Kondensaattorit

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Kondensaattorit
Kondensaattoriesitys - RISS
Ostrobotnia 17092014
Kimmo Saarinen
RISS esitelmä
One world. One KEMET.
Esityksen sisältö
• Mikä on kondensaattori
• Evoxin historiaa
• Merkittävimmät
kondensaattoriteknologiat
• Kondensaattorimarkkinat
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Mikä on kondensaattori?
What is a Capacitor
• A CAPACITOR is a passive electronic component consisting
of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric. When a
voltage potential difference exists between the conductors,
an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores
energy and produces a mechanical force between the
plates.
5
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Common Structure
All capacitors utilize the same basic mechanism in their structure
Electrode Plates
Dielectric
The value of a capacitor is measured in farads. For 1 farad of
capacitance, 1 coulomb of charge is stored on the plates, when 1 volt of
force is applied.
1 farad = 1 coulomb / 1 volt
1 coulomb represents ~ 6 x 1019 electrons
6
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CAPACITOR
An electronics component that
- stores electrical charges
- conducts alternating current
- separates different voltage levels, i.e. does not conduct direct
current
-12
C = K A/d x 8.85x 10
F
Where C = Capacitance expressed in Farads
−
−
−
−
7
K = Dielectric constant
A = Area of the Electrodes in square meters
d = Distance
between the electrode in meters
-12
8.85x10 = Absolute permittivity of vacuum
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Capacitor Classification
• Electrostatic capacitors have a symmetrical structure.
• Two electrodes are of similar material separated by one dielectric
• Non-Polarized
• Electrolytic capacitors have a non-symmetrical structure.
• Metal anode on which the oxide of that metal is formed to act as
dielectric layer.
• Electrolyte is used as the “de facto”cathode of the capacitor
• Polarized
8
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The “RLC” Circuit
Theoretical capacitor symbol
REAL CAPACITOR equivalent circuit
IR
LS
Z
Real capacitor
ESR
Theoretical capacitor
C
frequency
Z
LS
ESR
IR
C
= Impedance
= Total series L due to the armature (film) or electrodes (MLCC) and the leads of the capacitor
= Total series resistance due to armature (film) or electrodes (MLCC), to the leads and to the connection
= Insulation resistance
= Capacitance
LS
= LL + LW
ESR = RL + RC + RW
LL = Inductance of the leads ; LW = Inductance of winding (film) or electrodes (MLCC)
RL = Res. of leads ; RC = Res. of contacts ; RW = Res. of winding or electrodes
QUALITY OF CAPACITORS
THEORETICAL
IR
LS
9
ESR



Infinite
zero
zero
C
ESR
ESL
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Vectors R, XL, XC, Z
ESL - Inductive Reactance (XL) opposes Capacitive Reactance
ESR
XL
0
Impedance is a
factor of vector
summation.
X
XC
Z 
XC 
10
Z
 XC  X L 
1
2f ( Hertz )C ( Farads)
2
R
X
2
X L  2fL( Henries )
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RLC Frequency Response
Impedance vs. Freq.
47 µF Capacitance with 2.5 nH ESL
1,E+05
Impedance (Ohms)
1,E+04
1,E+03
1,E+02
1,E+01
0.25 Ohms ESR
1,E+00
0.10 Ohms ESR
1,E-01
1
f
2 LC
0.05 Ohms ESR
0.01 Ohms ESR
1,E-02
0.001 Ohms ESR
1,E-03
1,E-01
1,E+00
1,E+01
1,E+02
1,E+03
1,E+04
1,E+05
1,E+06
1,E+07
1,E+08
Frequency (kHz)
self-resonant frequency.
