
‫נּורא וְ ָש ַרף לְ ְ‬
‫וְ ָאתָ א ָ‬
‫לְ ג ְַדיָא‪ְ ,‬דזַ בִ ין אַ בָ א בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪.‬‬
‫חּוט ָרא‪ְ ,‬ד ִהכָה לְ כַלְ בָ א‪ְ ,‬דנ ַָשְך‬
‫נּורא‪ְ ,‬ד ָש ַרף לְ ְ‬
‫וְ ָאתָ א מַ יָא וְ כָ בָ ה לְ ָ‬
‫לְ שּונ ְָרא‪ְ ,‬דָאכְ לָה לְ ג ְַדיָא‪ְ ,‬דזַ בִ ין אַ בָ א בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪.‬‬
‫חּוט ָרא‪ְ ,‬ד ִהכָה‬
‫נּורא‪ְ ,‬ד ָש ַרף לְ ְ‬
‫וְ ָאתָ א תו ָֹרא וְ ָשתָ ה לְ מַ יָא‪ְ ,‬דכָ בָ ה לְ ָ‬
‫לְ כַלְ בָ א‪ְ ,‬דנ ַָשְך לְ שּונ ְָרא‪ְ ,‬דָאכְ לָה לְ ג ְַדיָא‪ְ ,‬דזַ בִ ין אַ בָ א בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‪ ,‬חַ ד‬
‫ג ְַדיָא‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪.‬‬
‫נּורא‪ְ ,‬ד ָש ַרף‬
‫וְ ָאתָ א הַ שוֹחֵ ט וְ ָשחַ ט לְ תו ָֹרא‪ְ ,‬ד ָשתָ ה לְ מַ יָא‪ְ ,‬דכָ בָ ה לְ ָ‬
‫חּוט ָרא‪ְ ,‬ד ִהכָה לְ כַ לְ בָ א‪ְ ,‬דנ ַָשְך לְ שּונ ְָרא‪ְ ,‬דָאכְ לָה לְ ג ְַדיָא‪ְ ,‬דזַ בִ ין אַ בָ א‬
‫לְ ְ‬
‫בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪.‬‬
‫וְ ָאתָ א מַ לְ אָ ְך הַ מָ וֶׁ ת וְ ָשחַ ט לְ שוֹחֵ ט‪ְ ,‬ד ָשחַ ט לְ תו ָֹרא‪ְ ,‬ד ָשתָ ה לְ מַ יָא‪,‬‬
‫חּוט ָרא‪ְ ,‬ד ִהכָה לְ כַלְ בָ א‪ְ ,‬דנ ַָשְך לְ שּונ ְָרא‪ְ ,‬דָאכְ לָה‬
‫נּורא‪ְ ,‬ד ָש ַרף לְ ְ‬
‫ְדכָבָ ה לְ ָ‬
‫לְ ג ְַדיָא‪ְ ,‬דזַ בִ ין אַ בָ א בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪.‬‬
‫‪the final plague. The Torah (Sh'mot 12:42) tells us that this night was a night of "protection for‬‬
‫‪all the children of Israel for their generations." On this night of protection, we conclude our‬‬
‫‪Seder with a dialogue similar to that which Avraham had with Nimrod. We start with the little‬‬
‫‪kid, the object of worship of Egypt. But a cat can eat a kid, and a dog can bite a cat, and a stick‬‬
‫‪can smite a dog, etc. Each of these items which people have worshipped has a superior. The‬‬
‫‪conclusion of the song and the conclusion of the Seder as well, is a conclusion that we all know‬‬
‫!‪and that we sing with great thanks. G-d is supreme, and He is the One that is our protector‬‬
‫)‪(From Torah.org‬‬
‫וְ ָאתָ א הַ ָקדוֹש בָ רּוְך הּוא וְ ָשחַ ט לְ מַ לְ אַ ְך הַ מָ וֶׁ ת‪ְ ,‬ד ָשחַ ט לְ שוֹחֵ ט‪,‬‬
‫חּוט ָרא‪ְ ,‬ד ִהכָה‬
‫נּורא‪ְ ,‬ד ָש ַרף לְ ְ‬
‫ְד ָשחַ ט לְ תו ָֹרא‪ְ ,‬ד ָשתָ ה לְ מַ יָא‪ְ ,‬דכָבָ ה לְ ָ‬
‫לְ כַלְ בָ א‪ְ ,‬דנ ַָשְך לְ שּו ְנ ָרא‪ְ ,‬דָאכְ לָה לְ ג ְַדיָא‪ְ ,‬דזַ בִ ין אַ בָ א בִ ְת ֵרי זּוזֵ י‪ ,‬חַ ד‬
‫ג ְַדיָא‪ ,‬חַ ד ג ְַדיָא‪.‬‬
‫חג כשר ושמח!‬
‫לשנה הבאה בירושלים הבנויה!‬