K AI- W UN Y EH<l) a n d Z UEI-C m NG CH EN' "
(Manuscrip t recei ved 27, May 1991 i revised versio n accepted 25 June, 1991 )
Abstract : The followi ng ten spec ies of mushroom collected from
Lan-Yu isla nd are reported in this paper: Anellaria sepuchralis ( Berk.)
Sing., Chlorophyl/um molybdites (Meyer : Fr.) Mass., Copelandia cyanescens
( Berk. & Br.) Sing., Gymnopilus aeruginosus {Peck.} Sing., Lepiota helveola
Bees. Panaeolus campanulatus (F r.) Quel., P. castaneifoltus {Murr.) Ola' h, P.
fimicola Fr., P. sphinctrinus (Fr.) Qu el., Rhodophyllum oeruginosus ( Hiroe)
Hongo. Among them nine species are new to Taiwan, except C. molybdites.
Lan-Yu island (Betel T obag o), a 45.7 sq ua re miles sma ll tropical isla nd, is
loca t ed a t pacific ocea n, about 62 miles far fro m the coas t of the sout h eas t ern
part of Tai wan. The fl ora of this isl and is uniq ue fr om t he rest of Formosan
isla nd owing t o its tropical climate. Cons equent ly, fu ng al fl ora in this island is
quite rich and attracti ve from t he aca demic point of view. As f or its mushroo m
fl ora, only T u, C. C. et al;" collected a nd reported nine species in 1977. Howe ver
more ext ens ive sur vey is needed. With this mo t ivati on, we began to sur vey the
mushroom flora of t his isla nd f ro m 1981, t he first part of the r esult is p resented
here. All the specimens report ed a re deposit ed at t he mycolog ical herbarium,
Dept. of Botany, Nati onal Tai wa n Univers it y, R. 0 . C.. T he color nomencla t ure we
described the speci mens is according t o Korner up & Wansche r!".
1. Anellaria sepu1chralis (Ber k.) Singe r, Lloydia 22 : 475, 1949, Fig . 1.
Pileus 4-7 e m in dia m., semig lobose to co nvex, surface hyg rop ha neous of slig ht ly
vi sci d, rugous, radia tely fi brillose, brownish ti nged whi te, always more oc hraceou s
hue on the disc, uncha ng ing whe n touc hed. Ma rgin se rra te, cont ext 2-3 em t hick,
white fl esh, uncha ng ing when cut or bruised. Gi ll s ubf ree t o st ipe, serrate, white
t o pale when you ng , turni ng f usco us w hen mat ure, then becom ing purplish black
when old. Stipe 12-20 ern long , 0.8- 1.5 e m thick wit h fib rous t ext ure, holl ow, eq ua l or
slig ht ly t ap er up wa r d a nd a lwa ys bul bous a t the base, s urface whit e, hygrop haneous
and smoot h, co vered wit h whit e and minute hairs o ver, wit hout trace of ve il,
unchanging when bruised; ba se wit h whit e my celium. spore print ca rbon aceous
black ; spore 13- 21X8.5-13 em, ellipsoid, lemonshaped, opaque, s moot h with complicates wall a nd a br oa d a pical g ermin atio n pore, appearing deep p urp lish fu scou s
t o black under mic roscope, no color c ha nge in H 2SO, so ln., ple ur ocyst idia 40-50 x
16- 24 pm , ve ry volumi nous, wit h bro wnish refr ingent inclosure ; cheilocy stidi a
- -- - - - - , - - - - -- -,.-------,---------,------,---{l )
:;%!ffl ~ ,
---,---,--------,----- -
Postdoctor, Institute of Biomed ical Sciences, Academ ia Si nica, Ta ipei) Taiwan 11 529,
Republi c of Ch ina.
( 2) WJjjjW, Professor, Departme nt of Botany, Nat ional Tai wan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10764,
Republic of China.
Vol. 36, No.3
Habitat: Solitary, gregarious on cow dung.
