fortifikasi produk susu


fortifikasi produk susu
Deddy Muchtadi
Departemen Ilmu & Teknologi Pangan
FATETA, Institut Pertanian Bogor
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Milk fortification with vitamins A and/or D is mandated in several countries.
Some dairies in the USA fortify milk with vitamins C and E and calcium, in
addition to vitamins A and D.
Dried milk and flavored milk powders are often fortified with vitamins A
and D, calcium, and iron.
Milk-based infant formula and weaning foods are fortified with a range of
vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients such as polyunsaturated
fatty acids.
Powdered milk used for complementary feeding is fortified with vitamin C,
iron, copper, and zinc.
The levels at which nutrients are added to milk depend on a number of factors:
levels of milk consumption and nutritional requirements of the target
the effect of added nutrients on the functional or sensory (odor, flavor, and
color) characteristics of milk; and
the stability of the nutrients during processing and storage of milk.
(USAID, 2012)
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Menambah atau memperkaya:
Mengembalikan ke kondisi semula: zat gizi (vitamin & mineral) yang hilang atau rusak
proses pengolahan dan/atau pengawetan
♦ Meningkatkan kadar zat gizi (non-gizi) dengan tujuan memperbaiki atau
meningkatkan atau menambah sifat fungsional susu
Functional Milk atau Functional Dairy Products
Functional milk is milk that provides health benefits beyond what regular milk
provides .
It has its origin in functional foods.
(, 29 May 2012)
▪ Vitamin, ▪ Mineral, ▪ Asam Amino, ▪ Protein, ▪ Asam lemak,
▪ Prebiotik, ▪ Probiotik, ▪ Serat Pangan, ▪ Bahan lainnya
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Fortified whole dried milk stored at ambient
temperatures for 24 months retains 90 to 100%
of the added vitamins B1, B2, B6, C, E, and niacin
throughout the storage period.
Significant losses of vitamin A, however, can
occur rapidly resulting in retention levels of 55 to
75% after 5 months and only 35 to 45% after 24
months of storage.
Thus, micronutrients added to milk can be
destroyed during the normal thermal processing
and storage of milk.
To compensate for these losses, an appropriate
overage of each micronutrient must be
added during fortification.
(USAID, 2012)
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Fungsi kalsium bagi tubuh selain untuk pembentukan tulang dan gigi, juga penting
untuk pertumbuhan, pembekuan darah dan sebagai katalis reaksi biologis.
Matriks tulang terbentuk dari kolagen dan karbohidrat, yang merupakan sepertiga
bagian tulang. Kepada matriks tersebut ditempelkan kalsium (prosesnya disebut
kalsifikasi atau osifikasi) dalam bentuk kristal Ca-fosfat dan Ca-hidroksida
Selain kalsium-fosfat bagian tulang yang keras (bone shaft) juga mengandung Mg,
Zn, Na, karbonat dan fluorida.
reduksi kalsium dari
“Osteoporosis” adalah kondisi yang
menunjukkan terjadinya
Preventing osteoporosis depends on two things:
making the strongest, densest bones possible
during the first 30 years of life and limiting the
amount of bone loss in adulthood.
(The Nutrition Source, 2012)
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Karakteristik penting sumber kalsium untuk fortifikasi
Garam Kalsium
Tri-Ca-sitrat (4H2O)
Ca-laktat (5H2O)
Kelarutan Ca dlm
air pada 25 oC (g/
tidak larut
tidak larut
45 - 50
sabun, lemon
berpasir, tidak berasa
tidak berasa
ringan, netral
17 - 38
10 - 13
Sumber: Jungbunzlauer Ladenburg GmbH, Germany (2002)
Keefektifan kalsium sebagai fortifikan tergantung pada bioavailabilitasnya. Secara
rata-rata hanya sekitar 10 - 30 % kalsium yang dapat diserap oleh usus orang dewasa
sehat. Umumnya bioavailablitas garam kalsium organik lebih tinggi dibandingkan
dengan garam kalsium anorganik.
Bioavailabilitas kalsium dari tri-Ca-sitrat, Ca-laktat, Ca-laktat-glukonat dan Caglukonat tidak berbeda, walaupun kelarutannya dalam air tidak sama
(Flynn A dan K Cashman, 1999)
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
- Vitamin D dan vitamin K
- Asam lambung (HCl) yang cukup
- Jumlah lemak rendah (jumlah lemak tinggi menurunkan ketersediaan kalsium)
- Gerak fisik, serta
- Hormon, termasuk hormon paratiroid dan estrogen
Bila faktor-faktor tersebut kurang, maka kalsium tidak (kurang) dapat diserap oleh
usus dan tidak (kurang) dapat digunakan oleh tubuh.
