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File
1/30/2014
Pengenalan
kepada baikpulih
dan senggaraan
• Power supply unit (PSU), menukar voltan “AC” ke “DC”
• PSU mengeluarkan 3 jenis voltan
• 3.3v
• 5v
• 12v
• 3.3 dan 5 volts digunakan untuk circuit, 12 volts biasanya digunakan
untuk disk drives and fan
Mengenal pasti sumber bagi voltan arus terus (DC) dan voltan
arus ulang alik (AC)
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• Komponen luaran seperti monitor, mouse, keyboard dan etc.
• Komponen dalaman seperti motherboard, processor, memory dan
etc.
Menerangkan komponen asas bagi komputer peribadi dan
komputer riba
Inside Computer
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• The largest and most important circuit board
• Also known as the main board or system board
• Contains the CPU, expansion slots, other devices
• All devices communicate with CPU on motherboard
• A peripheral device links to motherboard via cable
• Some motherboard ports outside of the case: Keyboard, mouse,
parallel, USB ports, sound ports
The Motherboard
The Motherboard
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Common IO Ports
• What form factor does the motherboard use?
• What CPU socket does the motherboard support?
• What type of BIOS does the motherboard use?
• Does the board fit the case you plan to use?
• Avoid board with too many embedded components, such boards do
not easily accept add-on devices
Selecting a Motherboard
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• Form factor
• Specifies size, shape, features of a hardware device
• Form factor for motherboard is chosen first
• Same form factor is used for case and power supply
• Using the same form factor assures you that:
• The motherboard fits the case
• The powers supply cords provide proper voltage
• Holes in the motherboard align with holes in the case
• Holes in the case align with ports off the motherboard
• Wires on the case match connections on motherboard
Form Factor
Casing
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Expansion Slot
Motherboard Bridge
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•
Chipset, also called ROM BIOS chip
•
Contains,
• CMOS setup program
• Startup BIOS that manages the startup process
• System BIOS that manages basic I/O functions
•
Programs on BIOS may need upgrades. Flashing means to upgrade
or refresh ROM BIOS firmware
BIOS
• CMOS RAM
• Also called clock/nonvolatile RAM (RTC/NVRAM)
• Stores most configuration for the motherboard
• CMOS setup program
• Stored on ROM BIOS chip
• Access built-in program by pressing key during POST
• Menus: Main, Advanced, Power, Boot, and Exit
CMOS
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• Battery power to CMOS RAM
• Enables CMOS to hold data after
the PC is turned off
• Setup information is lost if
battery fails or disconnects
CMOS Battery
CMOS Setup Program
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• Reset BIOS from failed updates and clear cmos password
Jumper
PROCESSOR
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• CPU: chip that performs most data processing
• Chipset: group of microchips controlling data flow
• Major manufacturers of CPUs and chipsets for PCs eg. Intel, AMD,
VIA, SiS, and Cyrix
CPU & Chipset
Chipset
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• Connects the processor to the motherboard
• Motherboard type must match processor socket / slot
• Types of Sockets
• pin grid or land grid arrays
• Types of slots
• Packages fit into slots like expansion cards
• New processor packages use sockets, not slots
Processor Sockets / Slots
Pin Grid Array (PGA)
Land Grid Array (LGA)
Processor Sockets
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STORAGE DEVICE
• Primary Storage:
• Temporary storage used by application eg: RAM (Random Access
Memory)
• Secondary / Permanent Storage:
• Enables data to persist after the machine is turned off eg: hard
drive, CD, floppy disk
Storage Type
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• RAM (Random Access Memory):
• Device providing temporary storage
• Located on motherboard and on other circuit boards
• Volatile (data does not persist)
• Three types of RAM boards (memory modules):
• DIMM (Dual inline memory module)
