Cherokee language - Cherokee Registry

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Cherokee language - Cherokee Registry
Cherokee language
1
Cherokee language
Cherokee
ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ Tsalagi Gawonihisdi
Spoken in
United States
Region
Oklahoma and the Qualla Boundary, North Carolina
Native speakers
16,400
[1]
(2000)
Language family Iroquoian
•
Southern Iroquoian
•
Writing system
Cherokee
Cherokee syllabary, Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-2
chr
ISO 639-3
chr
Original distribution of the Cherokee language
Current distribution
Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, Tsalagi Gawonihisdi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which
uses a unique syllabary writing system. It is the only Southern Iroquoian language that remains spoken.[2] Cherokee
is a polysynthetic language.
North American etymology
The North American origins and eventual English language form of "Cherokee" were researched by James Mooney
in the nineteenth century. In his Myths of the Cherokee (1888) he reports:
"It first appears as Chalaque in the Portuguese narrative of De Soto's expedition, published originally in 1557,
while we find Cheraqui in a French document of 1699, and Cherokee as an English form as early, at least, as
1708. The name has thus an authentic [sic] history of 360 years."[3] Cherokee is also taught as a
second-language in Northwest Georgia.
Cherokee language
2
Modern dialects
Cherokee has three major dialects. The Lower dialect became extinct around 1900. The Middle or Kituhwa dialect is
spoken by the Eastern band on the Qualla Boundary. The Overhill or Western dialect is spoken in Oklahoma and by
the Snowbird Community in North Carolina.[4] The Overhill dialect has an estimated 9000 speakers.[5] The Lower
dialect spoken by the inhabitants of the Lower Towns in the vicinity of the South Carolina–Georgia border had r as
the liquid consonant in its inventory, while both the contemporary Kituhwa or Ani-kituwah dialect spoken in North
Carolina and the Overhill dialects contain l. As such, the word "Cherokee" when spoken in the language is expressed
as Tsalagi (pronounced Jah-la-gee, Cha-la-gee, or Cha-la-g or TSA la gi by giduwa dialect speakers) by native
speakers. Both the Lower dialect and the Kituhwa dialect have a "ts" sound in place of the "tl" sound of the Overhill
dialect. The English word "No" is vtla ᎥᏝ in the Overhill dialect, but ᎥᏣ vtsa in both the Lower and Kituhwa dialects.
Phonology
Cherokee only has one labial consonant, m–which is relatively new to the language. The Lower dialect lacked this
sound, having "w" in its place. The language thus lacks p and b. In the case of p, qu is often substituted (as in the
name of Cherokee Wikipedia, Wi-gi-que-di-ya).
Consonants
The consonant inventory for North Carolina Cherokee is given in the table below. The consonants of all Iroquoian
languages pattern so that they may be grouped as (oral) obstruents, sibilants, laryngeals, and resonants (Lounsbury
1978:337). Obstruents are non-distinctively aspirated when they precede h. There is some variation in how
orthographies represent these allophones. The orthography used in the table represents the aspirated allophones as th,
kh, and tsh. Another common orthography represents the unaspirated allophones as d, g, and dz and the aspirated
allophones as t, k, and ts (Scancarelli 2005:359–62). The unaspirated plosives and affricate are optionally voiced
intervocally. In other dialects, the affricate is a palatal (like ch in "church"), and a lateral affricate (like tl in "atlas")
may also be present.
North Carolina Cherokee consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive
t
Affricate
ts
Fricative
s
Nasal
Approximant
m
k
h
n
l
ʔ
j (y)
ɰ (w)
Cherokee language
3
Vowels
There are six short vowels and six long vowels in the Cherokee inventory. As with all Iroquoian languages, this
includes a nasalized vowel (Lounsbury 1978:337). In the case of Cherokee, the nasalized vowel is a schwa, which
most orthographies represent as v and is pronounced [ɜ] as "u" in "but"; since it is nasal, it sounds rather like French
un. Other vowels, when ending a word, are often nasalized. Vowels can be short or long.[6]
Front Central Back
Close
i iː
Mid
e eː
Open
u uː
ə̃ ə̃ː
o oː
a aː
Diphthongs
Cherokee has only one diphthong native to the language:
• ai /ai/
Another exception to the phonology above is the modern Oklahoma use of the loanword "automobile," with the /ɔ/
sound and /b/ sound of English.
