October 18, 2011



October 18, 2011
VOL. 17 NO. 3 | OCT OBE R 18, 2 011
this, and therefore I didn’t need to. I also
to be honest, thought I might hear from
the Elections Committee which I never
It was not until September 29th, 2011,
a full 16 days after his first email, that
Seigel received more significant feedback. In an email from Heffern, it was
noted that “we have passed your concerns on to the Election Committee,
and conversations about election reform
have already begun for next year.” In
that email, Seigel was given the option to
formally challenge the election results.
An option Seigel exercised the following day, after a series of email communications with Heffern and the Elections
Committee Chair, Fei Fei, an MPP ’12
candidate student.
A little over a week later, Seigel met
with Amy Davis, MPA program Director, Fei and the entire Elections Committee. “Fei Fei basically told me to start
that they had no idea this mistake could
have been made; thanked me for bringing it to their attention.” said Seigel. “The
committee had met and decided that
it would be disruptive to hold another
election and they had decided to move
on and fix it for next time.”
That evening, Seigel shared the events
that had taken place with some of his
classmates including Chandrika Lakshminarayan, a fellow MC/MPA ’12 candidate. A candidate for class representative in the election, Lakshminarayan
wrote an email the very next day on
Saturday October 8th, addressed to
Fei and student body President Sherry
Hakimi. In what would prove to be a
pivotal moment, Fei inadvertently sent
a response to the entire Kennedy School
student body, and the issue spilled out
into the public sphere.
The Elections Committee, as noted by
The 16 Missing Days
HKS Elections Ballot and the Elections
Committee Response
Khaleel Seecharan, Culture Editor,
MPP ‘13
Charles Seigel, an MC/MPA ’12 candidate student, noticed that the numbers for the Mid-Career class did not
add up on September 13th, 2011 when
the Kennedy School student election
results were announced. While there are
approximately 196 students in this year’s
Mid-Career cohort, the results indicated
212 votes were cast for the Mid-Career
class representatives; an overspill of 16
votes assuming of course, that every
single Mid- Career had cast a ballot.
Later that same day, Seigel decided
to contact Emma Heffern, Assistant
Director, MPA and Edward S. Mason
Programs in the MPA program office
who responded immediately and said
the matter would be looked into. Heffern then forwarded Charles’ email to
Melissa Wojciechowski, Director of Student Services, and the Elections Committee.
Said Seigel, “I assumed and had the
understanding that she was speaking
with the Elections Committee about
Continued on page 5
Liberian President and HKS Alumna
Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf Wins Nobel Peace Prize
Wangari Maathai, passed away just a
few days before the ceremony. The prize
comes at a pivotal moment for Sirleaf,
who faces a tough re-election campaign
this year against Winston Tubman (who
earned his JD from Harvard Law School
in 1966). The polls for the first round of
Liberia’s presidential election opened on
October 11th. If smooth, the election
could pave the way to billions of dollars in investment in Liberia’s mining,
energy and agriculture sectors. However,
if no candidate wins an outright majority, then the two front-runners will go
head-to head in a runoff election in early
Nicknamed the “Iron Lady” for her
determination and grit, Sirleaf holds
the distinct honor of being the first
and only elected female head of state in
Africa. Her rights-oriented campaign, in
tandem with the successful non-violent
protests organized by Gbowee’s Women
of Liberia Mass Action for Peace, signaled the end of an uncertain period
following 2003’s Second Liberian Civil
War, one of the most horrific and ruinous armed struggles the continent has
While Sirleaf has won domestic plaudits for reinforcing the country’s fragile
peace, promoting peace and reconciliation, negotiating the cancellation of
$5 billion dollars in national debt, and
winning international investment for
infrastructure projects, many Liberians
remain dismayed by their lagging economy and dismal job prospects. Others
complain that she has not done enough
By Dharana Rijal.
By Matt Bieber.
By Charles Seigel.
By Rosalia Gutierriez-Huete Miller.
Zachary Rosenfeld, Assistant News
Editor, MPP ‘13
On Friday October 7th, Liberian President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, MPA/Mason
Fellow ‘71, was awarded the Nobel Peace
Prize in recognition of her commitment
to non-violent struggle, peace building,
and women’s rights, both in her home
country and abroad. Sirleaf shared the
honor with two other women, non-violent protest organizer Leymah Gbowee
of Liberia and pro-democracy activist
Tawakul Karman of Yemen.
The women were awarded the prize
for their “non-violent struggle for the
safety of women and for women’s rights
to full participation in peace-building
work.” The honor takes on a special significance for them, as the first African
woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize,
Continued on page 3
Nobel Prize winner Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. Photo Courtesy of
Antonio Cruz/ABr via Wikimedia Commons.
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Become an Ambassador!
Dean’s Ambassadors Welcome Prospective Applicants
Ryoji Watanabe, News Writer, MC/
Why did you choose Harvard Kennedy
School? What do you plan to do after
you graduate? Do some students pursue
a Ph.D after they graduate? What is the
acceptance rate of HKS?
Surrounded by five prospective MidCareer MPA program applicants, Greg
Bellush, a Mid-Career MPA student, was
comfortably tackling all of these questions and more during the HKS Open
House, hosted by the Admission’s Office,
on September 26, 2011. Mr. Bellush is
an active member of a student-run HKS
organization, “Dean’s Ambassadors.” The
group, comprised of students from various HKS programs, supports the Admis-
sions Office’s recruitment drives by
interacting with hundreds of prospective
applicants annually and answering their
questions. The primary purpose of the
group is to provide prospective students
the opportunity to hear more about
HKS from a current student’s perspective. Dean’s Ambassadors tend to field
varying questions about classes, coursework, faculty accessibility, and student
organizations to their career goals.
Approximately 40 volunteers, all
wearing maroon Ambassador T-shirts,
participated at the first Open House and
interacted with prospective applicants
throughout the day. Some Ambassadors
greeted visitors in the morning while
others lunched with them, escorted
them to their class visits, or chatted with
them in the halls. After having spent the
day talking to various Dean’s Ambassadors, one prospective applicant told the
Citizen that she was very appreciative
of the in-depth knowledge she received
from shadowing current students
around the school and in their classes.
Thao Anh Tran, a second year MPP
student and a Co-Chair of the Dean’s
Ambassadors Program, stated, “Our first
Open House for this school year was
a great success, but we could not have
done it without the help and dedication
of all the Dean’s Ambassadors.”
It also seemed to have been a meaningful experience for the Ambassadors
who assisted that day. Mr. Bellush commented, “It was a great experience to
meet and talk with prospective students.
Looking back at last year when I was
applying to schools, the Dean’s Ambassadors were very helpful. This year, I
hope to help prospective students learn
more about HKS.”
The Admissions Office plans to hold
two more Open House events, one on
October 17 and another on November
21. If current students are interested in
helping prospective applicants to understand more about Kennedy School, the
Dean’s Ambassadors are welcoming new
volunteers to join their group. Ms. Tran
said, “I hope to encourage more current
students to join the Dean’s Ambassadors
and help us welcome prospective students – be it by corresponding or meeting with prospective students or serving
as volunteers at our next Open House.”
Ms. Tran is also confident of each
Ambassador’s significance to the future
of HKS and added, “All Dean’s Ambassadors represent the face of HKS to prospective students and are critical to the
success of the HKS recruiting process.”
Murder of Pakistani Governor Incites
Public Controversy over Blasphemy Law
Imran Sarwar, News Writer, MPP ‘13
On October 1st, Pakistan’s anti-terrorism court sentenced Malik Mumtaz
Qadri to death for his self-confessed
murderer of former governor of Punjab
province, Salman Taseer. The case has
become a political flashpoint for the
country, where fundamental clashes
between secular and religious ideologies
have seeped gradually into nearly every
facet of the public sphere.
The court’s decision has given rise to
mixed emotions from Pakistani citizens
– drawing praise from liberals happy
to see multiculturalism protected in
civil society, and condemnation from
religious extremists (including some
Muslim clerics) who see no crime in
Qadri’s actions. Already, there have
been protests against the decision and
death threats made against the judge
who delivered the verdict.
Taseer was gunned down earlier this
year, in early January, after expressing
open criticism of the country’s blas-
phemy law. The law, which was devised
to protect the sanctity of the Prophet
Muhammad in Pakistan’s public spaces,
has been regularly misused by religious
zealots for political gain. With little
effort, witch hunts can be drummed up
among the religious public and directed
against hapless victims on spurious
charges of violating the blasphemy law.
Human rights groups have noted, to
the surprise of few, that more often than
not these allegations are completely
fabricated and directed against the vulnerable members of Pakistan’s society.
Taseer’s last stand was against one such
blasphemy charge filed against Aasia
Bibi, a Christian woman from a village
near Lahore. Her trial brought forth
glaring inconsistencies and garnered
attention from human rights activists
and leading politicians around the globe.