• RIMM (Rambus inline memory module)
• SIMM (Single inline memory module)
RAM
RAM Type
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• Follow safety procedures when installing RAM eg: use a ground
bracelet as you work
Installing Memory
• Hard drive
• Case containing disks that rotate at high speeds
• An arm with a read/write head traverses the platter
• Hard drive / disk types:
• IDE
• ATA
• Serial ATA (SATA)
• SCSI
• Serial Attached SCSI (SAS)
• SSD
Secondary Storage
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SATA Hard Disk
SATA / IDE Devices
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•
•
•
•
•
Remove Hard drive
Identify Hard drive type, IDE or SATA
Check Jumper setting
Install Hard drive
Power-on and check CMOS setup
Practice:
PERIPHERALS
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• Interface between monitor and computer
• Also called graphics adapters
• Can be in-built unit or card unit
• Five ports for five methods of data transfer:
• RGB (red, green, blue) video using a VGA port
• DVI (Digital Visual Interface): used by LCD monitors
• Composite video: RGB mixed in the same signal
• S-Video (Super-Video): sends two signals over cable
• HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface)
Display
• Video cards currently use AGP or PCI Express
• AGP
• Major AGP releases: AGP 1.0, AGP 2.0, AGP 3.0
• PCI Express
• PCI Express x16 is twice as fast as AGP x8
• Graphics accelerator is a video card that has a processor
Display
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Fan on Graphics Processor (GPU)
Video Card / Adapter
Video Card Slot
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• Operations performed on sound:
• Basic: recording, storing, and replaying
• Advanced: editing and mixing
• Types of ports
• Output ports: used by speakers
• Input ports: used by microphone, CD player, others
• Can be in-built unit or card unit
Sound
Onboard
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Sound Card
• Jelaskan fungsi atau peranan peralatan bagi kerja-kerja baikpulih
komputer
Menentukan peralatan yang digunakan di dalam kerja
baikpulih dan senggaraan komputer
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Support Tools
Recovery CD
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Ground Bracelet
• Visual
• Bunyi
• Pengunaan perisian
Cara mengenal pasti masalah-masalah komputer
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• Teknik yang selalu digunakan ialah “process of elimination”
• Keluaran satu demi satu komponen komputer dan “power on”
untuk menghidupkan komputer
• Sekiranya komputer dapat dihidupkan selepas komponen
dikeluarkan, maka komponen tersebut bermasalah
Menerangkan teori yang sesuai untuk teknik baikpulih
berdasarkan masalah
• Backup sistem (sekiranya boleh)
• Semak manual
• Buat catitan untuk semua langkah yang diambil
• Ambil gambar sebelum membuka atau menangalkan komponen dan
wayar
Menyediakan perancangan bagi penyelesaian masalah
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Baikpulih dan
senggaraan
perkakasan
Komputer peribadi
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• Kelajuan CPU pada tahap yang lebih daripada yang sebenarnya,
biasanya ke satu atau dua tahap dari kelajuan CPU yang bertujuan
untuk meningkatkan kelajuan CPU tanpa memerlukan perbelanjaan
yang banyak.
• Berguna untuk menaikkan clock speed / meningkatkan kapasiti RAM,
video card untuk kelancaran/peningkatan kualiti komputer anda.
• Keburukan : dapat meyebabkan perkakasan menjadi sangat panas
dan boleh menyebabkan kerosakan
• Untuk langkah pencegahan, memberikan pendingin/cooler untuk
menghindari panas yang berlebihan.
Overclocking
• Perkakasan menjadi sangat panas dan boleh menyebabkan kerosakan
di sebabkan oleh tiada pengudaraan yang cukup, overclock, terlalu
banyak habuk
• Untuk langkah pencegahan:
• memberikan pendingin/cooler untuk menghindari panas yang
berlebihan
• Membersihkan habuk
• Tidak meletakkan komputer di tempat yang sempit
• Hindari meletakkan komputer di tempat yang mempunyai tahap
kepanasan yang tinggi
Kepanasan (Overheating)
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• Panas
• Sistem “crash” tanpa sebab
• Prestasi perisian yang lembab
Menjelaskan simptom berkaitan kepanasan sistem (excessive
heat)
• Bau bakar?