Specime ns exa mine d : Taitung, Lan-Yu isl and., L1-017, L1-018, Sep. 7-9, 1981.
No tes: Anellaria sepulchralis is a large t rop ical mushroom. Owing to the absent
of c heilocystidia , Singer'" t ra nsfe rre d it t o the ge nus Anellaria f ro m gen us
2. ChlorophylJum molybdites (Meryer : F r.) Mass. Fl ore Ic onographique. 1936.
Lepiota molybdites ( Meye r : Fr. ) Sacco Des Cha mpigno ns du Cong o Fasc. 16: 323,
Pileu s 7-25 em in dia., ovoid t o s ubg lobos e when y oung, becoming convex t o
umbonate or nearly plane in age, surface dry and whi ti sh, covered wit h numero us
ci nna mo n sca les more brown ish hue on the disc ce nte r. Fl esh white t o yellowis h,
firm s melli ng fra grant. Margin regular and decorate d wit h de br is, Gills free, cl ose
and broad, s now white becoming g reenis h in age. Stipe 10- 22 em long, 1-2 cm thick,
fibrill ous a nd hollow, s urface g la bro us wit h s upe rior ring, colo r white w he n young,
becoming browni sh at maturit y. Spore print g reen is h ; sp ore 8- 12.5 x 6.5I'm, e llipsoid,
thick walled, s moot h, wit h s ma ll pore at apex.
Habitat: Sca t te re d, gregarious on la wn, gra ss la nd a nd f arm str aw comp ost.
Speci me ns examine d: Lan-Yu island. L1-181. Aug . 15-20, 1985.
3. Copelandia cyanescens (Berk. & Br.) Singe r, Lloydi a 22: 473, 1949. Fi g. 5, & plates
3 & 5
A garicus cyallescells Berk. & Br., J ourn. Linn. Soc. 11: 557, 1871.
Pileu s 2-5 em in diam. conic convex, plano-convex. subumbonate, surf ace smoo t h
and white to p allid whe n young, but och ra ceous yellow a t di sc, becoming oc hraceo us
yello w a t disc, becoming ochraceous and o livaceous in age, turning blue whe n
bruised. Margin thin, fi ssure, contex t white, th in, frag ile, turning blue when cut.
Gil l s ubf ree t o s t ipe, whit e when yo ung, t urning p urp lis h to g rey black in age and
bruised . St ipe 10- 20 em long, 0.3-0.6 em thick, hygrophaneous, covered with white
fine hairs, fibrou s texture, hollow s urf ace white t o pallid when young, becoming
oc hra ce ous t o browni sh when mature, slowly turning blue when t ouches; ba se
with white mycelium. Spore print gra y black ; s pore 13-15x 8-11.5 I'm, lemon-shaped,
e llipsoid, smoot h, complex wall, truncate type, wit h a larg e germination pore,
brow n t o bla ck under microscope. Cyst idia metul oid type, 45-62 x 11-20 I'm, thick
wall and golden bro wn.
Habi t at : Greg ari ous, caespitous on cow dun g.
Speci me ns examined : T a it ung, La n-Y u isl a nd, L1-009, L1- 00I, L1-013, Sep, 7-9, 1981.
Notes: Copelandia cyallescells can be easily dist inguished by met uloid t yp e cystid ia
un der mic roscope. The ol d fr uiti ng body tu rned blue a t fie ld and a ll cult ures
isola t ed s uccessfully on PDA media t inge d blue!" . It is a halluci nog enic
mushroom acc ording to Sing er's view poin t.'!'.
4. Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singe r, Aga r ica les, 560, 1949. Fig. 2.
Phloiota aeruginosa Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. Sta te Mus . 43: 8, 1890.