It also called into question the legitimacy of blasphemy law, which scholars note is not actually a part of Muslim
Sharia Law. (It is instead a modern addition to Pakistan’s constitution.)
Taseer’s support of Aasia Bibi
and minority rights in general,
as well as his public criticism of
the blasphemy law, was reason
enough for Mumtaz Qadri, his
bodyguard, to murder him in
Islamabad outside a restaurant.
There appears to be a significant portion of the populace that
supports Qadri’s actions. Many lawyers
have volunteered to fight his case in the
anti-terrorism court, and Qadri’s many
public supporters continue to cast flowers onto him in his public appearances.
Qadri proudly pled guilty to murder in
court and continues to argue that he was
justified in his actions.
The incident has proven a severe
blow to Pakistan’s already weak liberal
minority, and pits it in direct political
opposition to the religious right. There
is now, for the first time, a genuine fear
amongst the liberal and secular community for their very safety. Many have
shied away from voicing their opinion
Governor Punjab Salman Taseer and Rana Muhammad Akram
Khan Punjab Bar Council.
on the case, lest they become targeted
as well. However, the public battle over
the legitimacy of Taseer’s opposition
to blasphemy law, the validity of these
laws themselves, the rights of religious
minorities, and the claims of Qadri justifying his actions, still ensues even with
his fate decided.
The Islamabad High Court accepted
the appeal of Mumtaz Qadri on October
13th, and the death sentence handed to
him by the anti-terrorism court has been
admitted for regular hearing.
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Irene Shih, MPP ‘13
News Editor
Shloka Nath, MPP ‘13
Assistant News Editor
Zachary Rosenfeld, MPP ‘13
News Writers
Adrian Arroyo, MPP ‘13
Matt Bieber, MPP ‘11
Dharana Rijal, MPP ‘13
Imran Sarwar, MPP ‘13
Khaleel Seecharan, MC/MPA ‘12
Ryoji Watanabe, MC/MPA ‘12
Opinions Editor
Alexi White, MPP ‘13
Assistant Opinions Editor
Carli Hetland, MPP ‘13
Culture Editor
Khaleel Seecharan, MC/MPA ‘12
Culture Writers
John DiGiovanni, MPP ‘13
Cristina Garmendia, MPP ‘13
Rosalia Gutierrez-Huete Miller, MC/
MPA ‘12
Alex Remington, MPP ‘13
Grace Chung, MPP ‘12
Business Manager
Mike Conway, MPP ‘13
Web Developers
Kristina Redgrave, MPP ‘13
Luis Capelo, MPP ‘13
Layout & Design
Janell Sims
[email protected]
Students rally in solidarity
with “Occupy Boston”
Dharana Rijal, News Writer, MPP ‘13
Hundreds of students marched from
Boston Common to Dewey Square on
Monday October 10th to show solidarity
with the “Occupy Boston” movement,
which has seen demonstrations against
a range of issues in the past few days —
including unemployment, economic
inequality, and the relationship between
government and financial institutions.
The movement in Boston, one of
several inspired by the “Occupy Wall
Street” movement in New York City, has
comprised of several daytime protests in
the financial district, and ongoing demonstrations by groups that have been
camping out in tents at Dewey Square
for more than a week. The demonstrations have gained immense traction
thanks in part to online resources made
available to supporters, which include a
calendar of events and a daily log documenting agendas and public discussions.
The variety in students’ motivations
for joining the rally on Monday matched
the plethora of causes represented.
“I think it’s ridiculous that 1% of the
country controls 42% of its wealth,” said
MPP student Ben Beachy when asked
about his motivations for joining the
student rally on Monday. Moreover,
compared to past efforts he has been a
part of, Beachy said he has found the
current movement to be different. “The
rapid proliferation of #Occupy movements over the last few days has shown
unprecedented momentum,” he said,
“This one has potential.”
“Nobel Peace Prize,” continued from page 1
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Please contact
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to fight corruption, which remains rampant in her administration.
Some commentators believe that the
Nobel Prize will prove to have been a
political boon for Sirleaf , tipping the
scales of domestic opinion in her favor.
Others are concerned that the award has
done more to harm Sirleaf ’s political
prospects than help. “To her opponents,
the timing of the announcement will
Occupy Boston. Photo Courtesy of Dharana Rijal.
Occupy Wall Street in NYC. Photo Courtesy of Dharana Rijal.
Another student activist Kaya JudaNelson said she was inspired by the
idea of “people coming together to
bring about change rather than sitting
around and talking about how it needs
to happen.” She said she decided to join
the rally to help ensure that “the government is working for the people rather
than for corporations.”
A recent college graduate, Eli, decided
to show up for a more personal reason.
“I did everything right; I got good
grades; did the right internships and
extra-curriculars in college,” he said,
“but I am having hell of a rough time
finding a job… today we are stepping up
and telling the corporations that they’re
disenfranchising people like us.”
A group of HKS students that were in
New York City over the long weekend
also attended the “Occupy Wall Street”
protest. MPP student Imran Sarwar said
he thought the movement would do
better with a more concrete direction
and set of agendas. “That being said,” he
continued, “the energy of the place is
simply amazing.”
In contrast, most activists at the student rally in Boston seemed to view
the plurality of causes voiced by different groups as a positive thing. Jason
Stephany of Massuniting.org, who was
there to advocate for the American Jobs
Act, saw a common thread between
his group’s cause and the students’. “It
all comes down to jobs and corporate
accountability,” he said.
Commenting on criticisms regarding the movement’s lack of centralized
leadership and direction, MPP student
Beachy said that he himself started out
skeptical. But now, “I think the motley
crew of causes makes sense for this
early point in the movement, as much
for the movement’s democratic ideals
as for its sheer size,” he said. “And yeah,
it’s messy,” he continued, “Democracy is
probably be seen as an attempt to influence the forthcoming elections,” writes
Mwangi S. Kimenyi, Director of the
Brookings Institution’s Africa Growth
Initiative. “It may turn out that the many
opposition candidates will see this as an
attempt by the international community
to promote Sirleaf ’s chances of re-election.”
Sirleaf ’s supporters maintain that
there is little that her rivals could have
done to improve the current situation.
Sirleaf ’s fellow Nobel laureate, Leymah
Gwobee, endorsed her re-election over
the weekend immediately following the
awards ceremony and preceding the
national elections.
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
with the
Tuesday, October 25, 12 p.m.
Taubman 275
“From Uprisings in the Arab World
to Social Unrest in London: The New
Media Ecology and Citizen/State
Dynamics in the 21st Century.”
ZEYNEP TUFEKCI, assistant professor at the School
of Information and Library Science (SILS) at the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She blogs at
Wednesday, October 26, 11:30 a.m.
Littauer 166
“The Commission on Presidential
Debates in 2012: Candidates,
Conversation & Caffeine.”
JANET BROWN, executive director,
Commission on Presidential Debates. Co-Sponsored
with the Institute of Politics.
Tuesday, November 1, 12 p.m.
Taubman 275
Thursday, November 3
7 p.m.
Starr Auditorium
Screening of Page One:
Inside The New York Times.
Followed by Q & A
with director
Moderated by
director, Shorenstein
“Out of Line: The Art of Editorial
DAN WASSERMAN, editorial
cartoonist, The Boston Globe.
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Legacy of an
An Epitaph to Steve Jobs
Shloka Nath, News Editor, MPP ‘13
In May this year, Malcom Gladwell
wrote a piece for the New Yorker on what
it means to innovate. He painted the
picture of a 24-year-old entrepreneur
named Steve Jobs who, in 1979, visited
the legendary headquarters of Xerox in
Silicon Valley, staffed at the time with
the world’s most brilliant computer scientists. It was where Steve Jobs would
first see a vision of the mouse. Struck
by his “Eureka” moment and rapidly
dreaming up the future of the humanto-computer interface, Jobs sped back
to his little start-up called Apple and the
rest, as they say, is history.
Malcolm Gladwell’s assessment of
those events so long ago creates an
important distinction in our understanding of Steve Jobs, the pioneering technology guru who contributed
so much to the evolution of consumer
“16 Missing Days,” continued from page 1
Fei in an email to the student body sent
on Tuesday October 11th, “decided too
much time had passed to challenge the
results this semester…The committee
decided to move forward as to not delay
student activities and KSSG’s work progress.” Fei’s communication went on to
state, “This issue was not brought before
the Elections Committee until last week
(though the individual who brought this
up has mentioned it to individuals(s)
outside the committee.” Seigel’s formal
challenge however, was issued on September 30th, almost two full weeks
before Fei’s communication to the student body. Further, The Citizen has in
its possession, email correspondence
with the MPA program office, which
indicates that the Elections Committee
was aware of the discrepancy before the
formal challenge as early as September
13th and did not take action as warranted. It should be noted that the Citizen reached out to Fei for comment and
Steve Jobs introduces the Macbook Air. Photo Courtesy of Matt
Yohe via Wikimedia Commons.
technology. Jobs’ real genius was to perceive this truth: the role of the innovator is not necessarily to find completely
new ideas, but to apply fresh approaches
to old ideas and make them new again.
