s ayrıbasım / offprınt - Museo Archeologico Del Finale

Comments

Transcription

s ayrıbasım / offprınt - Museo Archeologico Del Finale
XIII. ORTAÇAĞ VE TÜRK DÖNEMİ KAZILARI
VE SANAT TARİHİ ARAŞTIRMALARI
SEMPOZYUMU BİLDİRİLERİ
14-16 Ekim 2009
S
PROCEEDINGS OF THE XIIIth SYMPOSIUM
OF MEDIEVAL AND TURKISH PERIOD
EXCAVATIONS AND
ART HISTORICAL RESEARCHES
14-16 October 2009
AYRIBASIM / OFFPRINT
yayına hazırlayanlar
Kadir Pektaş
Saim Cİrtİl
Selda Özgün Cİrtİl
Gökçen Kurtuluş Öztaşkin
Hicran Özdemİr
Erbil Aktuğ
Ramazan Uykur
PAMUKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
SANAT TARİHİ BÖLÜMÜ
XIII. ORTAÇAĞ VE TÜRK DÖNEMİ KAZILARI
VE SANAT TARİHİ ARAŞTIRMALARI
SEMPOZYUMU BİLDİRİLERİ
14-16 Ekim 2009
S
PROCEEDINGS OF THE XIIIth SYMPOSIUM
OF MEDIEVAL AND TURKISH PERIOD
EXCAVATIONS AND
ART HISTORICAL RESEARCHES
14-16 October 2009
Yayına Hazırlayanlar / Editors
Prof. Dr. Kadir Pektaş
Yrd. Doç. Dr. Saim Cirtil
Dr. Selda Özgün Cirtil
Öğr. Gör. Gökçen Kurtuluş Öztaşkin
Araş. Gör. Hicran Özdemİr
Araş. Gör. Erbil Aktuğ
Uzm. Ramazan Uykur
Yayımlanan yazıların içeriğinden yazarları sorumludur.
© Copyright 2010, Pamukkale Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Sanat Tarihi Bölümü
ISBN 978-605-5607-42-5
Pamukkale Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi
Sanat Tarihi Bölümü Yayınları No: 1
Baskı / Printed by
BİLTUR Basım Yayın ve Hizmet A.Ş.
Dudullu Organize Sanayi Bölgesi 1. Cadde No. 16
Ümraniye - İstanbul/ Türkiye
Tel: +90 (216) 444 44 03 Fax: +90 (216) 327 15 44
www.bilnet.net.tr
Sertifika no: 15690
Yapım ve Dağıtım / Production and Distribution
Zero Prodüksiyon Kitap-Yayın-Dağıtım Ltd. Şti.
Abdullah Sokak, No: 17, Taksim, 34433 İstanbul
Tel: +90 (212) 244 7521 Fax: +90 (212) 244 3209
E.posta: [email protected]
www.zerobooksonline.com
www.egeyayinlari.com
İÇİNDEKİLER
Prof. Dr. Kadir Pektaş’ın Konuşması ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ix
Prof. Dr. Celal Şimşek’in Konuşması ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. xi
Prof. Dr. Halil Kumsar’ın Konuşması ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... xiii
Göynük Meryem Kadın Çeşmesi ve Bekâr (Girçık=Çıkçık=Gusülhane) Hamamı
Hakkı Acun ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1
Morava Okulu/Ekolü (14.-15. yy Sırbistan)
Su Sultan Akülker ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
Eskişehir, Başara Köyü Kazılarında Bulunan Bizans Dönemi Kiliseleri
A. Oğuz Alp ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Kapadokya Bölgesi Soğanlıdere Vadisi’ndeki Karabaş, Canavar ve Geyikli Kilise Duvar Resimleri ve
Skepides Ailesi
Feride İmrana Altun ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 31
Eski Ahlat Şehri Kazısı 2006-2007 Yıllarına Ait Sırsız Seramik Tipolojisi
Göknil Arda .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
Başur Höyük Kazısı Lüle Buluntuları
Gökben Ayhan ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49
İstanbul’dan Musluklu Taş Tekneler
H. Örcün Barışta ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59
Öresun (Tepesi Delik) Hanı’nda Temizlik ve Restorasyon Çalışmaları
Ali Baş .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69
Bitlis Kalesi Kazısı Sırlı Seramikleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme
Gülsen Baş .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 83
Denizli / Honaz’daki Tarihi Kalıntılar Üzerine Birkaç Söz
Ahmet Ali Bayhan ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93
İstanbul - Heybeliada’daki Mekteb-i Bahriye-i Şâhane Kışlası’nın İnşaat Aşamaları Üzerine Bazı Gözlemler
Z. Kenan Bilici .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 105
Ahlat Underground Settlements Research Project 2007-2008-2009
