Western Europe- High Middles Ages

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Western Europe- High Middles Ages
• Wars of Independences
• How were Americas’ wars of
independence similar and different in
their struggles and achievements?
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European
Settlements
and Indians,
1754
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• The Seven Years’ War
– The war began in 1754 as the British tried to
dislodge the French from western Pennsylvania.
– The war went against the British until 1757.
– In 1759, a French army was defeated near
Quebec.
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Map 4.4 Eastern North America after the Peace of
Paris, 1763
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• Stamp Act 1765
– Internal tax on all legal documents.
– Argument over virtual representation versus
direct representation
– British Govt. had not taxed colonies on internal
products in the past.
– Parliament did not have the right to tax the
colonies
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• Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
– anti-British propaganda
–Calls for independence
– Links independence with a sense of
religious mission
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July 4, 1776
Declaration of Independence
List of grievances against the
King of England
Treaty of Paris 1783
U.S. gains its independence
U.S. Constitution 1787
The Constitutional Convention
This painting of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 by an unknown artist
shows George Washington presiding. Because the convention met in
secrecy, the artist used his imagination to paint the scene.
Independence National Historical Park
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U.S. Constitution 1787
Argentina Constitution 1853, 1860, 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957
Brazil, seven constitutions, 1988
China, 1954, 1975, 1978, 1982
France 1791, 1958
Mexico 1824, 1835, 1917
Spain 1978
War of Independence in New Spain
• Influence
– Ideas of Enlightenment
• social contract (Rousseau)
– The state rules by the "consent of the governed"
– American Revolution 1776-1783
– French Revolution 1787-1799
– Haitian Revolution 1790-1804
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War of Independence in New Spain
• External Factors
– 1808 Spain invaded by French troops
– Napoleon’s sets his brother Joseph on Spanish throne
– Spanish King is in Cadiz
May 3, 1808
War of Independence in New Spain
• Internal Factors
– Criollo discontent
Padre
Miguel Hidalgo
Schaalkwijk/Art Resource, NY
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
1753-1811
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El Zorro
Criollo
Guanajuato
Educated in Jesuit college
Liberal priest
1808 family loses hacienda
Organizes literary club
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September 16, 1810
El Grito de Dolores
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NcdapVqpp8A
My children: a new dispensation comes to us
today. Will you receive it? Will you free
yourselves? Will you recover the lands stolen
three hundred years ago from your
forefathers by the hated Spaniards? We must
act at once… Will not you defend your
religion and your rights as true patriots? Long
live our Lady of Guadalupe! Death to bad
government! Death to the gachupines!
Insurgents
Spanish loyalist
• La virgen de los remedios
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Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
1753-1811
• Social Revolution
– End of caste system
• Almost no criollo support
• Oct. 30 retreats from
Mexico City
• July 31, 1811 executed in
Chihuahua, Chihuahua
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Jose Maria Morelos
1813 Sentimientos de la Nación ("Feelings of the Nation“)
• America is free and independent of Spain and all
other nations, governments, or monarchies.
• The Catholic faith is the sole religion, and no others
will be tolerated.
• Division of powers into appropriate executive,
legislative, and judicial branches.
• Jobs to be reserved for Americans only.
• An end to slavery and discrimination based on
castes.
• December 12 to be dedicated to the Virgin of
Guadalupe , and celebrated.
December 22, 1815
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1815-1821 War of Independence
• Felix Fernandez Oaxaca
• Vicente Guerrero Acapulco Francisco Javier Mina
• Agustin de Iturbide
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Plan de Iguala 1821
1. The Mexican nation is independent of the Spanish nation, and of every
other, even on its own Continent.
2. Its religion shall be the Catholic, which all its inhabitants profess.
3. They shall be all united, without any distinction between Americans and
Europeans.
8. His Majesty Ferdinand VII shall be invited to the throne of the empire, and
in case of his refusal, the Infantes Don Carlos and Don Francisco de Paula.
9. Should His Majesty Ferdinand VII and his august brothers decline the
invitation, the nation is at liberty to invite to the imperial throne any
member of reigning families whom it may select.
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Abrazo de Acatempa Feb.10 1821
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Treaty of Córdoba
• August 24, 1821
• Augstín de Iturbide
• the last royal viceroy Juan de O’ Donojú
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1st Emperor Agustín de Iturbide
• Generalísimo de Tierra y
Mar (120,000 pesos)
• Becomes emperor July 21,
1822
• U.S. minister Joel Poinsett
• Caudillo
– Dissolves legislative branch
• Sends troops to Central
America to crush rebellion

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