And so it goes for Apple; few public
companies have been as intertwined
with their CEOs as Apple was with Jobs,
who co-founded the computer manufacturer in his parents’ Silicon Valley
garage in 1976, and over 20 years later
— in a comeback as magnificent as it
was declined.
Fei’s email also states that the technology used in the election process allowed
students to vote for class representatives
from other programs. This, despite early
disclaimers around the time of the elections that said the students who voted
for other classes would not have their
vote counted. According to the Elections
Committee, this problem has never
occurred before with this voting interface. Results from the Fall 2010 elections
that The Citizen obtained show that 159
votes were cast out of a class of approximately 180 students for the 2011 MidCareer cohort.
In an email to the Mid-Career cohort,
Class Representative and Staff Writer
for the Citizen, Ryoji Watanabe, noted
that the Mid-Career class representatives had requested the “establishment of
an independent body to investigate the
[election] matter and ensure that this is
not a problem again.” Elections Committee Chair Fei echoed this sentiment
seemed implausible — yanked it from
near-bankruptcy and turned it into the
most valuable technology company in
the world.
Jobs died on October 5th of respiratory
arrest caused by a pancreatic tumour,
according to the death certificate. He
resigned as Apple’s Chief Executive
Officer in August after struggling with
his illness for more than 6 years; he was
diagnosed in 2003 and underwent a
subsequent liver transplant. He leaves
behind the legacy of an enduring message: that technology is a tool to improve
the quality of human interaction and to
unleash creativity. From the Macintosh,
to the iPad, iPhone and iPod, Jobs has
advanced one industry after another,
from music to computers, to smartphones and even movies.
Life however, did not start out in
quite such a ruddy manner. In fact, Jobs’
career traces a mythic sweep that few
entrepreneurs in America can attest
to. He was adopted by a Californian
middle-class family and subsequently
dropped out of college only to become
one of the central figures in what was
termed the “computer revolution” before
the age of 30. Shortly thereafter he was
forcibly removed from the company
he created, and spent the next portion
of his life in industry exile, struggling
to restore his reputation as his fortune
dwindled. Still, Jobs’ banishment served
him well; a number of innovations were
born during this period and he developed a marked talent for showmanship
evident in later years when he turned
the release of every new gadget into a
cultural event.
Not everyone was enamored of Jobs.
Most critics are quick to point out his
disdain for the kind of philanthropy
that has burnished the reputations of his
wealthy peers, like Microsoft Chairman
Bill Gates. He had no record of charitable giving, believing that his company
was enough of a legacy. His employees
have described him as a “tyrant” in his
fanatical and demanding need for perfection, and his industry peers frowned
upon his public derision of competitors
as “bozos.”
In 2005, in a Stanford commencement
speech, Jobs touched on mortality and
its significance as a shield against complacency.
“Death is very likely the best invention of life,” he said in the speech. “All
pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure, these things just fall away in the
face of death, leaving only what is truly
Jobs is survived by his wife of 20 years
and his four children.
and “resolved to structure the technoland Emma Heffern’s response? In her
ogy such that this issue will not occur
last email to the student body, Fei connext semester.”
tends that “too much time had passed to
Diane Chang, KSSG Communications challenge the results this semester (byVP, sent an email to the entire student
laws only allow till the day after election
body on Thursday, October 13 announc- results are announced to bring up any
ing the creation of
challenges).” However,
an Elections Reform
election results were
Committee that
announced SeptemCommittee, this problem ber 13th, and Charles’s
will work to ensure
has never occurred before original email went out
we “have the right
mechanisms in place
with this voting interface. on the same day. Given
this very appropriate
to provide proper
timeframe, was it not
oversight and prevent the types of technical errors that we squarely within the Election Committee’s function – and duty – to act quickly
experienced this year.” With the spring
in directing Charles to make an official
semester only a few months away, the
Elections Committee will be under close challenge? Yet, 16 crucial days passed
before Charles was given any instruction
scrutiny to ensure that the next election
for further steps, and these same 16 days
process does not have any of the techni(according to the Elections Committee)
cal issues that plagued the fall voting.
removed the possibility of a revote. Yes,
The explanations made available to
too much time has passed – but why,
students nonetheless leave questions
unanswered. Specifically, what happened and on whose part?
in the 16 days between Charles’s email
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
An interview with U.S.
Ambassador Timothy Roemer
Timothy Roemer. Photo Courtesy of U.S. Department of State via
Wikimedia Commons.
Khaleel Seecharan, Culture Editor, MPP
Timothy Roemer, former U.S. Ambassador to India and member of the U.S.
House of Representatives, visited the
Harvard Kennedy School for the week
of 10/7. Between speaking events, he sat
down with the Citizen to answer a few
HC: What was the most challenging
part of your job as Ambassador?
TR: I remember my first meeting with
President Obama to do the job and serve
the people of the United States … He
said, “You know, Tim, there are over a
billion people [in India] and I want you
to shake hands with every one of them.”
He wasn’t being entirely facetious. He
wanted me to connect not only to the
prime minister and to the national security advisors and the ministers of Parliament, but also to the rickshaw drivers,
the farmers, and the scavengers and
the average people. We share common
values between our two great democracies, we have strategic interests, and we
want to bring these two countries even
closer together. That’s a big challenge
when you are reaching out to a billion
I knew I was having some success
when I was on a train and a 12 year old
young boy came up to me. I was reading
a paper… He said, “Are you the American ambassador?” I said, “Yes sir, I am.”
He said, “I want to be one of the billion
to shake your hand.” … So you know
you are making a difference, you are
making a little bit of a dent when that
message is getting through. But it’s more
complicated in diplomacy than reaching
out and touching people and shaking
their hand. We have connected our two
countries in historic ways now. The President calls it an indispensible partnership … We have moved India from the
25th largest trading partner to the 12th
largest trading partner for the United
States… We had President Obama spend
more time in India than in any other
country in his Presidency.
HC: What are the issues facing the
US-India relations today?
TR: One is certainly security and
counterterrorism issues. We are working
to help Indians to potentially increase
and improve their ability to stop and
deflect a terrorist attack like Mumbai in
2008. We are helping to give and invest
in strategic resources, in defense equipment, to better help them for regional
challenges. We are helping to improve
the relationship between the countries
on economic issues and improving the
narrative between the two countries.
… Both countries are concerned about
the number of people living in poverty in India. The President was very
clear about this when he went over to
India — how we [can] improve education between the two countries with the
Obama-Singh initiative.
HC: So, you have answered what the
US can do to help India. Now what can
India do to help the US?
TR: It needs to be a two-way street, no
doubt about it. [India] needs to do more.
Prime Minister Singh was opening up a
relationship as Finance Minister in the
1990s to provide a closer relationship on
the commercial front between the two
countries. We are hopeful that … the
people in India will continue to support
foreign directed investment opportunities into India that would improve and
expand retail and commercial sales and
trade between the two countries. This is
just not in the United States’ interests;
this is really in India’s interests to sustain
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Steering Committee, and will help translate what you learn on the
ground in Cambridge to the races of 2012.
Contact Aaron Gunderson at 617-4538075 or email [email protected] if
you are interested. Help re-elect the only
City Councillor you can talk to in class and
Volunteer Today!
Deadline to register to vote is
tomorrow Wednesday, October 19th.
Election Day is Tuesday, November 8th. Are you ready for
Continued on page 13
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
I’ve not changed in terms of my basic
utilitarian commitments. But I think
what I now see is that given the way the
world is and given the way people are, it
would really be inconsistent with those
utilitarian commitments to advocate a
policy, which in some theoretical sense
might be right but which was not going
to lead to the consequences that I want
children. About 8 million small chiland that are the best for everyone.
dren a year, according to UNICEF, die
So, if simply reiterating the idea that
because of avoidable poverty-related
it’s wrong to spend anything at all on
any luxury as long as there are people
And we could help them. We could
starving in the world, if that’s going to
save those lives. We could help to get
turn people off in the way you suggest,
people out of extreme poverty for
if that’s going to mean that people will
roughly the kind of money that it would
say, “Well, I’m not even
take to buy a really
going to think about this
expensive pair of
We could help to get
as a moral issue because
if I do, I might have to
people out of extreme
To the extent that
so drastically turn my
poverty for roughly the
people resist your
life around in the way
kind of money that it
arguments, I susthat I don’t want to,” if
pect that a lot of it
would take to buy a really that’s going to mean that
has to do with feelpeople don’t do anyexpensive pair of shoes.
