Life Cycles of Australian Animals

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Transcription

Life Cycles of Australian Animals
Life Cycles of
Australian Animals
Activities
and BLMs
Text by Denise Pilinis Teaching framework designed by Charlotte Forwood and Sharon McCormack
Edited by Cameron Macintosh Designed by Jennifer Johnston
Titles in the series (set 2)
Koala
Little Penguin
Redback Spider
Red Kangaroo
Author Greg Pyers
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
1
Koala
Introduction
Koala looks at the life cycle of the koala and provides information about its habitat, diet and
predators. The text also explains how koalas are adapted to survive in their environment and
describes threats to their survival.
Australian Curriculum links
This text links with the Australian Curriculum in Biological Science at Years 1 to 3.
Understandings
• Koalas are unique Australian mammals, with physical features and behaviours that enable them
to live and survive in their habitat.
• Koalas are marsupials, and changes occur throughout the life of the koala as it reproduces and
grows.
• Although koalas are not an endangered species, they will disappear in some areas if their health
and habitat are not protected.
Vocabulary
adaptations, caecum, cloaca, digestive system, endangered, eucalypt, habitat, joey, mammal,
marsupial, pap, pneumonia, predators, sanctuary, sternal, suckle, teat
Focusing
Discussion questions
Have students complete these questions orally to focus on the text.
Literal:
• Why are koalas classed as marsupial mammals? (Their young develop in a pouch.)
• Why do the young of marsupials need to live in a pouch? (Their young are born at an early
stage of development and need to continue growing in the mother’s pouch.)
• How do a koala’s physical features and behaviours enable it to meet its needs and survive? (Its
fur helps to keep it warm, it curls up in tree forks to take shelter from bad weather, its digestive
system enables it to eat gum leaves, it has claws and thumbs to help it climb, it sleeps and rests
for most of the day because gum leaves provide little energy, it is good at jumping from tree to
tree, which keeps it away from predators on the ground.)
• What are the main stages in the koala’s reproductive cycle? (Koalas mate in September; a
joey is born 35 days after mating; the joey crawls into the mother’s pouch; at 22 weeks the joey
begins to eat solid food called pap; at 27 weeks it leaves its mother’s pouch and spends most
of its time out of the pouch; from 36 weeks the joey leaves the pouch and lives on its mother’s
back; at 48 weeks the joey makes short journeys away from the mother and eats gum leaves
but continues to suckle; the joey usually leaves its mother at about one year old when a new
joey is born.)
• What are the main threats to the koala population? (Loss of habitat due to eucalypt forests
being cleared, traffic, disease, predators such as dogs)
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
2
Koala
Inferential:
• Why isn’t a koala a bear?
• Why do koalas live in gum trees?
• How does a joey change in its appearance as it grows?
• Why do we need to protect the koala’s habitat?
• What would you do if you saw an injured koala?
Evaluative:
• What do you think is the most fascinating fact about koalas?
• Why do you think overseas tourists like to visit sanctuaries to see koalas?
Engaging
Learning
experience 1
Koalas are unique Australian mammals, with physical features and
behaviours that enable them to live and survive in their habitat.
Resources
• Pages 4–25 of Koala
• BLM 1
• A class chart with two headings: ‘What I think about koalas’ and
‘What I wonder about koalas’
• Pieces of paper in the shape of gum leaves to make a fact mobile,
enough for four per student
Language
and literacy
skills focus
•
•
•
•
•
Comprehending
Recording facts
Locating and interpreting relevant information
Expressing and developing ideas
Summarising
Thinking
skills focus
•
•
•
•
Making connections
Analysing
Reflecting
Drawing on prior knowledge
Activity
1 Discuss students’ experiences with koalas. As a class, complete the class
chart, recording students responses to the two headings – ‘What I think
about koalas’ and ‘What I wonder about koalas’.
2 Ensure students understand the meaning of the term ‘adaptation’.
Discuss the connection between the koala’s physical features and
behaviours with its ability to live in its habitat.
3 Show students the lotus diagram on BLM 1. Discuss the meaning of
each subheading. Ask students to share one or two facts they know that
explain how each physical feature or behaviour enables the koala to live
in its habitat. Model writing facts that link the physical feature or behaviour
with its survival technique, e.g. Koalas have sharp claws to help them
climb trees. Koalas have thick fur to keep them warm.
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
3
Koala
Going further
1 Have students record facts to complete the lotus diagram on
BLM 1. Remind students to gather information from the text and
photographs.
2 Students share and compare their lotus diagrams with a partner.
Have them cross-check their information to ensure they have all the
information they need.
3 Ask students to consider how the koala’s survival might be affected
if it were forced to live in a different habitat, e.g. Ask, What if
a eucalyptus forest is cut down? What if a koala’s claws were
damaged when crossing a road to find suitable trees to live in?