Vitamin K likely plays one or more important roles in calcium regulation and bone
formation. Low levels of circulating vitamin K have been linked with low bone density,
and supplementation with vitamin K shows improvements in biochemical measures of
bone health (Weber , 2001)
Fungsi hormon Paratorid: menstimulir penyerapan Ca dlm usus dan re-absorpsi
Ca dlm ginjal
Fungsi hormon Estrogen: mengurangsi bone resorption dan meningkatkan
bone formation .
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
l,25-(OH)2-D3, produced in the kidney,
is the hormonally active form of the
vitamin D
(Deluca, 1976.).
Studies have shown that in the absence
of l,25-(OH)2-D3 there is little or no net
intestinal calcium absorption when
dietary Ca intake is normal.
Administration of l,25-(OH)2-D3 to
humans stimulates intestinal absorption
of Ca
(Brickman et al, 1976).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
It was recommended that the minimum
calcium content in infant formulae
should be maintained at 50 mg/100 kcal,
and the maximum level should be
140 mg/100 kcal.
Infant Formula (Codex Stan 72-1981)
Vitamin D
µg/100 kcal
The ratio of calcium to available
phosphorus (based on measured
bioavailability, or calculated as
80% of total phosphorus in cows’
milk protein based formulae)
should be not less than 1.0 nor
greater than 2.0.
mg/100 kcal
Ratio Ca:P
mg/100 kcal
Follow up Formula (Codex Stan 156-1987)
Vitamin D
µg/100 kcal
mg/100 kcal
Ratio Ca:P
mg/100 kcal
This recommendation also applies to follow-on formulae.
(The Scientific Committee on Food, European Commission, 2003)
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Zat besi (Fe) antara lain diperlukan untuk pembentukan hemoglobin (pigmen sel
darah merah). Defisiensi zat besi dapat mengakibatkan timbulnya anemia
Chinese studies with NaFeEDTA fortified
soy sauce (Mannar & Boy 2002)
Zat besi yang dapat digunakan untuk fortifikasi
[Guidelines PAHO (2002)]:
ferrous sulfate, encapsulated ferrous sulfate
ferrous fumarate, encapsulated fumarate
electrolytic iron
Other elemental iron compounds (H-reduced, CO-reduced, atomized, carbonyl are not
recommended at the present time
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Enhancing effect of ascorbic acid on non-heme iron absorption
it is exerted by both its reducing capacity, thereby keeping iron in the more easily
absorbed ferrous (+II) form; and its chelating properties, keeping iron in a
soluble, absorbable form
(Lonnerdal, 1988.)
Proposed Fortification Level
It is convenient to base quantitative recommendations for ascorbic acid on the
molar ratio of ascorbic acid to iron, which should be between 2:1 and 4:1.
It indicates that absorption values of 10% can be expected for cow s milk if
ascorbic acid and ferrous sulfate are added in an ascorbic acid to iron
molar ratio of 2:1.
A molar ratio of 4:1 would be required if more inhibitory foods such as soybeans
with a native phytate content are added
(Lynch & Stoltzfus, 2003).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Healthy weaned infants received a full-fat acidified milk fortified with 15 mg of
elemental Fe as ferrous sulfate and 100 mg of ascorbic acid/100 g of powder and
control infants received milk without additives.
Anemia (Hg < 1 10 gIL) was present in 25.7% of unfortified infants compared with
only 2.5% in those fortified at age 15 mo.
(Stekel et al, l988).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
A biologically active form of chromium participates in glucose metabolism by
enhancing the effects of insulin è the relationship between chromium nutritional
status and type 2 diabetes has generated considerable scientific interest.
(Higdon & Drake, 2007).
The results of a placebo-controlled trial conducted in China indicated that chromium
supplementation might be beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
At the end of four months, blood glucose levels were 15%-19% lower in those who
took 1,000 mcg/day compared with those who took the placebo.
(Anderson et al, 1997).
Chromium picolinate is more bioavailable than other supplemental forms of
chromium and therefore may be more efficacious
(Broadhurst & Domenico, 2006).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
The smaller amounts of casein in breast milk help produce softer and more flocculent
curd, which stays for a shorter time in the stomach leading to faster gastrointestinal
In contrast, the curd of bovine milk is coarse-flaky, large, and firm, which is more
difficult to digest, increases the loss of nitrogen, and develops blockages in the small
intestine characterized by abdominal swelling and pain and difficulty in breathing.