ing daunted by – or
thing about it…
maybe even resentAnd if conversely, if
ful toward – their dramatic implicayou start to get people giving at a quite
tions. Rather than face some high
modest level, they begin to see that this
standard and fail, say, better to reject
is not too difficult and in fact this is
the standard altogether - a sort of prequite fulfilling and satisfying in many
emptive defense against being overways, they get something positive from
it and that might lead them to give
In this book, though, you take an
more…If the result of that is that you
interesting tack. You explicitly ask
get further towards solving the problem
people not to think in those terms: “I
of extreme poverty in the world, then
should say up front that I believe you
obviously that’s what a utilitarian view
should giving more than 5 percent,
implies you should be doing.
and that I hope you’ll ultimately move
I’m a student at the moment. I’ve got
in that direction. But that’s not easy
almost no income, and I’m racking up
to hear and not easy to do. I recogdebt - and interest on that debt - as I
nize that most people aren’t likely
go. In your view, does it make sense
to be moved merely by philosophifor me to give now and swallow the
cal argument to make drastic changes
interest charges later? Will that do
in the way they live, and further, that
more good than refraining from giving
one cannot make such drastic changes
until I’m on better financial footing?
overnight. The ultimate purpose of
this book is to reduce extreme poverty,
I think it probably does make sense to
not to make you feel guilty. So I’m
give now for the reason you mentioned,
going to advocate a standard that I’m
that there are a lot of problems that I feel
confident will do a lot of good. That
we may have a chance to get a hold of
means suggesting a level that will get
now and in the next 50 or 100 years, and
you started, and put you on a path
toward challenging yourself and work- they could just get worse if we don’t. So,
that’s one possibility.
ing toward doing more.”
One of these issues is if we educate
This feels more like a concession to
now who are currently not getpragmatism than I’ve seen from you
ting much education – particularly if we
before. Have you moved in a more
make sure that girls get an education –
pragmatic direction?
Ethics and Extreme Poverty:
An Interview with Philosopher Peter Singer
Well, the argument is based on a little
story that I often tell my students about
walking through a park, and there’s a
shallow ornamental pond. You know it’s
Peter Singer is perhaps the world’s most
not deep because you’ve seen kids playinfluential philosopher. He is the Ira W.
ing in it. At the moment, there’s nobody
DeCamp Professor of Bioethics at Princeplaying in it, but you see a very small
ton University.
child has fallen into it, and it’s too deep
At the outset of your recent book,
for a toddler to stand up, so this little
The Life You Can Save, you lay out
child appears to be drowning.
two goals: to challenge readers to
Of course, you look around and
think about their obligations to those
you say, “So, who’s looking out for this
trapped in extreme poverty, and to
baby? Where is the parent? Where’s the
convince readers to choose to give
babysitter?” But you can’t see anybody.
more of their income to help the poor.
It’s just you and the child.
What do you mean by extreme povSo, your first instinct is to rush down
into the water and save the child. Then,
imagine that the thought occurs to you,
Well, when I talk about extreme poverty, “Dear, I’m wearing my favorite shoes,
I use the definition that the World Bank
and they will take me a while to get off.
has, which is really based on people
The child might drown
having enough income
if I try to take them
to meet their basic
About 8 million small
off. Anyway, maybe I
needs for food, shelter,
shouldn’t worry about
and maybe to educate
the child. After all, I’m
to UNICEF, die because
their children, or some
not responsible for
very minimal, basic
of avoidable povertythis child. It’s not my
related causes. And we
child. I didn’t push the
The World Bank
child in the pond. And
has calculated that in
I don’t want to ruin
order to do that, you
my shoes. So, I’ll just
need to have the purforget I ever saw the
chasing power equivalent in your local
child and walk on.”
currency of US $1.25. So, we’re really
So, I ask students and other audiences
talking about people who have less than
what they would think about a person
what you can buy for $1.25 in the United who reasons that way and ignores that
States. It’s not what you would get for US drowning child. Everybody says that
$1.25 if you went to a bank in Mozamwould be wrong. That would be monbique or Mauritania. It’s what would
strous even. It would just be an awful
have the same purchasing power in
thing to do.
those local currencies as $1.25 has in the
So, I think people recognize that we
United States, and that’s what you have
have an obligation to rescue someone
to live on for a day. If you have less than
if their life is at stake, they’re innocent
that, the World Bank classifies you as
– it’s no fault of theirs – and the cost to
being extremely poor.
you is minimal – something like ruining
a nice pair of shoes.
As you lay out your case as to why we
Well, if you accept that, then I think
should feel obligated to give in order
is really the situation that we’re in
to relieve those conditions, you offer
with regard to those in extreme poverty
what you call “a remarkably simple
argument.” Walk us through that argu- in the world, because extreme poverty
does cause millions of people to lose
their lives prematurely, including small
Matt Bieber, News Features Writer,
MPP ‘11
Continued on page 8
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
“Peter Singer,” continued from page 7
we’ll give them control of their fertility
in a way that they don’t have otherwise,
and all of the evidence suggests that they
will have fewer children and we won’t
have the same or as bad a population
problem as we would have further down
the track. So, that’s definitely one reason
for giving now.
Another, though, is more personal.
It’s more character-driven, and that is, I
think it’s good for people to start reasonably young to get in the habit of giving. I
started giving when I was still a graduate student, and I think that was good
because it proved to me, at a time when
I guess I was still fairly malleable, that it
wasn’t a difficult thing to do. I think as
people get older, they find it harder to
change – not impossible, but harder.
So, I would say even if you’re not
giving very much, do give something on
a regular basis, and then you can gradually build up from there. That will be
easier than having to start from scratch
later on.
When I’m reading your work, I get the
impression that you imagine the highest form of moral development to be
the most selfless one - one in which we
are always ready to give of ourselves if
there is even a single person on earth
in need.
I’m not capable of that level of selflessness at this point. I get tired, or
depressed, or down, and sometimes
what I feel like I need more than anything is to go spend ten bucks and see a
movie. I know these are small things,
but I’m not sure I’m capable of giving
them up just yet. Well, I certainly wouldn’t have you be
hard on yourself because every now and
then you want to go and see a movie.
You know, I do the same. So, I think this
is the point that we were talking about
earlier, that if you try to set a standard so high, it’s going to have negative
consequences. I think you should apply
that to yourself as well. I’m not trying
to say to people, “You should feel guilty
every time you spend $10 on something
you don’t need because that could have
gone to Oxfam or some other organization that’s saving children in developing
I’m trying to say you ought to look at
how you’re living your life as a whole.
You ought to try to make some decisions
So, I do think that it’s good that govSo, I’m not really sure at what point it
about what I can do to make a differernments should give, because that’s a
starts to actually cease to have imporence as part of an overall life plan, and
way of making sure that everybody con- tant net benefits to continue to transfer
you ought to try to stick to that. When
tributes in accordance with their means, resources and income from people who
you say, “What can I do to make a difbecause it’s coming out of tax revenues.
are wealthy to people who are poorer.
ference?” I think you have to be realistic. But on the other hand, I think that there
You don’t have to say, “Well, I’m never
are probably limits to what governments You talk about six psychological obstacles that make us less likely to give.
going to go to a movie. I’m never going
can do that relate to the acceptability
How do we move past them?
to go to a cafe. I’m never going to go to
of that in the general public. I mean,
a restaurant. I’m always going to live as
governments can lead, and often should
They’re all different things, and there’s
cheaply as possible.”
lead, but they can only get so far ahead
no one strategy for moving past them
What you should
of where the
all. There are different ways of making a
do is set reasonable,
electorate is, at
...those governments that are
achievable goals, try
least in demodoing well are giving very little,
The first one suggests that we relate
to keep them, and
cratic governbetter to identifiable individuals and
then for the rest of
that we’re more likely to give if we know
is giving much less than that even.
the time say, “Well,
And that’s
the name or have seen the face of the
I made this deciwhy I think
person we’re giving to. Now, some aid
sion. I’m not going to agonize over it
that individual citizens can do more,
organizations respond to that by getting
every five minutes when I get tempted
because individual citizens can make
people to adopt particular children or
to spend a dollar here or there. I’m going their own choices about how much they
getting the children to write letters to
to live a normal life and when the time
want to give. If they want to give 5% or
the donors, which does seem to work in
comes to make my annual donation,
10%, or even 25% of their income, they
terms of getting the donors to continue
maybe I’ll think whether I’ll up it a bit.”
can. It wouldn’t be reasonable for a govgiving.
But, you know, just feeling bad with
ernment to give 25% of GNP to global
But it’s probably not the most effecyourself all the rest of the time is just
poverty, unless that’s what its citizens
tive form of aid. Some of those organigoing to be counterproductive.
really want them to do or in some way
zations have actually moved away to the
understand that that’s a good thing to
extent of, say, telling donors that, “Well,
Do you see distinctions between what
do. Certainly, we don’t have that degree
your donation isn’t really going to this
governments should spend and what
of understanding of the situation in any
particular child. It’s going to her village
private individuals should spend in the country at the moment.
and it will help her, along with others
name of poverty relief?
in her village.” And so, that’s something
What’s the end game for you?
