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AquaPath!–!Module!2!
!
WATER!SUSTAINABILITY!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!!
!
INTRODUCTION''
!
!
Water% plays% a% critical% role% in% sustainable% development% and% is% related% to% numerous% global%
issues% such% as% poverty% reduction,% health% and% sanitation,% inequalities% and% degradation% of%
ecosystems.% This% being% said,% water% sustainability% could% appear,% at% first,% as% an% irrelevant%
concern:%isn’t%our%planet’s%surface%composed%of%75%%of%water%after%all?!
!
Figure'1.'Composition%of%the%world’s%water.!
Whereas% this% is% true,% module% 1%
already% mentioned% that% 97,5%% of%
Earth’s% water% volume% (1,4%
billion%km3)%is%contained%in%oceans%
and% seas.% The% rest% is% freshwater%
but% around% 70%% of% it% remains%
locked% in% permanent% snow% cover%
and% in% ice% caps% in% the% Antarctic%
and%Arctic%regions.%What’s%left%lies%
mostly% in% soil% moisture% and% deep%
aquifers%[1]:%only%a%small%proportion%
(in%fact,%less%than%1%)%can%thus%be%
exploited% for% our% production% and%
consumption%(Fig.%1).!
!
!
'
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1
!layers!of!rock!or!unconsolidated!materials!(gravel,!sand,!or!silt)!that!contains!water,!definition!from!
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/aquifer!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
2!
!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!!
!
2.1.'WATER'SCARCITY'
!
!
In'a'nutshell!
!
According%to%estimations,%around%40%%of%the%world%population%is%already%affected,%at%
some%point,%by%water%scarcity,%and%20%%of%the%world’s%aquifers%are%over%exploited% [2].%
By%2030,%the%world%may%face%a%40%%water%deficit% [3],%with%severe%impacts%on%health,%
security%and%food%production,%among%others%issues.%%!
!
!
!
Are'you'familiar'with'the'concept'of'water'scarcity?'!
The% definition% itself% may% vary% from% one% organisation% to% another.% According% to% the% United%
Nations,%water%scarcity%occurs%when%an%area’s%water%supplies%fall%below%1000m3%per%capita%
(i.e.%per%person)%per%year%[4].%The%water%footprint%concept%takes%a%rather%different%approach:%it%
measures% the% blue% water% footprint% (see% module% 1)% after% considering% environmental% flow%
requirements:%freshwater%ecosystems%degrade%when%these%requirements%are%not%met%over%
time% [5].% According% to% the% Water% Footprint% network,% more% than% 2.7% billion% people% may% be%
affected%by%water%scarcity%at%least%for%a%month%per%year%[6].!
But%let’s%forget%definitions%for%now%and%put%things%more%simply:%water%scarcity%is%mainly%the%
result%of%limited%resources%confronted%with%fast%increasing%needs.!
!
Why'do'our'water'needs'increase?!
Depletion% of% water% resources% considerably% accelerated% with% demographic% growth:% from%
around%3%billion%people%in%the%1950s,%the%population%is%now%over%7%billion%and%could%reach%9,5%
billion%by%2050.%In%parallel,%the%world’s%GDP%[7]%grew%at%a%rate%of%3,5%%per%year%between%1960%
and%2012%[8],%leading%to%substantial%increase%in%water%needs.%Below%are%highlighted%some%of%
the%main%factors:%!
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2
!Gleeson,!t.,!Wada,!Y.,!bierkens,!M.f.P.!and!van!beek,!l.P.H.!2012.!Water!balance!of!global!aquifers!revealed!by!groundwater!footprint.!
Nature,!488:!197P200,!doi:10.1038/nature11295.!
3
!2030!WrG!(2030!Water!resources!Group).!2009.!Charting!our!water!future:!Economic!frameworks!to!inform!decisionPmaking.!
4
5
6
7
8
!UN!website,!http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml!
!http://waterfootprint.org/en/waterPfootprint/waterPfootprintPassessment/!
!http://waterfootprint.org/en/waterPfootprint/whatPisPwaterPfootprint/!
!Gross!Domestic!Product!
!World!economics,!2014.!World!Economics:!Global!Growth!Tracker.!
http://www.worldeconomics.com/papers/Global%20Growth%20Monitor_7c66ffcaPff86P4e4cP979dP7c5d7a22ef21.paper!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
3!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!