Roberto Bixio – Andrea De Pascale with the collaboration of Andrea Bixio – Elisa Leger –
Alessandro Maifredi – Mauro Traverso – İrem Yalçın ..................................................................................................................................................................... 123
Edirne’de Bulgar - Ortodoks Kiliseleri
Yılmaz Büktel ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 131
Ayasuluk’ta Yeni Bulunan Kale Köşkü ve Hamamı
Mustafa Büyükkolancı ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 143
iv
Türk Türbe Mimarisinde Ender Bir Örnek: “Milas Ortaköy’de İkiz Türbe”
Ersel Çağlıtütüncigil ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 155
14. Yüzyıldan Üç Ahşap Minber / Birkaç Soru, Birkaç Cevap
Nusret Çam ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 165
Gereme Panagia Kilisesi (2005 Yılı Kazı Sonuçları)
Nilay Çorağan Karakaya .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 175
2008 Dönemi Ani Kazılarında Ortaya Çıkarılan İnsan ve Hayvan Figürlü Keramik Kaplar Üzerine
Değerlendirmeler
Yaşar Çoruhlu ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 185
Alaşehir Kurşunlu Han Kazı ve Temizlik Çalışmaları
Ertan Daş ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 197
Balat İlyas Bey Külliyesi 2008 Yılı Kazı ve Temizlik Çalışmaları
Yekta Demiralp - Şakir Çakmak ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 213
Teke Yöresi Sarnıçları
A. Şevki Duymaz ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 225
Yeşilbağcılar (Gibye) Evleri
Mustafa Ekmekçi - Sertan Atasoy ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 235
2008 Alara Kazısı
Osman Eravşar ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 245
Urfa Türk İslam Mimarisinde Ejder Figürünün Kullanımı Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme
Süreyya Eroğlu .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 253
Bilecik-Osmaneli’de Bir Osmanlı Dönemi Rum Kilisesi: Hagios Georgios
Seçkin Evcim .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 259
Seyitgazi - Doğançayır Beldesinde Bulunan Melekgazi Zaviyesi
Ali Gerengi ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 269
Tamarra de Lempicka ve Hale Asaf / Art-Deco’nun Işığı ve Özü
Kıymet Giray ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 281
Balat İlyas Bey Külliyesi Kazısında Ortaya Çıkarılan Seramiklerin Değerlendirilmesi (2007-2008)
Sevinç Gök Gürhan ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 291
Hierapolis Martyriumu / Arkeolojik ve Mimari Analiz
Güven Gümgüm ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 307
Kemah Çevresinden Birkaç Urartu Kalıntısı
Hamza Gündoğdu ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 317
Kitabelere Taşınan İmgeler: Anadolu Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Beyliği Örnekleri
Sema Gündüz ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 325
Yumuktepe Pişmiş Toprak Kandilleri
Eda Güngör - Gülgün Köroğlu - Ergün Laflı ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 333
Bulgaristan’da Az Bilinen Bir Osmanlı Eseri: Hasköy Hamamı
Bahriye Güray ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 343
Bandırma Eski İskele / Belediye Eski Binasının Mimari ve Fonksiyonel Özellikleri
Şennur Kaya – Akın Tuncer ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 351
v
Ankara Saraç Sinan Camisi 2008 Yılı Restorasyonu
Ali Kılcı ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 359
Orta Asya Türk Zaman/Mekan Algısının Zara Halılarına Uzanan Yansımaları
Sibel Kılıç ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 371
The Külliye of Gazi Turhan Bey in the Village of Kırkkavak, District of Uzunköprü Research and
Resurrection of a Disappeared Early-Ottoman Building Complex