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Human milk proteins decrease gastric acidity to a much lesser degree than bovine
milk protein, which contains a higher level of casein
(Davis et al, 1994).
With decreased gastric acidity, the bactericidal effect of gastric juice becomes
inadequate, which is also thought to be the reason for the higher incidence of
gastrointestinal infections in infants who are fed unmodified bovine milk
(Urbiene et al, 1997).
The modification involves adjustment
of the ratio of casein nitrogen to whey
protein nitrogen in cow s milk (80:20) to
mimic the ratio found in human milk (40:60).
In this way, a more balanced amino acid
profile of the formula is obtained. Such
modifications may also affect the
bioavailability of trace minerals.
Human Milk
Cow Milk
(g/100 ml)
Ratio = 1 : 2.3
= 40 : 60
Ratio = 4 : 1
= 80 : 20
The bioavailability of zinc is lower from a formula with a casein N:whey N ratio of
80:20 than from a formula with a corresponding ratio of 40:60
(Lonnerdal et al, 1983) .
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Asam lemak dokosaheksaenoat (DHA) merupakan asam lemak yang paling banyak
terdapat dalam otak mamalia.
Kadarnya dalam lipida membran sel dipengaruhi oleh jenis dan jumlah asam lemak
dalam makanan yang dikonsumsi, tingkat perkembangan tubuh (umur); kadarnya
akan tinggi pada masa pertumbuhan dan kemudian menurun pada masa penuaan
(Uauy & Dangour, 2006).
Mamalia memperoleh DHA baik dalam bentuk DHA langsung atau dalam bentuk
prekursornya yaitu asam alfa-linolenat (ALA), atau senyawa perantara (intermediet)
diantara ALA dan DHA, termasuk EPA.
Sumber utama EPA dan DHA adalah ikan dan hasil laut lainnya (seafoods); di dalam
unggas dan telur kadarnya rendah tetapi juga merupakan sumber EPA dan DHA
yang penting.
Sumber utama ALA adalah minyak kedelai dan canola; minyak biji flax dan beberapa
jenis nuts juga kaya akan ALA tetapi tidak dikonsumsi dalam jumlah banyak.
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
The amount of DHA that an infant can
synthesize is limited to some extent by the ratio
of LA to ALA (LA:ALA) in dietary fats.
The amount of erythrocyte DHA in formula-fed
infants was increased from 53% to73% of the
amount found in breast-fed infants by simply
lowering the LA:ALA in formula from 19:1 to 3
or 4:1
(Clark et al, 1992)
Lowering the LA:ALA in formula from 10:1 to 5:1 by using low–erucic acid
canola oil resulted in a modest increase in plasma DHA but had no effect on
VEP acuity or growth rate.
(Makrides et al, 2000) .
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Sebelumnya, untuk memperkaya susu formula akan DHA, digunakan minyak ikan
kaya akan EPA dan DHA. Tetapi beberapa bayi prematur yang memperoleh susu
formula tersebut mengalami penurunan konsentrasi AA dalam plasma darahnya,
yang diikuti dengan menurunnya kecepatan pertumbuhan
(Carlson et al, 1992).
Tingginya kadar EPA dapat menghambat sintesis AA, padahal asam lemak arahidonat
(AA) ini diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan bayi yang normal è susu formula yang telah
diperkaya dengan DHA, penambahan EPA tidak dilakukan lagi dan digantikan dengan
Sebagian besar susu formula di Amerika Serikat mengandung 8 - 17 mg DHA per 100
Kal dan 16 - 34 mg AA per 100 Kal
(US Food and Drug Administration, 2001).
Di Amerika Serikat susu formula tidak lagi disuplementasi dengan minyak ikan, tetapi
digantikan dengan AA dan DHA yang bersumber dari algae atau kapang. Percobaan
acak terkontrol terhadap susu formula ini menunjukkan tidak ditemukan adanya efek
merugikan pada bayi sampai berumur satu tahun
(Simmer, 2001).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
MCT oil, usually prepared from coconut oil, contains a mixture of fatty acids of chain
lengths between 6 and 12 carbons, more than 90% of which are 8:0 and 10:0.
Because of the efficiency of their absorption and transport to the liver and perhaps
other tissues, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), as medium-chain triglycerides
(MCTs), have been used extensively in the treatment of mal-absorption syndromes
in human infants, children, and adults.