4 In pairs, students write facts from their lotus diagrams for four
subheadings each on pieces of paper in the shape of gum leaves to
create a fact mobile about koala adaptations.
Assessment
Assess students’ ability to locate and record relevant information and
to make links between the koala’s adaptations and its survival in its
habitat.
Learning
experience 2
Koalas are marsupials, and changes occur throughout the life of
the koala as it reproduces and grows.
Resources
• Pages 4–25 of Koala
• BLM 2
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Researching factual texts
Reading and interpreting information
Recording facts
Creating texts
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Organising
Interpreting and analysing information
Applying knowledge
Sequencing
Activity
1 Ask students to explain stages in the life cycles of other animals
that they may know. Ask, What changes occur to the mother and/or
baby during the process? Why is the reproduction and growth of an
animal called a life cycle?
2 Ensure students understand the meaning of the term ‘marsupial’.
Ask, What other animals are marsupials?
3 List the key dates for stages in the koala’s reproduction and growth
as referred to in the text. (See BLM 2) Ask students to predict what
happens at each date using their prior knowledge or recollections
from the text. Record students’ ideas. Ask, How does a joey change
as it grows?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
4
Koala
Going further
1 Divide the class into pairs. Distribute BLM 2. Explain to students that
they are to work in pairs to research the main stages in the
reproduction and growth of the koala to create a cyclic timeline.
Have them use other resources, such as books,
information posters and websites as recommended by
Library Place at Pearson Places. Explain to students
that different resources may have different dates, as
dates are somewhat ‘approximate’. Have students suggest why
this may be the case and what strategies they can use to overcome
this issue.
2 Have students cut and paste their completed information boxes into
a circular shape to represent the cyclic nature of the reproductive
and growth process. Have students add diagrams to accompany
their writing.
Assessment
Display students’ cyclic timelines. Assess the accuracy of students’
information. Consider which timelines communicate the information
clearly, and why. Discuss the research process and strategies that
made researching easier, e.g. looking for key words or phrases,
locating information in time sequence, using indexes.
Learning
experience 3
Although koalas are not an endangered species, they will
disappear in some areas if their health and habitat are not protected.
Resources
• Pages 26–29 of Koala
• BLM 3
Language and
literacy skills focus
•
•
•
•
Thinking skills
focus
• Making connections
• Applying knowledge
• Thinking creatively
Activity
1 Ask students if they have seen road signs warning of koalas in the
area. Ask, Why do you think these signs are beside the road? Read
pages 26–29 of the text. Ask students to draw on their understanding
of the text to offer reasons why koalas and their habitat need to be
protected.
Comprehending
Interpreting and analysing information
Creating texts
Expressing and describing ideas
2 Record students’ ideas. Ask, How can people help to look after
koalas and their habitat to ensure they do not become endangered?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
5
Koala
Going further
1 Tell students that in Australia, September is Save the Koala month.
Have students suggest ways they can tell people that koalas and
their habitat need to be cared for and protected. Tell students
that they are to create posters to inform people about the koala’s
shrinking habitats and other threats to its survival and to persuade
them to care about koalas and their habitats.
2 Discuss slogans that could be used in their posters, e.g. Koalas
do not live in our backyard, we live in theirs. Healthy koalas need
healthy habitats. Koalas need their forests more than we need their
trees. Our eucalypt forests are our koalas’ homes. Watch for koalas
crossing the road.
3 Discuss the features of an effective poster, e.g. clear writing and
lettering; colours that attract attention and stand out; a catchy,
precise slogan; clear diagrams or illustrations. Have students use
BLM 3 to plan their poster. Have them create a large version of their
poster and then display the posters around the school.
Assessment
Assess students’ ability to understand and be sympathetic to the plight
of the koala. Assess their ability to produce a clear and effective poster
using key elements as identified. Reflecting
Look back at students’ statements and questions on the ‘Things I think about koalas’ and ‘Things I
wonder about koalas’ chart. (See Learning Experience 1)
How effective was this text in confirming your thoughts and knowledge about koalas?
How effective was this text in answering your ‘wonderings’ about koalas?
What might you ‘think’ to yourself about koalas the next time you see one in a zoo, a sanctuary or
the wild?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
6
Koala
BLM 1
Name ______________________________________________________________
Dark fur
Rump
Jumping from
tree to tree
Digestive system
Claws
Koala adaptations
Thumbs and paws
Sleeping and resting
Pouch
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
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Koala
BLM 2
Name ______________________________________________________________
Complete the sentence starter in each box about the life cycle of the koala.
The first one has been done for you. Now, cut out the squares and paste
them onto another sheet to create a cyclic timeline about the life cycle of a
koala. Draw pictures to add information to your life cycle.
When the joey is born, _________
✁
✁
September is the start of the
breeding season. Koalas mate from
the age of two or three. Thirty-five
days after mating, a female koala
gives birth to a joey.