• Power supply yang terlampau panas akibat “stressed” menyebabkan
kebakaran komponen dalaman
Menerangkan simptom berkaitan bau (odor)
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• Bunyi kipas yang kuat
• Power supply “failing” atau tidak menyalurkan tenaga secara
consisten
• Peningkatan haba dalam komputer
• Kipas cpu atau casing rosak
• Hard disk “failing” atau mengalami kerosakkan
Menerangkan simptom berkaitan bunyi bising (noise)
• Selalunya perkaitan dengan “power”, pasti sumber kuasa berfungi
• Sekiranya komputer dapat dihudupkan, led indicator rosak
Menerangkan simptom berkaitan penunjuk lampu (Light
Indicator)
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• Kerosakkan dalaman komponen komputer, seperti chipset “short”,
hard disk “bad sector”, battery hilang kuasa, tarikh dan masa sistem
selalu lari dan etc.
• Jangka hayat komponen hampir luput
• Voltage spike
Menerangkan simptom berkaitan kerosakan yang tidak
kelihatan (non-visible damage)
• Gunakan “voltage meter” atau “tester” untuk memastikan voltage
“DC” dalam lingkungan yang sepatutnya
Mengesan dan baikpulih kerosakan bekalan kuasa
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• Selepas melalui “process of elimination” dan komputer masih tidak
dapat dihidupkan, tukar motherboard yang baru.
• Sekiranya motherboard yang rosak masih dalam “warranty”, semak
dengan pembekal
Mengesan dan baikpulih kerosakan papan induk
• Field replaceable units (FRUs) on old motherboards
• CPU, RAM, RAM cache, ROM BIOS, CMOS battery
• FRU components on newer motherboards:
• CPU, RAM, CMOS battery, and motherboard itself
• A good tactic: replace a bad device with a new one
• Caveat: check voltage from power supply first
• If voltage is excessive, new part may be damaged
Troubleshooting Motherboard
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• If CPU was added to working motherboard, check:
• Thermal paste between CPU and heat sink
• Fastening between cooler and motherboard frame
• Pins or lands on the socket and processor
• Things to check if new motherboard is not working:
• Whether the front cover of the case is installed
• Whether the power switch on back of the case is on
• Incorrect connections
• Installation of CPU, thermal compound, and cooler
• Installation of all motherboard drivers on the CD
Troubleshooting (continued)
Beep Code
Description
No Beeps
No Power, Loose Card, or Short.
1 Short Beep
Normal POST, computer is ok.
2 Short Beep
POST error, review screen for error code.
Continuous Beep
No Power, Loose Card, or Short.
Repeating Short Beep
No Power, Loose Card, or Short.
One Long and one Short Beep
Motherboard issue.
One Long and Two Short Beeps
Video (Mono/CGA Display Circuitry)
issue.
One Long and Three Short Beeps.
Video (EGA) Display Circuitry.
Three Long Beeps
Keyboard or Keyboard card error.
One Beep, Blank or Incorrect Display
Video Display Circuitry.
Troubleshooting (continued)
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Beep Code
Description
1 – 4 Beeps
Memory
6 Beeps
Keyboard
8 Beeps
Video Card
10 Beeps
CMOS
Troubleshooting (continued)
• Overview of the replacement process
• 1. Verify that you have selected the right motherboard
• 2. Determine the power configuration settings
• 3. Remove components to reach the old motherboard
• 4. Set any jumpers or switches on the motherboard
• 5. Install the processor and processor cooler
• 6. Install RAM into appropriate slots on motherboard
• 7. Install the motherboard
• 8. Attach cabling (case switches, power supply, drives)
• 9. Install the video card on the motherboard
Replacing (continued)
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• Overview of the replacement process (continued)
• 10. Plug in PC and then attach monitor and keyboard
• 11. Boot the system and enter CMOS setup
• 12. Make sure the settings are set to default
• 13. Observe POST and verify that no error occurs
• 14. Check for conflicts with system resources
• 15. Install the motherboard drives
• 16. Install any other expansion cards and drives
• 17. Verify the system is up and running
Replacing (continued)
• Isi semula “thermal paste”
• Pastikan kipas cpu berfungsi
• Pasti cpu rapat dan dikunci pada socket motherboard
Mengesan dan baikpulih pemproses
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• Gunakan aplikasi “memory tester”
• Sekiranya kesemua teknik “troubleshooting” gagal, tukar memory
baru
Mengesan dan baikpulih kerosakan memori
• Boot failure
• A system that hangs, freezes, or becomes unstable
• Intermittent application errors
• General Protection Fault (GPF) errors
Troubleshooting Memory
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• Periksa untuk “error” dengan mengunakan Windows , sekiranya
gagal, tukar yang baru.