Well, governments are giving tiny
you can do.
amounts to poverty relief. Even those
I’m also optimistic that in the future,
I think that it is really important to
governments that are giving the most,
the use of the internet will help to overrelieve extreme poverty because of the
come that gap. That once we get decent
like Sweden or Norway or Denmark
suffering and premature death that it
broadband internet in developing
or the Netherlands, are still giving less
countries, we’ll really be in closer conthan 1% of what people earn, so less
But once you get people above that
than $1 in every hundred that people
level, it becomes harder to say really how tact with people there. We’ll be able to
earn. The United States government is
much of a posimore directly
giving about 22 cents, I think—the last
tive benefit more
When you say, “What can I do to
or be able to see
time I looked—in every hundred dollars resources are to
make a difference?” I think you
people’s faces,
that we earn. So, I don’t think you could
them, how much
even in remote
say that because of what they’re giving,
happier that makes
have to be realistic. You don’t
villages, and
they’re in any way unable to fulfill their
them. I mean, we
we may then
responsibilities towards their own citiknow that there’s
to go to a movie. I’m never going develop a lot
zens. They’re clearly not.
a very steep curve
to go to a cafe...I’m always going more kind of
So even those governments that are
up when people are
bonds and reladoing well are giving very little, and
below the level of
to live as cheaply as possible.”
tionships where
the United States government is giving
extreme poverty, in
we really know
much less than that even. Moreover, it’s
terms of how much
a lot about people in other areas and in a
not all going to deal with people or help
it benefits them to give them higher
particular local community.
people in extreme poverty, because a lot
Others, it’s just going to be more eduof it is given for political reasons. Iraq
But the level at which it rises starts to
cation, more persuasion, I mean, the
and Afghanistan have been the biggest
slow. We start getting to a point where
sense of futility, for instance. It’s somerecipients of US aid for the last few years the transfer costs become more sigthing that people get because they think,
because of their geopolitical significance nificant. The disincentive effects on
“I can’t solve the problem, even if I give
in the wars we’re fighting there, not
people not working because they have
because they have the largest number of
other ways, because they’re being given
Continued on page 9
people in extreme poverty.
money – that also becomes relevant.
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Elections Apology
A Real HKS Case Study
Student government promises ‘reform
of the elections process’
Student to Elections Committee: ‘Own Up’
HKS’ student organizations. We are
currently accepting nominations for
On behalf of KSSG, we would like to
the VP of Internal Affairs position. The
recognize and extend an apology for the subcommittees of the Internal Affairs
errors in this year’s elections for MC/
Committee include Elections Reform,
MPA and MPA1 Class Representatives.
By-Laws Reform and Student OrganiThough the Elections Committee is an
zations Management. The VP of Interentirely independnal Affairs and
ent body and KSSG
his/her commithas no input in their We strongly encourage those
tee will also run
who are passionate about
work, we regret
and oversee the
the oversights that
January 2012
enacting change in the
contributed to any
elections, as the
elections process to join the
confusion over the
recent Elections
Elections Reform subcommittee. Committees’
last few days. It is,
however, KSSG’s
mandate has
job to improve the election process from ended.
year to year. We recognize that this is a
We strongly encourage those who
serious concern for some members of
are passionate about enacting change
the student body, and we assure you that in the elections process to join the
we are initiating reform of the elections
Elections Reform subcommittee. We
process. For the future, the Elections
have learned a lot during the elections
Committee will have the right mechaand want to move forward producnisms in place to provide proper overtively with your input and help. Please
sight and prevent the types of technical
contact us should you have questions
errors that we experienced this year.
about the VP of Internal Affairs posiIn addition, we would like to undertion, Internal Affairs Committee or the
score the importance of the KSSG VP
Elections Reform subcommittee.
of Internal Affairs. This VP and his/
Diane Chang is the KSSG VP of Comher Committee will be dedicated to
munications. She can be reached at KSSimproving the elections process, [email protected]
ing KSSG’s by-laws and strengthening
Diane Chang
“Peter Singer,” continued from page 7
every penny I’ve got. It’s just a drop in
the ocean.”
That’s just a bad way of thinking,
because you’re not thinking about, “I
could make a difference to a family and
maybe save their child’s life,” or maybe
make a difference to a village and help
them have clean drinking water, so that
women don’t have to walk two or three
hours a day carrying water.
So, we have to get people to see that
they should focus on specifics. And
maybe again, that what I was talking
about before, having particular relationships with particular communities,
could do that.
Do you think future generations will
look upon us with moral horror for
failing to deal with the poverty that
exists during our time?
Yes, I think future generations will find
it hard to understand that we could
know that people are dying because of
lack of basic healthcare or safe drinking water or adequate diet, and that
we could know that we have the ability
to change that, to help them, and yet
instead of doing anything about it, we
would spend our time living lives of
great luxury in other parts of the world.
tries where elections don’t even exist,
or are fought at the cost of people›s
I am the student who unintentionlives; others find their voice treated
ally set this ball rolling because of what
with contempt by their leaders, with
simply seemed to be a glaring error.
clearly manipulated “elections” conOn the day the election results were
ducted without a care for the true voice
announced, I forwarded the KSSG
of the people. We all understand that
email to the mid-career program directhe election of school class representators, inquiring if my recollection was
tives in this context is at worst a “temright that we had fewer than 212 stupest in a teapot” and not a critical issue
dents. In short, I was told that was
when compared to what our classmates,
correct and they were
their families and
looking into it. I figured
fellow citizens go
this would have either
through to exercise
...we should take any
been quickly noticed
their voice in their
and corrected by the
society. But for that
to run it properly and
elections committee, or
very reason, and as
react when that does not
at least they would do
a school of governsomething when it was
happen, even by accident. ment with students
brought to their attenfrom around the
tion. world studying
Hearing nothing,
about honesty and ethics and the proper
I eventually chose to file a challenge
conduct of civil society, we should take
after I calculated that even the miniany election seriously enough to run it
mum number of “over votes” could
properly and react when that does not
have changed the election result. When
happen, even by accident. And at the
the elections committee finally asked to very least, own up to errors and fix them
meet with me on October 7, I was told
quickly and publicly.
that the committee had already decided
that rerunning the election would be
too “disruptive” and they would simply
fix the problem in the next election.
Since this issue has become public, I
have heard from many other students
who are angry that they had never even
been informed there was an issue.
The effort to hide the problem and
not deal with it, thereby refusing to recognize that others might feel disenfranchised, has made the problem much
worse. If the elections committee would
just apologize and publicly acknowledge they made a mistake, that they
should have acted sooner, and show
what they’re doing to correct the problem next time, the issue might very well
Also, The Citizen will launch an all
go away. Many of us are more offended
new website in November! Stay
by the disregard a committee of our
tuned for content updates, media
fellow students has shown for the voters
and many more features to come!
in an election, regardless of its import,
then the problem in the election itself.
Some of our fellow students here at
the Kennedy School come from coun-
Charles Seigel, MC/MPA ‘12
Like us on Twitter
& Facebook!
Twitter: #HKSTheCitizen
Facebook: https://www.
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Bemoaning Bailouts
Our Future Depends on Reducing Debt and Rebuilding Confidence
Luca Robert Shuler, MC/MPA ‘12
I don’t believe in rewarding failure.
The moral hazard that the United
States established in 2008-2009 by
bailing out select companies will
haunt future policy makers when
the next financial crisis strikes. This
crisis could arrive sooner than people
expect, especially in light of the risk
posed by potential sovereign debt
defaults in the Eurozone. Whether
for a country or a company, bailouts set a terrible precedent by not
allowing creative destruction and/or
the rule of bankruptcy law to reign
I was then, and continue to be,
opposed to all bailouts despite the
warnings from the experts that economic havoc would result without
them. The recent bailouts in the
United States were so toxic because
they created a two-tiered corporate
structure: too big to fail or small
enough to sink. This is un-American
and sends the wrong message to the
market; those firms deemed too big
to fail operate in a protected class
that can play by different rules as they
have an implicit guarantee from their
tinue to plague our interconnected
The financial firms deemed too big
world. This time, the problem has
to fail in 2008 have grown even larger
metastasized and threatens the solvency
since. They pose more systematic risk
of countries, not just companies. And
now than before. However, this is only
for this plague the cure will not come
part of the risk faced by the world today. easily or painlessly.
For the last several decades, many countries have
buried themselves beneath
The recent bailouts in the United
debt that they cannot conStates were so toxic because they
ceivably repay. The intercreated a two-tiered corporate
est rates were low and the
hurdles to borrowing even
structure: too big to fail or small
lower: the great debt binge
enough to sink. This is un-American...
was ignited.
Like a trick candle that
refuses to extinguish, off-balance sheet
Let’s briefly examine the United
liabilities (hidden through gimmicks
States. In 2010, it was the world’s largsuch as Repo 105) and a dependence
est economy, and therefore the one that
on short-term financing – hallmarks of
would cause the most global damage if
what caused many companies to fail or
it received a significant shock. Yet, in
almost fail only a few years ago – conthe recent discussions regarding raising
marketable debt is only about five
years. The United States, in addition
to the projected new borrowings to
fund trillion dollar annual budget
deficits, needs to refinance trillions
of dollars of existing debt every year.