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
At 22 weeks, __________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
At 27 weeks, __________________
At 36 weeks, __________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
At 48 weeks, __________________
When the joey is one year old,
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
✁
______________________________
✁
______________________________
✁
______________________________
✁
______________________________
✁
______________________________
✁
For the first few months, ________
88
Koala
BLM 3
Name ______________________________________________________________
Design a poster that tells people about koalas and persuades them to care
about koalas and their habitat. Tick each key poster feature as you include it
in your poster.
Memorable slogan
❏
Clear, neatly written slogan
Eye-catching illustrations or diagrams
Effective use of colour
❏
❏
Interesting layout
❏
❏
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
99
Little Penguin
Introduction
Little Penguin looks at the life cycle of the little penguin and provides information about its habitat,
diet and predators. The text also explains how little penguins are adapted to survive in their
environment and describes threats to their survival.
Australian Curriculum links
This text links with the Australian Curriculum in Biological Science in Years 1 to 3.
Understandings
• The little penguin is a flightless bird, and the only penguin that breeds in Australia.
• Little penguins have adaptations that enable them to live and survive in their habitat.
• Changes occur throughout the life of the little penguin as it reproduces and grows.
Vocabulary
bray, breeds, brood, courtship, egg tooth, incubate, krill, moult, predator, preen, propel, regurgitate,
rookery, streamlined, trill
Focusing
Discussion questions
Have students complete these questions orally to focus on the text.
Literal:
• Describe a day in the life of a little penguin. (Little penguins set off from their nests on the
beach, swim in the water, eat fish and return to the rookery at dusk.)
• Describe a rookery. (A rookery is a group of nests in the dunes and rocks where penguins live
in pairs in burrows with their chicks.)
• How many mating partners does a little penguin have in its life? (One)
• What does a father penguin do to look after the little penguin chick? (The father helps to build
the burrow, helps to incubate the egg, brings back food for the chick.)
• What does the mother little penguin do to look after the chick (The mother lays the eggs, helps
to build the burrow, helps to incubate the egg, brings back food for the chick.)
• Why do little penguins moult? (They lose their soft downy feathers and grow thick waterproof
feathers so that they can survive in the sea.)
• How does a little penguin eat its food? (The parent keeps the food it has eaten in a chamber in
its throat and then regurgitates the food for the little penguin to eat.)
• How old is the chick when it can live on its own? (Ten weeks old when its adult feathers are fully
grown)
• What threats are there to the health and survival of the little penguin? (Predators such as foxes,
dogs, snakes, seals, sharks; oil from oil spills; plastic rubbish in the water; lack of food)
Inferential:
• Why are little penguins classed as birds?
• Why does a little penguin need waterproof feathers?
• Why do little penguins make noises and move around?
• Why is looking after a little penguin chick a ‘team effort’?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4037 8
10
Little Penguin
• What dangers might the parent penguins face as they walk to and from the sea?
• Why is it important to keep our oceans and waterways free from rubbish?
Evaluative:
• In what ways does a little penguin family resemble a human family?
In what ways is a little penguin’s family different from the families of other animals; for example,
a kangaroo joey’s family?
Engaging
Learning
experience 4
The little penguin is a flightless bird, and the only penguin that
breeds in Australia.
Resources
• Pages 4–29 of Little Penguin
• BLM 4
• Examples of FAQ pages from websites, books, posters and
information brochures
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Comprehending
Locating and interpreting relevant information
Recording facts
Expressing and developing ideas
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Drawing on prior knowledge
Analysing
Interpreting
Applying knowledge
Activity
1 Ask students to share their experiences of seeing little penguins
at aquariums or sanctuaries. Write the words ‘little penguin’ on a
chart as the answer to possible questions. Have students suggest
questions about penguins to which the answer is ‘little penguin’, to
assist them in recalling facts from the text, e.g. Q: What bird cannot
fly and lives in the sea? A: Little penguin Q: What bird regurgitates
its food to feed its young? A: Little penguin. Record students’
questions. Discuss reasons why the ability to ask questions is an
important part of research.
2 Explain to students that many books, websites or information
sheets provided by tourist places that feature animals (such as the
Phillip Island Nature Park) have FAQ pages to give information in
a precise, brief manner. Show some examples.
3 Distribute BLM 4. Explain to students that they are to work in pairs
to research and record answers to at least six of the FAQs. Students
record the questions and their answers on another sheet.
Going further
Have students check and edit their answers. Have them decide on a
way to present their FAQ research, e.g. as a tourist information panel,
in a brochure, as a mock-up webpage, or as an excerpt that could have
been included in the book Little Penguin.
Assessment
Assess students’ ability to formulate questions. Assess their ability
to locate, select and record relevant information to answer literal
questions. Assess the elements of the presentations of their FAQ page.