[%
[%
[%
!
!!
Agricultural'water'consumption%is%expected%to%raise%by%19%%by%2050%[9],%with%food%
demand% increasing% by% 60%,% 100%% in% developing% countries% [10].% Agriculture% was%
responsible% for% over% 53%% of% the% global% Water% Footprint% (WF)% of% production% (see%
module%3)%during%the%period%1996[2005%[11].!
!
Urban'areas,%which%could%harbour%more%than%6,3%billion%people%in%2050%(3,9%billion%
in%2014)%[12],%are%developing%at%unprecedented%rates:%every%second%the%world’s%urban%
population%grows%by%two%people% [13].%To%cover%their%water%needs,%cities%have%to%dig%
deeper%or%go%further,%or/and%rely%on%innovative%solutions.!
!
From% 1973% to% 2010,% the% world' energy' consumption% increased% by% 186%,% and%
demand%could%raise%by%a%further%35%%by%2035,%70%%for%electricity%alone%[14].%The%WF%
of%electricity%and%heat%consumption%is%estimated%at%378%billion%m3%per%year.%!
!
!
Did'you'know?...'our'diet'is'critical'to'water'sustainability!
!
The%water%we%use%for%our%daily%needs%accounts%only%for%a%small%part%of%global%water%
footprint,%which%is%mainly%related%to%agriculture%and%irrigation.%But'we'still'have'a'high'
influence' on' this' matter!% Our% diet,% in% particular,% is% critical% to% water% sustainability:%
producing% our% daily% food% requires% no% less% than% 2000% to% 5000% litres,% 3000% litres% on%
average15.%%Whereas%meat%consumption%is%expected%to%rise%from%37kg%per%person%per%
year%in%2000%to%52kg%by%203016,!we%should%know%that%producing%a%kilo%of%beef%requires%
15000%litres%of%water,%ten%times%more%than%a%kilo%of%grain%(learn%more%in%module%4!).!
!
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
9
!FAO,!from!UNWATER!website!
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11
12
13
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!Alexandratos,!n.!and!Bruinsma,!J.,!2012.!World!agriculture!towards!2030/2050:!The!2012!revision.!
!http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/HoekstraPMekonnenP2012PWaterFootprintPofPHumanity.pdf!
!UN,!2012,!World!Water!Assessment!Report!
!UN!Habitat,!2011.!World!Water!Day!2011:!Water!and!urbanization.!Water!for!Cities:!Responding!to!the!urban!challenge.!
!IEA!2012,!World!Energy!Outlook!
!FAO,!from!UNWATER!website!
!FAO,!from!UNWATER!website!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
4!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!!
!
Figure'2.'Water%stress%per%area.%
[17]%
!
This% map% is% drawn% from% the%
World%Resources%Institute,%which%
definition% of% water% stress%
depends% on% the% ratio% of%
withdrawals% against% supply.% A%
ratio%above%80%%(dark%red%on%the%
map)% indicates% extremely( high(
stress,% a% ratio% between% 60% and%
80%% (red)% indicates%high( stress,%
and% so% on18.! This% not% only%
demonstrates% that% water% is% a%
!
concern%for%Europe,%but%also%that%
the% issue% should% be% considered%
at%regional%and%local%levels.!
%!
!
!
2.2.'WATER'POLLUTION'
!
!
In'a'nutshell!
!
Demographic%growth,%urbanisation%and%economic%development%led%to%unsustainable%
pressure%on%and%pollution%of%water%resources.%Every%day,%no%less%than%2%million%tons%of%
human% waste% are% disposed% of% into% water% course% [19].% This% widespread% pollution% has%
damaging%effects%on%the%environment%and%is%also%a%growing%risk%for%human%health.!
%!
!
!
Water%pollution%directly%relates%to%the%grey%water%footprint,%which%accounted%for%around%a%fifth%
of%the%total%water%footprint%of%production%(see%module%3)%during%the%period%1996[2005,%at%1378%
billion%m3%of%water% [20].%Once%the%level%of%pollution%in%the%water%crosses%a%certain%threshold,%
this%water%is%no%longer%fit%to%sustain%human%and%ecosystems’%needs.!
!
'
Why'are'freshwater'resources'getting'more'polluted?!