Tone
Cherokee is a pitch accent language with six tones, two of which are level (low, high) and the other four of which are
contour (rising, falling, highfall, lowfall).[7] While the tonal system is undergoing a gradual simplification in many
areas, it remains important in meaning and is still held strongly by many, especially older, speakers. The syllabary,
however, does not display tone, and real meaning discrepancies are rare within the native-language
Cherokee-speaking community. The same goes for transliterated Cherokee ("osiyo", "dohitsu", etc.), which is rarely
written with any tone markers, except in dictionaries. Native speakers can tell the difference between
tone-distinguished words by context.
Tone Inventory
The tone name in the left-hand column displays the labels most recently used in studies of the language.[7] The
second represents the tone in standardized IPA.
Tone Name IPA
Low
˨
High
˦
Rising
˨˦
Falling
˥˩
Highfall
˥˧
Lowfall
˧˩
Cherokee language
4
Tone Environments
The high and low tones can appear on both long and short vowels in Cherokee,[8] and remain at the same pitch
throughout the duration of the vowel sound. Contour tones in Cherokee appear only in underlying long vowels.[9] At
the ends of words in colloquial speech, there is a tendency to drop off a long vowel into a short vowel; this results in
the highfall tone being produced as a high tone in faster speech. [10]
Highfall
Highfall has a unique grammatical usage, primarily appearing with adjectives and adverbials along with most nouns
derived from verbs. It only appears in verbs subordinate to another element of the sentence. When a highfall appears
on a verb it changes the verbs' role in the sentence, typically to one of four main categories: agentive derivation,
modal, object derivation, or subordination.[11]
Grammar
Cherokee, like many Native American languages, is polysynthetic, meaning that many morphemes may be linked
together to form a single word, which may be of great length. Cherokee verbs, the most important word type, must
contain as a minimum a pronominal prefix, a verb root, an aspect suffix, and a modal suffix.[12] For example, the
verb form ge:ga, "I am going," has each of these elements:
Verb form ge:ga
g-
e:
-g
-a
PRONOMINAL PREFIX VERB ROOT "to go" ASPECT SUFFIX MODAL SUFFIX
The pronominal prefix is g-, which indicates first person singular. The verb root is -e, "to go." The aspect suffix that
this verb employs for the present-tense stem is -g-. The present-tense modal suffix for regular verbs in Cherokee is -a
The following is a conjugation in the present tense of the verb to go.[13] Please note that there is no distinction
between dual and plural in the 3rd person.
Full conjugation of Root Verb-e- going
Singular
Dual incl.
Dual excl.
Plural excl.
Plural incl.
1st
ᎨᎦ gega - I'm
going
ᎢᏁᎦ inega - We're
going (you + I)
ᎣᏍᏕᎦ osdega - We two are
going (not you)
ᎣᏤᎦ otsega - We're all
going (3+, not you)
ᎢᏕᎦ idega we're all going
(3+, including you)
2nd
ᎮᎦ hega - you're
going
3rd
ᎡᎦ ega she/he/it's going
ᏍᏕᎦ sdega - you two are going
ᎢᏤᎦ itsega - you are all going
ᎠᏁᎦ anega They are going
The translation uses the present progressive ("at this time I am going"). Cherokee differentiates between progressive
("I am going") and habitual ("I go") more than English does.
The forms ᎨᎪᎢ, ᎮᎪᎢ, ᎡᎪᎢ gegoi, hegoi, egoi represent "I often/usually go", "you often/usually go", and "she/he/it
often/usually goes", respectively.[13]
Verbs can also have prepronominal prefixes, reflexive prefixes, and derivative suffixes. Given all possible
combinations of affixes, each regular verb can have 21,262 inflected forms.