Pileus 3-6 em in diam., plano-convex t o plane. s urf ace color rusty, orange brown,
with s ma ll, vi olet reddish to yellowish red sca les. Margin s ome ti mes with fine
remains. Gill adnate, almost c oncolorou s with cap s urf ace. Stipe 3-6 e m long, 3-8
Sept., 1991
Yeh & Chen-Mushroom Flora of Lan-Y u Island (1)
e m thick, always flexuous , wit h fibrous texture, nearly equal, hollow, s urf ace
s lig h tl y violet, pink, yell owi sh bro wn, with membranous annulus at middle to upp er
region. Spore print fu sty, ligh t brown, spore 7-9 XS-6 pm , ovoid, wart y.
Habi tat: Lignicolous on rotten wo ods , gregarious or caespitous.
Speci mens ex a mine d : Taitung, Lan- Yu island, LI-027, Sep. 7- 9, 1981.
5. Lepiota helveola Bres. se nus J os serand, Fungi Trid. 1: 15,1882. Fig. 3, & pi ate I.
Pileus 3-7 em in dia rn., umbonate, cap covered wit h brownish p at ch-like scales ,
ground ti ssue w hit ish and g lab ro us . Margin thin, s t riate of fiss ure. Context about
0.5 em t hick, soft, turn ing ros y irides cence w hen bruises, t hen become reddish ocher.
Gill white, free, alterna t ing w it h s ho r t lamella. S ti pe 6- 8 em long , ab out 0.5 em
thick, almost e qual, w hite glabrous of fibrill ose, hollo w, contex t conc olorous upper
regi on. Sp ore print creamy. Spor e 8-11 X6-81'm, ovoid, smoot h, nodulose, hyaline
und er microscope. Taste sweet .
Hab it at: Gregarious on la wn
Speci me ns examined: Tait ung, Lan -Yu island, LI-021, Sep. 7-9, 1981.
6. Panaeolus campanulatus (F r.) Quel. , leones Selec. F ung., 1930. Fig. 6, & plate 2.
Agaricus campanulatus L. AP. plant., Ed. I, P. 1175, 1753.
Pileus 2- 4.5 cm in dia rn., ob tuse conic when yo ung, becomi ng campanuIa te or
hemi spherical to conve x in ag e, often w it h an o bt use umb o at the center. Greyish
cinnamon buff to brownish, more t awn y at t he disc. Surface smoot h w hen you ng,
g labrous in ag e. Marg in thinner, serra te and with w hiti s h remnant s of the pa rt ia l
vei l. Gills ad nexed, greyis h at fist , becoming mottled dark g reyis h in age. St ipe
5- 15 em lo ng, 1.5-4 m m t hick, bro w nis h u nder a greyis h p ru inose s urfac e, equa l and
t ubul ar. Sp or es 14-17 x 8-10 I'm, smoo t h, ovoid of lemon shape, wit h api cal ge rm inat ion p ore. Sp ore print g reyis h black.
Habitat: Gro wing sc attered t o g reg a r ious ly on cow d ung or com p os t in the late
sp r ing to fall at s outhe rn T a iwan.
Specimens exa mined: Tait u ng Hsien, Lan-Yu island, LI-042, LI-043.
N ote : P. camponulatus an d P. sphinctrinus are t wo ve ry closely rel ated species .
Both have quite s imila r appearance in age. T he spores of P. sphinclrinus
posses punctate s urface unders EI\.1.
7. Panaeolus castaneifolius (Mu r r.) Ola'h, Le Genre Pa naeol us p. 249. 2960. Fig . 9,
& plate 4.
Psilocybe castaneifolia Mu r r. Myco logia 15: 27, 1923.
Pileus 1-3 cm in dia m. sub hemisp heric when y ou ng , then becomi ng con vex t o
br oa dl y convex in a g e. S urface smoot h t o s lig ht ly s ilky, col or smoky grey beco ming
s t raw -ye llow of pale och raceous w hen drying, al wa y s with a mo re reddish bro v..·n
a t the ap ex and more smoky brownis h along th e ma rgin. Ma rg in thinner and
pallid, str ia te and wr ink le. Gill s adnate to a dn exed, t hin, palli d w hen young,
beco ming g r a y-blac k to d ar k pu rp lis h m ott les in age. Stipe 4-8 em long, 0.3-0.6
em thick, e qual and hollo w, su rface g lab rous, g rey ish , oc hraceo us to browni sh .