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4037 8
11
Koala
Learning
experience 5
Little penguins have adaptaions that enable them to live and
survive in their habitat.
Resources
• Pages 4–25 of Little Penguin
• BLM 5
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Researching factual texts
Reading and interpreting information
Recording facts
Summarising
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Interpreting
Analysing
Comprehending
Describing
Activity
Ask, What two types of habitat do little penguins live in? Look at the
map on page 29 of the text, showing where little penguins live. Ask,
What temperature would the water be in the areas where little penguins
swim? Display a large picture or poster of a little penguin. Ask, What
features do little penguins have that enable them to swim in their ocean
habitat (adaptations)?
Record students’ answers on sticky notes and place sticky notes
around the picture as labels. Model writing sentences that link the body
feature with its purpose, e.g. The little penguin has flippers so that it can
propel itself throught the water as it swims.
Going further
Distribute BLM 5. Remind students to use all the space in the shape
to draw a little penguin. Have them use books, posters and charts as
factual reference to copy from when drawing. Have them label the parts
as listed and then write sentences explaining how each physical feature
enables the little penguin to survive.
Assessment
Assess the accuracy and clarity of students’ information. Assess their
ability to link the animal’s adaptation with its survival in its habitat.
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
12
Little Penguin
Learning
experience 6
Changes occur throughout the life of the little penguin as it
reproduces and grows.
Resources
• Pages 4–29 of Little Penguin
• BLM 6
• A family photograph album as an example of a visual record of
growth and change
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Comprehending
Interpreting and analysing information
Creating texts
Expressing and describing ideas
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Making connections
Applying knowledge
Thinking creatively
Creating
Activity
Ask students if they have a family photograph album or collection of
photographs from the day they were born. Show an example. Ask,
What changes can you see when you look at the photographs? Talk
with students about changes to their personal growth and development
from birth until the present day. Ask, What did your parents do to look
after you when you were first born? How has that changed? What can
you do for yourself now? How has that changed?
Going further
1 Reread pages 8–15 and 24–26 of the text. Discuss the various ways
little penguin parents care for the chick and how the chick changes
as it grows. Ask, How does the little penguin change in appearance?
2 Distribute BLM 6. Explain to students that they are to create a little
penguin family album, drawing images to show how the little penguin
changes from pre-hatching to adulthood. Have them complete the
sentence starters using factual texts and photographs.
Assessment
Assess students’ ability to locate, interpret and analyse factual
information and record relevant facts. Assess their ability to interpret
factual information visually.
Reflecting
What are some of the fascinating facts you recall about little penguins?
Why do you think animals, including humans, have different life cycles?
Why do you think there are differences in the way ‘animal’ parents look after their young?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4037 8
13
Little Penguin
BLM 4
Name ______________________________________________________________
Choose at least six questions to answer on another sheet.
When you have checked your answers, work with a partner to design a FAQ
poster that includes your FAQs and answers. You can add diagrams, maps
or drawings to add information.
• Where do little penguins live in Australia?
• Why do adult little penguins go into the sea during the day?
• What do adult little penguins eat?
• What do little penguin chicks eat?
• How tall is a little penguin?
• What noises do little penguins make and why?
• How many partners does a little penguin usually have during its life?
• How many eggs does a female little penguin usually lay?
• How long does it take for a little penguin egg to hatch?
• What does the father little penguin do to help look after its chick?
• Why do little penguin chicks moult?
• How old is a little penguin when it is left to survive on its own?
• Why do little penguins move in a large group when they come out of the water at night?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4037 8
14
14
Little Penguin
BLM 5
Name ______________________________________________________________
1 In the shape below, draw a large diagram of a little penguin. Label its
flippers, webbed feet, streamlined body, white belly and thick waterproof
feathers.
2 Write a sentence to describe each of the following physical features
and explain how the little penguin uses these features to help it survive.
Flippers:
____________________________________________________________________
Webbed feet:
____________________________________________________________________
Streamlined body:
____________________________________________________________________
White belly:
____________________________________________________________________
Thick waterproof feathers:
____________________________________________________________________
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4037 8
15
15
Little Penguin
BLM 6
Name ______________________________________________________________
Draw a picture for each stage of the little penguin’s life, and complete the
sentences.
Here I am before I was born.
Here I am on the day I was born.
I was inside ______________________
I got out of the egg by _____________
__________________________________________________________________
My parents _______________________
My parents_______________________
__________________________________________________________________
Here I am at feeding time. Here I am at 3 weeks old.
My parents _______________________
Now I can ________________________
__________________________________________________________________
It looks like I am moulting. Now I am 10 weeks old and I am an adult.
That means ______________________
Now I can ________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
My parents _______________________
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4037 8
16
16
Redback Spider
Introduction
Redback Spider looks at the life cycle of the redback spider and provides information about its
habitat, diet and predators. The text also explains how redback spiders are adapted to survive in
their environment and describes threats to their survival.