Machiel Kiel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 381
Amorium’da Bulunan Yeni Veriler Işığında Bizans Dünyası’nda Şarap Üretimi
Oğuz Koçyiğit .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 393
Bitlis Kalesi Yapıtaşlarının Jeolojik Özellikleri ve Mühendislik Problemleri
Tamer Koralay – Mehmet Özkul – Halil Kumsar – Kadir Pektaş ................................................................................................................................... 403
Yumuktepe Höyüğü Kazılarından Ortaçağ Takıları
Gülgün Köroğlu ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 417
Hadrianoupolis ve Çevresinden Geç Ortaçağ Sırlı Seramik Örnekleri
Ergün Laflı – Gülseren Kan Şahin ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 427
Kuşadası - Kadıkalesi / Anaia Kazısı 2009 Yılı Çalışmaları
Zeynep Mercangöz – Filiz İnanan .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 433
Panaztepe Bizans Dönemi Sırsız Seramikleri
Sinan Mimaroğlu ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 443
Amasya-Harşena Kalesi ve Kızlar Sarayı Kazısı 2009 Yılı İlk Sonuçları
E. Emine Naza-Dönmez .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 453
Kastamonu-Kasaba Köyü Mahmud Bey Camii Kalem İşi Bezemeleri ve Osmanlı Bezeme Sanatına Etkileri
Candan Nemlioğlu ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 463
Tatlarin Yeraltı Şehri
Demet Okuyucu .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 473
Akdenizle Kucaklaşan Osmanlı Seramikleri ve Günümüze Ulaşan Yansımaları
Gönül Öney ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 479
Eyüp’te Bir Grup Çarduvar (Açık) Türbe Hakkında Notlar
Hakkı Önkal ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 481
Denizli Arkeoloji Müzesi’nde Yer Alan Bizans Dönemi Maden Haçlarından Bir Grup
Hicran Özdemir – Gökçen K. Öztaşkın ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 489
Marmaray-Metro İnşaatı Sirkeci Kurtarma Kazılarında Bulunan Osmanlı Camları
Üzlifat Özgümüş ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 501
Yüzyılın Tanığı Afyonkarahisar Lisesi
Selda Özgün Cirtil ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 507
Niğde-Çamardı İlçesi’ndeki Türk Mimarî Eserleri
Mehmet Özkarcı ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 517
Eskişehir Karacahisar Kalesi Ortaçağ Seramiklerinden Bir Grup: Yeşil ve Erguvan Lekeli Seramikler
Muradiye Öztaşkın ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 525
Denizli Beyliği ve Sikkeleri Hakkında Bir Araştırma
Gündegül Parlar ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 537
vi
Denizli - İlbadı Mezarlığı’ndaki Selçuklu ve Beylikler Dönemi Mezar Taşları Üzerine
Kadir Pektaş ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 545
Denizli ve İlçelerinin (Buldan, Bekilli, Çal, Tavas Yatağan, Serinhisar, Acıpayam) Kapı Tokmak ve
Kapı Halkaları
Betül Savcı .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 553
Bakü - Şirvanşahlar Sarayı’ndaki ‘Divanhane’ Yapısı Hakkında
Yüksel Sayan .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 561
Anadolu’da Selçuklu Döneminde Niğde ve Kayseri Çevresinde Bulunan Taçkapılar Üzerine Bazı Düşünceler-I
Mustafa Kemal Şahin ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 569
Sepet Tipi Küpelere Bizans Anadolusu’ndan Yeni Bir Yorum: Amorium Sepet Tipi Küpeleri
Murat Şen ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 583
Laodikeia Kuzey Bazilikası (Kilisesi)
Celal Şimşek – Bahadır Duman ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 593
Türk İslam Sanatında Şadırvan Mimarisinin Ortaya Çıkışı Üzerine
Şerife Tali ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 603
Sivas Kangalağası Konağı’nın 19. Yüzyıl Türk Resim Sanatı Tarihi İçindeki Yeri ve Önemi