Spor es 12-14.5 x7-1O I'm, fin el y r o ughened, with ap ical ge r mina t io n pore. Spo re
print grey black.
Habitat: Scattered to g reg a rio us o n cow dung and straw compos t.
Speci mens exa mined: P-002, P-003, 1983.
Vol. 36, No. 3
oo o.
(). 2O
0 '
Fig. I. Anellaria sepuchralis (Berk.) Singer
Fig. 2. Gymnopilus aeruginosus ( Peck) Singer
F ig. 3. Lepiota heiveola Bees. sensus Josserand
Fig. 4. Rhodophyllum aeruginosus ( Hiroe) Hongo
Fi g. 5. Copelandia cyanescens (Berk. & Br.) Singer
Fig. 6. Panaeolus campanulatus (Fr.} Quel. .
Fig. 7. Panaeolus fimicola Fr.
Fig. 8. Panaeo!us sphtnctrtnus (Fr.) Quet.
Fig. 9. Panaeolus castaneifolius (Murr.) Ola'h
8. Panaeolus limicola F r. Epicris. Syst . Myc. P. 237, 1838. Fig. 7, & plat e 6.
Pil eus 1.5-3 em in diarn., conic-campanulate, convex, surface smooth. ochraceous
to g ra y when yo ung, dingy g ray to light greyish black in age, of t en wit h reddish
hues a t disc ; becoming pa ler when dry, but always leaving a browni sh encircl ing
zone a long t he margi n. Marg in th inner and p a ler than ot her por tion, r ounded
whe n y oung, s t r ia t e in a ge, n ot appendicula te. Fl esh slig ht ly t hick, fra gile and
p ale. Gills adnate t o a dnexed, g ra yish a nd mottled , Spore 6-12 em long, 2 mm
thick, s urf ace s t r ia te and slig ht ly hai r y, fairy fra gile and soft , ding y pale t o
brownish, eq ua l and hollow. Spore print g re y black. Spo res 9.5-13X7.5-9 I'm, lemon
s hape with germination pore.
Sept., 1991
Yeh & Chen-c-M ushroom Flora of La n-Yu Island ( L)
Habitat : Scattered and gregarious on cow dung or straw comp ost . Growing from
the late spring to early fall at Lan-Yu island of southernmost Taiwan.
Specimens examined: Taitung, Lan-Yu island. P-004, P-007.
Notes: The organism, contai ning psilocybin, is rec ognized hallucinogenic. The
r eddish hue at the disc is its prominant characteristic which distinguish it
from P. castaneijolius.
9. Panaeolus sphinctrinus (F r .) QueL, Champ. Jura et Vosges, I: P. 151, 1872. Fig.
A garicus sphinctrinus Fr., Epicr, 235, 1936.
Pileus 2-4 em in diam, con ic, convex, rarely campanulate, s mo ot h, glabrous,
hygr ophaneous, color pallid, s lig ht ly ochracous, bro wn, gray. Margin thin, wi t h
delicate veil remains, flesh thin, not blue, gill subfree t o s t ipe, grey, becoming
bl ack in age. Stipe 10-20 X0.3-0.6 em, almost equal, tubular, fibrous, reddi sh
brown to tan color, not blue wh en touched, cover with delicate white hairs, base
wit h w h it e mycelium or not. Spo r e print black; spore 11.5-15 X8-15I'm, smooth,
lemon-shaped or ovoid, with an apical germination pore and complex wall, br own
to dark brown under microscope. Metuloid cystidia absent.
Habitat: Solitary or gregarious on cow dung at irrigated lawn.