This works well when interest rates
remain low and credit remains available but it will not work if that environment changes. Just ask those firms
who in 2008 were heavily reliant on
commercial paper to fund their dayto-day operations.
How could our political leaders,
both Democrats and Republicans,
have led us down this path of bailouts
and indebtedness? What will happen
if the United States fails to meet its
The outlook is bleak, but there is
hope. Confidence must be restored.
Confidence in elected leaders worldwide. Confidence that lessons from
the 2008-2009 crisis have been
learned. President Obama must
credibly declare that the bailout era
is over, the United States government must improve transparency
by moving off-balance sheet liabilities onto its balance sheet, and the
Treasury Department should harness
the currently low yields on the 10
Kate Sheridan, Editorial Cartoonist, Harvard GSAS
and 30-year Treasury bonds and work
the debt ceiling from $14.3 trillion, few
towards increasing the average maturity
politicians or commentators referenced
date of government debt.
the $40 trillion plus in additional liabiliPolitical courage, long-term thinking,
ties (primarily comprised of promises to and common sense policies must reign
Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Secusupreme. The United States and many
rity) that the government
other countries
wrongly keeps off-balance
are on the road
sheet. Why does this obliga- The outlook is bleak, but
to fiscal ruin
tion not count against the
and must take
government’s debt ceiling?
action given
And what about the
the gravity
composition of the $14.7
of the situatrillion of on-balance sheet
tion that they
liabilities (Treasury debt obligations)?
have created for themselves. Failing to
According to a letter dated February 2,
act now will only delay the inevitable
2011, sent to Treasury Secretary Geithmoment of reckoning.
ner by the Treasury Borrowing Advisory
The world is watching. The time is
Committee of the Securities Industry
and Financial Markets Association, the
average maturity date for United States
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Battle hymn of a happiness optimizer
Rahul Daswani, Contributor, MPP’13
Over the last several weeks, many of us
(especially first year students) have been
struggling to find a balance between
maximizing happiness and maintaining
control over where we spend our time.
I have found five strategies extremely
helpful in maximizing my happiness on
a daily basis.
1. Gratitude: After all, we are at
Harvard. Every morning, I wake
up and marvel at the fact that I’m
actually here. Surprisingly, this isn’t
a joke. The fact that our ‘problems’
involve trying to figure out which
diplomat to go have a discussion
with, or which war veteran to sit
next to in class, is an existence most
people don’t even begin to imagine.
I’ve taken to plugging out of my iPod
and plugging in to the sounds, sights
and smells around me during my 15
min walk to campus. Try smiling at
every person you walk by on your
way to school for 5 minutes straight:
you might be surprised at the
reaction you get.
2. The 80/20 principle: For the nonconsultants among us, a common
rule we can apply to our daily life
(aka problem sets) is that we can get
80% of the solutions with 20% of the
effort (or time). One way to practice
this is to have self-imposed time
limits for assignments. For instance,
I have vowed never to spend more
than 3 hours a week on stats. If
there’s a part of a question I did not
get a chance to complete (or will
take too long), I’ll just read over the
solution set once its out, and spend
the rest of my time doing activities
I enjoy a little more than numbercrunching.
3. Burst the bubbles: So now that we are
all happier and have new-found time
on our hands, what kinds of things
could we do? Some of the things I
enjoy (outside of HKS and even the
Harvard community) are: Exploring
the social scene at other schools;
stopping by the GSD for beer and
BBQ once beer runs out at quorum
call; going to an HBS party on
Wednesday night; organizing a house
crawl. Better yet, I enjoy exploring
areas outside of Cambridge, such
as taking a day trip to Maine (best
lobster I’ve ever had); spending a
weekend at a Cape Cod beach; or
going on a date Thursday night at
Stella in Boston with someone stellar.
4. Cultivate mentors: In an environment
where so many people have spent
significant amounts of time living
and working in each of our ‘dream
jobs’, it would be foolish not to
learn from their experience. Take
advantage of formal as well as
informal opportunities to meet
people who you can bounce ideas off.
The Mid-Careers often share classes
with us kids, or are involved in the
same service projects. The ones I
have met have been nothing but
open and excited to provide guidance
an 8.5%
at our behest.
5. Take an annoying classmate to lunch:
Wait, what? Yes, I’m sure we all have
a small number of people who just
get on our nerves every time they
talk. Our instincts tell us to walk
away to pre-empt any chance of a
prelude to a conversation. Or is it
just me? In any case, one of the most
rewarding things I’ve done is sit
down for an extended conversation
(over lunch, in the courtyard, at
a house party) with one of those
people to understand more about
where they come from, and why they
think the way they do. Often, I’ve
found it allows me to refine my own
perspective on life, and think about
things in a way I hadn’t thought of
before. Not to mention, that person
becomes much more of a real friend
to me than just another ‘Facebook
These are some of the strategies I have
used to avoid death by problem sets,
keep my perspective and optimize my
happiness. If you have any other ideas or
strategies, I’d love to hear ‘em. See you at
the next party.
at th
e 2
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e t
yo tob 28
up Oc the
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Pi hec ug
c ro
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Killing our own
Steve Jobs
Remember the good
and the bad
Alexander Remington, Culture Writer,
MPP ‘13
When I was growing up, I loved Apple
and idolized Steve Jobs. To a large
extent, loving Steve Jobs means accepting his reality and denying all evidence
to the contrary. This is why journalists
often spoke of the “reality distortion
zone” that emanated from him. This is
why he was able to change the world,
eliminating extraneous wires, grey computer boxes, floppy drives, CD drives,
and the mouse. This is why he was able
to persuade other people to ignore reality and believe him.
“When I wasn’t sure what the word
charisma meant, I met Steve Jobs and
then I knew,” said computer scientist
Larry Teslow, who worked both at Xerox
PARC (the research center that invented
the graphical user interface, the mouse,
and ethernet) and at Apple.
Steve Jobs was one of the few true
geniuses of our time, a futurist who
changed the world about as often and
left his mark on his century about as
indelibly as Miles Davis. But because of
his greatness, his eulogies often minimized the man by conveniently forgetting the truth about his personality:
His stubbornness and self-involvement
enabled him to change the world with
righteous conviction, but it also enabled
him to treat people horribly. Remembering the man in full requires remembering the good with the bad. Because
so many others have offered paeans to
his genius, I will not recite his accomplishments. Instead, here follow a few
less-well-reported things.
When he and Apple co-founder Steve
Wozniak were both very young, Jobs
worked at Atari and was asked to design
a version of the game Breakout. Jobs was
never an engineer, and so he brought it
to Wozniak, his friend, who successfully
did it. He then told Wozniak that he
had received a $750 bonus and offered
to split it with him. Only years later, as
Wozniak wrote in his autobiography,
Steve Jobs, 1955-2011.
iWoz, did Wozniak find out that Jobs
had received a $5,000 bonus. Steve had
lied to his best friend to avoid paying
In Silicon Valley, Jobs became so
well-known as a holy terror to employees that the verb “Steve” was coined as a
synonym for “fire”, as in, “I got Steved,”
which generally meant that someone
got laid off while being yelled at.
While he was still the head of Apple
in the 1980s, the company began to
develop a computer called the Lisa,
which became a famous flop. Part of
the reason it was a flop was that Jobs
sided with the Macintosh development
team, flying a pirate flag and freely
raiding engineers from Lisa, effectively
sabotaging his own company’s product before it was even released. By the
time the Lisa emerged with an impossible $10,000 price tag, it was DOA, and
thousands had to be trucked by Apple
direct to a landfill.
It is hard to think of any other
entrepreneur or artist whose affect on
the world has been both as profound
or obvious as that of Steve Jobs. He
changed the world so frequently in the
past decade that it almost seemed as
if by accident. The iTunes music store
literally changed the way that Americans consume music, obviating both
the music publishing industry and the
P2P networks that had plagued them.
Apple didn’t create the MP3 player or
the smartphone or the tablet computer,
it just made them beautiful, expensive,
necessary, cool, and ubiquitous. Jobs
often talked about wanting to create
electronic devices whose use was as
obvious and transparent as a toaster.
The overwhelming success of Apple’s
devices is proof that he succeeded.
But he did not succeed without hurting many people along the way, intentionally or otherwise. We must remember him fully. Otherwise our history
will become hagiography, and his
memory will be betrayed.
Assassination reveals the growing
power of the security state
Adrian Arroyo, Opinions Columnist,
MPP ‘13
It’s a particularly American irony that,
awash in tricorn hats and “Don’t Tread
On Me” flags, we’ve placed the men
who fought the American Revolution ahead of their reasons for fighting it. The killing of Anwar al-Aulaqi,
a citizen of the United States with
operational ties to Al-Qaida, is a case
in point. The United States executed
a citizen using military force, without
indicting him for any crime, and did so
in a foreign country where we are not
at war.