• Semak dengan pembekal sekiranya “hard disk” masih dalam warranty
Mengesan dan baikpulih kerosakan media simpanan
• Does your system BIOS recognize large drives?
• Is auto detection correctly configured in CMOS setup?
• Are the jumpers on the drive set correctly?
• Are the power cord and data cable connected?
Hard Drive Problems
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• Pastikan kipas berfungsi dan tidak berbunyi kuat
• Pasti mengaliran udara yang baik
• Bersihkan habuk
• Isi semula cooling atau thermal paste
• Tukar heatsink
Mengesan dan baikpulih kerosakan sistem penyejukan
• Pastikan pin dalam keadaan elok
• Pastikan socket dalam keadaan baik
• Bersihkan habuk
• Pasti wayar dalam keadaan baik
Mengesan dan baikpulih kerosakan expansion card
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Komputer riba
• Mengenal bentuk rupa komponen komponen dalam komputer riba
• Tidak seperti “desktop”, komputer riba mengandungi banyak “screw”
dan komponen komponen yang kecil. Pastikan pengendalian dan
susunan yang sistematik
Komputer riba
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• There are several types of
small screws that are used
throughout the laptop.
• Place these in small envelopes
and write the component
name on the envelope.
• Be organized and keep track of
all the screws.
Planning
• The location of the battery is not the same for every laptop.
However, laptops consistently have a release latch for the process of
removal
Battery Removal
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• Laptop hard drives also have variations for removal. Compare the
HP dv2700 and the HP ze5300 below.
Hard Drive Removal
• The Memory Module compartment is usually located on the back of
the laptop
Memory Module Removal
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• The WLAN Module is consistently located on the back of the laptop.
(Wireless Local Area Network)
Wireless LAN Module
• To access many laptop components the keyboard must be removed.
Often, the switchboard, keyboard cover, and other components
must be removed to access the keyboard connections and screws
Switchboard and Keyboard Removal
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Switchboard and Keyboard Removal
• The CD/DVD Drive , also called the Optical Drive on some models,
has variations for removal as shown below. The HP ze5300 requires
the removal of the Switchboard Cover and Keyboard to access the
screws for removal
CD/DVD Drive removal
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• Removing the Display Assembly is one of the more intricate
procedures when working on a laptop.