Gülsen Tezcan ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 613
Hoşap Kalesi Kazısı - 2008
Mehmet Top ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 621
Heyet-i Edebiyye’de İki Ressam: Nazmi Ziya ve Çallı İbrahim
Elvan Topallı .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 631
Osmaniye Ortaçağ Seramikleri Ön Değerlendirmesi
Füsun Tülek ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 639
Artuklu Meliki İmâdeddîn Ebu Bekr’in Sikkesinde Ejder/Evren İle Mücadele İkonografisi
Ramazan Uykur ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 647
Gelibolu Yarımadası’nda Bir Osmanlı Yerleşimi: Yenişehir (Burhan)
Ali Osman Uysal ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 653
16.-18. Yüzyıllarda Osmanlı Saray Terzileri Teşkilatı
Bahattin Yaman ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 663
Bozcaada Köprülü Mehmet Paşa ve Alaybey Camileri
Alptekin Yavaş .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 671
1855 Depreminden Sonra Bursa’da Osman ve Orhan Gazi Türbelerinin Yeniden İnşası
Doğan Yavaş .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 681
Hermann Jansen’in Bazı Anadolu Kentleri İçin Yaptığı Konut Tasarımları ve Denizli Örneği
Mehmet Yavuz .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 693
Tebrîk-Nâme-i Millî’ye Göre II. Abdülhamid’in İstanbul’daki İmar Faaliyetleri II: Tekkeler
Nurcan Yazıcı ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 707
Edirne Dilaverbey Mahallesi Kurtarma Kazılarında Bulunan Erken Osmanlı Seramikleri
Gülgün Yılmaz ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 721
AHLAT UNDERGROUND SETTLEMENTS RESEARCH PROJECT
2007-2008-2009
Roberto BIXIO* – Andrea DE PASCALE*-**
with the collaboration of
*
*
Andrea BIXIO – Elisa LEGER – Alessandro MAIFREDI* – Mauro TRAVERSO* – İrem YALÇIN***
Abstract
In short we present the main results of three years of surveys developed on the rocky settlements in
territory of Ahlat (Van Gölü, south-eastern Turkey). We have determined 16 rocky areas where we have
documented worship structures excavated in volcanic rocks, mainly Christian, but also Islamic and
Buddhist. We describe underground dwellings, warehouses and pigeon-lofts, too. Very important is the
study on the ancient rocky water-works system and on the relating excavation techniques. At last we
refer about the discovery of a third volcanic apparatus responsible of the geologic situation of Ahlat
territory where the rocky settlements have been dug.
Keywords: Ahlat, caves, rocky-settlements, tunnels, underground
Özet
Ahlat Yeraltı Yerleşimleri Araştırma Projesi 2007-2008-2009
Kısaca, Ahlat Bölgesi’ndeki (Van Gölü, Türkiye’nin Güneydoğusu) kaya yerleşimlerinde
gerçekleştirilen 3 yıllık incelemenin ana sonuçlarını sunmaktayız. Burada, belgelediğimiz volkanik
kayalara oyulmuş özellikle Hıristiyan, aynı zamanda Müslüman ve Budist ibadet yapılarının bulunduğu
16 kaya yerleşimi tespit ettik. Aynı zamanda yeraltı yerleşimleri, ambarlar ve güvercinlikler olduğunu
da belirledik. Kayalara oyulmuş eski su tesisat sistemi ve kazı tekniklerini konu alan çalışmalar büyük
önem taşımaktadır. Son olarak, kaya yerleşimlerinin bulunduğu Ahlat Bölgesi’nin jeolojik durumunu
belirleyen üçüncü volkanik sisteme değinmekteyiz.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Ahlat, mağaralar, kaya yerleşimleri, tüneller, yeraltı
By means of this work we present the development of the KA.Y.A. project (‘Kaya Yerleşimleri Ahlat project’
– ‘Ahlat Underground Settlements Research Project’) of the Centro Studi Sotterranei of Genoa (Italy). The researches are part of the main ‘Eski Ahlat Şehri Kazısı’ project directed by professor Nakış Karamağaralı of the Gazi
Üniversitesi of Ankara (see Karamağaralı N. in this volume).