Ten years after it began, the War on
Terror continues to shape our beliefs
about the boundaries of state power. In
this case, the thrill of serving a man his
just deserts obscures the real conflict
between the arbitrary exercise of power
embodied by “cause of death: hellfire
missiles” and constitutional protections
like due process of law.
Constitutional limits, born out of the
framers’ skepticism about concentrations of power, have made an uneasy
peace with the demands of the modern
world. Today we have a fourth branch
of government—the administrative
branch—that was not anticipated in
the Constitution. There, the limits are
hazier, accumulations of power harder
to dissolve, and lines of accountability more difficult to draw. With that in
mind, the growth of the national security state over the last ten years should
give us pause.
The death of al-Aulaqi is part and
parcel of that growth, documented
by Dana Priest and William M. Arkin
in the Washington Post investigative
series, “Top Secret America.” Three
thousand organizations spread over ten
thousand locations have lent the intelligence gathering process a powerful
bureaucratic inertia, which, combined
with secret budgets and Congress’s
reluctance to make use of its oversight
powers, should make us all a little nervous.
From an electoral perspective, it’s hard
to argue with the logic of supporting the
security industry. Legislators can burnish their national security bona fides
by granting intelligence budget requests
and luring contractors to their state or
district. As these organizations become
entrenched, they demand ever-larger
budget grants, and politicians focused
on re-election have little incentive to
pick a fight. Because the budgets are
not disclosed to the public, there is little
political risk to the candidate.
And the successes of the intelligence
community have been undeniable. The
deaths of bin Laden and al-Aulaqi have
degraded the operational capabilities of
a dangerous terrorist organization. What
should concern us is the day when Al
Qaida is no longer a significant threat to
the United States and the bureaucracy
built to combat it lingers on. It’s unreasonable to think the intelligence apparatus of the United States will voluntarily
downsize itself, and the lack of public
budgeting makes it almost impossible to
identify waste and zombie projects. In
the unlikely event that intelligence budgets were made public, the pitched battles
required to end Cold War era defense
projects like the F-22 Raptor should
temper our expectations for political
courage in this arena.
Writing in Federalist 26, Alexander
Hamilton argues that the sort of conspiracy necessary for the national security apparatus of the United States to
subvert the liberty of its citizens would
inevitably run afoul of the state legislatures and the integrity of national officeholders. But a conspiracy is hardly necessary; complacency is enough.
Adrian Arroyo is an MPP1 and hunts the
most dangerous game.
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
through with the entertainment business. Like
Al Franken or Arnold
Schwarzenegger, you have
to make a clean break
from that world to be taken seriously
and to be effective.
If the situation were right and if I honestly felt that I could be effective then I
would consider it – seriously!
Exploring Jimmy Tingle’s American Dream
Jimmy Tingle’s American Dream.
John DiGiovanni, Culture Writer, MPP
Earlier this month, Cambridge-born
comedian Jimmy Tingle brought his new
documentary, Jimmy Tingle’s American
Dream, to the Brattle Theater in Harvard Square. The unique event included
a screening of the 60-minute film, a
Q&A with Tingle and a live stand-up
performance featuring highlights from
Jimmy’s newest one man show, Jimmy
Tingle for President: The Funniest Campaign in History.
Fans that showed up to watch the film
and Tingle’s first official performance at
the Brattle were not disappointed. In the
award-winning documentary, directed
by Vincent Straggas, Tingle takes audiences on a surprisingly thought-provoking and refreshingly humorous journey
into the rich and weathered heart of the
American Dream.
With its well-balanced recipe of Tingle’s signature stand-up comedy and
comical commentary peppered with
conversations from a grab bag of captivating personalities, including iconic
comedians such as Al Franken and
Lewis Black, social critics, street dwellers, and even Jimmy’s own mom (who
Tingle declares is funnier that himself – and he’s probably right), Tingle’s
American Dream never takes itself too
seriously, yet succeeds – under the calming guise of Tingle’s blue-collar Boston
charm - in encouraging us to aspire,
and to persevere in the face of inevitable
Tingle knows a thing or two about
starting from scratch. After enjoying a
long and successful entertainment career
which included stints on 60 Minutes
II and Late Night with Conan O’Brien,
Jimmy decided to give entrepreneurship
a shot. In 2002, the comedian founded
Jimmy Tingle’s Off Broadway Theater
in Somerville, where he served both as
performer and owner, coordinating over
200 productions ranging from comedy
to political events. Tingle admits that
closing the doors of the financially
strained club in 2007 was one of the
hardest decisions of his life. But that
wasn’t the end of his American Dream –
and that’s its beauty, explains Tingle. “It’s
about a second chance in life, a second
A few years back, Tingle decided to
take on another challenge: Harvard.
Jimmy went back to school, earned the
Mid-Career Master in Public Administration from the Kennedy School. In
2010, he found himself delivering the
graduate address to his peers at Harvard’s 2010 commencement ceremony.
As he closed his refreshingly funny ode
to all things Harvard (which he characterizes during his speech as “an excellent
place to steal bicycles”), Tingle, in a rare
moment of utter seriousness, offered a
hopeful farewell: “I believe very, very
strongly, that with the right amount of
physical, spiritual and intellectual help,
almost anything in this world is possible.”
And it’s that resilience - and that
humility - that define Jimmy Tingle’s
American Dream. Tingle had a vision
of weaving humor and politics into an
insightful film. It was challenging, it
was time-consuming (a mere seven year
project), and it was a new path, but he
was determined, and he saw his project
through. Reflecting on his accomplishment, Tingle is the first to admit that
making the film would not have been
possible were it not for the support of
his friends and family – those credited
both on screen and off.
“Jimmy Tingle’s American Dream,”
has been licensed to about 60 PBS affiliates, so be sure to catch it in the coming
months. If you’re looking for a wellcrafted, hilarious documentary that goes
above and beyond your typical political
satire, it’s well worth the watch.
Q: Was making this documentary part
of your American Dream?
JT: Absolutely. Making my own film
is something that I have always wanted
to try so I was very lucky when Director Vinnie Straggas asked me if I would
be interested in making one – or at least
trying to make one.
Q: You graduated from HKS in 2010.
What do you hope Kennedy students
will take away from your film?
JT: I hope it reflects the heartfelt
affection and gratitude that I have for
the opportunity to attend HKS. I really
loved it and was continuously inspired
and impressed by my fellow classmates
and professors. I hope the film inspires
others to follow their hearts, their heads,
and their passions.
Q: In your film, Bobcat Goldthwait
notes that the Declaration of Independence guarantees the right of “‘the pursuit of happiness,’ [but] it doesn’t say it
guarantees happiness.” How might you
interpret this?
JT: I think that he’s right – there is no
guarantee to happiness, but we do have
a right to follow our own principals, to
put into action our own values. If we
value teaching, we can teach. If we value
coaching football, we can coach football.
If we value parenting above all, then we
can be the best parents we can be.
Personally, I am happiest around my
family and friends offstage, while working on stage writing and performing
material that makes people laugh, think,
feel better, and maybe even inspires
them to make a difference. I think I am
happiest professionally when I am able
to use entertainment as a means to as
end, rather than just as end in itself.
Q: What’s next for y our career? Given
your obvious political know-how and
Master’s Degree from Harvard, would
you ever seriously consider a career in
JT: Yes, I would – but only after I was
“Timothy Roemer,” continued from page 6
their 9% growth, to have new investment to build out their infrastructure,
get some of this investment in finances
and equipment from the United States.
HC: Where do you see India in 20
TR: I am really excited about India —
not just their potential but their growth
and their beacon of hope to Asia and to
the world. On October 2nd, there was a
great celebration to celebrate Gandhi’s
life. Every major religion was invited
to … show and display their faith. It’s a
beautiful service where the diversity and
the tolerance and the multiple religions
all come to the forefront to show what
a wonderful country this is and how all
these religions can exist not only side by
side… but in a democracy where people
vote and respect different outcomes.
This is a great beacon of hope not only
for India but also for all of Asia and the
world to see these religions take place
in a great democracy. There are great
opportunities for India to work even
closer with the United States potentially
on more strategic geopolitical issues and
on a free trade agreement in the future.
I really, truly believe that this is a relationship that will help define peace and
prosperity and growth in the 21st century in the world.
HC: What do you see yourself doing
TR: I am very busy helping my children get elected to student council
positions and coaching their basketball
and their soccer and transporting them
around to their various extracurricular
activities. I’m busy with my kids. I am
doing some teaching and speaking and
some consulting now. Certainly, I will be
available to help the President in 2012
as I was in 2008. I will continue to be
engaged in the India relationship for a
long, long time to come on policy issues.
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
ground in JFK Park,
behind the Kennedy
School. The rules are
relatively simple, and
similar to football, as
there are ten-yard end
zones, and you score by
catching the disc in the
end zone. The only important difference:
you can’t run with the disc. Possession
automatically changes if the disc touches
the ground.