11
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Impedance Across Types
Lowest impedance is not always highest capacitance
1000
100
10
100 µF
1
10 µF
Aluminum
Tantalum
0,1
0,01
1,E+02
12
1 µF
Ceramic
1,E+03
1,E+04
1,E+05
1,E+06
1,E+07
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Loss Factor vs. Application
High Frequency or Tuned Circuit Applications
Q
Power Applications
ESR
General Applications
DF
13
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Common Terms Define “Loss” Element
Based on Vector relationship
DF = cot(θ)
PF = cos(θ)
Q = tan(θ)
= ESR/XC = tan(δ)
= ESR/Z
= XC/ESR = 1/DF
ESR
Theta (θ)
Z
XC
Dell (δ)
Where:
DF = Dissipation Factor
PF = Power Factor
Q = “Q” or Figure of Merit
14
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Capacitance Change with Frequency
% Capacitance Change
Film -2% to -5%
Ceramic0% to -5%
Aluminum -15% to -90%
~10kHz to 30kHz
Tantalum -15% to -60%
~30kHz to 300kHz
FREQUENCY
15
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Suomalainen Evox
Lyhyt historia
• Runar Öhman perustaa Oy Evox Ab:n 1947 Virkkalassa
• Aluksi mikrofoonien ja gramofonien äänirasioiden valmistusta
ja pian myös kondensaattoreiden
• Paperi-, keraamiset putki- ja muovikondensaattorit (polystyreeni ja
polyesteri, film-foil tyyppiä), myöhemmin myös vaihesiirto ja
puhelinpakkakondensaattorit
• 1951 aloitettiin vienti
• Ruotsiin, Norjaan, Tanskaan, Brasiliaan ja Turkkiin
• 1956 uusi tehdas
• 4,5 Mkpl valmistusta
• Keskityttiin muovikalvokondensaattoreihin ja tuotantokoneisiin
• 1960-luvun alussa sopimus Nokian kondensaattoritehtaan
kanssa, että Nokia tekee vahvavirtakondensaattorit ja Evox
heikkovirtakondensaattorit
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Lyhyt historia
• 1964 maailman ensimmäiset automaattiset
polystyreenikondensaattoreiden käämikoneet
• Perustettiin oma konepaja
• 1965 lisenssi käämikoneista myytiin Siemensille
• Mahdollisti metalloitujen polyesterikondensaattoreiden kehittämiseen (1967)
koneineen ja hieman myöhemmin oman metalloinnin ja leikkuun aloittamisen
• 1972 perustettiin tutkimus ja tuotekehityslaboratorio
• 1976 Runar Öhman eläkkeelle ja saatiin tasavallan
presidentin vientipalkinto
• 1979 aloitti Suomussalmen tehdas
• 1980 Huhtamäki yhtymä osti Evoxin
• Hieman myöhemmin fuusioitiin Huhtamäkeen-> Huhtamäki Oy Evox
• Perustettiin tehdas Meksikoon ja Singaporeen 1982 ja yhtiö
USA:an 1984
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Lyhyt historia
• 1986 Finvest Oy osti Evoxin
• -> Evox Oy
• 1988 Finvest osti LM Erikssonilta RIFA tuotemerkin ja siihen
liittyvän kondensaattoriliiketoiminnan
• Merkittävimmät lisäykset metalloidut paperi- ja Alelektrolyyttikondensaattorit
• 1989 Meksikon tehdas lopetettiin
• 1992 Evoxin Virkkalan tehtaan kondensaattorivalmistus
siirrettiin Ruotsiin Suomussalmelle ja Singaporeen ja
pääkonttori Kalmariin
• Toiminta jatkui Evox Rifa nimellä
• 1992 Singaporen tuotanto Batamin saarelle Indonesiaan
• 1998 pääkonttori takaisin Suomeen
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Lyhyt historia
• Vuonna 2000 Finvest jakautui neljäksi yhtiöksi, jotka kaikki
aloittivat Helsingin pörssissä
• Yhtiön nimi Evox Rifa Group Oyj
• 2005 Kalmarin tehdas suljettiin ja tuotanto siirrettiin
Suomussalmella ja Batamille
• 2007 yhtiö myytiin amerikkalaiselle KEMET Electronics Co:lle
• Pois pörssistä ja toiminta jatkui KEMET Electronics Oy:n nimellä
• Suomessa tällä hetkellä myyntikonttori Espoossa ja tehdas
Suomussalmella
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Merkittävimmät kondensaattoriteknologiat
ja niiden ominaisuuksia
Capacitor Technologies
Capacitors
Fixed
Variable
Trimmer
Glass
+ Polar -
Non-Polar
Porcelain
Polymer Film
Foil
Metallized
wound/stacked
Paper
Aluminium
PME/BME
SLC
Class1 Class2
Electrolytic
Ceramic
MLCC
MnO2
Poly
Tantalum
Wet
MnO2
Poly
EDLC
Wet
Class1 Class2
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Material & Size
Relationship to Capacitance
Material
L
Dielectric
Material
(K)
W
MLCC
d
Film
A  L W
C=
24
e0 KA
Elect.