• The HP dv2700 requires the removal of many components beginning
with the Wireless Antenna Cable located in the WLAN module
compartment and also a screw that secures the Display Assembly to
the computer
• The Keyboard and Switch cover also need to be removed
Display Removal
Display Removal
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Display Removal
• Pastikan adapter tidak mengalami kerosakkan atau tidak “kembung”
• Gunakan “tester”
Mengesan dan baikpulih kerosakan adapter
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• Pastikan screen tidak pecah atau calar
• Pastikan wayar dalam keadaan elok
• Sambungkan “vga out” dengan monitor untuk memastikan sama ada
paparan atau tidak
Mengesan dan baikpulih kerosakan panel skrin paparan
Pengenalan
Windows 8
Melakukan pemasangan OS:
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• What an operating system (OS) does:
• Manages hardware
• Runs applications
• Provides an interface for users
• Retrieves and manipulates files
• The OS can be analogized to a “middleman”
• A computer needs only one operating system
• Operating systems have evolved to a complex form
Operating Systems (OS)
• Sequence of events occurring after PC is turned on
• The operating system is loaded
• Running OS provides an interface (desktop)
• OS awaits an event, such as a double-click
• A user can initiate an event in several ways:
• Click a menu item
• Enter a command in Run dialog or command console
• Double-click an icon
Operating System
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• OS interacts and manages hardware using drivers or BIOS
• Software falls into three categories:
• Device drivers or the BIOS
• Operating system
• Application software
Operating System
Operating System
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Files & Folders
• The format of how files & folders are kept and managed on storage
devices
• File systems used by Windows for hard drives:
• File Allocation Table (FAT)
• New Technology File System (NTFS)
• Other File Systems
• Ext (Used in Linux OS)
• ReiserFS (Used in Linux OS)
• HPFS (Used in HP Unix OS)
• CDFS (File System for CD)
File System
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• The OS installs and runs all other PC software
• Application is a software that provides services for users
• Applications rely on the OS for support operations, eg: MS word
relies on OS to manage memory
• Applications are typically tailored to a single OS. Ensure that OS is
suitable for a given application
• 64bit OS can run both 32bit and 64bit applications
• 32bit OS can only run 32bit applications
Application
• Installing Windows 8 via USB
Practice:
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Baikpulih dan
senggaraan
perisian
Melakukan baikpulih bagi:
• Cuba “cancel” document di print dialog
• Sekiranya gagal, restart print spooler service
Print spool stalled
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• Dapatkan driver terkini, bersesuaian untuk OS yang digunakan dari
laman pengilang printer
Incorrect/incompatible driver/form printing
• Faktor – faktor yang menyebabkan
• Virus
• Kerosakkan atau korupsi file operating system
• Jangka masa “evaluation” sudah tamat
Auto-restart errors
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• Disebabkan oleh kerosakkan hardware, terutamanya memory (RAM)
Bluescreen error
• Sistem “Hang” atau “not responding”
• Faktor-Faktor yang menyebabkan,
• Kelembaban aplikasi
• Aplikasi error
• “Bug”
• Virus atau “malware”
• “Hardware” yang lembab atau yang bermasalah, terutamanya
memory, processor dan hard disk
System lock-up
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• Versi driver yang salah
• Versi driver yang tidak sesuai untuk versi OS
• Korupsi
• Virus
• Kerosakan pada hardware
• Pastikan tidak kerosakkan hardware dan reinstall driver terkini untuk
versi OS yang digunakan
Kegagalan driver perkakasan
• Security – run as administrator
• Compatibility
• Sumber hardware seperti memory
atau processor kehausan
Kegagalan untuk memulakan aplikasi
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• Kerosakan pada active partition
• Korupsi atau kehilangan boot file
• Virus
• Boot priority yang salah di cmos setup
• Gunakan Windows recovery dan laksanakan “automatic repair” atau
kebalikan keadaan system dengan system restore
Invalid boot disk
• Rujuk “invalid boot disk”
inaccessible boot drive
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• Tidak berkaitan dengan Windows 8, NTLDR adalah “boot loader”
yang bertangungjawab untuk memulakan Windows XP atau variasi
Windows NT
• Gunakan Windows XP recovery cd dan lancarkan command “fixboot”
Missing NTLDR
• Error semasa startup
• Hang secara tiba tiba
• Applikasi tertutup dengan mesej “has stopped working”
• Prestasi lembab
Mengesan kerosakan berkaitan perisian sistem
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• Rujuk “perisian sistem”
Mengesan kerosakan berkaitan perisian aplikasi
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
tukar direktori (cd)
create direktori (md)
delete file (del)
list kandungan (dir)
Penggunaan wildcard seperti * dan ?
Penggunaan output redirector ( > )
list semua process yang berjalan ( tasklist )
lupuskan process ( taskkill /pid N – dimana N ialah nombor process
dari “tasklist”)
Menyenaraikan jenis-jenis arahan Command Prompt
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Penyelenggaraan
pencegahan
(preventive
maintenance)
• Rujuk “support tools”
Menggunakan peralatan yang sesuai bagi pemeriksaan fizikal
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• Pastikan tiada retakkan, wayar tercabut, pin dalam keadaan baik,
screw komponen ketat dan etc.