Cherokee does not make gender distinctions. For example, ᎦᏬᏂᎭ gawoniha can mean either "she is speaking" or "he
is speaking."[14]
Cherokee language
5
Shape classifiers in verbs
Some Cherokee verbs require special classifiers which denote a physical property of the direct object. Only around
20 common verbs require one of these classifiers (such as the equivalents of "pick up", "put down", "remove",
"wash", "hide", "eat", "drag", "have", "hold", "put in water", "put in fire", "hang up", "be placed", "pull along"). The
classifiers can be grouped into five categories:
1. Live
2. Flexible (most common)
3. Long (narrow, not flexible)
4. Indefinite (solid, heavy relative to size)
5. Liquid (or container of)
Example:
Conjugation of "Hand him..."
Classifier Type
Cherokee
Translation
Live
ᎯᎧᏏ hikasi
Hand him (something living)
Flexible
ᎯᏅᏏ hinvsi
Hand him (something like clothes, rope)
Long, Indefinite ᎯᏗᏏ hidisi
Hand him (something like a broom, pencil)
Indefinite
ᎯᎥᏏ hivsi
Hand him (something like food, book)
Liquid
ᎯᏁᎥᏏ hinevsi Hand him (something like water)
There have been reports that the youngest speakers of Cherokee are using only the Indefinite forms, suggesting a
decline in the system of shape classification.
Word order
Simple declarative sentences usually have a subject-object-verb word order.[15] Negative sentences have a different
word order. Adjectives come before nouns, as in English. Demonstratives, such as ᎾᏍᎩ nasgi ("that") or ᎯᎠ hia
("this"), come at the beginning of noun phrases. Relative clauses follow noun phrases.[16] Adverbs precede the verbs
that they are modifying. For example, "she's speaking loudly" is ᎠᏍᏓᏯ ᎦᏬᏂᎭ asdaya gawoniha (literally, "loud
she's-speaking").[16]
A Cherokee sentence may not have a verb as when two noun phrases form a sentence. In such a case, word order is
flexible. For example, Ꮎ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎩᏙᏓ na asgaya agidoda ("that man is my father"). A noun phrase might be
followed by an adjective, such as in ᎠᎩᏙᏓ ᎤᏔᎾ agidoga utana ("my father is big").[17]
Cherokee language
6
Writing system
Cherokee is written in an 85-character syllabary invented by Sequoyah
(also known as Guest or George Gist). Many of the letters resemble the
Latin letters they derive from, but have completely different sound
values; Sequoyah had seen English, Hebrew, and Greek writing but did
not know how to read them.[18]
Two other scripts used to write Cherokee are a simple Latin
transliteration and a more precise system with diacritical marks.[19]
Books in Cherokee
• Awi Uniyvsdi Kanohelvdi ᎠᏫ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎸᏗ: The Park Hill
Tales. (2006) Sixkiller, Dennis, ed.
• Baptism: The Mode
• Cherokee Almanac (1860)
• "Christmas in those Days"
• Cherokee Driver's Manuel
• Cherokee Elementary Arithmetic (1870)
Bilingual notice in English and Cherokee,
published in the Cherokee Phoenix, New Echota,
Georgia, 1828
• "The Cherokee People Today"
• Cherokee Psalms: A Collection of Hymns in the Cherokee
Language (1991). Sharpe, J. Ed., ed. and Daniel Scott, trans. ISBN
978-0-935741-16-2
• Cherokee Spelling Book (1924). J. D. Wofford
• Cherokee Stories. (1966) Spade & Walker
• Cherokee Vision of Elohi (1981 and 1997). Meredith, Howard,
Virginia Sobral, and Wesley Proctor. ISBN 978-0-9660164-0-6
• The Four Gospels and Selected Psalms in Cherokee: A Companion
to the Syllabary New Testament (2004). Holmes, Ruth Bradley.
ISBN 978-0-8061-3628-8.
• Na Tsoi Yona Ꮎ ᏦᎢ ᏲᎾ: The Three Bears. (2007) Keeter, Ray D.
and Wynema Smith. ISBN 0-9777339-0-4.