Australian Curriculum links
This text links with the Australian Curriculum in Biological Science at Years 1 to 3.
Understandings
• There are physical and behavioural differences and similarities between male and female
redback spiders.
• Changes occur throughout the life of the redback spider as it reproduces and grows.
• Redback spiders have physical and behavioural adaptations and live in places that meet
their needs.
Vocabulary
abdomen, antivenom, brood, clutch, fang, fertilise, hatchling, invertebrate, predator, scavenging,
sperm, spiderling, spinnerets, venom
Focusing
Discussion questions
Have students complete these questions orally to focus on the text.
Literal:
• Where do redbacks live? (Across Australia in dark, dry places such as outdoor toilets, sheds,
wood stacks and under dry fallen leaves)
• What predators do redback spiders have? (Other redback spiders, wasp grubs, other spiders
such as white-tailed spiders, birds, insects such as praying mantises)
• Why do female redbacks build a web? (To trap their prey and store their egg sacs)
• What are egg sacs? (White or yellow balls of silk thread that hold the eggs)
• What usually happens to a male spider during the reproductive process? (The female kills
and eats him.)
• How do spiderlings leave the web and travel to a new home? (They make their way to a high
point, the breeze pulls a thread of silk from their abdomens, they drift into the air until the thread
catches onto an object, they land wherever the wind takes them.)
• Why are redback spiders cannibals? (Because sometimes they eat each other – the female may
eat the male, the mother may eat the spiderlings or the spiderlings may eat other spiderlings.)
• Are redbacks dangerous to humans? (Yes. People can get bitten when they accidentally put
their fingers into a web. They need an antivenom to prevent illness or death.) Inferential:
• Do redback spider parents care for their offspring?
• In what different ways does the redback spider use the silk thread it produces?
• Why do you think redback spiders can lay so many eggs so frequently?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4034 7
17
Redback Spider
• What differences are there between male and female redback spiders?
• Should people be frightened of redback spiders? Why or why not?
Evaluative:
• What is the most interesting aspect of the redback spider’s life cycle?
• Would you prefer to be a male or female redback spider? Why?
• What should you do if you see a redback spider?
• What should you do if you get bitten by a redback spider?
Engaging
Learning
experience 7
There are physical and behavioural differences and similarities
between male and female redback spiders.
Resources
• Pages 4–29 of Redback Spider
• BLM 7
• Cards with facts from the text describing similarities and differences
between male and female redback spiders
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Comprehending
Locating and interpreting relevant information
Recording facts
Comparing and contrasting
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Organising
Interpreting
Analysing
Making decisions
Activity
1 Talk with students about the physical appearance and behaviour of
the female and male redback spider. Lay the fact cards on the floor.
Have students organise the facts into three piles – same, male only,
female only. Have them justify their reasons for the placement of
the cards.
2 Ask students to suggest other similarities and differences between
male and female redback spiders. Ask them specific questions
about the similarities and differences between male and female
redback spiders to assist them in recalling facts from the book,
e.g. Which redback spiders live in dark, dry places? Which redback
spider makes an egg sac? Which redback spider makes a web?
Which redback spider scavenges scraps of food? Which redback
spider lives for only six or seven months? Which redback spider is
found across Australia? Which redback spider eats its ‘mate’ during
reproduction?
Going further
1 Distribute BLM 7. Explain to students that they are to work in pairs
to create a Venn diagram about the similarities and differences
between male and female redback spiders.
2 Pairs of students share their Venn diagrams with the class, justifying
their placement of each fact on their diagram.
Assessment
Assess students’ ability to compare and contrast the physical features and
behaviours of male and female redback spiders and to justify their decisions.
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4034 7
18
Redback Spider
Learning
experience 8
Changes occur throughout the life of the redback spider as it
reproduces and grows.
Resources
• Pages 10–25 of Redback Spider
• BLM 8
• A3 paper for each student
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Researching factual texts
Reading and interpreting information
Sequencing
Explaining information
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Remembering
Understanding
Analysing
Organising
Activity
Reread pages 10–25 of Redback Spider. Draw a large circle on a
whiteboard. Ask students to recall key stages in the life cycle of the
redback spider. Write the facts suggested by students onto sticky notes
and have them place the sticky note on the circle line to indicate the
stage of the cycle they are describing. Demonstrate skimming the text
of the book to check that the information is correct. Ask, Would you
describe the redback spider as living as a ‘family’? Do the parents care
for their offspring? Why or why not?
Going further
1 Distribute BLM 8. Ask students to read the fact boxes and then place
them in sequence on an A3 sheet of paper to create a cyclic timeline
of the redback spider’s life. Have students create an interesting
heading and add diagrams where appropriate, e.g. an image of
a male and female redback spider, an image of the spiderlings
ballooning, an image of the egg sac in the web.