(Charles et al, 1990).
Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) are readily oxidized in the liver. Animal and human
studies have shown that the fast rate of oxidation of MCFA leads to greater energy
expenditure (EE). Most animal studies have also demonstrated that the greater EE
with MCFA relative to long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) results in less body weight
gain and decreased size of fat depots after several months of consumption.
Furthermore, both animal and human trials suggest a greater satiating effect of
medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) compared with long-chain triglycerides (LCT).
(St-Onge & Jones, 2002).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Prebiotik didefinisikan sebagai : ingredien pangan dapat difermentasi yang secara
selektif memungkinkan terjadinya perubahan spesifik, baik dalam komposisi dan/
atau aktivitas mikroflora yang terdapat dalam saluran pencernaan, sehingga dapat
memberikan efek menyehatkan pada tubuh .
(Gibson et al, 2004).
Untuk gizi manusia, probiotik didefinisikan sebagai : ingredien pangan berupa
mikroba hidup yang dapat memberikan keuntungan bagi kesehatan
(Salminen et al, 1998)
Genera bakteri yang paling sering digunakan sebagai probiotik adalah Lactobacillus
dan Bifidobacterium.
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Tidak semua karbohidrat pangan (oligosakarida dan polisakarida) merupakan
prebiotik, karena tidak semuanya memenuhi kriteria untuk digolongkan sebagai
(Roberfroid , 2007).
Untuk dapat digolongkan sebagai prebiotik, komponen pangan harus memenuhi
kriteria sebagai berikut :
tahan terhadap asam lambung, tidak dihidrolisis oleh enzim-enzim pencernaan
dan tidak diserap oleh usus halus;
difermentasi oleh mikroflora usus besar; dan
secara selektif
menstimulir pertumbuhan dan/atau
aktivitas bakteri
dalam usus besar
yang berkontribusi
pada kesehatan
(Gibson et al, 2004).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Kekuatan bukti-bukti ilmiah untuk perbaikan fungsi
tubuh oleh probiotik dan prebiotik
Kekuatan Bukti-bukti Ilmiah Efek Fungsional Probiotik Intoleransi laktosa Kuat
Prebiotik Tidak diketahui Stimulasi imun Tahap awal (Marteau dan Rambaud, 1993;
Tidak diketahui Mutagenesis fekal Tahap awal (Mortomi, 1996; Naidu et al,
Hipokolesterolemia Tidak memberikan efek (Taylor dan
Hipolipidemia Tidak diketahui (Taylor dan Williams,
1998) (Jackson et al, 1999;
Van Loo et al, 1999; Canzi et al, 1995;
Delzenne dan Kok, 1999) Mikroflora kolon Tahap awal (Hosono et al, 1997) Kuat
(Sanders, 1993; Marteau et al, 1997;
Goldin, 1998) Schiffrin et al, 1995; Famularo et al, 1997) Tidak diketahui 1999; Hosono et al, 1997) Tahap awal
(Davidson et al, 1998) Williams, 1998) Ketersediaan kalsium Tidak diketahui Menjanjikan
(Gibson dan Roberfroid, 1995;
Roberfroid et al, 1998; Van Loo et al,
1999) Menjanjikan (Coudray et al, 1997;
van den Heuvel et al, 1999) (Roberfroid , 2000).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Kekuatan bukti-bukti ilmiah untuk penurunan
risiko penyakit oleh probiotik dan prebiotik
Penurunan Risiko Penyakit Diare Kekuatan Bukti-bukti Ilmiah Probiotik Menjanjikan (Gibson et al, 1997;
Corthier, 1997; Isolauri et al, 1991;
Saavedra et al, 1994) Prebiotik Tidak diketahui Menjanjikan (Reddy, 1998; Gibson et
Konstipasi (sulit buang air Tidak diketahui al, 1995) besar) Tahap awal (Naidu et al, 1999; Hosono Tahap awal (Reddy et al, 1997;
Kanker kolon Osteoporosis Penyakit kronis yang
berhub dengan lipid et al, 1997; Cummings, 1997) Rowland et al, 1997; Cummings, 1997;
Reddy, 1999) Tidak diketahui Mungkin tidak ada efek (Taylor
Tidak diketahui Tidak diketahui dan Williams, 1998) (Roberfroid , 2000).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
The American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) pada tahun 2000
mendefinisikan serat pangan sebagai: “bagian tanaman dapat dimakan atau analog
karbohidrat yang tidak dapat dicerna dan diserap oleh usus halus manusia, tetapi
dapat dicerna (difermentasi) sebagian atau seluruhnya dalam usus besar .