Students of all skill levels come out
and play, and Marlowe tries to balance beginners with experts. “We do
have a certain level of skill that a lot of
people come out with,” he says, which
has been intimidating for some newbies, while some veterans have decided
that the games may be a little too amateur. “We’ve sometimes tried to throw
together two games” to compensate, he
said, one for casual players and one for
serious players.
But seriousness is not really the point.
“It’s about relaxing. Being outside when
it’s fall or spring, getting soaked when it’s
raining, or sweating when it’s hot. And
having fun.”’
Ultimate Frisbee at HKS:
“I Suck At This and I’m Having Fun”
Alexander Remington, Sports Writer,
MPP ‘13
MPP2 Tim Marlowe is a man on a mission to get Kennedy School students to
relax. “I find that in the outlay of student
activities, there’s a lot of seriousness,
things I want to put on my resume.”
Marlowe told me. “Even when people
drink, they’re serious about drinking.
I think it’s good to have sports at this
school, because it’s good for people to
relate to each other as human beings,
not as students.” As head of the Ultimate
Frisbee club, Marlowe is serious about
having fun.
Ultimate Frisbee was invented in
1968, when future Hollywood megaproducer Joel Silver — the man behind Die
Hard, Lethal Weapon, Tales from the
Crypt, and the Matrix — was 16. Apparently, Silver started it as a high school
joke, but then he and his friends drew
up the rules, and that is pretty much the
sport we have today. (It was likely a variant of Frisbee Football, which, as Gerald
Griggs writes, has been around since at
least 1942.)
Ultimate was inaugurated at the Kennedy School two years ago by Graham
VanderZanden MPP ’11, more than
forty years later. Now, a policy school
might not be the first place you would
look to find a quintessential barefoot
game. But Marlowe likes it that way.
“I’ve pushed the theme of mediocrity this year,” he said. “I felt a little out
of place last year, and I felt a little out of
place at TFA [Teach for America], where
everyone is always striving for excellence…. There’s something incredibly
disarming about someone who says,
yeah, I suck at this and I’m having fun.”
There are a few other sports at the
Kennedy School, including a soccer
team, and a softball team that Marlowe
runs. But Marlowe is confident that
Ultimate is the most popular, attracting
around 20 students a week on Fridays
before Quorum Call, which inspired
Marlowe’s slogan for the team: “Play
mediocre frisbee, then drink mediocre
They play on a rectangular patch of
Tim Marlowe making Frisbee magic. Photo Courtesy of Alexander
/)00$1$%,$".* 2+).%0$**3
Arts and Leadership at HKS
Rosalia Gutierrez-Huete Miller, Culture
Writer, MC/MPA ‘12
“Culture and art are powerful vehicles
for social movement and change around
the world – effective for bridging ethnic
and religious divides, for developing
citizenship and social capital.” states
Michele Stanners*, co-founder of the
Arts and Leadership Initiative.
Michele attended an event in early
September, held in The Forum, and saw
the 4’ x 8’ paper mosaic mural created by
students in the Mid-Career/MPA Program. She tracked me down and wrote,
describing her reaction when she saw
the mural—she loved it and, even more,
was elated to learn that the Kennedy
School had established an Arts Committee. When we met, Michele shared
the news about a new initiative: the Arts
and Leadership study group. This initiative will come to fruition at the Kennedy
School on October 4, 2011. The study
group will meet on four consecutive
Tuesdays and will be led by Professors
Doris Sommer and Dean Williams.
According to Michele, “The Arts and
Leadership initiative, launched in the
fall of 2011, is Harvard’s first cross-disciplinary initiative to re-connect aesthetics with leadership practice, process
and professional development. Through
courses, workshops and seminars codesigned by the Faculty of Arts and
Science’s Cultural Agents Initiative and
the Kennedy School’s Center for Public
Leadership, students will add the arts
Harvard Square
1 Brattle Square
Second Floor
Continued on page 15
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Not as Easy as Pie
The Business of Baking
parts of becoming a business-owner, “A
big reason why I started this was to give
people jobs. I love the fact that I was able
to create something that people can pay
their rent or mortgage with and raise
their children.”
However, Renee finds it very challenging to provide the 52 employees of Petsi
Pies with what she considers their basic
right to affordable healthcare. She covers
50%-100% of its cost for her employees.
Renee explains, “Health insurance goes
up every quarter. There are people I pay
$800 a month for. I actually seriously
consider whether I can continue doing
this because I can’t afford people’s health
insurance. But that’s how you keep good
people so I can’t take it away. What I
used to do before I gave health insurance
was pay for people to go to the doctor. I
gave them a certain amount every year.
I wish I had kept that because it’s more
One of Renee’s best pies, the pecan,
may become economically extinct due
to the rising cost of ingredients. Even
though she is paying 80 cents more
Cristina Garmendia, Culture and News
Writer, MPP ‘13
As Kennedy students toil over problem
sets and cringe at political discourse,
many of us may idly daydream of alternate careers. Writer Cristina Garmendia
interviews baker-extraordinaire and business owner Renee McLeod of Petsi Pies for
a reality check.
Renee McLeod has been baking since
she was a child but it wasn’t until she
was asked to make 25 pies for a friend’s
wedding that she realized she had a calling: “It was one of those moments that
made time stop. I didn’t realize what
time it was, I was just having a wonderful time making pies.” She made
the decision in 2002 to quit her job as
a graphic designer for Whole Foods
Market and to focus on what she loved.
Her bakery, Petsi Pies, named for her
childhood nickname, opened in 2003
to rave reviews and praise for its naturally sweet pies, many of which have no
added sugar.
Renee describes one of her favorite
ture and art are powerful vehicles for
social movement and change around the
world – effective for bridging ethnic and
religious divides, for developing citizenship and social capital. The initiative will
launch with Arts and Leadership: Engaging the Arts in Leadership practice and
process, an innovative and experiential
workshop, where participants will learn
“Arts,” continued from page 14
to politics and economics as a necessary field for promoting positive social
change. Imagination and humanistic
interpretation are now required to innovate strategies for a new global framework.”
Michele goes went on to say “Cul-
The Mid-Career MPA Mural. Photo Courtesy of Khaleel Seecharan.
a pound for butter than they paid in
December of 2010, she hasn’t raised
her prices. The average pie takes seven
ounces of butter and the pecan pie
uses the most of all. “Pecan is the most
expensive pie to make because the nuts
are $9 a pound and the butter is so
expensive. I wonder if I should continue
to make it. It costs as much to make it as
I sell it for. I should raise the price but
I don’t know if the market will bear that.”
Petsi Pies has two locations, one in
Somerville (285 Beacon St) and one
in Cambridge (31 Putnam Ave). The
Somerville location is where they do the
baking for both locations and Cambridge is where they serve lunch items.
from experts the mechanics of engaging
and enabling the arts for positive social
movement and change. Readings from
the masters in the aesthetic tradition
we also consider why and in what ways
artistic interventions affect personal and
elective engagements with the world.
This non-traditional curriculum will
include a balance of lectures and participation through visual and performing
arts as well as interpretation. Sub-sections will put into practice shared and
learned skills to construct a new toolkit
for addressing complex social, political
and economic challenges.”
Together with the Kennedy School
Arts Committee, she stated “we hope
to organize activities that could include
establishing a cross-disciplinary student
advisory group, a luncheon speaker
series, participation in the Harvard
Graduate Council Leadership Conference (November 4-5) and a series of
interactive and experiential workshops
Petsi Pies. Photo Courtesy of Cristina Garmendia.
They make around 20 types of pie, with
the most popular and first to run out
each day being Mixed Berry and Apple.
New items for fall are pumpkin and
chocolate whoopie pies and a roasted
sweet potato-pecan pie. For holidays,
pre-orders are required for guaranteed
availability. Renee warns, “Everyone has
to order a pie, even if you are the Mayor
of Cambridge. The only person who gets
a pie without ordering it is our garbageman.”
To learn more about the art of piemaking, contact Renee, “I’ll share recipes, I’ll teach anyone who wants to learn
how to make good pie crust.”
to include forum theatre, poetry evenings, open mike sessions, and curated
museum visits.”
In closing, Michele mentioned that
“the comments from students who
applied for the study group spoke in a
loud voice for a stronger arts presence at
the Kennedy School and for courses that
provide development opportunities in
the field of arts and leadership.”
The Mosaic Mural mentioned above,
will be on display in the Student Lounge
in Taubam.
Michèle Stanners, a long time practitioner
in non-profit management and performing arts and a second year Masters in
Theological Studies at the Harvard Divinity School is the co-founder of Arts and
Leadership and credits the inspiration to
her work with FAS and HKS professors
Doris Sommer and Dean Williams.
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THECITIZEN | Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Artwork by Irene Shih, Editor-in-Chief, MPP ’13.
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