• Na Usdi Gigage Agisi Tsitaga Ꮎ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᎩᏏ: The Little Red
Hen. (2007) Smith, Wynema and Ray D. Keeter. ISBN
978-0-9777339-1-0.
Cherokee traffic sign in Tahlequah, Oklahoma
Word creation
Due to the polysynthetic nature of the Cherokee language, new and descriptive words in Cherokee are easily
constructed to reflect or express modern concepts. Some good examples are ditiyohihi (Cherokee:ᏗᏘᏲᎯᎯ) which
means "he argues repeatedly and on purpose with a purpose." This is the Cherokee word for "attorney." Another
example is didaniyisgi (Cherokee:ᏗᏓᏂᏱᏍᎩ) which means "the final catcher" or "he catches them finally and
conclusively." This is the Cherokee word for "policeman."[20]
Many words, however, have been adopted from the English language – for example, gasoline, which in Cherokee is
gasoline (Cherokee:ᎦᏐᎵᏁ). Many other words were adopted from the languages of tribes who settled in Oklahoma in
the early 1900s. One interesting and humorous example is the name of Nowata, Oklahoma. The word "nowata" is a
Delaware word for "welcome" (more precisely the Delaware word is "nuwita" which can mean "welcome" or
Cherokee language
7
"friend" in the Delaware language). The white settlers of the area used the name "nowata" for the township, and local
Cherokees, being unaware the word had its origins in the Delaware language, called the town Amadikanigvnagvna
(Cherokee:ᎠᎹᏗᎧᏂᎬᎾᎬᎾ) which means "the water is all gone gone from here" – i.e. "no water."[21]
Other examples of adopted words are kawi (Cherokee:ᎧᏫ) for coffee and watsi (Cherokee:ᏩᏥ) for watch (which led
to utana watsi (Cherokee:ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᏥ) or "big watch" for clock).[21]
Meaning expansion can be illustrated by the words for "warm" and "cold". They also mean "south" and "north" by an
obvious extension. Around the time of the American Civil War, they were further extended to US party labels,
Democratic and Republican, respectively.[22]
Language drift
Drifted Otali Sequoyah
Syllabary Mapping
Otali Syllable Sequoyah Syllabary Index Sequoyah Syllabary Chart Sequoyah Syllable
nah
32
Ꮐ
nah
hna
31
Ꮏ
hna
qua
38
Ꮖ
qua
que
39
Ꮗ
que
qui
40
Ꮘ
qui
quo
41
Ꮙ
quo
quu
42
Ꮚ
quu
quv
43
Ꮛ
quv
dla
60
Ꮬ
dla
tla
61
Ꮭ
tla
tle
62
Ꮮ
tle
tli
63
Ꮯ
tli
tlo
64
Ꮰ
tlo
tlu
65
Ꮱ
tlu
tlv
66
Ꮲ
tlv
tsa
67
Ꮳ
tsa
tse
68
Ꮴ
tse
tsi
69
Ꮵ
tsi
tso
70
Ꮶ
tso
tsu
71
Ꮷ
tsu
tsv
72
Ꮸ
tsv
hah
79
Ꮿ
ya
gwu
11
Ꭻ
gu
gwi
40
Ꮘ
qui
hla
61
Ꮭ
tla
hwa
73
Ꮹ
wa
gwa
38
Ꮖ
qua
Cherokee language