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
17
18
19
20
!WRI,!from!http://www.wri.org/blog/2013/12/world%E2%80%99sP36PmostPwaterPstressedPcountries!
!WRI,!from!http://www.wri.org/blog/2013/12/world%E2%80%99sP36PmostPwaterPstressedPcountries!!
!UNESCO,!2014,!World!Water!Assessment!Programme!
!http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/HoekstraPMekonnenP2012PWaterFootprintPofPHumanity.pdf!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
5!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!
!
!!
Drivers% for% water% pollution% are% numerous% and% can% be% compared% to% those% cited% above% for%
increasing%water%needs.!Demographic!growth%is%creating%pressures%in%terms%of%sanitation%
and%waste:%over%a%billion%people%still%defecate%in%the%open,%and%faecal%contaminated%water%is%
drunk%by%at%least%1,8%billion%people%across%the%planet%[21].%With%their%rapid%development,%cities%
face%difficulties%in%investing%in%adequate%infrastructures.%Over%80%%of%wastewater%worldwide%
is%not%collected%or%treated%[22].!
!
The%food!sector%contributes%to%40%%and%54%%to%the%production%of%organic%water%pollutants%
in%high[income%and%low[income%countries,%respectively%[23].%A%number%of%heavy!industry%are%
rejecting% pollutants% such% as% mercury,% nitrates,% phosphates,% petrochemicals,% etc.,% and%
approximately% 15[18% billion% m3% of% freshwater% resources% are% contaminated% by% fossil! fuels!
extraction%every%year%[24].%!
!
!
Figure'3.%Sources%of%water%pollution.%
[25]
!
!
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
21
22
23
24
25
!WHO!UNICEF!Joint!Monitoring!Programme!for!Water!Supply!and!Sanitation!P!from!UNWATER!website!
!UNESCO,!2014,!Water!World!Development!Report!
!UNEP,!2007!Global!environment!outlook!4,!available!at!http://www.unep.org/geo/GEO4/report/GEOP4_Report_Full_en.pdf!
!UNESCO,!2014,!Water!World!Development!Report!
!From!Filterwater.com!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
6!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!!
!
!
!
!
Learn'some'more:!
•% http://www.water[pollution.org.uk/%!
!
!
Water%pollution%has%considerable%impacts%on%the%environment.%The%services%ecosystems%can%
provide% across% the% planet% have% deteriorated% [26].% Half% of% the% world’s% wetlands% (wetlands%
include% rivers,% streams,% swamps,% lakes,% estuaries,% etc.)% have% already% disappeared% since%
1900%[27].%By%2050,%at%least%20%%more%lakes%will%be%affected%by%harmful%algae%bloom%[28].%This%
pollution% also% impacts% us% in% a% number% of% ways% [29],% leading% to% disease% outbreaks% such% as%
diarrhoea% [30]% or% cholera% (cholera% cases% increased% by% 130%% from% 2000% to% 2010% [31]),% along%
other%health%issues%(intoxication,%cancers,%etc.).%According%to%the%World%Health%Organisation,%
a%few%million%deaths%could%be%related%to%unsafe%sanitation,%water%and%hygiene%each%year%[32].%!
!
!
Desalination'plants,'a'solution?'!
!
There% are% currently% 16% thousand% desalination% plants% in% operation% worldwidec% the%
process,%however,%remains%very%energy%intensive%and%is%mostly%used%in%the%Gulf%Region,%
which%lacks%freshwater%but%has%tremendous%oil%and%gas%reserves.%This%is%done%at%the%
cost%of%important%greenhouse%gases%emissions,%the%main%driver%for%climate%change.%!
!
!
!
!
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
26
!Costanza,!r.,!de!Groot,!r.,!sutton,!P.,!van!der!Ploeg,!s.,!anderson,!s.J.,!Kubiszewski,!i.,!farber,!s.!and!turner,!r.K.!2014.!Changes!in!the!
global!value!of!ecosystem!services.!Global!Environmental!Change,!26:!152P158.!
27
!UNESCO,!2014,!World!Water!Assessment!Programme!
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29
30
31
32
!UNDESA!(UN!department!of!economic!and!social!affairs),!2012.!Back!to!our!Common!Future:!Sustainable!Development!
!From!http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/water/!