2 Have students read and present their cyclic timeline as an ‘expert’
about the life cycle of the redback spider to another group who
have not been reading about redback spiders. Have them answer
questions from the group.
Assessment
Assess the ability of students to read and sequence facts to create a
cyclic timeline about the redback spider. Assess their ability to interpret
the information and explain the process to an audience.
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4034 7
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Redback Spider
Learning
experience 9
Redback spiders have physical and behavioural adaptations and
live in places that meet their needs.
Resources
• Pages 4–29 of Redback Spider
• BLM 9
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Comprehending
Interpreting and analysing information
Writing facts to support a statement
Explaining
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Remembering
Applying knowledge
Making decisions
Justifying
Activity
Play a true or false quiz about redback spiders. Say a series of true or
false statements about redback spiders to pairs of students. The first to
identify whether the statement is true or false and justifies their answer
scores a point. For example, say, ‘All redback spiders have a stripe on
their back.’ The first to answer ‘False’ (because only adult females have
a red stripe on their back) scores a point. The first to 5 points wins.
Going further
Distribute BLM 9. Ask students to circle if they agree or disagree with
each statement and then to complete the written response with factual
evidence. Have them answer the ‘Reflecting on my learning’ question
based on their understanding about the topic.
Assessment
Assess students’ ability to make and justify a decision based on factual
evidence.
Reflecting
On page 4 the author writes, ‘This is probably the main reason why most people would rather run
away from a redback than want to learn about its very interesting life cycle.’ Why do you think the
author makes this comment?
What do you think is interesting about the life cycle of the redback spider?
What similarities are there between the life cycle of the redback spider and the koala or little
penguin? What are the main differences?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4034 7
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Redback Spider
BLM 7
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4034 7
different
different
Female redback spiders
same
Male redback spiders
Name ______________________________________________________________
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Redback Spider
BLM 8
Name ______________________________________________________________
Cut out these fact boxes and paste them in order in a circle on a large sheet
of paper to create a redback spider cyclic timeline. Write an interesting
heading and draw a picture of a female and a male redback spider in the
centre of the cycle.
✁
The spiderlings land when their
thread catches on something.
Some land in places where they
will die, such as in water. Others
land in places where they can
shelter.
✁
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4034 7
✁
The female redback makes egg
sacs to hold the eggs. The sacs
are held on the web with silk.
✁
The female lays between 40 and
300 eggs in each egg sac. She
fertilises the eggs with the sperm
stored in her body.
✁
The spiderlings hide from
predators and build their own
webs.
After 14 days, the eggs hatch.
Spiderlings break through the egg
sacs and swarm over the web.
✁
The spiderlings release a thread
of silk from their abdomen. When
the thread is long enough, the
spiderling drifts in the wind.
✁
The male redback spider delivers
a parcel of sperm to the female
redback. She stores the sperm in
her body. The female usually kills
and then eats the male.
✁
When they are strong enough,
the spiderlings make their way
to a high point such as the tip of
a blade of grass.
22
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Redback Spider
BLM 9
Name ______________________________________________________________
1 Agree or disagree with each statement.
All redback spiders have a red stripe on their back.
I agree/disagree because_____________________________________________.
Redback spiders can be found around the backyard.
I agree/disagree because_____________________________________________.
People need to be careful if they see a redback spider.
I agree/disagree because_____________________________________________.
Redback spiders can kill and eat prey larger than themselves.
I agree/disagree because_____________________________________________.
Redback spiders live in families.
I agree/disagree because _____________________________________________.
Make and female redback spiders spin webs.
I agree/disagree because_____________________________________________.
Young redback spiders look the same as their parents.
I agree/disagree because _____________________________________________.
It would be better to be a female redback spider than a male redback spider.
I agree/disagree because _____________________________________________.
2 Answer this question to reflect on your learning:
I think that I have learned a lot of new information about redback spiders.
I agree/disagree because _____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________.
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4034 7
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Red Kangaroo
Introduction
Red Kangaroo looks at the life cycle of the red kangaroo and provides information about its
habitat, diet and predators. The text also explains how red kangaroos are adapted to survive in
their environment and describes threats to their survival.
Australian Curriculum links
This text links with the Australian Curriculum in Biological Science at Years 1 to 3.
Understandings
• Assessing prior knowledge and formulating questions about a topic are important research
strategies. (Complete BLM 10 before reading the text.)
• Interpreting technical vocabulary is important when researching animals such as the red
kangaroo.
• There are similarities and differences between the life cycles of marsupials such as the red
kangaroo and the koala.
Vocabulary
antibodies, cloaca, dominant, embryo, foraging, gestation, instinctively, joey, mammal, marsupial,
mate, mob, placenta, prey, secluded, suckle, weaned
Focusing
Discussion questions
Before sharing and discussing the text, complete Learning Experience 10 and BLM 10.