Yang tergolong sebagai serat
pangan termasuk polisakarida,
oligosakarida, lignin dan
komponen tanaman lain.
Serat pangan memberikan efek
fisiologis menguntungkan,
termasuk laksatif, menurunkan
kadar kolesterol dalam darah,
dan menurunkan kadar gula
(Tungland & Meyer, 2002).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Efek Fisiologis
Curdian (β-glukan tidak
Efek Fisiologis pada Manusia
Difermentasi dalam kolon, memproduksi asam butirat dalam jumlah
tinggi, memberikan efek pada lipida darah
Meningkatkan kapasitas menahan air (water holding capacity, WHC)
Menurunkan kadar kolesterol dan trigliserida dalam hati.
Meningkatkan ekskresi steroid netral dalam feses. Menghambat
penyerapan kolesterol dalam usus
Selulosa mikro kristal
Meningkatkan WHC, meningkatkan kekambaan feses, difermentasi
secara parsial dalam kolon
Selulosa termodifikasi (MC, Difermentasi secara parsial dalam kolon
Gum gellan
Gum xanthan
Maltodekstrin resisten
Meningkatkan viskositas, difermentasi menghasilkan SCFA dalam
Meningkatkan viskositas, difermentasi menghasilkan SCFA dalam
Difermentasi menghasilkan SCFA, meningkatkan jumlah mikrobiota
dalam usus besar serta meningkatkan kekambaan dan melunakkan
Dapat dicerna secara parsial, bersifat laksatif dan difermentasi dalam
usus besar, serta mempengaruhi kadar lipida darah
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Efek Fisiologis pada Manusia
Selobiosa & Selodekstrin
Tidak ada hasil penelitian mengenai efek prebiotik
Mungkin memberikan efek setelah difermentasi, belum ada hasil
penelitian yang dipublikasikan mengenai pengaruh fisiologis
Gluko-oligosakarida (αGOS)
Data jarang diperoleh, tidak ada kesimpulan mengenai efek terhadap
mikrobiota usus
Percobaan pada hewan menunjukkan adanya pengaruh terhadap
mikrobiota usus. Belum ada data hasil penelitian pada manusia
Isomaltosa, Isomal-totriosa, Penelitian pada hewan dan manusia menunjukkan adanya pengaruh
terhadap mikrobiota usus
Meningkatkan viskositas, menurunkan laju pengosongan perut dan
waktu transit dalam usus kecil (bersifat hipoglisemik). Difermentasi
dalam usus besar menghasilkan SCFA
Meningkatkan viskositas, difermentasi dalam usus besar menghasilkan
Acacia (gum Arab)
Difermentasi dalam kolon. Merupakan prebiotik
Menurunkan laju pengosongan perut dan waktu transit dalam usus kecil
(bersifat hipoglisemik). Difermentasi dalam usus besar, tidak
berpengaruh pada berat feses, dapat menurunkan kadar kolesterol
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Efek Fisiologis pada Manusia
(rafinosa, stakiosa, oligosakarida kedelai lainnya)
β-galakto-oligosaka-rida atau
Dapat mempengaruhi komposisi dan aktivitas flora usus
Produksi gas cukup banyak karena difermentasi oleh Cl pneumoniae.
Mempengaruhi komposisi dan aktivitas mikroflora usus besar
Laktitol oligosakarida
Hasil penelitian pada tikus menunjukkan adanya pengaruh pada
komposisi dan aktivitas mikroflora usus besar; belum ada hasil
penelitian pada manusia
Fruktan, tipe Inulin
Galaktomanan (gum guar,
gum kacang locust)
Mempengaruhi komposisi dan aktivitas flora usus
Gum karaya
Dapat segera difermentasi dalam kolon dan memberikan efek
bifidogenik, memperbaiki fungsi kolon, memperlihatkan efek
hipolipidemik, menurunkan glisemia postprandial
Difermentasi oleh mikrobiota kolon, dapat menurunkan kadar lipid
dan glukosa plasma darah
Meningkatkan viskositas, difermentasi dalam kolon manusia
Gum tragacanth
Meningkatkan viskositas, difermentasi dalam kolon manusia
Gum guar oligosa-karida
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Kulit biji Psyllium
Alginat oligosakarida
Mannan oligosakarida
Efek Fisiologis pada Manusia
Dapat difermentasi dalam kolon, meningkatkan populasi
Lactobacillus, mempengaruhi sistem immun
Mengurangi risiko penyakit jantung koroner (klaim kesehatan),
menurunkan kadar kolesterol
Difermentasi dalam kolon manusia, meningkatkan viskositas dalam
usus kecil
Meningkatkan viskositas, difermentasi dalam kolon menghasilkan
Mempengaruhi komposisi dan metabolisme mikrobiota kolon
Tidak terdapat data apakah dapat difermentasi oleh mikroflora usus
(Tungland & Meyer, 2002).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
The oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in animal tissues is dependent on carnitine
because it allows long chain acyl-CoA esters to cross the mitochondrial membrane,
which is otherwise impermeable to CoA compounds.