8
hlv
66
Ꮲ
tlv
guh
11
Ꭻ
gu
gwe
39
Ꮗ
que
wah
73
Ꮹ
wa
hnv
37
Ꮕ
nv
teh
54
Ꮦ
te
qwa
06
Ꭶ
ga
yah
79
Ꮿ
ya
na
30
Ꮎ
na
ne
33
Ꮑ
ne
ni
34
Ꮒ
ni
no
35
Ꮓ
no
nu
36
Ꮔ
nu
nv
37
Ꮕ
nv
ga
06
Ꭶ
ga
ka
07
Ꭷ
ka
ge
08
Ꭸ
ge
gi
09
Ꭹ
gi
go
10
Ꭺ
go
gu
11
Ꭻ
gu
gv
12
Ꭼ
gv
ha
13
Ꭽ
ha
he
14
Ꭾ
he
hi
15
Ꭿ
hi
ho
16
Ꮀ
ho
hu
17
Ꮁ
hu
hv
18
Ꮂ
hv
ma
25
Ꮉ
ma
me
26
Ꮊ
me
mi
27
Ꮋ
mi
mo
28
Ꮌ
mo
mu
29
Ꮍ
mu
da
51
Ꮣ
da
ta
52
Ꮤ
ta
de
53
Ꮥ
de
te
54
Ꮦ
te
di
55
Ꮧ
di
ti
56
Ꮨ
ti
do
57
Ꮩ
do
Cherokee language
9
du
58
Ꮪ
du
dv
59
Ꮫ
dv
la
19
Ꮃ
la
le
20
Ꮄ
le
li
21
Ꮅ
li
lo
22
Ꮆ
lo
lu
23
Ꮇ
lu
lv
24
Ꮈ
lv
sa
44
Ꮜ
sa
se
46
Ꮞ
se
si
47
Ꮟ
si
so
48
Ꮠ
so
su
49
Ꮡ
su
sv
50
Ꮢ
sv
wa
73
Ꮹ
wa
we
74
Ꮺ
we
wi
75
Ꮻ
wi
wo
76
Ꮼ
wo
wu
77
Ꮽ
wu
wv
78
Ꮾ
wv
ya
79
Ꮿ
ya
ye
80
Ᏸ
ye
yi
81
Ᏹ
yi
yo
82
Ᏺ
yo
yu
83
Ᏻ
yu
yv
84
Ᏼ
yv
to
57
Ꮩ
do
tu
58
Ꮪ
du
ko
10
Ꭺ
go
tv
59
Ꮫ
dv
qa
73
Ꮹ
wa
ke
07
Ꭷ
ka
kv
12
Ꭼ
gv
ah
00
Ꭰ
a
qo
10
Ꭺ
go
oh
03
Ꭳ
o
ju
71
Ꮷ
tsu
ji
69
Ꮵ
tsi
ja
67
Ꮳ
tsa
Cherokee language
10
je
68
Ꮴ
tse
jo
70
Ꮶ
tso
jv
72
Ꮸ
tsv
a
00
Ꭰ
a
e
01
Ꭱ
e
i
02
Ꭲ
i
o
03
Ꭳ
o
u
04
Ꭴ
u
v
05
Ꭵ
v
s
45
Ꮝ
s
n
30
Ꮎ
na
l
02
Ꭲ
i
t
52
Ꮤ
ta
d
55
Ꮧ
di
y
80
Ᏸ
ye
k
06
Ꭶ
ga
g
06
Ꭶ
ga
There are two main dialects of Cherokee spoken by modern speakers. The Giduwa dialect (Eastern Band) and the
Otali Dialect (also called the Overhill dialect) spoken in Oklahoma. The Otali dialect has drifted significantly from
Sequoyah's syllabary in the past 150 years, and many contracted and borrowed words have been adopted into the
language. These noun and verb roots in Cherokee, however, can still be mapped to Sequoyah's syllabary. In modern
times, there are more than 85 syllables in use by modern Cherokee speakers. Modern Cherokee speakers who speak
Otali employ 122 distinct syllables in Oklahoma.
Computer and smartphone usage
For years, many people wrote transliterated Cherokee on the internet or used poorly compatible fonts to type out the
syllabary. However, since the fairly recent addition of the Cherokee syllables to Unicode, the Cherokee language is
experiencing a renaissance in its use on the Internet. For example, the entire New Testament[23] is online in
Cherokee Syllabary, and there is a Cherokee language Wikipedia featuring over 200 articles.[24] Since 2003, all
Apple computers come with a Cherokee font installed.[25]
Cherokee Nation members Joseph L. Erb, Roy Boney, Jr., and Thomas Jeff Edwards worked with Apple to bring
official Cherokee language support to the iPhone and iPod Touch in iOS 4.1[25][26] (released 8-Sept-2010) and for
the iPad with iOS 4.2.1 (released 22-Nov-2010).