* Centro Studi Sotterranei - Genova (Italy).
** Museo Archeologico del Finale, Istituto Internazionale di Studi Liguri sez. Finalese - Finale Ligure (Italy).
*** Hacettepe Üniversitesi - Ankara (Turkey).
contacts: [email protected]
124
Roberto Bixio – Andrea De Pascale
The KA.Y.A project aims to:
- reconnaissance in the area, to broaden and deepen knowledge of the distribution of rock dwellings and to make
a ‘Chart of Rock Settlements of Ahlat’;
- geomorphological surveys, to determine the nature and origin of rock formations in which there are man-made
cavities;
- exploration of underground structures identified during surveys;
- excavations for the opening of tunnels / underground passages identified;
- topographic surveys of the areas and of the rock dwellings;
- video-photographic documentation.
We want to show, shortly, the results of the missions in 2007 and 2008, with some reference to the mission of summer 2009.
Before the beginning of our explorations there were six areas where underground structures were known thanks to
information gathered by Haluk Karamağaralı and Beyhan Karamağaralı. During the first expedition, in 2007, the
six areas have been documented and in the course of surveys were discovered two new zones, not very far from
the others. In 2008, the research developed into a larger portion of territory, discovering new areas that became
eleven. Today, at the end of the third expedition, the knowledge of the areas has increased by 200% compared
to the situation pre-2007. Now we know sixteen zones (Dwg. 1). Those areas are mainly distributed in two river
basins: the Ulu dere, and Keş deresi, with its two tributaries, the Arkınlı deresi and Gıcat deresi.
The most significant discoveries concern the underground worship works. Before 2007 there was only one report
on the Madavans site: a Christian monastery still in use at the end of nineteenth century, mentioned by Lynch1,
studied by Thierry2 and Cuneo3. Today the monasteries identified by us have increased considerably. Four confirmed and one probable, for a total of five (Dwg. 2).
To these underground Christian worship works, we must add rock structures related to other religions and cultures.
The most impressive structure is the Buddhist temple discovered by Professor Nakış Karamağaralı in the hill of
Eski Kale, in the middle of the archaeological remains of the ancient city of Ahlat (see Karamağaralı N. in this
volume). Also the Muslim religion has its underground place of prayer, still in use today. Oral sources report that
this site originally was a hospital at the time of the Battle of Malazgirt (1071 AD), when the Seljuk, led by Alp
Arslan, conquered this region.
As mentioned, the most numerous underground worship are Christian (Dwg. 3). Interesting is Madavans or Matra
Vank, the ‘Monastery of the finger’, which underground churches remain, though partially collapsed.
In the pictures of the ‘70 and ’80 of last century, shot by Thierry and Cuneo, some parts of the external masonry
called zhamatun were still visible. By the comparison with actual situation we can see how fast are the morphological changes of rock sites in this region.
Among the most significant rock traces of Christianity in these places there are the khatchk’ar, literally “stone
crosses”, engraved on the cliffs and on gravestones. Sometimes are visible inscriptions in Armenian language.
Unfortunately are also evident the tracks, very recent, of clandestine excavations. There are many cemeteries with
khatchk’ar and in the case of Madavans the graves are dug in the rock. Currently we don’t know if also the small
rooms carved in the cliffs are tombs. Another type of rock tombs could be represented by chambers dug under the
ground level with vertical wells of entrance.
1 Lynch H.F.B., 1901, Armenia. Travels and Studies, Longmans, Green and Co., London.
2 Thierry J.M., 1977, Monastères arméniens du Vaspurakan, in ‘Revue des Études Armeniénnes’, tome XII, Librairie C. Klincksieck, Paris.
3 Cuneo P., 1988, Architettura armena, tomo I e II, Roma.
Ahlat Underground Settlements Research Project 2007-2008-2009
125
Obviously, if the underground worship are particularly noteworthy, underground civil settlements are certainly the
most common. There are numerous underground dwellings, single or grouped in villages. Often the collapse of
entrances has made them similar to natural caves.