Melaksanakan pemeriksaan fizikal ke atas computer
• Rujuk “Checklist”
Menggunakan peralatan yang sesuai bagi proses
penyelenggaraan pencegahan
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Task
Check for updates with Windows Update
Schedule
Automatically
Create System Restore
Once a month
Check all hard drives for errors
Once a week
Run Disk Cleanup Wizard
Once a week
Scan and optimize all hard drives
Once a month
Manually scan for viruses
Once a month
Back up your hard drives
Once a month (at minimum)
Check for latest video and sound card drivers
Once a month
Check Device Manager for hardware problems Once a month
Maintenance Checklist
•
•
•
•
Scan disk
Check Disk
Defrag
Disk Cleanup
Melaksanakan proses penyelenggaraan pencegahan ke atas
computer
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• Berfungsi untuk menghapus file-file yang sudah tidak digunakan lagi.
Contoh file di dalam recycle bin, fail sementara (temporary file),
setup log file
• Command prompt: cleanmgr
Melaksanakan proses disk cleanup
• Menjaga kestabilan komputer dan keadaan hardisk kerana
defragmenter mampu mengelakkan / membetulkan boot sector
dalam hardisk ataupun error program untuk menjaga perkakasan
• Menyusun fail dengan lebih teratur bagi pencarian cepat
• Menyusun fail yang bertaburan/berselerak
• Command prompt: defrag
Melaksanakan proses defrag
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• Dapat membetulkan kerosakan fail seperti fail bersilang atau fragmen
fail hilang
• Memeriksa cakera keras
Melaksanakan proses scandisk
• Memeriksa bad sector dan bad file pada hard disk
• Memperbaiki kesalahan (error) pada sistem di hardisk.
• Command prompt: chkdsk
Melaksanakan proses check disk
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• Meningkatkan sekuriti sistem operasi untuk menangkis seranganserangan virus yang baru mahupun yang lama
• Mengemaskini driver atau perisian kepada versi yang terkini
Melaksanakan pengemaskinian driver
• Terdapat 3 cara,
1. download file bios (.BIO) dan aktifkan “flash update” semasa
POST
2.
download file bios (.ZIP), gunakan “bootable” usb untuk boot
sistem dan lancarkan setup
3.
download file bios (.EXE), and lancarkan setup di windows. Setup
akan pasang, reboot, flash (update bios) dan kembalikan
windows
Melaksanakan pengemaskinian firmware
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• Rujuk “pengemaskinian driver”
Melaksanakan pengemaskinian OS
• Rujuk “pengemaskinian driver”
• Tukar pasword
• Update perisian anti-virus
Melaksanakan pengemaskinian security
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• HwInfo
• http://www.hwinfo.com/
• Microsoft Security Essentials
• http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/security-essentials-download
• Kaspersky virus Removal Tools
• http://www.kaspersky.com/antivirus-removal-tool?form=1
Mengenalpasti dan menggunakan perisian freeware
Penyelenggaraan
Pencetak
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• Cartridge
• Paper tray
• Power supply
• USB cable
• Installation CD
Menerangkan komponen asas pencetak
• Cartridge
• Mengandungi ink atau toner
• Paper tray
• Memuatkan kertas
• Power supply
• USB cable
• Menyambungkan pencetak ke komputer
• Installation CD
• program maintenance dan memantau paras ink
Menerangkan fungsi asas komponen
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• Printout pudar, tak jelas, kotor
• Berbunyi semacam semasa pencetakkan
Mengesan kerosakan
• Lancarkan “clean ink” dan “clean printer”
• Pastikan bahagian dalaman bersih dan tidak ada cebisan kertas atau
habuk
• Tukar cartridge
• Semak dengan syarikat pengeluar
Melakukan baikpulih pada pencetak
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