K
Vacuum
1.00000
Air
1.00059
C0G
5 - 90
X7R
3000 - 5000
Y5V
6000 - 8000
PET
3.3
PEN
3.0
PP
2.2
PPS
3.0
Al2O3
8.5
Ta2O5
27.7
d
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Properties of different dielectrics
Capacitance range, µF
High stability ceramics (NPO = COG)
Medium to low stability ceramics (X7R, X5R, Y5V, Z5U)
Paper
PET polyester film
PEN polyester film
PPS polyphenylenesulphide film
PP polypropylene film
Ta electrolytic (MnO2 and Polymer)
Al electrolytic
(polymer)
Al electrolytic (wet electrolyte)
Super capacitors (EDLCs)
10-6
10-4
10-2
1
102
104
106 F
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108
Properties of different dielectrics
Insulation resistance, M
Super capacitors
Al electrolytic (wet electrolyte)
Al electrolytic
(Polymer )
Ta electrolytic (MnO2
and Polymer
Low stability ceramics (Z5U,Y5V)
Medium stability ceramics (X7R)
High stability ceramics (NPO/COG)
Paper
PEN polyester film
PET polyester film
PPS Polyphenylenesulphide Film
PP polypropylene film
10-1
1
10
102
103
104
105
106
7
M 10
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Properties of different dielectrics
Dissipation factor,
tan  (1% = 10-2) at 1 kHz
PP polypropylene film
PPS polyphenylene sulphide film
High stability ceramics (NPO=COG)
PEN polyester film
PET polyester film
Paper
Medium stability ceramics (X7R)
Low stability ceramics (Z5U,Y5V)
Ta electrolytic (MnO2 and Polymer)
Al electrolytic (Polymer)
Aluminium electrolytic
Super capacitors
0.00001
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1.0
Tanδ
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MLCC NME vs BME
NME
Noble Metal Electrode
BME
•Patch Antenna
Base Metal
Electrode
Sn
Ni
PdAg or Pd
Ag
Cu
Ni
Ceramic
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Wet Al Electrolytic Capacitor
Winding
Anode
Foil
Paper
Tabs
Cathode
Foil
Paper
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Construction of Al Electrolytic
Capacitor
Aluminium Anode Foil
Oxide
Layer
(dielectric)
Electrolyte Paper layer
Aluminium Cathode Foil
Simplified enlarged cross section
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Etched anodic Al-foil
 Purity: 99.99% aluminium
 Etched micro channels:   1m, L= 3040m
 Dielectric: Al-oxide Al2O3 , thickness
1.1nm/V, R=9
+ +++ ++ ++ + + +++ +
+ + +
+
------- - -- --- - -- - - --- --- -
Oxide layer
on the walls
of the etched
micro channels
Solid Aluminum
core
Oxide layer
on the walls
of the etched
micro channels
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Dry Ta Electrolytic Capacitor
Construction
porous Ta anode
pellet
PTFE washer
tantalum wire
polarity mark
manganese dioxide
tantalum
pentoxide
graphite
Alloy 42 (NiFe)/Ta
welding
silver paint
silver
adhesive
epoxy molding
tin or gold
plated terminal
tin or gold
plated terminal
+
-
Anode
Cathode
Cathode can be also of conductive polymer instead of manganese dioxide
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Tantalum / Polymer
Capacitor Structure
MnO2
or
Polymer
Ta
Ta2O5
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Technology Primer: Storage Cousins
Ultracapacitors and their energy storage cousins
Traditional Capacitor
Dielectric
Ultracapacitor
Battery
Electrolyte
A
A
HYBRID
d
d
Q
C
V
C    0
A
d
1
W  CV 2
2
Electroactive materials
• Energy storage on the electrode surface
• High surface area materials
• Organic electrolyte to increase voltage
• Energy storage in the bulk
of the electrode materials
• Chemical reactions
• Mass transfer between the
electrodes
ADVANTAGES:
• Rearrangement of ions – FAST
• No chemical reactions – HIGH CYCLE LIFE
POWER DELIVERY DEVICE
ADVANTAGE:
• Faradaic processes – HIGH
ENERGY
ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE
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Technology Primer: Ragone Plot
Ultracapacitors and their energy storage cousins
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Kondensaattorimarkkinat
Maailman Kondensaattorimarkkinat,
Lukumäärä / Kondensaattoriteknologia
World Capacitor Market in Volume (Bpcs) and Dielectric
3 000
2 500
Volume (Bpcs)
2 000
1 500
1 000
500
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014e
Years
Ceramics
Aluminium
Film
Tantalum
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Maailman Kondensaattorimarkkinat,
Arvo / Kondensaattoriteknologia
World Capacitor Market in Value (BUSD) and Dielectric
25
Value (BUSD)
20
15
10
5
0
1990
1995
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014e
Year
Ceramics
Aluminium
Film
Tantalum
One world. One KEMET.
Maailman Kondensaattorimarkkinat,
Lukumäärä / Markkina-alue
World Capacitor Market in Volume and Market Area
3 000
2 500
Volume (Bpcs)
2 000
1 500
1 000
500
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014e
Years
EMEA
Japan
Americas
ROW
One world. One KEMET.
Maailman kondensaattorimarkkinat,
Arvo / Markkina-alue
World Capacitor Market in Value and Market Area
25
Value (BUSD)
20
15
10
5
0
1990
1995
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014e
Year
EMEA
Japan
Americas
ROW
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Global Electronic Industry Production
$Trn
GLOBAL ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY PRODUCTION
Kc212.239bes-global
4.5
2016
Military
7%
4.0
Industrial/
Medical
13%
2011
3.5
Computer
32%
Military
8%
Automotive
10%
Industrial/
Medical
14%
3.0
Computer
32%
2.5
Automotive
10%
1982
Computer
23%
Military
19%
2.0
Communications
26%
Consumer
9%
$2,052Bn
2/3 of the industry is
based on networked
communications
Consumer
11%
1.5
Industrial/
Medical
13%
Communications
26%
Consumer
15%
$247Bn
0.5
China 37%
$1,560Bn
Automotive
4%
1.0
29.7%
Asia 19%
14.6%
Japan 6%
7.4%
0
Europe 15%
18.7%
29.6%
41
Communications
29%
Americas 23%
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Global Consumption of EDLCs
by Market Segment
Estimated 2011 TAM: $245M
Est 2015: $1.16B
56% CAGR!
Est 2020: $7B
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RISS esitelmä
Kiitos kuulijoille
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