!WHO!UNICEF!Joint!Monitoring!Programme!for!Water!Supply!and!Sanitation,!2013!P!from!UNWATER!website!
!UNESCO,!2012,!Water!World!Development!Report!
!From!http://www.who.int/heli/risks/water/water/en/!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
7!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!!
!
2.3.'WATER'EQUITY'
!
!
!
In'a'nutshell'!
!
Freshwater%resources%are%unequally%shared%and%strong%disparities%exist%at%consumption%
level.%Water%scarcity%and%pollution%are%impacting%some%populations%more%than%others,%
often% affecting% the% most% vulnerable.% These% inequities,% reinforced% by% climate% change,%
already%led%to%social%and%political%tensions.!!
!
!
!
In%terms%of%resource%available,%and%if%we%exclude%any%consideration%for%water%pollution,%more%
than% 60%% of% all% natural% and% renewable% freshwater% resources% are% located% within% the%
boundaries%of%only%nine%countries,%including%giants%such%as%Brazil,%Russia,%China,%Canada%
and%the%US% [33].%From%a%consumption%perspective,%the%average%European%consumer%has%a%
water%footprint%of%5130%liters%per%year,%close%to%five%times%more%than%a%Chinese% [34]%and%far%
above%any%African%[35].%The%map%below%shows%the%global%water%footprint%per%area%and%shows%
that% Europe% and% North% America% are% competing% with% the% most% densely% populated% regions%
(East%China,%India,%South[East%Asia).!
!
Figure'4.'Humanity’s%total%water%footprint.!
!
!
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
33
34
35
!http://www.cieau.com/lesPressourcesPenPeau/dansPlePmonde/ressourcesPenPeauPmonde.!!
!http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/ReportP48PWaterFootprintPAnimalProductsPVol1.pdf!!
http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/Rapport%20sur%20l'empreinte%20%C3%A9cologique%20de
%20l'Afrique%20P%20Infrastructure%20vertes%20pour%20la%20s%C3%A9curit%C3%A9%20%C3%A9cologique%20en%20Afrique.pdf!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
8!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!
!
!!
In%terms%of%access%to%drinkable%water,%more%than%a%third%of%the%global%population%is%suffering%
from%deprivation,%a%rate%rising%to%over%40%%in%countries%such%as%Chad,%Ethiopia,%Mauritania,%
Afghanistan%or%Cambodia.%This%particularly%impacts%women%and%children,%often%in%charge%of%
collecting% water% [36].% In% Sub[Saharan% Africa,% only% 60%% of% the% population% had% access% to%
improved%drinkable%water%in%2008%[37].!
!
As%a%result%of%these%inequities,%frictions%between%sectors%and%countries%over%the%use%of%water%
already%appeared% [38],%even%in%Europe.%In%July%2015,%Swiss%helicopters%crossed%the%French%
borders%without%authorisation,%to%collect%water%from%a%local%lake%for%their%livestock.%This%need%
was% created% by% an% unusual% heatwave,% a% phenomenon% which% could% get% more% intense% and%
recurrent%with%climate%change%[39].%%!
!
2.4'PERSPECTIVES:'MOVING'TOWARDS'SUSTAINABILITY?'
!
!
In'a'nutshell:%while%the%impacts%of%climate%change%will%reinforce%the%issues%previously%
described% in% this% module,% water% sustainability% can% still% be% promoted% through% higher%
efficiency%in%the%use%of%the%resource%and%behaviour%change%at%consumers%level.%!
!
!
Are'you'aware'that'climate'change'is'impacting'water'resources?!
!
Climate%change%is%mainly%the%results%of%increasing%anthropic%greenhouse%gases%emissions.%
It%is%accelerating%and%already%has%severe%impacts%on%freshwater%availability:!
•% Sea%level%rise%affects%coastal%sources%of%drinkable%water%through%saline%intrusionc!
•% Rainfall%patterns%change%and%become%more%erraticc!
•% Glaciers%melting%in%all%mountainous%region%will%affect%surface%water%availabilityc!
•% More%intense%heatwaves%and%extreme%climatic%events%are%to%be%expected%[40]c!
•% Climate%change%has%significant%impacts%on%ecosystems%that%provide%essential%services%
for%sustaining%water%reserves,%such%as%wetlandsc!