Most Linux distributions support Cherokee input and display in any font containing the characters in Unicode
environments.
On March 25, 2011, Google announced the option to perform searches in Cherokee.[27]
Cherokee language
Cherokee language in popular culture
The theme song "I Will Find You"[28] from the 1992 film The Last of the Mohicans by the band Clannad features
Máire Brennan singing in Cherokee as well as Mohican.[29] Cherokee rapper Litefoot incorporates Cherokee into
songs, as do Rita Coolidge's band Walela and the intertribal drum group, Feather River Singers.[30]
Notes
[1] Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Cherokee: Language of United States" (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_language. asp?code=chr). Ethnologue
(on-line). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (sixteenth edition). . Retrieved 3 May 2012.
[2] Feeling, "Dictionary," p. viii
[3] Mooney, James. King, Duane (ed.). Myths of the Cherokee. Barnes & Noble. New York. 1888 (2007).
[4] Scancarelli, "Native Languages" p. 351
[5] Anderton, Alice, PhD. Status of Indian Languages in Oklahoma. (http:/ / www. ahalenia. com/ iws/ status. html) Intertribal Wordpath
Society. 2009 (retrieved 12 March 2009)
[6] Feeling, "Dictionary," p. ix
[7] Montgomery-Anderson, 2008, p. 49
[8] Montgomery-Anderson, 2008, p. 50
[9] Montgomery-Anderson, 2008, p.51
[10] Montgomery-Anderson, 2008, p.52
[11] Montgomery-Anderson, 2008, p. 54
[12] Feeling et al, "Verb" p. 16
[13] Robinson, "Conjugation" p. 60
[14] Feeling, "Dictionary" xiii
[15] Holmes, Ruth (1977) [1976]. "Cherokee Lesson 23". Beginning Cherokee. University of Oklahoma Press:Norman. p. 209.
ISBN 978-0-8061-1463-7.
[16] Feeling, "Dictionary" p. 353
[17] Feeling, "Dictionary" p. 354
[18] Feeling, "Dictionary" xvii
[19] Feeling et al, "Verb" pp. 1–2
[20] Holmes and Smith, p. vi
[21] Holmes and Smith, p. vii
[22] Holmes and Smith, p. 43
[23] Cherokee New Testament Online. (http:/ / www. cherokeenewtestament. org) Retrieved 12 August 2009.
[24] ᎤᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ. (http:/ / chr. wikipedia. org) Cherokee Wikipedia. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
[25] Cherokee language added to new iPhone and iPod software (http:/ / www. cherokee. org/ NewsRoom/ FullStory/ 3341/ Page/ Default. aspx)
(retrieved 9 Sept 2010)
[26] Cherokee language available on iPhone and iPod Touch (http:/ / www. cherokeephoenix. org/ 25261/ Article. aspx) (retrieved 24 Sept 2010)
[27] Search in Cherokee (http:/ / googleblog. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 03/ google-search-now-supports-cherokee. html) (retrieved 27 Mar 2011)
[28] "I Will Find You” (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=ymKUCE5pMg0) on YouTube
[29] I Will Find You song lyrics. (http:/ / www. songlyrics. com/ clannad/ i-will-find-you/ 101723/ ) Songlyrics.com. (retrieved 12 March 2009)
[30] Feather River Singers. (http:/ / cdbaby. com/ cd/ featherriver) CD Baby. (retrieved 12 March 2009)
References
• Feeling, Durbin. Cherokee-English Dictionary: Tsalagi-Yonega Didehlogwasdohdi. Tahlequah, Oklahoma:
Cherokee Nation, 1975.
• Feeling, Durbin, Craig Kopris, Jordan Lachler, and Charles van Tuyl. A Handbook of the Cherokee Verb: A
Preliminary Study. Tahlequah, Oklahoma: Cherokee Heritage Center, 2003. ISBN 0-9742818-0-8.