(Hoppel, 1982).
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-trimethylamino butyrate) can be synthesized endogenously in
mammals, hence no need apparently exists to supply this compound in food on a
daily basis.
(Goodhart, 1973) .
Other studies suggest however that for some individuals synthesis of body carnitine
may be inadequate.
(Karpati et al, 1975).
In addition, a number of disease states including those with disrupted lipid
metabolism have been shown to alter levels of carnitine in human biological
fluids and tissues.
(Bohmer et al, 1974).
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Carnitine belongs to a special class of nutrients termed quasi-vitamins or
conditionally-essential nutrients. These nutrients include taurine, lipoic acid,
choline, and carnitine. They are normally synthesized by the mammalian organism,
but may be required under special conditions, such as during long-term parenteral
nutrition, by hemodialysis patients, or by premature infants.
(Alesci et al, 2004) .
Studies suggest that carnitine supplementation does not improve maximal oxygen
uptake or metabolic status during exercise in healthy humans. Carnitine
administration for ≤ 1 mo in humans increases plasma carnitine concentrations but
does not increase muscle carnitine content.
(Brass, 2000).
There was no difference in growth or food intake between the two groups of infants.
However, serum free fatty acid concentrations were significantly higher in the infants
not receiving dietary carnitine. Moreover, excretion of all three medium-chain
dicarboxylic acids was significantly higher in infants not receiving dietary carnitine.
We conclude that lack of dietary carnitine affects lipid metabolism of infants during
the first 4 mo of life.
(Olson et al, 1989),
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Choline is a precursor for the biosynthesis of
phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), sphingomyelin,
and choline plasmalogens - all essential constituents of membranes.
It is also needed to make acetylcholine, a major
neurotransmitter influencing the function of the
brain, heart, muscle, adrenal, gastro-intestinal
tract and many other organs
(Zeisel, 1981) .
It is suspected, but not proven that choline is
an essential nutrient in humans.
(Zeisel et al, 1986).
Level of choline in infant formula:
- minimum 7 mg/100 kcal (Codex Alimentarius, 1994);
- no less than 12 mg/100 kcal (The Department of National Health and Welfare Canada, 1995);
-- minimum 7 mg/100 kcal and maximum 30 mg/100 kcal (The Scientific Committee on Food,
European Commission, 2003)
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Physiologically, inositol is an essential growth factor, which is readily synthesised in
the body, but may need to be provided in the diet under certain conditions.
Inositol levels in blood are high in neonates, leading to the suggestion that it plays an
important role in early development.
It was proposed a minimum content of myoinositol of 4 mg/100 kcal and a maximum
content 40 mg/100 kcal for infant formulae, while no limits are suggested for follow-on
(The Scientific Committee on Food, European Commission, 2003)
Taurine is a non-protein amino acid that is found in most tissues and in human milk.
It is practically absent in mature cows’ milk and formula based on cows’ milk protein
and soy protein isolates (Rassin et al., 1978).
It is added to many infant formulae without adverse effects and little evidence of
benefit and mostly because it is found in human.
When added, taurine addition to any type of infant formula should be not exceeding 12
mg/100 kcal
(The Scientific Committee on Food, European Commission, 2003)
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Peraturan Kepala Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan, Republik Indonesia, nomor
HK., tahun 2011, tanggal 12 Desember 2011, tentang Persyaratan
Penambahan Zat Gizi dan Zat Non Gizi dalam Pangan Olahan
Pasal 7:
Pelaku Usaha dilarang:
a. menambahkan Lutein, Sphingomyelin, dan Gangliosida pada Formula Bayi dan
Formula Lanjutan; dan/atau
b. mencantumkan dan mengiklankan klaim gizi dan klaim kesehatan tentang DHA
dan ARA pada Formula Bayi dan Formula Lanjutan;
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
Update on Dairy Industry
Deddy Muchtadi
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