Have students complete these questions orally to focus on the text.
Literal:
• Why do the young of marsupials need to live in a pouch? (They are born at an early stage of
development and need to continue growing in the mother’s pouch.)
• Where do red kangaroos live? (Across Australia’s arid/dry desert zone)
• What is the length of time that a female red kangaroo is pregnant? (33 days)
• How does the joey reach its mother’s pouch? (It climbs instinctively through the mother’s fur.)
• What do joeys do when they are out of the pouch? (They get used to jumping on their hind
legs.)
• When does the joey leave the safety of its mother? (When it is old enough to have young
of its own)
• What are some predators of the red kangaroo? (Dingoes)
Inferential:
• How does a red kangaroo’s body help it to move?
• What role does the mother play in raising the joey?
• What role does the father play in raising the joey?
• What other animals do you know whose father plays no part in raising the young?
Evaluative:
• In what ways does the reproductive and growth cycle of a red kangaroo resemble the human
reproductive and growth cycle?
• What would happen to a joey if its mother was killed by a dingo?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4035 4
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Red Kangaroo
Engaging
Learning
experience 10
Assessing prior knowledge and formulating questions about a
topic are important research strategies.
Resources
• BLM 10
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Recording prior knowledge and ideas
Generating statements
Formulating questions
Sharing information
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
•
Drawing on existing knowledge, experience or ideas
Communicating
Hypothesising
Decision making
Reaching consensus
Activity
1 Inform students that the animal they are going to find out about is the
red kangaroo. Divide the class into groups of three or four students.
Ask each group to discuss what they know about red kangaroos.
2 Distribute BLM 10. Explain to students that they are to complete
a Think, Wink and Decide chart about red kangaroos as a starting
point for research.
3 Ask students to work independently to do the following under each
the first two headings:
Think – things I now know – students write what they already know or
think about red kangaroos;
Wink – what I need to know – students write questions they have about
red kangaroos.
4 Have students rejoin their group and share their writing. Students
compare their questions and come up with a list of questions that
they all agree on and write these questions under the Decide
heading.
Going further
Each group shares their questions with the class. Record each group’s
questions on a class inquiry chart, leaving space for answers to be
written as information is gathered.
Assessment
Assess students’ ability to record information, express their ideas and
formulate questions. Monitor their ability to interpret factual information
and make connections between their initial inquiry and their research.
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4035 4
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Red Kangaroo
Learning
experience 11
Interpreting technical vocabulary is necessary when researching
animals such as the red kangaroo.
Resources
• Pages 4–25 of Red Kangaroo
• BLM 11
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Identifying technical vocabulary
Interpreting and explaining technical vocabulary
Using glossaries and other vocabulary sources
Writing definitions in context
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Interpreting texts
Applying information
Explaining
Paraphrasing
Activity
1 Scan the text to locate new or interesting technical vocabulary and
key words in the text. Ask, Which words did you know the meaning
of before reading the text? Which words are new?
2 Discuss strategies for decoding and interpreting technical
vocabulary. Ask, If you meet a new or less familiar word when
reading, what do can you do? Students might suggest: read on to
work out what the word means, use the glossary or a dictionary,
use another resource about the same topic such as a factual text,
internet website or scientific dictionary.
3 Provide students with BLM 11. Have them complete the activity,
drawing on information in the text, prior knowledge or other
resources.
Going further
1 Read students’ answers on BLM 11. Identify the strategies authors
use to communicate information about key words, e.g. providing an
immediate definition indicated by a sentence starter such as ‘This
means that …’; using a labelled photograph or diagram to explain
a word or concept; providing information later in the text or in
a glossary.
2 As an extension, have students use technical vocabulary from the
text to create a word bank, word search, class dictionary or word
mobile about words related to red kangaroos.
Assessment
Assess students’ ability to define and explain technical vocabulary in
the text. Consider whether or not they are able to use the definitions to
understand the text and communicate meanings to others.
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4035 4
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Red Kangaroo
Learning
experience 12
There are similarities and differences between the life cycles of
marsupials such as the red kangaroo and the koala.
Resources
•
•
•
•
Pages 12–27 of Red Kangaroo
Koala by Greg Pyers
BLM 12
A3 sheet of paper for each student
Language and
literacy skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Interpreting and analysing information
Comparing and contrasting
Creating texts
Expressing and describing ideas
Thinking skills
focus
•
•
•
•
Applying knowledge
Organising
Explaining
Making and justifying decisions
Activity
1 Recall the stages in the reproductive cycle of the red kangaroo.
Ensure that students understand that the joey lives only in the pouch
for 27 weeks as it has not developed enough to live safely outside.