• Holmes, Ruth Bradley, and Betty Sharp Smith. Beginning Cherokee: Talisgo Galiquogi Dideliquasdodi Tsalagi
Digohweli. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976.
• Montgomery-Anderson, Brad (2008-05-30). "A Reference Grammar of Oklahoma Cherokee" (http://
kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/bitstream/1808/4212/1/umi-ku-2613_1.pdf).
• Robinson, Prentice. Conjugation Made Easy: Cherokee Verb Study. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Cherokee Language and
Culture, 2004. ISBN 1-882182-34-0.
11
Cherokee language
• Scancarelli, Janine (2005). "Cherokee". in Janine Scancarelli and Heather K. Hardy (eds.). Native Languages of
the Southeastern United States. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press in cooperation with the American
Indian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington. pp. 351–384. OCLC 56834622 (http://
www.worldcat.org/oclc/56834622).
Further reading
• Bruchac, Joseph. Aniyunwiya/Real Human Beings: An Anthology of Contemporary Cherokee Prose. Greenfield
Center, N.Y.: Greenfield Review Press, 1995. ISBN 0-912678-92-5
• Cook, William Hinton (1979). A Grammar of North Carolina Cherokee. Ph.D. diss., Yale University. OCLC
7562394. (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/7562394)
• King, Duane H. (1975). A Grammar and Dictionary of the Cherokee Language. Ph.D. diss., University of
Georgia. OCLC 6203735. (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/6203735)
• Lounsbury, Floyd G. (1978). "Iroquoian Languages". in Bruce G. Trigger (ed.). Handbook of North American
Indians, Vol. 15: Northeast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 334–343. OCLC 12682465 (http://
www.worldcat.org/oclc/12682465).
• Montgomery-Anderson, Brad (2008-05-30). "A Reference Grammar of Oklahoma Cherokee" (http://
kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/bitstream/1808/4212/1/umi-ku-2613_1.pdf).
• Munro, Pamela (ed.) (1996). Cherokee Papers from UCLA. UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics, no. 16.
OCLC 36854333 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/36854333).
• Pulte, William, and Durbin Feeling. 2001. "Cherokee". In: Garry, Jane, and Carl Rubino (eds.) Facts About the
World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages: Past and Present. New York: H. W.
Wilson. (Viewed at the Rosetta Project (http://www.rosettaproject.org))
• Scancarelli, Janine (1987). Grammatical Relations and Verb Agreement in Cherokee. Ph.D. diss., University of
California, Los Angeles. OCLC 40812890 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/40812890).
• Scancarelli, Janine. "Cherokee Writing." The World's Writing Systems. 1998: Section 53. (Viewed at the Rosetta
Project (http://www.rosettaproject.org))
External links
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Cherokee Nation Dikaneisdi (Lexicon) (http://www.cherokee.org/Culture/Lexicon/Default.aspx)
Cherokee (Tsalagi) Lexicon (http://public.csusm.edu/public/raven/cherokee.dir/cherlexi.html)
Echota Tsalagi Language Project (http://www.auburn.edu/outreach/dl/echota/tlr_about_cherokee.php)
Cherokee New Testament Online (http://www.cherokeenewtestament.org) Online translation of the New
Testament. Currently the largest Cherokee document on the internet.
Unicode Chart (http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U13A0.pdf)
Cherokee Nation ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ ᏖᎩᎾᎶᏥ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᏅᎢ (Tsalagi Gawonihisdi teginalotsi unadotlvnvi / Cherokee
Language Technology (http://languagetech.cherokee.org/ᎣᏪᏠᏒHome.aspx)
WikiLang Cherokee page (Basic grammar information) (http://wiki.langwiki.info/Cherokee)
CherokeeLessons.com (http://www.cherokeelessons.com/) (Hosts Creative Commons licensed materials
including a textbook covering grammar and many hours of challenge/response based audio lesson files).