Specimens examined: Taitung, Lan-Yu island, LI-0l5, LI-17, Se p, 7-9, 1981.
Notes: Ola'h ':" and Guzman et al:"' thought that is a latent hallucinogenic
mushroom. It always grows together with Copelandia cyanescens on dung in
Lan-Yu island. It can be dis t ing ui s hed easily from C. cya nescens by presence
of marginal veil remains.
10. Rhodophyllum acruginosus (Hirc e) Hongo, Jap, Bot., 29: 92,1954. Fig. 4, & plate 7.
Pileus 2-3 em in diarn, conic when young, becoming umbonate of scarcely
campanulate, surface dry, fibrillose, color blue, turning ochraceous when touched.
Flesh thin, pink. Gill subfree to stipe, distant. Stipe 3- 6 cm x 3- 4 m m, hollow,
texture fibrillose, surface angular, about 10 ,urn in diam .
Habitat : Solitary, Scattered on forest humus.
Specimens examined: Lan-Yu island, LI-182. Aug. 15-20, 1985.
This work is financially supported by the National Science Council (NSC 740204-B036-06), of Republi c of China. We also thank Mr. Iune-Home Chen for the
manuscripts preparation.
G ., J. L. OTT and S. H. POLLOCK, 1976. Psychot ropic M ycofl ora of Washingt on, Idaho,
O regon, California an d Colum bia. M ycologia 68 : 1267- 1272.
K OR KER UP, A. and J. H. W AN SC HER , 1976. Me thuen Handbook of Colour. Eyre Me thuen, London.
O U .' H, G. H. , 1969. Le Genre panaeolus, H er bier Louis Maire, University Larval, Quebec ( canada ),
273 pp.
S INGE R, R ., 1987. The Agaricale s of Mode r n Taxonom y. J. C ramer,
ST AMETS, P., 1987. Psilocybe Mu shrooms and Their Allies. Homestead Book, 160 pp.
Vol. 36, No.3
L epiota helveola Bres. sensu josseran d.
Panaeolus campanulatus (Fr. ) Quel.
Copelandia cyanescens (Berk & Br. ) Singer.
Panaeolus castaneifolius (Murr.) Ola'h.
Metuloid cystid ia of C. cyanescens under electron rmcroscope, 3,OOOX .
Panaeolus jimicola Fr.
Rhodophy llus aeruginosus ( Hiroe) Hongo.
Yeh & Chen-M ushroom Flora of Lan·Yu Island (I)
Sep t., 1991
T v , C. Co, S. CHENG , Y. H. HAN and T. C. Do UGH, 1977. Some Agaricus on the Southern Part of
Orchid Island, Taiwan. Taiwan Mushroom 1(2): 45 -55.
YEll , K . 、~V., 1984. The Hall ucinogenic Mushroom of Tai wan. Newsletters of Mycological Society
of ROC 1: p. I I.
前嶼島位於垂直毒東南方 62公里的太平洋海戰上面積僅 45 . 7平方公里 ,出於屬典型的熱 情海島 ,
其菌草種類過異於畫灣本島 ,本篇報告描述十種菇車 。分別是 :
A Il ellaria sepuchralis (B e rk .)
S ing., Ch lorophyllum molybdites (l、,! ey e r : F r. ) Ma ss ., Copelalldia cya>lesce 1l S (Ber k .
& Br.) S ing., Gym 1l opilus aerugillosus ( Pec k .) S in g ., L epiota helt-eola Bres. , Pa1l aeolus
campa1lu latus ( F r .) Q ue !., P. castalleifo liu s ( M u r r. ) Ol a ' h , P. /i mid oa Fr. , P. sphi1lcl rillus
(Fr.) Qu釘 , Rhodophyllum aerugi1lo sus (Hir o e ) H o n g o , 其中, 除了 C. molybdites 之外皆
屬盡灣 新記錄種。

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