The houses were made of no more than one or two rooms. But we have also identified more articulated structures,
with remains that testify productive activities. In the case of Mağaralar Bezirhane (Dwg. 4) we see a large room
used for stables. The same structure shows some remains of mills devices to produce oil (Fig. 1). Considering the
geographical and climatic conditions, even those arising from past studies conducted by Landmann, Wick and Litt
on various drilling on laminated sediments of Lake Van4, it is possible to exclude that olive trees could be present
locally: ‘Olea and Castanea were not cultivated at Lake Van; pollen of these taxa may originate from the eastern
Mediterranean and Black Sea regions’5. We exclude, therefore, the possibility that the product was olive oil, in
consideration, too, of the meaning of the term bezirhane, that specify a mill for ‘certain types of herbs’, while for
the olive oil mill usually it is used the term yaghane. We believe that in this complex were likely treated seeds of
flax (Linum sp.), or sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), or ‘false flax’ (Camelina sp.).
Other underground structures are great rooms used as warehouses for the storage of grain or forage (Fig. 2). They
are located along the river Arkınlı, downstream of the village of Kulaksız. Domestic silos, carved into cave dwellings, used for storage of foodstuffs, are common. In Ahlat there are various types. Many are carved above the
ground level, with the taking hole located at the base.
Another type of rock works are various types of pigeon-lofts (dovecotes). In the village of Otluyazi, north to Ahlat,
some pigeon-lofts, carved in an underground chamber, are still in use today.
We are also studying roads carved into the rock, even very deeply. Many of them are characterized by little channels engraved on the floor level that we have interpreted as drainage channels that allow to walk on a sort of ‘platform’ in dry condition during raining period and in the spring, when the snow melts.
Talking about water, a very important role is covered by rocky and underground water systems6. The remains of
various types (underground tunnels, wells) have been identified in different valleys around Ahlat. Especially we
have located at least four water systems used to supply water to Eski Ahlat, the historic town that is now dug by
the team of professor Nakış Karamağaralı (Dwg. 5).
The Büyük Hamam is one of the most important buildings connected to the ancient water systems. However, the
remains of these aqueducts are now reduced to a few ruins. We are still try to understand the temporal and topographic evolution of these underground and rocky water systems.
Not all tunnels that we have found and studied were aqueducts. Some of them are passage from a cave to another.
Some other are still unknown in their use. For example we are emptying a little tunnel by the soil that occluded it
completely (Fig. 3). It is particularly interesting because this underground structure allow us to introduce another
subject: some of the excavation techniques used in Ahlat to build the underground structures.
4 Landmann G., Reimer A., Lemcke G., Kempe S., 1996, Dating Late Glacial abrupt climate changes in the 14,570 yr long continuous varve record
of Lake Van, Turkey, in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 122, pp. 107-118; Wick L., Lemcke, G., Sturm M., 2003, Evidence
of Late-Glacial and Holocene climatic change and human impact in eastern Anatolia: high-resolution pollen, charcoal, isotopic and geo­chemical
records from the laminated sediments of Lake Van, Turkey, in The Holocene, 13 (5), pp. 665-675; Litt T., Krastel S., Örçen S., Karabiyikoglu M.,
2007, Lake Van Drilling Project: a long continental record in Eastern Turkey, in Scientific Drilling, 4, March 2007, pp. 40-41.
5 Wick et al.; 2007, p. 671.
6 Bixio R., De Pascale A., Maifredi A., Traverso M., 2008, Ahlat (Turchia): prime osservazioni sui sistemi idrici rupestri, in Opera Ipogea,
1/2 (2008), pp. 11-20; Bixio R., De Pascale A., Bixio A., Maifredi A., Traverso M., 2009, Ahlat terra di vulcani e di monasteri rupestri, in Opera
Ipogea, 2 (2009), pp. 19-34.