UNILANG forum for freely available teaching materials. (http://www.unilang.org/viewtopic.php?f=99&
t=27425&st=0&sk=t&sd=a&start=120#p615095) (Includes PDF textbook and audio files).
Cherokee numerals (http://www.languagesandnumbers.com/how-to-count-in-cherokee/en/chr/)
Cherokee – Sequoyah transliteration system (http://www.translitteration.com/transliteration/en/cherokee/
sequoyah/) – online conversion tool
12
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Cherokee language Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=498355449 Contributors: A. Parrot, Aaronbrick, Aeusoes1, Ahoerstemeier, Aknorals, Alansohn, Allanthelinguist, Alpha
Quadrant, Alton, Amit6, Angr, Antley, ArnoLagrange, Arx Fortis, Augwp, Avicennasis, Avjewe, Azalea pomp, Babbage, Barneca, Benjaminb, Bgt, Bluerasberry, Bryan Derksen, CALR,
CRGreathouse, CSWarren, CTZMSC3, Cathardic, Cbuckley, Chowbok, Circeus, Claybauknight, Corvun, Crazycomputers, Croquant, Da Joe, DarkFantasy, David Haslam, Deconstructhis,
Denisbr80, DerHexer, Dimotika, DopefishJustin, Eequor, Emrrans, Epbr123, Epolk, Erkin2008, Fantastic fred, Fieldday-sunday, FlyHigh, FrancisTyers, Frank, Frazzydee, Frietjes, Funfb,
Furrykef, Garzo, GenQuest, Geneb1955, GeorgeLouis, Goo45, Grafen, Grubber, Hanacy, Hottentot, Iridescent, Ish ishwar, Jdecamillis, Jedi787plus, Jeffrey Vernon Merkey, Jon Harald Søby,
JorisvS, Joseph Solis in Australia, Jpgordon, Jtr, Kaldari, Kbh3rd, Keldan, Kelly Martin, Kevin Myers, Khoikhoi, Kjoonlee, Kmoksy, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kotakkasut, KrakatoaKatie, Krsont,
Kungfuadam, Kwamikagami, Lambiam, LilHelpa, Linganth, Lingua seele, Lowe4091, MTBradley, MakeRocketGoNow, Mammalia, Martin Kozák, Max Naylor, Menchi, Michaelbrabec, Mike D
26, Mike Storm, Mikew199511, Miskwito, Ms2ger, Mu, Muicata215, My Old Kentucky Home, Mzajac, Nandhp, Neqitan, Netoholic, Nickshanks, Nik42, Nikanop, Nlaog12345, Norm mit,
Otonyona, Owen, OwenBlacker, PaulHanson, Pjacobi, Pne, Poccil, Prime Entelechy, Prosfilaes, R'son-W, Raffo9, Remember the dot, Richard Brooks MK, Rosiestep, Ross Burgess, Ryulong,
Samsara, Seb az86556, Secretlondon, Shawnbgreene, Shrine of Fire, Sietse Snel, Spurius Furius Fusus, Srtxg, Steinbach, T.O. Rainy Day, Teli7777, Terah81, The Anome, The Blade of the
Northern Lights, The Thing That Should Not Be, Tobias Conradi, Toussaint, Tsagali, TsalagiAgvnage, Tsujigiri, Uncle Dick, Uyvsdi, Waya sahoni, Welsh, Whimemsz, Who, Wikieditor06, Xihr,
Zoicon5, ᏙᏗᏳᎵ, 181 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Cherokee lang.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cherokee_lang.png License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Ishwar, Juiced lemon, Man vyi,
Origamiemensch, RHorning, 1 anonymous edits
File:Cherokee USC2000 PHS NCandOK.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cherokee_USC2000_PHS_NCandOK.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License
Contributors: Nandhp
File:Bilingual notice in English and Cherokee 1828.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bilingual_notice_in_English_and_Cherokee_1828.jpg License: Public Domain
Contributors: First published in the Cherokee Phoenix, New Echota, Georgia
File:Cwy no parking.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cwy_no_parking.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Uyvsdi
License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
13

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