•% Climate%change%will%reinforce%water%inequities%and%affect%the%poor%more%stronglyc!
•% People%vulnerable%to%flood%disaster%could%increase%to%2%billion%by%2050%[41].!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
36
37
38
!Pickering,!a.J.!and!davis,!J.!2012.!freshwater!availability!and!Water!fetching!distance!affect!Child!Health!in!subPsaharan!africa.!
!WRI,!from!http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/report_wash_low.pdf!!
!uneCe!(united!nations!economic!Commission!for!europe).!2011.!Second!Assessment!of!Transboundary!Rivers,!Lakes!and!
Groundwaters.!!
39
!From:!http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/switzerland/11765748/SwissPhelicopterPshocksPFrenchPlakePbathersP
byPstealingPwaterPforPthirstyPcows.html!
40
!UNESCO,!2012,!World!Water!Development!Report!
41
!UNWATER!website!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
9!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!
!
!!
!
What'can'we'do'to'reach'water'sustainability?!
!
Reaching%water%sustainability%would%require%dramatic%changes%in%the%way%we%use,%manage%
and%share%the%resource.%!
!
In% the% agricultural% sector,% rain% fed% systems% remain% predominant% and% significant% efficiency%
improvement% could% be% reached% [42].% As' consumers,' we' should' work' towards' reducing'
wastage' as% about% a% third% of% the% global% food% production% is% wasted% or% lost% annually:% the%
equivalent,%in%2011,%of%1,3%billion%tons%of%food.%Citizens%of%Europe%and%North%America%waste%
on%average%95%to%115%kg%per%year,%far%more%than%in%Asia%or%Africa%[43].%We%should%also%try%to%
adapt'our'diet,%as%indicated%earlier%and%as%stressed%in%Module%4.%!
!
In%the%energy%sector,%it%is%critical%that%we%move%towards%less%water%intensive%sources%of%energy%
and% that% as% consumers' we' minimise' energy' wastage' and' use.% In% cities,% the% lack% of%
financial% and% technical% means% to% invest% in% infrastructure% is% a% concern,% particularly% in%
developing%countries%(827,6%million%people%live%in%slums%[44]).%European%cities%tend%to%be%water%
intensive%and%mostly%inefficient%in%the%way%they%use%the%resource%(above%50%%loss%in%public%
networks%in%certain%cases)% [45].%You'can'put'pressure'on'your'local'authority'and'make'
sure'it'considers'this'issue'seriously!!
!
Did'you'know?'…'Europe'is'working'towards'water'sustainability'[46]!
!
The%European%Union%aims%to%cut%back%water%abstraction%at%maximum%20%%of%available%
renewable% water% resources,% according% to% the% EU% Roadmap% to% a% Resource% Efficient%
Europe.% Water% use% in% the% agricultural% sector% may% significantly% be% impacted% by% the%
reform%of%the%EU%Common%Agricultural%Policy%adopted%for%the%post[2013%era%[47].!
!
!
We'are'at'the'centre'of'the'solution!!!
!
While%international%action%is%necessary%and%welcome%to%improve%water%use%efficiency,%what%
we%do,%as%European%citizens,%has%strong%influence%on%the%success%of%any%policy.%Our%water%
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
42
!Optimal!management!!in!this!sector!could!also!have!additional!effects!on!land!quality:!around!10%!of!the!world’s!irrigated!lands!are!
subject!to!waterlogging!!and!salinization!due!to!poor!drainage!(UNESCO)!
43
!FAO,!from!UNWATER!website!
44
45
46
47
!Source!:!http://whatPwhenPhow.com/climatePchange/mitigationPclimatePchangePwaterPandPwastewaterPinPcities!
!From!http://whatPwhenPhow.com/climatePchange/mitigationPclimatePchangePwaterPandPwastewaterPinPcities/!
!UN,!2014,!World!Water!Development!Report!
!eCa!(european!Court!of!auditors),!2014.!Integration!of!EU!water!policy!objectives!with!the!CAP:!A!partial!success.!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
10!
Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!
!
!
!
!!
footprint%is%high%and%has%considerable%impacts%here%and%abroad%where%most%of%our%products%
and%food%come%from.%Go%and%consult%our%next%modules!%They%will%guide%you%through%more%
sustainable%behaviours.!
!
!
!
This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This%
publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held%
! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!
11!

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