2 Ask, What other Australian animals have a similar reproductive
cycle? (koalas) Ask specific questions about the similarities and
differences between red kangaroos and koalas to assist students
to recall facts from the book and their prior knowledge, e.g. Which
animal is a marsupial? (both) Which animal climbs onto its mother’s
back? (koala) Which animal eats grass when it is weaned from its
mother? (red kangaroo)
Going further
1 Distribute BLM 12. Explain to students that they are to work in pairs
to create a compare and contrast chart about the similarities and
differences between red kangaroos and koalas. Have them draw a
chart with three headings on an A3 sheet of paper: Red kangaroos,
Koalas, Both. Ask them to cut out the facts on BLM 12 and then to
paste them under the correct heading.
2 Have pairs of students share their charts with the class, justifying
their placement of each fact.
Assessment
Assess students’ ability to compare and contrast reproductive cycles of
the red kangaroo and the koala and to justify their decisions.
Reflecting
At the end of the unit, look back at students’ ‘Think, Wink and Decide’ sheets. Ask, What
prior knowledge was confirmed or rejected by your research? What new information did your
research lead to? How useful was this text and other resources in your research? Why do you
think it is important to consider prior knowledge and formulate questions prior to research?
What unanswered questions do you still have about red kangaroos? How might you find that
information?
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4035 4
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Red Kangaroo
BLM 10
Name ______________________________________________________________
Think
Wink
Decide
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4035 4
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28
Red Kangaroo
BLM 11
Name ______________________________________________________________
Red kangaroos live in the arid zones across Australia. This means that they
___________________________________________________________________ .
Red kangaroos are marsupials. This means that they ____________________
___________________________________________________________________ .
Red kangaroos live in mobs. This means that they _______________________
___________________________________________________________________ .
Red kangaroos spend most of their time foraging for food. This means
that they ___________________________________________________________ .
Female red kangaroos mate with the dominant male. This means that they
___________________________________________________________________ .
The gestation time of a female red kangaroo is usually 33 days. This means
that it _____________________________________________________________ .
When a pregnant red kangaroo is about to give birth, she finds a secluded
place. This means that she __________________________________________ .
Joeys climb instinctively into the mother’s pouch. This mean that they
___________________________________________________________________ .
The first milk that the joey drinks from its mother has antibodies in it.
This means that it ___________________________________________________ .
Joeys are weaned at about 34 weeks of age. This means that they ________
___________________________________________________________________ .
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4035 4
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29
Red Kangaroo
BLM 12
Name ______________________________________________________________
Use the statements to make a compare and contrast chart about the
similarities and differences between red kangaroos and koalas.
The joey is the size of a jelly
bean.
✁
✁ ✁
The young are born alive.
✁
Eats grass when it is out of the
The joey suckles milk from its
pouch.
mother in the pouch.
✁
joey.
✁
✁
The young continue to develop in
The joey leaves the pouch for
a pouch.
short periods of time at about
27 weeks old.
The father doesn’t care for the
✁ ✁
The mother mates with the
dominant male.
✁
The young eats pap as well as
drinks milk from its mother as it
The mother raises the young.
gets older.
✁
The joey leaves the pouch when it
They can produce young at any
is strong enough to survive on its
time
of
the
year.
own.
✁
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4035 4
✁ ✁
The joey stays with its mother
until it is one year old or when the
mother breeds again.
✁
The joey stays with its mother
until it can breed.
✁
The joey uses its sense of smell
to find the mother’s pouch.
✁
The joeys are hairless when they
are born.
The joey has strong legs to crawl
up into the pouch.
✁
✁ ✁
The young eats grass as well as
drinks milk from its mother as it
gets older.
They live in a group.
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Life Cycles of Autralian Animals
Reflecting on my learning
Why is it important to learn about the life cycles of animals?
Why do animals have different life cycles?
What are some of the main features and behaviours that animals use to ensure
their survival?
How do humans affect the reproduction and growth cycle of animals?
What were the two most interesting life cycles you learned about from this unit?
Have students complete BLM 13 to reflect on their learning and new understandings
about life cycles of Australian animals.
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
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Reflecting on
my learning
BLM 13
Name ______________________________________________________________
The animal I enjoyed reading about the most was _______________________ .
Draw it in the box.
Three interesting facts I learned about this animal and its life cycle are:
1 _______________________________________________________________
2 _______________________________________________________________
3 _______________________________________________________________
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
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Reflecting on
my learning
BLM 13
Name ______________________________________________________________
Choose four new key words about animals and life cycles that you learned
from reading these books. Explain what each word means with words
or diagrams.
1 ___________________________________________
2 ___________________________________________
3 ___________________________________________
4 ___________________________________________
If you met Greg Pyers, the author of these books, what two questions would
you ask him?
1 _______________________________________________________________
2 _______________________________________________________________
If you could choose another Australian animal that you would like to read
about in this series, what would you choose? Why? ______________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Copyright © Pearson Australia 2011 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) ISBN 978 1 4425 4033 0
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