126
Roberto Bixio – Andrea De Pascale
Observing the excavation signs left on the walls of that small tunnel, we can find that the technique used was the
so called ‘of opposing sides’, made by two teams, one working in direction of the other, likely simultaneously.
This means that the tunnel had a second entrance, yet to be discovered.
Another type of technique in the excavation of a tunnel it is documented in one case in the site of Madavans. It
is the technique called ‘in open trenches’. By the analysis of excavation forms outside and inside the tunnel we
have reconstructed the various phases. The excavation signs also suggests the type of tools used, like long-handled
pickaxe, to dig the rock above the level of the trench, and short-handled hammer for digging the trench. When the
trench was finished it was covered with stone-slabs to make the tunnel and, at the end, the upper part of the trench
was hided with soil.
We end this short work with the most significant result of the geological surveys. Our researches undertaken in
this area have focused attention on various aspects of the geology of this territory, to understand the complex phenomena that have made the existing features7.
According to different evidences, including the flow direction and geographic position of the volcanic deposits,
we suggest that in this area there was a third volcanic apparatus, bigger and more ancient than the Süphan and
Nemrut, the two volcanoes that now dominates the Ahlat area. It is probably a caldera or, in any case, a group
of volcanic buildings, more than 25 km in diameter, standing in the area now partially occupied by lake Nazik
(Dwg. 6).
This third volcanic area, and not the Nemrut or the Süphan, is mainly responsible for the stratification and morphology of the valleys of Ahlat in which rocks the underground structures, that we have here documented, have
been excavated. Of course the situation is much more complex than this short work shown. For example, in the
Uludere canyon it seems that an ignimbritic flow, coming from Süphan, covered the bottom of the valley. The
program of the next investigations will be seeking to bring more knowledge about this important area of Turkey.
7 Demirtaşli E., Pisoni C., 1965, The geology of Ahlat-Adilcevaz area (north of Lake Van), in Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration,
Institute of Turkey, vol. 64, pp. 24-39; Degens E. T., Kurtman F., 1978, eds., The Geology of Lake Van, General Directorate of Mineral Research
and Exploration (MTA), 169, Ankara; Şaroğlu F., Yilmaz Y., 1986, Geological evolution and basin models during neotectonic episode in the Eastern Anatolia, in Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, Institute of Turkey, vol. 107, pp. 61-83; Akay E., 1989, Evolution of the postcollisional cratonic basins in eastern Taurus, in Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, Institute of Turkey, vol. 109, pp. 53-64.
Ahlat Underground Settlements Research Project 2007-2008-2009
127
Dwg. 1 The sixteen rocky zones till 2009 located in the Ahlat province:
- AH1 Harabeşehir - AH2 İkikubbe – AH3 Taht-ı Süleyman – AH4 Sultan Seyyid – AH5 Kulaksız – AH6 Arkınlı – AH7 Madavans
– AH8 GICAT Çatalağzı – AH9 GICAT Kırklar – AH10 Bağdedik – AH11 ULUDERE Karakum – AH12 ULUDERE Köyderesi –
AH13 ULUDERE Malyemez – AH14 Şehit Mezdan – AH15 Kanlıbulak – AH16 Çaçavank (Kocavank)
128
Roberto Bixio – Andrea De Pascale
Dwg. 2
Map of rocky worship
structures.
Dwg. 3
Plan of the
underground church
of S. Anania of
Tkes, Bağdedik zone
(1:100).
Ahlat Underground Settlements Research Project 2007-2008-2009
Dwg. 4 Plan of Mağaralar Bezirhane.
Dwg. 5
Scheme of rocky waterworks systems near the
ancient town of Ahlat.
Dwg. 6
Scheme of the volcanic
apparatus around Ahlat.
129
130
Roberto Bixio – Andrea De Pascale
Fig. 2 Large underground warehouse near Kulaksız
(photo A. Maifredi).
Fig. 1
Mangers and mill device in
Mağaralar Bezirhane.
(photo A. Maifredi)
Fig. 3
Entrance of a small rectangular
tunnel excavated straight in the
cliff (photo A. Bixio).
Fig. 4
Inside a large underground
dwelling in Kolaların yeri
(photo A. Bixio).